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Although their influence can be clearly studied, it is difficult to estimate the degree of influence in each case. This is because the influence of these variables also depends on the influence of other variables at the same time. In other words, transactional leadership can be influenced by motivation more than it is influenced by self-esteem in certain cases, while it can be influenced more by self-esteem than other variables in other cases.
The influence of these variables is also influenced by the level at which transactional leadership is analyzed. In addition to this, the personal characteristics of the individual can increase or reduce the influence of these variables. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate how each variable is likely to influence the evolution of transactional leadership.
1. The variables are:
The variables labels are:
Self-esteem = how important is the influence of self-esteem in transactional…
1. Regression Analysis (2010). Value-Based Management. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_regression_analysis.html .
2. Sykes, a. (2010). An Introduction to Regression Analysis. The University of Chicago. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.law.uchicago.edu/files/files/20.Sykes_.Regression.pdf .
3. Sen, a. & Srivastava, M. (1990). Regression Analysis: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=Jh86k9DAtroC&printsec=frontcover&dq=regression+analysis&source=bl&ots=72ESXZqhfT&sig=IQGt8pfSNd6T5JRtL3FyHDuHvfc&hl=ro&ei=b3rhTIK2FcXEswbXypj_Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CEAQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false .
The Scanlon plan that is described in the case hurts the employees' intrinsic motivation. This is because the plan was making use of "if-then" economic rewards that are known to offer short-term performance improvements. When Ron Bent was hired as the plant manager, the company's productivity was already on a decline and implementing the Scanlon plan resulted in improved productivity. During this time the employees' no longer saw the bonuses as benefits, but rather as their right and it is for this reason that they began getting disgruntled when the bonuses were not being paid for a couple of months (Michael Beer & Collins, 2008). Making use of performance rewards based on if-then is usually recommended for a short-term. The motivation for the employees will wane as they get accustomed to the rewards attached to their performance and most of them will lose interest in the work they…
Michael Beer, & Collins, E. (2008). Engstrom Auto Mirror Plant: Motivating in Good times and Bad. Havard Business Publishing.
Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.
As Senge (2006) points out, one of the most important aspects of managing effectively is the ability to realize the value of intrinsic motivation. Senge (2006) notes that after writing his book The Fifth Discipline, a copy of it ended up in the hands of Dr. W. Edwards Deming, a world-renowned leader in the quality management revolution back in the 1980s and 1990s. Deming wrote to the author to give his own take on the subject and noted especially that “our prevailing system of management has destroyed our people. People are born with intrinsic motivation, self-respect, dignity, curiosity to learn, joy in learning” (Senge, 2006, p. xii). This motivation is destroyed all throughout the life of the person, with rewards for performance in school and in the workplace—i.e., extrinsic motivators—sapping the strength of intrinsic motivation. Today, managers try to extrinsically motivate when what they should be doing is seeking…
Neilson, G. L., & Pasternack, B. A. (2005). The cat that came back. Strategy+Business. Retrieved from https://www.strategy-business.com/article/05304?gko=56862
Schumacher, E. F. (1966). Buddhist Economics. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/economics/morey/4999Ethics/Religion/SchumacherEF_BuddistEconomics.pdf
Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. NY: Doubleday.
Smith, A. (2013). On the wealth of nations. Simon and Schuster.
Motivation is the key to materializing energy and getting things accomplished. Organizational relationships require proper motivation from all sides of the relationships. Leaders must be motivated and workers must be motivated as well in order to succeed at any mission. The purpose of this essay is to design an organizational motivation plan that encourages and maintains a high level of performance from the members of the Woo Widget Company. The essay will first describe the need for the plan before introducing key components of the system that intends to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees at Woo.
Before designing a motivational plan that will work in this environment, it is necessary to reveal some important facts that contribute to the motivating factors of the employees at this organization. WooWoo designs widgets, but the widget that WooWoo makes is a clone of a nationally known widget. Woo sells their…
Amabile, T. (1997). Motivating Creativity in Organizations. California Management Review 40, 1, 1997. Retrieved from http://bear.warrington.ufl.edu/weitz/mar7786/articles/amabile%20ccal%20mgt%20revie w.pdf
Osterloh, M. et al. (2002). The Dynamics of Motivation in New Organizational Forms. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 9,1, 2002; 61-77. Retrieved from http://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/366_02.pdf
Vallerand, R.J. (March 08, 1993). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 4, 1003-17.
What is it like to have enthusiasm? Does this come from within one person? Are outside influences important as well? Can it change someone's life? One will discuss motivation and provide examples as to how it impacts an individual on regular basis.
Intrinsic motivation is what comes from inside a person. For example, he or she is motivated to learn at school in order to get the best grade possible. This can make someone work hard at achieving their goals. If he or she wants an A in Biology, then he or she will work twice as hard to accomplish this. In the long run, the individual may or may not get what it is they want despite having the drive. Extrinsic motivation is important as well.
When it comes to extrinsic motivation, a person looks outside of themselves in order to seek ways in which to do a…
These performance appraisals are usually given to employees by managers. Such appraisals occur once or twice per year, depending upon the industry and the position of the employee. In some cases, performance appraisals are carried out by colleagues. egardless of how feedback is given most organizations recognize it as a legitimate and productive way to judge performance and present employees with ways to improve job performance.
Examples of Employee motivation
According to Neff (2002) the ability to motivate employees is an essential component in creating an organization that is successful. The author points out that the most successful organizations in the world are always succeeding in making certain that job satisfaction and motivation are primary priorities. These organizations have realized that employees who are motivated are also more productive and therefore improve the bottom line. Greater productivity usually leads to greater job satisfaction and ultimately greater customer satisfaction. The author…
Brief, a.P., & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. 279+.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Kermally, S. (2005). Gurus on Managing People. London: Thorogood.
London, M. (2003). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
The present study aims to establish a relationship between academic motivation and academic self-efficacy. More specifically we will be looking at whether individuals with high academic self-efficacy possess high intrinsic or high extrinsic motivation levels. A sample of approximately 100 undergraduate students will complete the Academic Motivation Scale, which measures their level of academic motivation as well as their type of motivation, and the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale to measure their level of academic self-efficacy. It is expected that individuals with high levels of academic self-efficacy will also show high levels of intrinsic academic motivation. These findings are significant in that they would give insight as to the reason students strive toward success, which if known could play a role in the increase in college admission and retention, for if it is known what motivates one to perform well academically, it is thus known what to target as far…
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248 -- 287.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York, Freeman.
Carway, K., Tucker, C.M., Reinke, W.M., & Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear of failure as predictors Of school engagement in high school students, Psychology in the School, 40, 417 -- 427.
Additionally, those who were in the test group also scored, on average 20% higher on the test when it was graded by the researcher. Though the case study was based on an abnormal psychology case the questions are associated with content (i.e. reading comprehension) and are not expected to be interpretive. The group was also debriefed at the close of the exam and informed of the nature of the exam and the resulting scoring, which was based on participation as apposed to test scores.
This brief research work demonstrates that extrinsic motivation (in an anomalous form) motivates students to achieve success on tests. The balance between intrinsic (results of moderate scores on MSLQ) and extrinsic, the motivation to score high on the exam as an impetus to a higher extra credit score, as apposed to a participation only score motivated those students in the test group to pay closer…
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools
"Do students Care About Learning?"
"What Engages Underachieving Middle School Students in Learning?"
"Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation"
In "Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation," Martin V. Covington argues that both approaches can be effective if done well, and do not necessarily have to be incompatible. In his evaluation of the literature, he found that other factors, such as how interested the student is in the work, how successful they feel, affect student effort. He also found that the extrinsic reward of a good grade increased intrinsic motivation. He recommended a grading practice that compared each student's performance to a set standard, rather than grading on a curve, can increase intrinsic motivation.
In "Do students Care About Learning?" Marge Scherer interviewed author Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi regarding his book about youth and the world of work. The participants reported eight times…
The U.S. Of se intrinsic motivators, such as challenging work loads, to increase both responsibility and ownership of the work (ashaway-Bokina 2000). This was seen as a strong motivator even in the context of students (Gottfried & Gottfried 1996). Thus, money does not always have to be the end result, but the concept of overcoming the challenge and truly owning one's work can be enough of a motivator, especially in the case of unpaid interns where financial compensation is out of the question.
Elliot, A.J. & Church, M.A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 72:218-322.
Gottfried, A.E. & Gottfried, A.W. (1996). A longitudinal study of academic intrinsic motivation in intellectually gifted children: children through early adolescence. Gifted Child Quarterly. 40(4):179-182.
ashaway-Bokina, Nancy. (2000). Recognizing and nurturing intrinsic motivation: a cautionary tale. Roeper Review. 22(4):225-227.
azenby, Scott. (2008). How…
Lashaway-Bokina, Nancy. (2000). Recognizing and nurturing intrinsic motivation: a cautionary tale. Roeper Review. 22(4):225-227.
Lazenby, Scott. (2008). How to motivate employees: what research is telling us. Public Management. 90(8):22-25.
Locke, E.A. & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: a 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist. Vol. 57:705-717.
In this case one may imagine the student who attending class in school and cannot concentrate on what is being taught because their stomach is rumbling from lack of having eaten and they also have a headache from a general lack of nutrition. Furthermore, this student has no sense of security or safety and is nervous and anxious.
Example 2: The individual in this example is not hungry and they are not tired but they are nervous because their parents fought all night and this resulted in their being awake and scared the neighbors would call the police again and that their parents would wind up in jail by morning. This individual has no inner motivation to learn because they are worried and stressed about their own safety and security in their home life. This individual may very well be extrinsically motivated to learn but have not reached the level…
Soenens, Bart et al. (2005) Maladaptive Perfectionist Self-representation: The mediational link between psychological control and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences 38 (2005). Online available at Science Direct:
Michalik, Nicole M. et al. (2007) Longitudinal Relations among Parental Emotional Expressivity and Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescence. Social Development May 2007 Vol. 16 No.2. Online available at: ttp:/ / www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1949391
Experience Alters How We Perceive Emotion (2002) Science Daily - Science News. 18 Jun 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/06/020618072601.htm
It is also possibly one of the most significant motivational factors among young people. Zuckerman refer to disinhibition as follows. "These who choose to follow a conventional lifestyle might periodically escape by engaging in social drinking..." (Franken, 2001, p. 343). This is an important factor as the desire or need for disinhibition may lead to an addictive patterns of behavior, where the drugs or alcohol supply the required escape from routine and inhibitory factors.
Disinhibition is also strongly related to the conventions of society where the individual may feel hemmed in and confined by the routine and patterns of ordinary life. This can lead to addictive behavior as the use of drugs or substances are motivated by the desire to free one's self and sense of identity and fulfill experiential needs.
The central concept that links al of these motivational theories is that they all can be seen to contribute…
education is struggling to uncover the reasons for continuing levels of academic achievements, and recover its place of world class leadership which it once held. While academic levels in public schools have suffered to the greatest extent over the years, the same cannot be said regarding religious education, in particular catholic schools. These schools continue to produce higher levels of academic achievement, and more students who continue on to college that similar public schools. This research is an initial investigation into possible reasons for this phenomenon.
Educational difficulties across the nation have been receiving increasing amounts of attention. Despite the attention of teachers, researchers, and rhetoricians, the academic performance in public schools is not making appreciable improvements. The classroom is becoming more diverse, and multicultural. While this perceived shift is understood as a positive adaptation to he different needs of the individual student, the results is that the teacher is…
Batson, D.C., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, L.W. (1993). Religion and the Individual: A Social-Psychological Perspective. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
Baumol, W., and R. Highsmith. (1988). "Variables affecting success in economic education: Preliminary findings from a new data base." American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 78 (May): 257-62.
Bryk, A.S., Lee, V.E., & Holland, P.B. (1993). Catholic Schools and the Common Good. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Power, E. (1996) Religion and the Public Schools in 19th Century America: The Contribution of Orestes A. Brownson. Paulist Press.
This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.
The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…
Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.
Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Extrinsic rewards should only be used when other efforts to actively engage students in learning has failed; (3) In the event extrinsic rewards must be utilized, they should be "just powerful enough to control behavior" and should be eliminated in phases before all intrinsic motivation is lost.
Jones, Vermette, and Jones posit in their article, "An Integration of "Backwards Planning' Unit Design with the "Two Step" Lesson Planning Framework," planning and engaging students in effective lessons is a fundamental component of successful teaching and therefore, motivating students (Skowron, 2001). The authors created the concept of backwards planning which requires educators to start with a nominal list of essential questions all students must answer by the end of the lesson plan. With the end goal in mind, teachers then design assessments based on those understandings and strategically crafted lessons to achieve the desired objectives. Once the goals and assessments have been…
Alvermann, L. (1999). Classroom goal orientation, school belonging, and social goals as predictors of students' positive and negative affect following the transition to middle school. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 32(2), 89-103.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2005). Directly controlling teacher behaviors as predictors of poor motivation and engagement in girls and boys: The role of anger and anxiety. Learning and Instruction, 15, 397-413.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, g. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy enhancing and suppressing teaching behaviors predicting students' engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 27, 261-278.
Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. (2004). The emotional costs of parents' conditional regard: A self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-88.
In the absence of both factors, employee motivation will not work. Green and Butkus also shared that although Vroom's model had been widely accepted for a number of years, it lacked applicability that it cannot be used in practice.
Aside from Vroom, Green and Butkus (1999) also shared about Green's own Belief System model. This model was actually a practical application of Viktor Vroom's Expectancy Theory and was reported to be better utilized by the workforce. The Belief System Theory focused on using a structured and facilitated meeting between the supervisor and the staff. This meeting becomes a venue to discuss motivational problems on the areas that Vroom had developed and will provide the manager and the employee with a specific period to help address motivational issues in their workplace.
Whiteley and Kerr's ideas focus on an individual's motivation and how it can be used to help him contribute…
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.
Kerr, Steven. (1997). Ultimate Rewards: what really motivates people to achieve. Boston, Ma. Harvard Business School Press.
Whiteley, Philip. (2002). Motivation. Oxford, United Kingdom Capstone Publishing, Ltd.
Green, Thad B. And Butkus, Raymond T. (1999). Motivation, beliefs and organizational transformation. Westport, Conn. Quorum Books.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
A detailed analysis of how differing organizations use various blends of extrinsic and intrinsic compensation and benefits strategies to maximize organizational potential to meet the needs of the workforce. Describes the myriad factors including the industry, strategic planning, compensation philosophy and recruitment/retention strategies that when balanced, create a changing yet dynamic and motivated generational workforce that succeeds in accomplishing workplace goals.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
The purpose of this analysis is to describe how different organizations can potentially use different blends of extrinsic and intrinsic compensation and benefits strategies to maximize organizational potential to meet the needs of their workforce. Traditionally compensation has been a highly volatile and controversial aspect of human resource management, with managers typically siding on the intrinsic or extrinsic side of compensation strategies. However research suggests that a program must address multiple factors that will balance both extrinsic and intrinsic factors…
Hendriks, P. & Sousa, S. 2008. Motivating University Researchers. Higher Education Policy, 21,
Kunz, J. & Quitmann, A.2011. The influence of incentive systems on intrinsic motivation.
Zeitschrift fur Personal forschung, 25(1), 55-76.
Motivation and Job Satisfaction in the Banking Sector
The success of any organization relies much on the employees and the productivity of the employees. Members of staff who are highly motivated are the key to bringing in high performance to the organization hence there is a constant need to ensure that the spirits of the employees and their satisfaction are always high and that the employees find meaning and purpose in their obs.
As a manager of one of the branches of our bank, it is my duty to ensure that the employees under my jurisdiction are well motivated for me to post good results at the end of the year. Of critical concern to me at the moment is increasing the performance of the lending officers in my branch and also reducing the levels of absenteeism and the currently high turn over of the tellers.
The approaches that I…
Cherry K, (2015). What Is the Difference Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation? Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://psychology.about.com/od/motivation/f/difference-between-extrinsic-and-intrinsic-motivation.htm
Ryan R.M. & Deci E.L., (2000). Contemporary Educational Psychology: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://www.self-determinationtheory.org/SDT/documents/2000_RyanDeci_IntExtDefs.pdf
esearch has identified ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck as the most important achievement attributions. The last category focuses on two issues: how motivation gets translated into regulated behavior, and how motivation and cognition are linked.
These theories can provide insights into the leader who is trying to motivate others to follow. It must be understood that no two people are motivated in the same way. For a committee with a small number of members, it may be best to look at each person and define how he or she is best motivated and then put these different individuals into groups and decide what can be the specific motivator for each group. For example, those individuals who are extrinsically motivated may be motivated if they receive some form of gratitude from the principal. In order to determine the particular motivations of these individuals, it may be necessary to talk one-on-one…
Wigfield, a (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. 109+.
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.
One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
I find that what motivates me most are intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation. Extrinsic types of motivation include things like praise and simple communications of appreciation for a job well done. They also include things like bonus time for vacation or raises or even job promotions if a project really turns out to be a big success for the company. However, even just little things like smiles, compliments and positive feedback—things that have no direct cost on the company—are good extrinsic motivators, as Hauser (2014) points out, and I find them to be good motivators for me all the time. Appreciation and kind words from a manager or shows of respect can be enough of an extrinsic motivator to fill me with a sense of worth and pride and make me want to do a good job on projects. When managers show that they are aware of how…
The vertical differentiations are associated with the components of abstraction that permit individuals to determine both their intentions and their behaviors. The horizontal differentiation is associated with different intentions including the completion of the project.
Tubbs and Eckeberg (1991) assert that understanding the intentional model has implications associated with understanding the effects of goal setting. The authors argue that the intentional behavior model explains the cognitive effects of goals which is rarely seen in research pertaining to work motivation. The authors posit that the research is important because it is the first time that research has sought to determine the impact that goals have on people.
Finally Latham and Pinder (2005) discuss Work Motivation Theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author point out that interest in motivational theories has not waned since they first begin to surface. According to the authors, work motivation represents a…
Klein J.I. (1990) Feasibility Theory: A Resource Munificence Model of Work motivation and Behavior. Academy of Management Review. 15 (4) pgs. 646-645.
Latham G.P., Pinder, C.C. (2005) Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Pyschology. 56: 485-516.
Tubbs M.E., Eckeberg S.E. (1991) Academy of Management Review. 15(1) pgs. 180-199.
The final piece of the puzzle clicked for me during the recent (and possibly ongoing) recession, when I viewed the extra strain that was placed on my parents due to cutbacks at work, worries about pensions, and the falling value of their home. Their lack of education severely limited my parents' options in terms of dealing with and recovering from the recession, as there were fewer occupational opportunities available should one of them lose their job, and moving into a different area of work would also have been more difficult both for lack of experience and because employers so often look for a college degree simply as a prerequisite during the application process. Witnessing their fears and the very real change in their lifestyle that occurred due to my parent's lack of a sense of financial security made me increasingly determined to never be in this situation myself, and to…
For example, let's say that a student has tremendous amounts of respect for their history teacher. While at the same time, they do not like their math teacher. These two contrasting views will have a negative impact on how they will deal with a host of situation. As, the student is more willing to listen to ideas of teachers they like and respect. Whereas those educators, that are often looked down upon will be ineffective in reaching out to their student. This is significant, because it is showing how inside the classroom the teacher must be able to relate to each person. As a result, the way that this idea can be used in the classroom is to establish an initial foundation of support for the educator and the views that are being presented. The way that this is accomplished is through effectively reaching out to the student by ensuring…
McFerrin, K. (2008). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
McGlyn, A. (2009). Millennials in College. Education Digest, 73 (6), 19 -- 22.
Shindler, J. (2010). Transformative Classroom Management. San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
Organizational Motivation Leadership
Effective and positive leadership is a basic foundation for any administrative institution to yield good results and therefore cause a great impact.
In this study we base our focus on a critical organization which is the infant daycare.
Infant daycare organization
Infant daycare centers are organizations that focus on the welfare of the child by providing care while the parent goes to work or gets engaged in other activities that may not allow the mother of father to be around the child during the day. The state requires that such organizations meet certain standards of safety, health and that the staff should have proper training. These institutions are normally equipped with fun toys and learning materials with the qualified caregivers trying as much as they can to make the life of infants as comfortable as possible. With the many challenges that infants face including having to master…
Bob Whipple, (2012). Leaders Creating Meaning. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://leadergrow.com/articles/105-leaders-create-meaning
CEO Flow, (2008). CEO Flow, (2008). The Four Rewards of Intrinsic Motivation. Retrieved April 4, 2012 http://www.ceoflow.com/2008/08/the-four-rewards-of-intrinsic-motivation/
David McCelland, (2012). Human Relations Contributors. Retrieved April 4, 2012
Many H performance issues result underlying motivational problems external work environment finance. Describing a motivational problem hinders goal attainment. Briefly describe problem (,) Use theory motivation explain problem
H performance issues:
Motivational problems in the financial services industry
"Often an employee knows how to perform correctly, the process is good, and all resources are available, but for one reason or another, chooses not to do so, which normally means it is a motivational issue" (Clark 2010). In the past, during the era of scientific management, motivational issues were dealt with by rigorously governing employee movement in a very strict and controlled fashion. However, this can stifle employee creativity and enthusiasm for the task. The obvious motivator for most people to work is money. For example, in the financial services industry, money is a major motivator in terms of how salary and compensation is structured. The expectation of a…
Clark, Don. (2010). Motivation and performance. Big Dog Little Dog. Retrieved from:
Hollon, John. (2011). Weekly wrap: Best Buy and ROWE -- Yes, flex work works, at least for them. TLNT. Retrieved from:
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.
Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…
Bunderson, C.V. (1990). Computers in Educational Assessment: An Opportunity to Restructure Educational Practice. Educational Resource and Information Center.
Eisner, E. (1997). The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 4-10.
Emerson, J. (1989). Review: Dead PoetsSociety. Jeems Cinepad. Online at http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm.
Florio-Ruane, Suzanne; Marianne George & Taffy E. Rapheal. (2004). Book Club Plus: Organizing Your Literacy Curriculum to Bring Students to High Levels of Literacy. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 27.
At Western Motels, when maids quit their job, they refuse to give a reason for this. Such a situation may occur because they do not feel comfortable talking to their superiors.
This is connected with the organizational problems discussed above. In order to improve communication, it is important that managers build the right infrastructure and to communicate openly (Smith, 2003).
7. There are many problems that must be addressed at Western Motels. The problems with employee retention cannot be solved in a short period of time. Their solution is based on building a consistent, solid, sustainable organizational culture that is able to fulfill the needs and requirements of employees.
The starting point should be represented by building a strong set of values to represent the company and to attract and retain employees. Next, the company should focus on the financial aspects that are important for all employees, no matter what…
1. Reiss, S. (2004). Multifaceted Nature of Intrinsic Motivation: The Theory of 16 Basic Desires. The Ohio State University. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://nisonger.osu.edu/papers/Multifaceted%20nature%20of%20intrinsic%20motivation.pdf .
2. McNamara, C. (2000). Organizational Culture. Management Library. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm .
3. Smith, S. (2003). Remove Your Workplace Communication Barriers: They Are Costing You More Than You Think. Next Level Consulting. Retrieved March 16, 2010 from http://www.nextlevel-consulting.com/articles/management/article06.html .
Mr. Cardot is doing a great job using extrinsic motivation, but what would really help his students to grasp the concept of setting in stories would be to increase the use of intrinsic motivation. Increasing intrinsic motivation requires Mr. Cardot to connect with this second grade class, understanding their needs and creating lessons that are responsive to their needs to be "competent, connected, and in control," (Chapter 12, p. 451). Being competent, connected, and in control simply means that the students need to be challenged just enough. As Woolfolk puts it, "Moderate difficulty provides a challenge, but not an unreasonable one," (p. 452). Lessons that are too difficult might end up creating long-term problems in the classroom including learned helplessness and frustration.
Perhaps the lessons on setting have been over their heads, offering concepts or vocabulary that they are unfamiliar with and so are not responding. It is also possible…
A 2006 study of nurses cited "unsupportive management structures, autocratic and dehumanizing management styles…lack of autonomy in the workplace, professional jealousies...sub-optimal physical working conditions and shortage of staff…lack of opportunities for promotion or continuing one's professional education…inaccurate systems of performance…compounded by favoritism and racism" (King & McInerney 2006). While poor pay was an additional complaint, it was not the primary complaint. Although some of these stressors are institutional, others suggest that the intrinsic motivations of these workers, such as a desire for more education, were not satisfied.
Expectancy theory or the theory that individuals live up to expectations, seems to be supported by this data: when the nurses were solicited for input and treated like competent professionals with valuable skills and knowledge, they were more likely to live up to these ideals. The expectation that workers have the resources to manage stress and conflict becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Moreover, in…
Bell, EA & BD Bart. (1991, March-April) Pay for performance: Motivating the chief nurse executive. Nursing Economist, 9(2):92-6, 104.
King, LA & PA McInerney. (2006, November). Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban metropolitan area.
Paulson, Amanda. (2009, March 18). Change pay, change performance?
For instance, LaFleur and Hyten (1995) suggested that performance of hotel banquet staff improved when staff members received monthly bonuses function of their ability to meet accuracy and timeliness goals in setting up banquet functions (cited in Ambrose & Kulik, 1999).
Implementing these strategies should be facilitated by the fact that the two strategies complete each other. Establishing clear goals and their attainment is facilitated by the incentive, which may increase goal commitment, motivation, and thus, performance.
Incentive media kit (2005), etrieved from site: http://www.huttonmedialimited.com/images/pdfs/Incentive-rates-Production2005.pdf
Ambrose, M.L., & Kulik, C.T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 231-292.
Steven H. Appelbaum, ammie Kamal (2000). An analysis of the utilization and effectiveness of non-financial incentives in small business. Journal of Management Development, Volume: 19 Issue: 9 Pp. 733-763
t Hon. Andrew Smith MP. "Making a difference - motivating people to improve performance," etrieved…
Incentive media kit (2005), Retrieved from site: http://www.huttonmedialimited.com/images/pdfs/Incentive-rates-Production2005.pdf
Ambrose, M.L., & Kulik, C.T. (1999). Old friends, new faces: Motivation research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 231-292.
Steven H. Appelbaum, Rammie Kamal (2000). An analysis of the utilization and effectiveness of non-financial incentives in small business. Journal of Management Development, Volume: 19 Issue: 9 Pp. 733-763
Rt Hon. Andrew Smith MP. "Making a difference - motivating people to improve performance," Retrieved from site, http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/Documents/Public_Spending_and_Services/Public_Services_Productivity_Panel/pss_pspp_makingadifference.cfm ?
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
HR Performance Issues and Motivation
A performance issue that has occurred in the past was the problem of getting employees to volunteer for the fund drive. At the local radio station, the non-profit organization depends upon its seasonal fund drive to make the money it needs to stay in business. Because the radio station is the only one of its kind in town—it provides classical music 24/7 along with NPR talk shows—it is viewed as a valuable contributor to the local arts scene. Many wealthy donors contribute but the station also relies on loyal listeners to contribute every spring, summer, fall and winter as well to keep doors open and staff employed. Staff find the fund drive to be tedious and demeaning as they never feel that enough appreciation is shown them for all the extra hard work it requires of them. They have to work longer hours, be…
Although it is controversial to say so, it does appear that early childhood exposure to media violence can precipitate aggressive behavior and violence in adulthood. In a longitudinal study that actually was able to determine causality in the same population sample, Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski & Eron (2003) show that there is a connection between media violence exposure and violent behavior. The type of violent behavior differed, largely due to gender. For example, men in the study were more likely to use physical aggression and violence but females were more likely to use other forms of aggression like verbal abuse. Regardless, the study should alert parents about how to monitor their children and how to talk to children about the violence they see. It is not simply the exposure to the violence, but the duration of exposure or frequency of viewing. Other factors that impact violence and aggression include personality…
"Evaluate sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.appsychology.com/IB%20Psych/IBcontent/Options/Humanrelationships/Rel9.htm
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201-221.
Once I put my mind to doing something I find that I am totally committed to do it. I have learned that if I am not totally committed, not only does it make whatever I am doing very annoying, it often does not turn out well in the end.
A person who possesses initiative and optimism is always ready to seize opportunities that present themselves. These people pursue goals beyond what is expected or them and are always utilizing unusual and enterprising effort to accomplish things (Goleman, 2000). People who possess initiative have the drive to want to make things happen. These people almost always have optimism at the same time which allows them to believe that they can make whatever they want to happen. I find myself always wanting to get things done but not always having the optimism to follow through.
According to Cherry (2011) there are three…
Cherry, K. (2011). What is motivation? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Goleman, D. (2000). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
To support of refute the research problem requires looking at one research and two sub-questions to include:
Research Question 1
How does employee compensation contribute to the underlying levels of motivation at an employer?
What roles do managers / executives play in how enthusiastic staff members are inside a firm?
What is the impact of coworkers on new employees in the workplace?
These different elements are important, because they will offer specific insights about what factors is influencing employee motivation. Once this occurs, is when the data will be able to support or refute the hypothesis that has been presented.
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to understand the specific factors are contributing to the underlying levels of motivation in the workplace. As, these kinds of issues can have a dramatic impact on how effective an organization will be able…
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Qualitative Research. (2011). CSULB. Retrieved from: http://www.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm
Aswagen, S. (2008). Fresh Perspectives. Cape Town: Pearson Education.
Beazley, H. (2002). Continuity Management. New York, NY: Wiley.
This is a more behavioral and associative concept, as it is believed that individuals work toward a certain goal for external rewards. This can be seen in every single job. People go to work because they get paid on a regular basis. Nothing is more motivational than knowing that after hours of work during a given period of time, one will receive a paycheck proving that everything was worth it. It is this that this theory says is the key motivator in a person. Another theory of motivation is the Humanistic Theory of Motivation. This theory goes hand in hand with Maslow's hierarchy of needs as it states that people are motivated based on the fact that people have strong cognitive reasons to do so (Latham 2006). In order to provide food and shelter, one needs to be motivated enough to go and seek it. These are biological necessities that…
Achor, S. (2010). The happiness advantage: The seven principles of positive psychology that fuel success and performance at work. Crown Publishing Group: New York, NY.
Thomas, K.W. (2009). Intrinsic motivation at work: What really drives employee engagement. Berrett-Koehlor Publishers, Inc.: San Francisco, CA.
Latham, G.P. ed. (2006). Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice (Foundations for organizational science). Sage Publications, Inc.: Thousand Oaks, CA.
" (Herbig et al., 563) These motivational priorities, manifesting concretely in such terms as pay rate and personal interest, are relatively common throughout the working world. However, a point of distinction in this discussion may be raised from the fact that different cultures often produce distinct motivational forces. To this extent, the differences that are accounted for betwixt nations and demographics may be seen as directly pertinent to specific cultural realities within each of these contexts. Moreover, as our reading on the subject of significantly culturally divergent nations suggests, "the type of work goals whose pursuit is encouraged and rewarded depend in part on the prevailing cultural value emphasized in society." (Jaw et al., 2) This is consistent with our findings here thus far, including the intrinsic ideals of Maslow, which may be read to suggest that the exact manifestation of work values will be reflected on a larger social…
Becker, Brian & Barry Gerhart. (1996). The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospect. The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779-801.
Boeree, C. George. (2006). B.F. Skinner. Shippensburg University.
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Springer.
Herbig, Paul & Alain Genestre. (1997). International Motivational Differences. Texas A&M International University: Department of Management and Marketing.
Many psychologists have put forward theories to advance the concept of motivation. Some of the psychological theories and models that explain motivation include incentive theory, drive theory, self-control model, push and pull model, intrinsic and extrinsic model, and rational motivations among others. Motivation stems from a number of sources, which dictate the way a person acts. It is paramount to note that motivation is one of the greatest determinants of motivation, and one can tell the level of motivation of a person through the way one behaves. The discussion below is an insight into this concept for a better understanding of motivation.
Motivation is a term in psychology that is hard to define; a number of theories have different views of motivation. These views of motivation include drive theories, incentive theories, and homeostasis, and one can draw a common definition of motivation from these views (Kalat, 2011). According to…
Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Psychology. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.
Dinibutun, S.R. (2012). Managing Effective Motivation. GSTF Journal on Business Review, 1(4). Retrieved from http://dl.globalstf.org/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_images.tpl&product_id=1671&category_id=73&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=4
Kalat, J.W. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Katzenbach, J.R. (2006). Motivation beyond money: Learning from peak performers. Leader to Leader, 2006(41), 59-62. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22223121&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Motivation is probably one of the most important factors affecting a student's learning progress and achievement in school. For this reason, it is the chief concern of teachers today as most of them fail to understand how to generate interest in a course or lesson without using the common threats and retaliatory tools such as grades, poor remarks, expulsion etc.
Rinne, Carl H. (1998) in his article 'Motivating students is a percentage game', it appears, has managed to reach what can be called the root cause of motivation and has been able to unearth some important components of this highly sought after characteristic. Rinne feels that the best way to motivate a student to focus on the 'intrinsic appeals' of a lesson as he declares, "Teachers need to discuss the intrinsic appeals of lesson content to motivate students to learn." The article has been written with a clear idea of…
Motivation Model interconnects both causal concepts and the intrinsic relationship between them. Every employee within the company will have a well-defined set of internal needs, motives and objectives. These were probably in place by the time he applied for the position within the company, but it is also likely that he will have acquired several more within the company, as soon as he realized how things worked.
The internal needs and objectives of the employee give way to a certain type of behavior or a set of actions that characterize the respective individual within the company, may it be related to his performances or to his social actions and his relationship with fellow colleagues.
The actions he performs allows the employee to fulfill goals which bring him the satisfaction related to the workplace. This means that his actions need to be stimulated in such a way that he will be…
1. LEADERSHIP AND CONTROL IN Management. CHAPTER 6. Management 111
INTRODUCTION TO Business SCIENCE
LEADERSHIP AND CONTROL IN Management. CHAPTER 6. Management 111?INTRODUCTION TO Business SCIENCE
Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.
Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory
To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-
Quality of Supervision
These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.
The motivation factors include:
esponsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.
Another related motivational model that…
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531
Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
The current study aims to examine the effect of the lack of supervision and detachment between administration and low-level supervisors and beat officers and how this leads to low morale and motivation. Imperatively, low level of morale and motivation results in low productivity, which might give rise to absenteeism and poor watch, adversely affecting the society through increased level of crime. A questionnaire will be designed to achieve the purpose of this research study and will be distributed to selected beat officers working in different police precincts. The number of questionnaires analyzed will be to different police precincts. Data collected will be analyzed through SPSS using both descriptive statistics, correlation and regression data.
Organizations endeavor to have more productive personnel, who are deemed the most significant resources and a determining factor for success. Low levels of productivity can be linked to poor employee morale and motivation. The…
Data collection is a set of information obtained through a systemic investigation (Depoey and Gitlin 1998). This study proposes to attain an in-depth understanding of the motivation factors possessed by people who make a commitment to voluntary work, in order to be able to maintain or increase their current level of involvement using a qualitative approach. The study would be somewhat restricted since the sample would be taken from only three voluntary organizations, though the decision to reserve the three subsets to those who are the most represented in the Maltese system of NGO's will attempt to lesson the limitation and bias of the study. The work will focus upon the most largely represented of the four types of NGO's who employ a large number of volunteers; Social work activities with accommodation social work activities without accommodation support and pressure activities. According to Bailey (1991), by highlighting the limitations…
Generally, online students need to have a high level of self-motivation for their studies. Being aimed towards the adult, working student body, Strayer attracts students who are not motivated only by the subject matter of their studies, but also by what this can mean in terms of their self-development. This extra level of motivation is encouraged by the structure and aims of Strayer University. This relates to the individual needs and goals variable.
Each student entering the university has a specific goal for furthering their studies; they wish to improve their careers or themselves in some way. This serves as motivation to not only complete, but also to excel at their studies. This is so for both online and campus students. Lecturers in turn are motivated by the needs of these students to deliver excellence in the material that they offer learners, in order to ensure excellent student performance not…
Silberman, Robert S. (2009). Letter to Shareholders. Strayer Education, Inc. Annual Report 2009. Retrieved from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/STRA/916322741x0x353509/C4984D55-27AA-440A-B370-CE3D306CF2D5/STYR_09AR_Final.pdf
Strayer Education, Inc. (2010). Financial Performance. Retrieved from http://www.strayereducation.com/growth.cfm?pageSection=growth
Strayer University (2010). CTI College Search. Retrieved from http://www.citytowninfo.com/school-profiles/strayer-university
Burke, W. Warner, Litwin, George H. A Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change. Journal of Management. Bloomington: Sep 1992. Vol. 18, Iss. 3
As Moore and Anderson emphasize, "Another driver is that distance education students have as much right to expect effective library services as traditional on-campus students. Therefore, services have been enhanced to ensure easy access and equitable delivery of resources and services" (p. 384).
Clearly, then, although the mission of many university libraries to provide the resources and tools students need to achieve successful academic outcomes has not changed in substantive ways in recent years, technological innovations have demanded that they transform the manner in which they achieve these missions. A survey of university librarians conducted by Moore and Anderson (2003) determined that, "y far the major thrust of the libraries surveyed was the inclusion of information literacy skills into the curriculum, either imbedded into the discipline-specific information or as assessable tests within foundation or first-year subjects" (p. 382). The provision of these types of services, Moore and Anderson suggest, may…
Droege, S.B. And J.M. Hoobler. 2003. "Employee turnover and tacit knowledge diffusion: A network perspective." Journal of Managerial Issues, 15(1): 50.
Finnegan, R.P., F.D. Frank and C.R. Taylor, C.R. 2004. "The race for talent: Retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century." Human Resource Planning 27(3): 12.
Milgate, Michael a. 2004. Transforming Corporate Performance: Measuring and Managing the Drivers of Business Success. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Phillips, Jack J. 2005. Investing in Your Company's Human Capital: Strategies to Avoid Spending Too Little -- or Too Much. New York: AMACOM.
The Motivation Plan
Summary of Moat Important Elements of the Plan
Motivating the Minimum Wage Service Workers
The elevance of the Individual Worker
Individual to Teamwork Chart
The development of an organizational motivation plan to improve performance within a company should take into account the different needs of different employees as well as the requirements of the employer. The Hawthorne studies by Mayo indicated that when employees were happy and motivated at work they would work harder and display more positive behavioral traits. If the firm is suffering from traits associated with poor motivation, such as poor performance levels, developing a plan to increase motivation may result in desired changes in the behavior, especially if the plan is designed with the needs of the employer in mind.
In the case of the firm making the WooWoo widgets, there are currently some problems; the main symptom is a…
Adams, J.S. (1965), 'Inequity in social exchanges', in Berkowitz, L. (editor), Advances in experimental social psychology Volume 2, p.267-299, New York, Academic Press
Armstrong, Michael, (2012), Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page
Herzberg, F, (1968), One more time: how do you motivate employees-Harvard Business Review, 46(1), 53 -- 62.
Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B, (2011), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall
Group Motivation and Evaluation
Group Motivation Inventory
I work very hard in my group.
I work harder in this group than I do in most other groups.
Other members work very hard in this group.2
I am willing to spend extra time on group projects.
I try to attend all group meetings.4
Other members regularly attend group meetings.
I often lose track of time when I'm working in this group.
Group members don't seem to mind working long hours on our project.2
hen I am working with this group, I am focused on our work.
10.I look forward to working with the members of my group.2
I enjoy working with group members.
Group members enjoy working with one another.3
I am doing an excellent job in my group.
I am doing better work in this group than I have done in other groups.4
The other members are making excellent contributions…
Lei, s., Kuestermeyer, B., Westmeyer, K. (2010). Group Composition Effecting Student
Interaction and Achievement: Instructor's Perspectives. Journal of Instructional
Psychology, 37(4), 317-325.
Nihalani, P., Wilson, H., Thomas, G., Robinson D., (2010). What Determines High- and Low-
The notion of age particular incentives is further discussed in Age and Work elated Motives. The author's findings are that "intrinsic and achievement motives are more important for older workers as compared to younger workers" (Kooij, D. Delange, a. Jansen, P. Kanfer, . & Dikkers, J. 2011. pp 20/217). Given this finding, "older workers should be offered more mentor roles, and since motive strength for interesting work, autonomy, and achievement increases with age, older workers' jobs should be redesigned to include these characteristics" (Kooij, D. et al. 2011. pp 20/217).
2.9 esistance to Change
From the specifics of age and gender factors on motivation and organizational dynamics, the literature review concludes with the examination of the change directive and the resistance which can impede its implementation. If the review thus far has produced a single finding it is a considerable relationship between individual motivation, their subsequent performance, and the successful…
Bertolino, M. Truxillo, D. Fraccaroli, F. (January 2011). Age as Moderator of the Relationship of Proactive Personality with Training Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 32. pp. 248-263. January 2011
Buchanan, D. Addicott, R. Fitzgerald, L. Ferlie, E. & Baeza, J. (2007). Nobody in charge: Distributed change agency in healthcare. Human Relations. 60-1065. 2007
Caldwell, R. (2003). Models of Change Agency. British Journal of Management. Vol. 14
pp 131-142. 2003
Other than this, I would try to establish my own personal goals and objectives that are subordinated to group objectives. For example, I would try to establish very tight deadlines for the tasks assigned to me, because I work very well under pressure.
I would also try to establish a career path that I would follow in the future, determining medium term objectives for me to reach. Knowing where I want to be in my career would motivate me to achieve my full potential, and even to develop new skills and abilities that would help me advance in my career.
e. In large corporations, where there are hundreds or thousands of employees, many of them covering similar positions, it is difficult for the H department and top managers to establish a motivational system analyzing each individual in particular. As a consequence, H managers develop a motivational system that is generally…
1. Engleberg, I.N. & Wynn, D.R. (2007). Working in Groups: Communication Principles and Strategies. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
student motivation in the learning environment and what motivates students to study. The evaluation begins with a theoretical background on the issue of student motivation based on existing literature and studies on the issue. This is followed by a literature review of 10 studies that have been carried out on the student motivation in various classroom settings and learning environments. Through this review the author has identified various factors that motivate students to study including creation of a supportive learning environment, use of suitable teaching practices, and use of multi-level strategies. The article also includes a discussion regarding the significance of student motivation in the learning process.
One of the most important goals of an educational environment is to motivate students toward environmentally friendly behavior change. The need for student motivation in the high school setting is attributed to the fact that motivation creates positive experience, which helps in improving…
Daniels, E. (2011, November). Creating Motivating Learning Environments: Teachers Matter.
Middle School Journal, 32-37.
Darner, R. (2012, August). An Empirical Test of Self-determination Theory As A Guide to Fostering Environmental Motivation. Environmental Education Research 18(4), 463-472.
Hardre, P.L. (2012). Standing in the Gap: Research that Informs Strategies for Motivating and Retaining Rural High School Students. Rural Educator, 12-18.
Learning, Motivation, Performance of Employees of Public Safety Organizations
The motivation is defined as the intrinsic phenomenon affected four factors: temperament, situation, tool, and goal. Typically, people are motivated to achieve their goals, instincts and necessities, thus, the concept motivation assists people to complete a task, gain a goal as well as achieving a certain degree of success from their job. Thus, the concept motivation explains why some people behaves in a certain way and the reasons for their behaviors. In essence, motivated people are oriented, and energetic in characteristics, which influence their behaviors. From the educational point-of-view, motivation is the polyhedral structure associated with academic achievement and learning, however, employees' motivation is low in the public sector compared with the private organizations. The public safety organizations are the government agencies that include law enforcement agencies, EMS (Emergency Medical Services), rescue squads, and fire departments. The Department of Safety in…
Blanchard, P. N., & Thacker, J. W. (2013). Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and Practices (5th Ed.) ISBN 13:978-0-13-272904-8
Ford, L. (2009). Improving training transfer. Journal of Industrial and Commercial Training, 4, 6-92.
Fortenbery, M.J.A. (2015). Improving Motivation and Productivity of Police Officers. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Giran, H. Amin, A. & Halim, A. (2014). The Impact of Self-Efficacy towards Training Motivation at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA Kuantan, Malaysia. Asian Social Science; 10(19):69:76.
How can Deci and Ryan's (2008) self-determination theory assist individuals in their personal or professional goals?
Deci & Ryan’s (2008) self-determination theory is a theory of motivation that can help individuals set and achieve personal and professional goals. The theory can be applied to almost every area of life, including health choices or interpersonal relationships. One of the most unique features of self-determination theory is that it can be adapted to different applications. As Deci & Ryan (2008) show, self-determination theory distinguishes between different types of motivation including autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. Self-determination theory also takes into account the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The basic motivational goals people have include competency, relatedness, and autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Deci & Ryan (2008) also claim there are two main categories of individual difference regarding motivation: causality orientation and goals. By showing people what motivates them and why,…
ventilated leadership failures and motivation strategies that can be put into practice to increase productivity and performance. A vacuum in leadership negatively impacts productivity and performance. Lack of integrity, lack of maturity, and lack of fallibility is a sign that there is a deficiency in leadership credentials.
Leaders have to exhibit acceptable moral standards. Individuals who have learnt wrong lessons early in life or those with tainted views on how to get ahead can least provide that leadership that an organization needs. Such people can do anything in life to get ahead. Bad leaders are an embodiment of integrity lapses. Poor judgment on the part of company executives is an indication they are immature. Immaturity can also be exhibited in such leaders' lack of foresight and judgment to see the outcome of their behavior. They have problems with controlling their impulses. This overwhelms their decision making ability. Immature leaders are…
Motivations for Taking Up Union Office
The role of local union official is usually an unpaid position, even where compensation is offered it will be constrained; this indicates motivation for those who do take up the office is unlikely to be financial (Sloan and Witney, 2010). So why do people take up that office?
In a seminal study on the path to union leadership has indicated that several preconditions exist prior to an individual considering taking up union office. An individual will need to perceive themselves as having the suitable qualifications to stand for leadership, and will not stand unless they believe others to hold the same perception (Koziara et al., 1982). In most cases, the qualifications will include previous experience in union administration (Koziara et al., 1982), which itself indicates that standing for office is likely to be part of a progression. The same study also notes…
Buchanan, D; Huczynski, A, (2010) Organizational Behavior, Harlow, FT/Prentice Hall
Koziara, Karen S; Bradley, Mary I; Pierson, David A, (1982, Feb), Becoming a union leader: the path to local office, Monthly Labor Review, p44-46
Sloane, A, A; Witney, F, (2010), Labor Relations (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs…
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
Organizational Behavior & Culture
Complete summary of chapter 4
The chapter illustrates that the perception process is based on stages such as stimulation, organization, registration, and interpretation. The individual's acceptance and awareness levels for ascertained stimuli play critical roles in the perception process. The authors add that receptiveness towards certain stimuli remains highly selective in limiting a person's existing personality, motivation, attitude, and beliefs. People select various stimuli that satisfy certain needs (perceptual vigilance) while disregarding stimuli causing perceptual defense (psychological anxiety).
The chapter insists that guidelines facilitate companies in improving their workplaces through the surveying content. The employees can ask questions regarding observable behavior above thoughts and motives. The concept also includes items that are verified independently. The measures also attract behavioral consideration in the recognition of the company's performance. Attitude transformation requires time, determination, and effort to achieve. It is critical to relax expectations of changing an individual's…
Grant, A. (2013). Instead of Monitoring Employees, Try Motivating Them. The Huffington Post. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/adam-grant/instead-of-monitoring-emp_b_3869778.html
Porter, E. (2014). Motivating Corporations to Do Good. The New York Times. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/the-do-good-corporation.html
Healthcare management (Discussion questions)
How do you plan to develop and motivate your team?
One common model of team engagement is Bruce Tuckman's famous delineation of team development called 'forming, norming, storming, and performing' (Chapman 2013) Tuckman believed that all teams go through several stages, gradually attaining independence from the leader, as they become more functional and eventually reach the goals they were originally created to fulfill. However, motivating a team, particularly during the initial, difficult stages of formation can be challenging. It is essential to establish ground rules and goals to create a harmonious team composed of members that are respectful of one another. Ultimately, a team which works well together is the first, most important motivating factor. All of the rhetoric in the world will not create a functional team if this critical interpersonal foundation is not built.
The leader must adjust his or her managerial…
Riley, J. (2012). Motivation theory -- McGregor. Tutor2u. Retrieved from:
Another critical component of motivating a team goes into its composition. Teams should ideally be composed of meshing personality types and there should not be too much overlap in terms of critical skills, to avoid conflicts over positions. Responsibilities should also be established early on to minimize conflict. If conflicts do arise, there should be predetermined methods of dealing with them rather than allowing them to fester. Having constant communication through email and texting, even if only to touch base, also ensures that the project remains 'on track' and gives people a sense of motivation as they are made aware of the benchmarks that have been reached on a regular basis. Two of the greatest motivators are having a sense of genuine enthusiasm about the work that is being done and also a sense that the project is heading in a successful and productive direction. Motivation begins with team formation and must be sustained throughout the project.
Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.
Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…