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In many ways Iran has learned to do what other developed nations have done to protect their interests: try to specialize. This is exactly what it has done in regards to its intelligence and war capabilities. It now has a diverse military and populous system that it at least publicly presents as being able to undertake very distinct protection and defense tasks both inside and outside of the country. Of course, being involved in nearly constant disputes with powerful forces such as the United State and Israel has also required it turn to guerilla type tactics and strategies that enable it to add other capabilities against modern weapons and tools.
The majority of its intelligence collection capabilities seem to be center on three specific units.[footnoteRef:1] They are the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), the Quds (or Jerusalem) forces and the asij, which is essentially a popular volunteer contingent.…
Blanche, E. Iran's Golden Arms Network. Current Affairs. The Middle East. March 2010. 27-29.
Bruno, G. Iran's Revolutionary Guards. Council on Foreign Relations. Backgrounder. Oct. 25, 2011. http://www.cfr.org/iran/irans-revolutionary-guards/p14324 . (Accessed December 14, 2011).
Cordesman, A.H. Iran's Revolutionary Guards, the Al Quds Force and Other Intelligence and Paramilitary Forces. Working Draft. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C., 2006. 1-17.
Cordesman, A.H. And Kleiber, M. Iran's Military Forces and Warfighting Capabilities: The threat in the Northern Gulf. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C. 2007.
Iran Country Vulnerability Assessment
Each country has extent of constraints during their development. Iran has suffered similar issues by virtue of being among the developing country. It has also been countries that require not only acquiring, but retaining its power to guard its resources. The country has also been surrounded by powerful governments of Iraq and Afghanistan which have been a threat to Iran. Iran's system of government is theocratic, meaning that is lead by a religious leader, and the state is under Islamic Law.[footnoteef:2] Unlike the western countries, it is built on a strong religious base which has very strict parameters both in accountability, and performance.[footnoteef:3] It has not suffered from many political parties until recently with united Front of Principality, and a broad coalition of principalities. Countries fight to be strong so that they can win autonomy, with a greater degree of protection. According to Spykman, most…
CIA, "World Fact Book: Iran," [database online], Country Profiles; accessed July 29, 2012.
Library of Congress, "Country Profile: Iran"; available from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/pdf/CS_Iran.pdf; Internet; accessed July 30, 2012.
Iran Tracker. 2012. Afghanistan-Iran Foreign Relations. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.
Karsh, Efraim, ad. The Iran-lraq War: Impact and Implications. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1 World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012
Iran's Nuclear Threat:
As the development of Iran's nuclear program has increased rapidly, there has been a simultaneous increase in the amount of enriched uranium that could be swiftly transformed into weapons-grade material. While Iranian leaders continue to state that the nuclear program is geared towards peaceful purposes, there are increased concerns that the development of a nuclear bomb would be a major security threat. In attempts to discourage and prevent Iran from its plans of developing a nuclear bomb, the United States and other European Union countries have imposed various sanctions against Iran. These sanctions have brought economic and financial blockades that have huge impacts on the Iran's economic and financial system.
While these sanctions seem to have forced Iran to the negotiation table to deliberate on its nuclear program, they have significant strategic value with regards to the impact they have had on Iran's economic and financial system.…
"Can a Nuclear Armed Iran Be Contained?" (2012, October 9). International Policy Digest.
Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org/2012/10/09/can-a-nuclear-armed-iran-be-contained/
Ellner, A. (2012). Iran -- Challenge or Opportunity for Regional Security? Retrieved November
9, 2012, from http://sam.gov.tr/iran-challenge-or-opportunity-for-regional-security/
Iran Country Assessment -- Economic Assessment
Iran Country Economic Assessment
Like many other Islamic countries in the Middle East region, Iran's economy is heavily dependent upon its oil and natural gas resources. According to an estimate, oil and natural gas exports contribute more than 80% of the total export revenues for the country. Tehran; being the business hub for the country, has the highest population, employment opportunities, and industrial setups[footnoteRef:1]. The major industries in Iran include textile, automobile, food and consumer products manufacturing while a number of small and medium enterprises have been set up during the last two to three decades. The Iranian Government formulates its comprehensive economic policy after every five years period. Iran economy has been facing various challenges from local and international environment; unemployment, low industrial growth, inflation, corruption, and international relations are named to be few of them[footnoteRef:2]. [1: World ank. 2012. Iran…
CIA. 2012. The World Fact book -- Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.
The Heritage Foundation. 2012. 2012 Index of Economic Freedom. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.
World Bank. 2012. Iran at a Glance. Online, available from Internet accessed July 17th, 2012.
The Library of Congress. 2012. Country Studies: Iran. Online, available from Internet, accessed July 17th, 2012.
Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program
Institution of Learning
Course Code / Title
The interest of Iran's leaders to pursue nuclear energy technology has been active since the 1950s when the then United States President Dwight Eisenhower launched a program which was aimed at providing nuclear energy that would be used for peaceful purposes. The program made steady progress especially since Iran was receiving Western help. However, certain concerns regarding Iran's intentions began to arise and combined with the upheaval of the Islamic evolution that followed in 1979, outside assistance ceased (Bruno, 2010). Most recently in 2002 and 2003, clandestine research into enrichment of fuel as well as conversion brought to surface the questionable ambitions of Iran as they proved to go beyond peaceful intent. Suspicion continued to deepen when in September 2009 a second uranium enrichment facility was revealed to have been constructed near Qom without the knowledge and consent of…
Bruno, G. (2010). Iran's Nuclear Program. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 3rd June 2012, from: http://www.cfr.org/iran/irans-nuclear-program/p16811
Burr, W. (2009). "A Brief History of U.S.-Iranian Nuclear Negotiations," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January/February 2009.
Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and Relevant Provisions of Security Council Resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Report by the Director General, GOV/2009/74. November 16, 2009.
Rubin, M. (2008). Meeting the Challenge: U.S. Policy toward Iranian Nuclear Development. Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Bipartisan Policy Center.
Iran's Global Reach
The degree of efficacy with which Iran's intelligence agencies could gather meaningful intelligence in support of an armed conflict with the United States in the case of the former taking military action against the latter due to Iran's nuclear program is somewhat difficult to ascertain. The difficulty, of course, lies in the decidedly specious nature of Iran's intelligence capacity which, for the sake of public appearances, is largely posited to include "intelligence about the Middle East and Central Asia and domestic intelligence and monitoring of clerical and government officials as well as work on preventing conspiracies against the Islamic republic" (Cordesman 2007, 13). However, there is also a significant amount of evidence in existence that underscores the fact that Iran's intelligence and military capabilities have expanded throughout the globe, either directly through the nation or through its affiliation with other nation states, which may be able to…
Associated Press. 2007. Experts: Iran's Quds Forces Deeply Enmeshed in Iraq. Cario, Egypt. Fox News. Online. Available from internet, http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,252212,00.html accessed 6 December 2011.
Cordesman, Anthony. 2007. Iran's Revolutionary Guards, The Al Quds Force, And Other Intelligence And Paramilitary Forces. Center For Strategic And International Studies.
No author. 2005. Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security. Berlin, Germany. Iran Focus News and Analysis. Online. Available from internet, http://www.iranfocus.com/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2020 accessed 6 December 2011.
Shane, Scott. 2007. Iranian Force, Focus of U.S., Still a Mystery. Washington D.C. The New York Times. Online. Available from internet. http://www.nytimes.com /2007/02/17/world/middleeast/17quds.html?pagewanted=print' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Iran Contra Affair is the name commonly given to a secret arrangement that sold arms to Iran in exchange for funds that were given to Contra rebels in Nicaragua under U.S. President eagan in the 1980s. The Iran Contra Affair had its roots in the President's commitment to help the contra rebels, who eagan saw as "the moral equivalent of our Founding Fathers" (cited in Wolf). Unfortunately for egan, Congress, under control of the Democrats disagreed, and passed the Boland agreement that prohibited any government agency from giving military aid to the contras. At the same time, eagan was faced with the problem of American hostages held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian groups.
The eagan administration tried to solve both problems with one act: the sale of arms to Iran (which was suppose to result in the release of hostages), with funds going to help the contras. Limitations of the Boland…
Infoplease.com. Iran-contra affair. Source: The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2003, Columbia University Press. 07 June 2004. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0825447.html
Wolf, Julie. The Iran-Contra Affair. PBS Online. 07 June 2004. http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/reagan/peopleevents/pande08.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Iran: A Path towards Rapprochement
The problem that the United States is facing with Iran is related to the problem that it had with Iraq and has in part with Afghanistan. One of the problems is the judgment of the administration that Iran is not doing enough to round up the supporters of Al Qaeda who exist within Iran, as was one of the complaints against Iraq. Some of these Al Qaeda supporters within Iran are believed by the United States to have caused the terrorist activities within Saudi Arabia. The other claim by the United States is that Iran is a Shiite Muslim country and they are the main source of support to the Shiite Muslims within Iraq opposing the United States. It has to be recognized here that even Iraq has a majority of Shiite Muslims, but they had been dominated by the Sunnis for quite some time…
Koppel, Andrea and Labott, Elise. (2003) "U.S. delays Iran policy meeting"
Gottlieb, Bruce. (1999) "Can Terry Anderson Make Iran Pay?" Retrieved from 188.8.131.52/2004/ss_iran_01_05.html Accessed on 03/11/2004
Timmerman, Kenneth R. "Invitation to September 11, 2003" Retrieved at http://184.108.40.206/focus/f-news/1045039/postsAccessed on 03/11/2004
Senior U.S. Official Spells out Dual-Track U.S. Policy toward Iran" Retrieved at http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/02080213.htm. Accessed on 03/11/2004
Here, the British are implicated in a number of ways which are obvious and damning with respect to the fate of European Jewry in the coming years.
3. Examine the events in Palestine 1945 to 1948. hy, in your opinion did the United Nations propose the partition of Palestine? (2 pages)
After orld ar II, when the full extent of the horrors of the Holocaust had become apparent to the global public, the Zionist movement gained significant momentum. Upon the world's revelation that more than 6 million Jews had been sent to the gas chambers, the campaign to make Israel the Jewish national homeland earned the full sympathy and support of the United Nations, the United States and Great Britain. Moreover, the intense pressure which had come to be placed upon the world community with mounting violence between the Zionists, Arabs and British troops in the Palestenian territory would force…
Ganji, M. (2002). Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of Resistance.' Praeger.
Gerner, D.J. (1994). One Land, Two Peoples. University of Kansas Press.
Hughes, T. (2003). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. The British Empire. Online at http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/liverpool.htm .
ICS. (2003). History: The Islamic Revolution of 1979. Iran Chamber Society.
Iran and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
George W. ush has labeled Iran part of the three nations which most threaten United States security as a nation, along with Iraq and North Korea. He based this statement on the premise that these three nations were developing "weapons of mass destruction," specifically, nuclear arms. Iraq, it has already been established, does not have weapons of mass destruction. North Korea might, and is currently in negotiations with neighboring countries to establish a proliferation protocol for their disarmament. This leaves Iran as an unresolved piece of the international security puzzle.
In recent years, the international buzz regarding nuclear weapons has revolved around North Korea and Iran, two nations who are suspected of creating nuclear power plants and who the U.S. is strongly against acquiring nuclear weapons. The U.S., despite controlling the second-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world (10,700 to Russia's 20,000 and…
Bennett, Drake. "Give Nukes A Chance," Boston Globe, March 20, 2005, accessed online at http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2005/03/20/give_nukes_a_chance?pg=full
Cirincione, Joseph with Jon Wolfsthal and Mirian Rajkuman, Deadly Arsenals: Tracking Weapons of Mass Destruction (Washington, D.C.: Carengie Endowment for International Peace, 2002).
Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: Ultimate Security. Eds. Nolan, Janne E., Bernard Finel and Brian Finlay, New York: Century Foundation, 2003
Kaplan, Fred, "Our Hidden WMD Program" published April 23, 2004 in slate.com's military analysis, accessible at http://slate.msn.com/id/2099425/
If it was a little bit of such impact, one could expect it, and discount it as normal aberration, but it is more than just a bit to relate it to forming a united front with other forces" (Ghandichi, 2003).
Thirdly, the opposition is considered to be responsible for the lack of communication with the current administration. Better said, it can be argued that the opposition tries to defy by every means the administration, failing however to put meaning to the allegations they make. In this sense, "unity cannot be achieved with violence and pressure, with incarcerations and long imprisonments, with insults and disrespect toward senior hiite leaders, with threats and intimidations, with shutting down newspapers and with banning the activity of political organizations." (Radio Zamaneh, 2010) at the same time however, the responses of the administration go on the same line, without offering a proper and policy oriented reply.…
Secondly, there is the issue of unity inside the Iranian opposition. Thus, it has been argued that the forces of the opposition fail to consider unifying in a power coalition force that can determine the downfall of the regime. More precisely, the popular belief is that "The reality is that even the smallest united leadership that has been formed in a few instances in the last few months, not only has not been able to get the popular support, but even some of the components of these united fronts have lost some of their constituency because of their participation in these coalitions. If it was a little bit of such impact, one could expect it, and discount it as normal aberration, but it is more than just a bit to relate it to forming a united front with other forces" (Ghandichi, 2003).
Thirdly, the opposition is considered to be responsible for the lack of communication with the current administration. Better said, it can be argued that the opposition tries to defy by every means the administration, failing however to put meaning to the allegations they make. In this sense, "unity cannot be achieved with violence and pressure, with incarcerations and long imprisonments, with insults and disrespect toward senior Shiite leaders, with threats and intimidations, with shutting down newspapers and with banning the activity of political organizations." (Radio Zamaneh, 2010) at the same time however, the responses of the administration go on the same line, without offering a proper and policy oriented reply.
Finally the opposition is not strong because it has constantly reduced the influence on its supporters. Furthermore, it fails to reach out in a positive manner to all those that rallied in the 2008 and 2009 elections. This is largely due to the fact that the Green movement and the political elements it contains do not cater for the needs of the poor or the socially disadvantaged. They do focus on issues such as the religious
While some of the Islamic fundamentalist groups are created to fight for religious purposes, they employ tactics and strategies that make them to be considered as a threat to national security.
This negative perspective of Islam by America has gained momentum in the past few years due to the war on global terrorism. Many nations in the Islamic world have been breeding grounds for terrorists and terrorist groups, which has made them to be the key targets in the war against terrorism. The ush Administration ordered the attack on Iraq not only as part of the war on terror but also to evaluate an idea that had been developing for more than two decades (Milne, 2007, p.667). The main idea behind the war was the consideration of the Middle East as a fertile ground to plant the American way of life.
While it's still one of the major religions…
ALTHAUS, S.L. & LARGIO, D.M., 'When Osama became Saddam: Origins and Consequences
of the Change in America's Public Enemy #1', Political Science and Politics, 37/4 (2004), 795-799
KAR, M., 'Reformist Islam vs. Radical Islam in Iran', the Brookings Project on U.S.
Relations with the Islamic World, [web page] 2010 http://www.brookings.edu /~/media/research/files/papers/2010/11/reformist%20islam%20kar/11_reformist_islam_kar.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The perception that just because a country has nuclear materials they will automatically use them to produce weapons has actually been proven historically false by the past five decades -- despite a growing number of nuclear powers, not one device has fallen into the hands of terrorists or been detonated in anger. Instead, when countries are on a more even playing field, particularly developing countries, the technology to help modernize has the opposite effect -- why would Iran wish to launch a nuclear attack on anyone knowing full well that it would be completely obliterated by a number of surrounding countries?
In addition, despite the United States being the first nuclear power in the 1940s, the reality of globalism shows us that the world is a far different place in the 21st century. Technology has, in fact, brought the world closer, and if the theory of globalism is correct, conflicts…
"Another Drop in Nuclear Generation." 5 May 2010. World Nuclear News.
Churchill, W. "Iron Curtain Speech." 5 March 1946. About.Com- 20th Century History. 2010
Iran Military Assessment
MILITARY OVERVIEW: The Cold War era and the arms race started in that time has made countries aware of the importance of maintaining a reasonable arsenal of weapons, specially attaining independence in manufacturing and assemblage of weapons. Many countries, starting with Korea started focusing on development of a strong defense industrial base. Establishment of this not just allows a country to gain relative independence in manufacturing of military equipment but also provides a means for assessing the capabilities and vulnerabilities. Of the existing Military arsenal. Such an assessment is not only beneficial to the world community for gauging threats posed by different nations but also to the countries politicians and military analysis's for weighing of and enhancement of said capabilities (RAAND document, pg. 136-138).
AT present the Islamic Republic of Iran is making use of the services of its 'regular forces' that is Army, Navy…
Other reasons for the war on Iraq were the weapons of mass destruction that Iraq allegedly possessed, complaints regarding violations of human rights, as well as Saddam Hussein's connection to the Al-Qaeda. Nevertheless, critics of the war have claimed that the oil supply of Iraq was the main reason behind the invasion that took place in 2003.
I think that media coverage of the war in Iraq has the most important role in shaping public perception of the invasion, as well as the reasons behind it. Nonetheless, the fact that U.S. officials have not backed their accusations with solid proof has been a source of dispute over the legitimacy of the war. he degree to which Iraq represented a real terrorist threat to the U.S. And to the world at large is still under debate, but I believe that most pro-war demonstrators have been influenced by biased media reports, and…
The main argument of President Bush upon his decision to invade Iraq was a two-fold theory based on the hypothesis that the war was needed in order to counter-attack the threat of Jihad terrorist acts to the U.S. And that the war would reduce the global number of terrorist acts and terrorists. Despite this motivation provided by the President for the invasion of Iraq, it is also true that no evidence of such a threat has been presented or made available to the general public. Other reasons for the war on Iraq were the weapons of mass destruction that Iraq allegedly possessed, complaints regarding violations of human rights, as well as Saddam Hussein's connection to the Al-Qaeda. Nevertheless, critics of the war have claimed that the oil supply of Iraq was the main reason behind the invasion that took place in 2003.
I think that media coverage of the war in Iraq has the most important role in shaping public perception of the invasion, as well as the reasons behind it. Nonetheless, the fact that U.S. officials have not backed their accusations with solid proof has been a source of dispute over the legitimacy of the war. The degree to which Iraq represented a real terrorist threat to the U.S. And to the world at large is still under debate, but I believe that most pro-war demonstrators have been influenced by biased media reports, and that the pre-emptive nature of the war as a means of avoiding Iraqi terrorist acts has not been confirmed.
U.S. Department of State. Supporting Human Rights and Democracy: The U.S. Record 2003-2004. Middle East and North Africa. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/shrd/2003/31022
Now Iran lived up to their reputation.
3) Tracking the tension between United States and Iran: What are best/worst case scenarios facing the two countries against each other.
The best case scenario between the United States and Iran is that the two countries realized that they have more in common than they are both willing to admit. The two countries can be instrumental in forging peace agreements throughout the Middle East. The Iranian people are well-educated. As the Frontline video points out, more than 70% of the nation is literate and educated. Therefore, the United States could have a major non-Sunni ally in the Middle East and thereby create a viable balance of power between Iran and the Sunni powers.
A middle ground solution is a stalemate, which we are seeing now. The Iranian government is currently going to do whatever is in its best interest, just as the Americans…
Instability in Ian
In talking about the influence that Ian's nuclea pogam has on the oveall stability in the egion of Middle East, it is essential to tell apat between the cycles of time elevant to Ianian quest fo nuclea weapons acquisition as well as the Ianian ealization and application of nuclea weapons systems. Both cycles should be thought about distinctly simply because they ae vey diffeent when it comes to implications fo stability and egional conditions. Ianian quest fo nuclea weapons is eally an undemining aspect in the Middle East since it assists in maintaining the pesent uncetainty element in egional cicumstances caused though the initiation of the 'Wa Against Teo' by the United States which esulted in the emoval of Ian's usual egional counte, Iaq[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Blankfield, J. (2010) Ian's Nuclea Pogamme & Regional Stability. Xiphias Consulting. This bie-ng agues the case that completed Ianian nucleaisation, and…
references one of the U.S., Iran and also the EU-3 and three.) the solidifying of domestic politics in Iran. While developments in 2005 and 2006 recommended a minimum of the erosion from the second obstacle, the path of all major stars has again dwindle compromising since that time. Within this context, skilled diplomacy will need to mix the 3 options and "enrich" all of them with other creative plans, like the installing of multilateral schemes to create and offer fuel for civilian nuclear reactors underneath the charge of the IAEA (as was recommended a few occasions by nuclear experts and much more lately by German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier) (Overhaus, 2007).
Legitimacy Impact towards the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
The worldwide discussion on Iran's nuclear activities shows two deja vu phenomena of structural character. The first is really as old because the atom and also the efforts because the nineteen fifties to attempt an "Atoms for Peace" policy: The atom is really a Janus mind phenomenon - you can use it for civil/peaceful as well as for military reasons. On the other hand, it wouldn't be clearly split up into a civil and military component. Out of this dilemma follow other legal, institutional and political ambivalences. This regards the NPT, the IAEA in addition to all initiatives to advertise using the atomic energy for civil/peaceful reasons on one side and also to halt multiplication of (military) nuclear abilities and weapons however. The 2nd structural phenomenon relates to the political negotiating and compromise natural within the NPT, without which it wouldn't came into being. Article II from the NPT emphasises the pledge of non-nuclear weapon states parties towards the treaty to renounce nuclear weapons and also the activities associated with them. Article IV, however, underscores the "inalienable right' of parties to conduct nuclear-related ativities. The Ultimate Document from the 2000 NPT Review Conference strongly reaffirmed this "inalienable right" (European Parliament Briefing Paper, 2006).
In legal terms, Article IV and it is interpretation may be the focus - and ths issue - from the current worldwide debate, because the precise extent of the right remains undefined. The concern that haunts non-proliferation-minded experts and policymakers alike is the fact that Article IV could be construed especially by ambitious stars regarding give all non-nuclear weapon states the "inalienable right" to build up an entire nuclear fuel cycle for civil/peaceful nuclear activities (Annex II) (European Parliament Briefing Paper, 2006).
North Korea withdrew in the NPT in The month of january 2003, following a three-month notification period and after getting unilaterally removed monitoring equipment utilized by the IAEA. It mentioned that "extraordinary occasions, associated with the topic few this Treaty," had compromised its "supreme interests." The withdrawal "horror scenario" continues to be alluded to through the IAEA Director General ElBaradei regarding Iran. 12 (European Parliament Briefing Paper, 2006)
History of Iran
-History of Iran prior to 1935.
-History of Iran from 1935 until now
Culture of Iran
Economic and Political Factors
-Politics and representation
The country of Iran is perhaps one of the nations least understood by the western world, because it represents the complex mixture of a number of different historical, ideological, and political strains. The country is one of the central actors in the region, and it remains a crucially important player on the international stage even as its government remains particularly reserved from international cooperation and ostracized by a number of other nations. Thus, if one seeks to accurately understand the culture of the Iranian nation, its history, and its potential for the future, one must account for not only Iran's earlier history, but also each of the cultural, economic, religious, and political factors engaged to create the country…
Behdad, S., & Nomani, F. (2009). What a revolution! thirty years of social class reshuffling in iran. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East,29(1), 84-103.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The world factbook. Langley: CIA. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html
Gavin, F. (1999). Politics, power, and u.s. policy in iran, 1950-1953. Journal of Cold War
Studies, 1(1), 56-89.
The causes of political turmoil and instability are always complex. The civil war in Syria, the insurgency of the Islamic State, and strife in Yemen, Bahrain, and other regions of the Middle East are extensions of decades-old, even centuries-old, conflicts between Sunni and Shia. Currently, Iran and Saudi Arabia are engaged in a sort of cold war scenario in which they are using proxies to fight their bigger overarching battles. Saying that the conflict is related to the Sunni-Shia divisions would be oversimplifying the case, although these ideological, cultural, and historical differences are in part to blame for the ongoing violence. As promising as it seemed at first, the Arab Spring ultimately caused uncertainty and instability, leaving power vacuums that Iran and Saudi still attempt to fill. Money, political power, and access to strategic oil reserves are also part of the reason why Iran and Saudi Arabia are fighting their…
Arampatzi, E., Burger, M., Ianchovina, E., et al (2015). Unhappy development. World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/704681468198531465/pdf/WPS7488.pdf
Aras, B. & Yorulmazlar, E. (2017). Mideast geopolitics. Middle East Policy 24(2): pp. 57-69
Hinnebusch, R. (2016). The sectarianization of the Middle East: transnational identity wars and competitive interference \\\\' Project on Middle East Political Science (POMEPS) , vol Studies 21 , pp. 71-75.
Shuster, M. (2007). The origins of the Shiite-Sunni split. NPR. 12 Feb, 2007. https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2007/02/12/7332087/the-origins-of-the-shiite-sunni-split
The war was triggered by the Anglo-Iranian crisis of 1951 to 1953. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company was largely viewed as a colonial influence bent on controlling the host government and enjoying benefits from the hierarchies that resulted from a society that was divided. However, in 1951, led by campaigns championed by Prime Minister then, Mohammad Mossadeq, Iran managed to nationalize its oil resources. Slightly over two years down the line after the nationalization of its oil, the Iranian Premier was deposed (De Seve, 2020).
When the foreign powers failed to destabilize and abdicate, the British tried to dislocate the premier one more time. Following mass protests and a three-day uprising and bloodshed – the Siyer-Tir on July 21, Mohammad Mossadeq, was granted powers to appoint the chiefs of staff and the minister for war. The British noticed a chance to depose the premier from the differences between the…
Marjane understands how fear fuels despotism. Fear prompts people to act in spite of great personal risk or else repress their true will and even sacrifice their integrity. Wise from a young age, Marjane pinpoints the deeper motivations in human nature to either conform or to rebel, understanding systems of political power and the motivations for social movements. Even prior to the Revolution, Persian people experienced systematic oppression through pressures to conform to their traditions. As her father says, “We Iranians, we’re crushed not only by the government but by the weight of our traditions!” (Satrapi, 342). The Revolution brought with it a far more intense mechanism of social and political control than in generations before, though, leading to the internalization of intense fear and also behavioral externalizations of repression and anger. Marjane’s views are often dichotomous, perhaps owing to her youth, and yet she also exhibits a striking mixture…
Satrapi, Marjane. The Complete Persopolis. Pantheon Ebook.
As a report entitled Politicizing the IAEA against Iran states, "….as the latest report indicates, the IAEA is being transformed from an objective international organization to a politicized one to be used by the United States and its allies to advance their agenda regarding Iran's uranium enrichment program."
In the final analysis there are no realistic options to a negotiated settlement of the problem. A solution will require both sides to renew diplomatic efforts in order to overcome their mutual distrust of one another.
liesner D. " A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything? ( 2010)
http://www.stormingmedia.us/22/2224/A222494.html ( Accessed 5 August, 2010).
Crail Peter, "History of Official Proposals on the Iranian Nuclear Issue,"
http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Iran_Nuclear_Proposals (accessed August 4, 2010).
"IAEA: Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007),1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran," http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/IAEA_Report_Iran_18Feb2010.pdf ( Accessed…
Bliesner D. " A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything? ( 2010)
http://www.stormingmedia.us/22/2224/A222494.html ( Accessed 5 August, 2010).
Crail Peter, "History of Official Proposals on the Iranian Nuclear Issue,"
http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Iran_Nuclear_Proposals (accessed August 4, 2010).
One of the last major events of the Cold War in the Americas was the so-called Iran-Contra affair, which occurred under the presidency of Ronald Reagan. My approach to the Iran-Contra affair is to examine the American domestic ideology and strategy which underlay this late, and complicated, episode in the Cold War.
The basic starting point, however, is to look at the investigation of Iran-Contra from the U.S. Senate. When Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North finally did testify in the Senate hearings in 1987, there was a crucial phrase that was used both by North and by the lawmakers who interrogated him. That phrase was "plausible deniability." And indeed "plausible deniability" is my basic subject here.
What is "plausible deniability"? In short, it is the concept that an American President would be able to order some specific action -- possibly military -- in such a way that the President…
But it is also worth noting that the 1970s was a critical period overall in the Cold War. This decade is what is usually referred to as "detente" -- the moment in time when Presidents both Republican and Democrat (Nixon, Ford and Carter) softened their hard-line stance against the Soviet Union, and instead tried to find a policy of peaceful coexistence. Detente led to several arms treaties, normalization of relations with China.
However, Ronald Reagan had always been opposed to detente. And when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, this made Reagan's hard-line stance more plausible. Reagan took office and reversed the ideological course of the Cold War. As a result, Reagan became personally obsessed with the possible "domino theory" effects of a democratically-elected Communist regime in Nicaragua. Reagan urged support for the insurgent forces in Nicaragua, known as the Contras, despite their rather horrifying record of torturing, raping and murdering civilians. A domestic standoff ensued where Congress refused to offer funding and military assistance to the Nicaraguan Contras, and as a result senior Reagan officials -- including Colonel North -- conspired to raise the funding through secret weapons sales to Iran. When this plot was discovered, the chief question was whether Reagan himself knew of the plot. As a result, ten years after the terminology was first revealed to the public, "plausible deniability" became a subject of public conversation in America again.
The primary sources for my investigation are mostly public documents. I examined statements made in the hearings of the Church Committee in the 1970s when "plausible
In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. he outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.
Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is…
The concept of the Global Village can only be made manifest with the infrastructure and policies that promote information technology in the classroom. Information technologies, especially access to the Internet, promote the Global Village in real and tangible ways. Students accessing the global wealth of knowledge will be able to think more critically about the concepts, facts, and ideas they assimilate in the classroom. In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. The outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.
Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is not power itself that is the problem but the ramifications of that power. Students are powerless in the classroom to guide and direct their own learning, when they do not have access to the Internet and other crucial types of information technologies. It will be impossible for Persian students to achieve high levels of social, economic, and academic success without having the same access to technologies that their counterparts in Europe and North America do. For this reason, an exploration of the specific features needed to revolutionize the Iranian education system is fruitful.
Jacques Derrida proposed an educational system that is firmly rooted in ethical responsibility. Education, like other social institutions, should be responsible to the needs of the people. Ideally, education improves society so that future generations are better off and so that the society as a whole prospers. Based on the critique of power that Foucault provides in his writings, and on the reminder that ethics are needed in modern schools, educators can develop a core set of ideals, goals, and tools. This research is based on the philosophies of Foucault, Derrida, Farmahini, Jiroux. Building on core educational philosophies and sociologies, this research will help to elucidate what educators need in order to perform their ethical duties to students. It is important to explore and to clarify the philosophical underpinnings of any change, especially change as dramatic as revamping the Iranian educational system. It is not enough to talk about what technologies are needed in the classroom. It is also important to speak of the principles upon which those technologies are based, and how those technologies serve students. Technology is not
One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."
Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.
In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…
Editors. Q&a: Iran and the Nuclear Issue. BBC News. 3 Dec. 2007. Newspaper online. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4031603.stm .Internet. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.
Sadjadpour, Karim. "The Nuclear Players." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 125+.
Sagan, Scott, Kenneth Waltz, and Richard K. Betts. "A Nuclear Iran: Promoting Stability or Courting Disaster?" Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 135+.
Schake, Kori. "Dealing with a Nuclear Iran." Policy Review, no. 142 (2007): 3+.
The advocator of the Iran Democracy Act incorporates the Iranian Monarchist groups, The American Israeli Public Affairs Committee -- AIPAC, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs -- JINSA.
It also includes the well established organizations that may get sanctions under the Bill such as Coalition for Democracy in Iran -- CDI- which was formed by Morris Amitay of JINSA, ob Sobhani, President of Caspian Energy Consulting and Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute who were recognized as the staunch supporters of the change in the rule of Iran. Moreover, the advocators also put forth that the previous U.S. funding of opposition groups in other countries was important to promotion of democracy in such countries and Iran cannot be an exception to this. This necessitates the U.S. To include human rights and democracy on its agenda in respect of Iran. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with…
Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran. 24 January, 2001.
Retrieved from http://www.payvand.com/news/01/jan/1144.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Chomsky, Noam. Promoting democracy in Middle East. Khaleej Times. 4 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/opinion/2005/March/opinion_March6.xml& ; section=opinion& col= Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Kazemzadeh, Masoud. Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran. The Iranian. 30
Contemporary Biotechnology has produced considerable contribution to the global farming and health sector. Advancement of several medicines, numerous pharmaceuticals, vaccines making use of recombinant DNA technology has made biotechnology a multibillion dollar global industry. Additionally, PCR centered diagnostics has additionally materialized as a crucial element of the health industry. Because vast majority of the Islamic nations have their economies centered on farming, biotechnology has therefore enormous potential to improve efficiency. The need of meals in Islamic nations over the last 2 decades is predicted to improve by nearly half. That boost is going to have to come via changes in agricultural efficiency in marginal, fertile, salt affected as well as rainfed areas. There will probably be much less workforce, arable land and water offered to the agriculture sector. This particular scenario is actually a consequence of reduced rural populace, poor management of water reserves and supplies, environmental degradation…
Iran-Contra Affair. Specifically, it will discuss what the Iran-Contra Affairs were, how they developed, how they were discovered, the Congressional hearings, and the aftermath of the affairs. The Iran-Contra Affair was really a series of covert operations initiated by the Reagan administration and carried out first by the CIA and then the NSC. These affairs were investigated by Congressional committees after they became public, and were as detrimental to the government as the Watergate affair, because they subverted the Congress and the Constitution.
THE IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR
In reality, there was more than one Iran-Contra Affair, but the entire turn of events has become known as simply the "Iran-Contra Affair." In fact, the scandal surrounding the arms deal to Iran, and to the Central American contras were many different undercover operations, led by a variety of members of the National Security Staff. The first event to take place in the affairs…
Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. New York: Hill and Wang, 1991.
Editors. "Iran-Contra Affair." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
Kornbluh, Peter, and Malcolm Byrne. "Iran-Contra: a Postmortem." NACLA Report on the Americas XXVII.3 (1993): 29-34.
Lynch, Michael, and David Bogen. The Spectacle of History: Speech, Text, and Memory at the Iran-Contra Hearings. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996.
U.S. War on Iraq and Iran
Aftermath of the U.S. War against Iraq: Its effects on U.S.-Iran Relations
ollowing the aftermath of the recent war against Iraq, the United States government has been pushing forward in building its program for a free and democratic Middle East region. However, despite its "idealistic" program, the U.S. government faces a lot of criticism from Middle Eastern countries, particularly Iran, a country that had been least receptive of the success of U.S. In Gulf War II (U.S.-Iraq War). This month, with U.S. facing great pressure from countries all over the world because of the absence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq, it is facing another antagonist to its efforts in "liberating" Middle East. This is through Iran, which has reportedly been manufacturing nuclear weapons. This makes Iran another "Iraq" in the making, defying UN inspections and international law in limiting and preventing…
Following the aftermath of the recent war against Iraq, the United States government has been pushing forward in building its program for a free and democratic Middle East region. However, despite its "idealistic" program, the U.S. government faces a lot of criticism from Middle Eastern countries, particularly Iran, a country that had been least receptive of the success of U.S. In Gulf War II (U.S.-Iraq War). This month, with U.S. facing great pressure from countries all over the world because of the absence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq, it is facing another antagonist to its efforts in "liberating" Middle East. This is through Iran, which has reportedly been manufacturing nuclear weapons. This makes Iran another "Iraq" in the making, defying UN inspections and international law in limiting and preventing it from manufacturing weapons of mass destruction, of which nuclear weapons are just one of its kinds. In an article by Joseph Treaster last September 30 in The New York Times entitled, "Powell tells Arab-Americans of Hopes to Develop Mideast," Treaster reports on U.S. plans to further expand on its program for the Middle Eastern region, particularly in dealing with social, political, and economic problems in Iraq, as well as dealing with the continuing conflict of Palestine and Israel over land territories. However, another important topic discussed in this article is how Iran looms as a possible threat to U.S. security (as well as international security) because of its possible production of nuclear weapons, which the Iran government has been vehemently denying of having ("International Atomic Energy Agency has given Iran a deadline of Oct. 31 to prove it is not using a nuclear power plant to enrich uranium for weapons"). Thus, what resulted after the U.S.-Iraq war are the deteriorating relations U.S. have among Middle Eastern countries, particularly countries hostile to democracy and the U.S., not to mention the poor living conditions Iraqis are in right after the war.
Treaster, J. "Powell tells Arab-Americans of Hopes to Develop Mideast." 30 September 2003. The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com /2003/09/30/international/middleeast/30ARAB.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
nuclear deal with Iran. A tentative agreement has recently been signed, and the final details need to be worked out by the end of June. The parties at the negotiating table have an interest in a negotiated agreement, even if some other stakeholders do not. Given that, while there still risks that the deal may be scuttled or delayed, in all likelihood the deal will pass. The trade-off for the U.S. will be that it gets some certainty with respect to the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for allowing Iran to have a civilian nuclear program for power generation, subject to strict controls. The paper analyzes the other options on the table and explains why a negotiated agreement with Iran is superior to the other potential alternatives that are available.
At the time of writing, Iran is engaged in talks with the United States and several other stakeholder nations…
ADL (2015). The Iranian nuclear deal: Why it matters. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.adl.org/israel-international/iran/c/the-iranian-nuclear-threat-why-it-matters.html
Al-Ghoul, A. (2013). Hamas mixed on Iran nuclear deal. Uruknet.info. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.uruknet.info/?p=m102915
Al Jazeera (2015). Why Saudi Arabia and Israel oppose Iran nuclear deal. Al Jazeera Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/04/saudi-arabia-israel-oppose-iran-nuclear-deal-150401061906177.html
Anishchuk, A. (2013). Iran's Rouhani says wants nuclear issue resolved, but draws lines. Reuters. Retrieved April 23, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/09/13/us-nuclear-iran-rouhani-idUSBRE98C0EQ20130913
Democracy in Iran
As pro-democracy movements spread across a huge segment of the Muslim world in the spring and early summer of 2011, there was a tremendous amount of speculation that Iran would be the next totalitarian regime to join the world's democracies. However, this speculation seems to have been premature. Instead, Iran's response to pro-democracy movements in the country has solidified the notion that Iran will never achieve a democracy. First, the basic stagnancy in Iran's political debate suggests an unwillingness to move towards democracy. Second, Iran continues to suggest that its current regime is in line with Muslim awakenings around the world, which reveals the depth of the government's commitment to its current regime.
Third, the current government's brutality is not conducive to the type of organization that results in democracy. While some people believe that the social changes occurring in Iran mean that it is likely to…
Baghi, E. (2004). Hope for democracy in Iran. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The
Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59941-2004Oct24.html
Gheissari, A. & Nasr, V. (2006). Democracy in Iran: History and the quest for liberty. New York: Oxford University Press.
Molavi, A. (2011, April 6). Invoking the Arab Spring, Iran rewrites its own history. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The National website: http://www.thenational.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/invoking-the-arab-spring-iran-rewrites-its-own-history
U.S. Intervention in Middle East Conflicts:
The relations between Iran and Iraq were hugely affected by Islamic Revolution as Iraq's president was worried that the emerging Shi'a regime in Iran would provoke uprisings in Iraq. Actually, Iraq became increasingly worried that the Islamic Revolution that emerged in Iran could spread to the country and topple the existing regime while replacing it with a theocracy. As Iraq's president was concerned that the Algiers Accord would be dismantled and not followed or obeyed because of the new Islamic Republic, he regarded this as a serious threat to the country's borders and sovereignty. Iraq became a more populist country several years before the emergence of the Islamic Revolution as the doors to trade liberalization were opened in the country. A war against Iran was considered as a suitable option by Saddam Hussein, Iraq's president, to build nationalist sentiments and spirit and…
Becker, Brian, "U.S. Conspiracy to Initiate the War Against Iraq," The Commission of Inquiry
for the International War Crimes Tribunal, last modified May 11, 1991, http://deoxy.org/wc/wc-consp.htm
Jacek, Brian, "U.S. Role in the Iran-Iraq War and its Negative Implications on U.S.-Iran
Relations," Kulna: For All of Us, last modified March 23, 2011, http://kulna.wordpress.com/2011/03/23/us-role-in-the-iran-iraq-war-and-its-negative-implications-on-us-iran-relations/
Children of Heaven
One of the defining elements of Children of Heaven is the bond between siblings. Ali and Zahara are close enough in age to form a strong relationship that allows them to address the multifaceted problem of the missing shoes. The problem is multifaceted because they know their parents cannot afford new shoes, and to lose her shoes would hurt the parents' pride. Zahara and Ali work together, rather than fighting each other, which is remarkable aspect of their young personalities. Many siblings never would have worked together in this way. Instead of telling the parents what happened, Zahara works with Ali because she trusts him. Ultimately, they succeed in hiding the truth from their parents even if it makes their lives at school difficult. The missing shoes motivate both Ali and Zahara to think creatively throughout the film. First they decide to share the same pair of…
2. Zahara's first reaction to the missing shoes is touching. She could have immediately told on Ali, and she even threatens to do so unless Ali can come up with a creative solution. As they pass notes together on the floor, the father looks on suspiciously. The children create their own pact, separate from their parents. Using the clever method of note writing, they conspire to share shoes. Zahara is not completely happy with the solution, but she trusts her brother. Ali feels terrible that he lost the shoes and is willing to do what it takes to make up for the error. They understand together that it would not solve anything to tell their parents. The shoes are already lost, and they need to come up with a solution that will prevent them from getting into more trouble. This scene has an emotional impact on me in the tender way the brother and sister learn to bond in a time of need.
3. There are several elements that make it possible to compare Children of Heaven to The Bicycle Thief. For one, a bicycle features at the end of Children of Heaven as it carries a pair of pink shoes. This could even be a deliberate and conscious allusion to 1948 The Bicycle Thief on the part of the filmmakers given the movies share much in common. Elements that the two films share in common include featuring a poor family at the center of the story; the use of creative thinking to solve real world problems; and the theme of personal pride especially as it relates to masculinity. Both Antonio and Ali share in common a desire to redeem their poverty as a matter of personal pride. They understand the need to break some social rules and norms in order to help those they love.
4. Children of Heaven is unique in that it offers insight into the daily lives of Iranians. The pacing of the film is good, and aesthetically, the film presents Tehran in a way that focuses on its people. Two children are the protagonists of the film, but the film is written for everyone. Likewise, the movie takes place in Iran but the themes are universal in scope. Ali and Zahara work together; they do not want to hurt their parents who cannot afford new shoes. The film is heartfelt, heartwarming, and touching. Scenes that reveal the tender bond between two young siblings show how emotional ties transcend the petty problems that poverty presents. Anyone curious about Persian society should watch Children of Heaven. However, the film does transcend its cultural and historical context because it shows how people work together to collaborate creatively on common goals.
Sanctions in the OPEC World
What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…
Aghazadeh, Mahdieh. 'A Historical Overview of Sanctions on Iran and Iran's Nuclear Program. Journal of Academic Studies. Vol. 56, 137-160, 2013.
Berliner, Uri. 'Crippled By Sanctions, Iran's Economy Key In Nuclear Deal." NPR. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.npr.org . 2013.
Byman, Daniel L. 'Iran's Support for Terrorism in the Middle East.' Brookings. Recovered November 25, 2015, from http://www.brookings.edu . 2013.
Farshneshani, Beheshteh. 'In Iran, Sanctions Hurt the Wrong People.' The New York Times. Recovered November 26, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2014.
POLITICAL OVERVIEW: The former Persia became present day Iran on April 1st 1979 Before that Persia was a Monarchy and its last ruler was Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi He lost favor with the people and the religious clerics of the country The clerics chose to exile Pahlavi and establish a theocracy Theocracy refers to a government type where majority of decision making and political power is in the hands of a religious leader, in other words a country that adopts religious law as its legal system
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a Conservative cleric took over the reins of the nation
The government structure is complicated as its Parliament is a mixed bag of elected and unelected members At the top of the hierarchy is the 'Supreme Leader' military, judiciary and foreign policy fall under his command An interesting aspect of Iranian government is the amount of accountability attached to federal…
. Protests against the government continue and the government keeps arresting activists, rebels and revolutionaries, in an effort to stamp the desire for reform out of the masses
. Ahmadi-Nejad and his people are the Neoconservationists and his era is known as the third revolution in Iran. While Khatami and his followers were intellectuals, he and his people are religious and idealistic. It seems that he knows better than Khatami, how to please the public (Ehteshami, A & Zweiri, M, 2007).
NATIONAL GOALS: The country has become synonymous
Iran Societal Assessment
The RAND document shows that a powerful country is one that is able to take decisions that make it economically productive for many years to come And to gain this productivity the country requires a combination of state and societal strength
Hence this shows the significance of the societal aspect of any country's power in the world
SOCIETAL OVERVIEW: the Iranian population is one of the most rapidly increasing populations At the start of the twentieth century Iranian population was estimated to be around 5 million but the actual numbers showed a figure of 10 million, twice the projected size Each consecutive census shows that this fast paced trend has since continued on its path as it is By 1956 had seen an increase of approximately 9 million while in the next 3 decades the population rise was around 16 million This humungous increase was…
. Unlike Pakistan, where ethnic groups are close in quantity and group loyalty has made it difficult for the people to unite, Iran does not have that issue. Its dominant force is the Shia population that is in control of every administrative department. It was religious unity that had provided support to the two revolutions that have shaped the country's history and its current political system. The overwhelming support that Ayatollah Khomeini got in 1979, to bring about the revolution, characterizes the revolution as 'a society vs. state' conflict. All factions of society had some conflict with the existing government: the farmers were saddened over the monetary losses they had faced; the Ulema (cleric) felt the state was alienated from religion, hence rather unreligious in approach. Lastly, the general public was desirous of more freedom. Therefore all of them united to prepare demonstrations and get rid of the rulers. However, the resultant political form has also failed to satisfy the masses. Writer Farideh Farhi, in her book 'Crafting a National Identity Amidst Contentious Politics in Contemporary Iran,' talks about how the people of Iran are now faced with an identity crisis that has them confused and continuously in search of a religious philosophy that would bring them mental and social peace. They have lost faith in the government and their religious reforms
. The two issues of relationships with U.S. And the nuclear program are great burdens on the public's mind and they have adopted a more modern outlook to life than the government would allow. If the 2009 protests are any indication the people are running out of patience with government and their reforms.
Enterprise: Education is the key to a successful, happy life and a nation's children are its future. If they are not well educated, the society can be expected to be illiterate and inefficient and the nation's economic, social and political demise becomes imminent. Education paves the way towards economic and social progress. Iran has gone through immense development in this sector after the revolution. In the 10 years starting from 1988 overall adult literacy rate rose from 57.1 to 74.5%. The post revolution government understood the value of education and made acquisition of it easier for the public. That is why the average enrolment rate also rose by 10%, from 65.6 to 75. The government enforced laws that made education an absolutely necessity for higher education and employment. However,
Iran and Iraq
Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq
The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.
The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…
Butch, T. (2015). Why China will intervene in Iraq. Asia Times. Retrieved May11, 2016 from http://atimes.com/2015/09/why-china-will-intervene-in-iraq/
CIA World Factbook (2016). People's Republic of China. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
Dawson, J. (2014). Why Britain created monarchies in the Middle East. New Statesman. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2014/08/why-britain-created-monarchies-middle-east
Dehghan, S. & Taylor, R. (2013). CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup. The Guardian. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.theguardian.com /world/2013/aug/19/cia-admits-role-1953-iranian-coup
Oliver North, Ronald Reagan, and "Plausible Deniability."
This paper will attempt to contextualize Oliver North and the Iran-Contra Affair within a larger discussion of Cold War strategy.
The introduction will present the paper as having basic sections. The first will discuss the idea of "plausible deniability" -- invoked by North during his 1987 testimony -- and show how it fit into Cold War strategy in the 1950s. The second section will discuss Reagan's own Cold War strategy, and his reversal of the 1970s policy of detente -- this will also necessarily entail Reagan's interest in supporting the Nicaraguan Contras, and Reagan's first-term standoff with Congress over funding the Contras (leading to the passage of the Boland Amendment for three consecutive years, 1982-1984). The third section will show how North revived the notion of "plausible deniability" after it had been disavowed in the 1970s, and will demonstrate that this…
3B. Congressional opposition. Focuses on Congress' opposition to Reagan's support for the Contras, the passage of the Boland Amendment(s), and the general context whereby Oliver North would implement the "plausible deniability" strategy that enabled Iran-Contra.
PART 3. Oliver North and Iran-Contra. This ties together the previous two sections of the paper, by explaining North's actions in terms of a pre-1969 Cold War mentality and policy that had been revived by Reagan.
S. foreign policy. Under this new approach, Carter would directly meet with only government officials that had favorable human rights records. The problem was that the United States' relationship with the Shah was the key for maintaining control in the region. This meant that he had to make official trips to the country, even though he did not support this policy.
As a result, Carter was indirectly endorsing activities of the Shah and the underlying amounts of brutality he was using to maintain power. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below table, which is illustrating the total amounts of abuse and torture that were conducted by the SAVAK
The Total Amounts of rutality of the SAVAK
Death Related to SAVAK activities
These different elements are important, because they are showing how U.S. foreign policy changed when it came to…
"The 1953 Coup." 2011, U Toronto. http://iran.sa.utoronto.ca/coup/web_files/markcoup.html (accessed December 5, 2011)
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Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism
Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.
At this point, however, the match…
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/09/20/rivals-iran-vs.-saudi-arabia/56t9 .
Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/07/02/iran-s-great-game.html
Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from http://www.uni-muenster.de/Politikwissenschaft/Doppeldiplom/docs/IIR.pdf .
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
China's Interests in Iran
The following hite Paper is an examination of the prospects and pitfalls for China in pursuing further economic opportunity through its investment in the future of Iran. As the two nations proceed with the explicit intention of further entwining prospects both economically and diplomatically, China must move forward with care and precision. As the discussion here will demonstrate, its opportunities and the level of commitment already pursued are quite ample, but it will also be necessary for China to take a more active role in helping to reign in some of Iran's behavioral excesses if it is to enjoy the benefits of this relationship. And quite to the point, it will also appear to be in the best interests of Iran to accommodate calls for a more moderate disposition in world affairs if it is to benefit from the opportunities presented by China. The mutuality of…
China Knowledge Online (CKO). (2009). Iran, China to strengthen energy cooperation. China Newswires.
Daraghi, B. (2009). Iran signs $3.2-billion natural gas deal with China. Los Angeles Times. Online at http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fg-iran-china15-2009mar15,0,4516210.story?track=rss
Hiro, D. (2005). Iran's Nuclear Ambitions. The Nation. Online at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20050912/hiro
ICS. (2003). History: The Islamic Revolution of 1979. Iran Chamber Society. Online at http://www.iranchamber.com/history/islamic_revolution/islamic_revolution.php
The American ambassador to the United Nations under the former President George W. us, ZalmayKhalilzad said that the threat perception on the issue of Iran's nuclear program of Washington is not the same as that of eijing. He also tried to persuade China for the approval of these sanctions against Iran; however, he said that the Chinese government does not see Iran as the same as America. On the other hand, the president of the Asia Center based in Paris and a prominent Chinese scholar, Francois Godement said that the success of Iran is good news for China.
To be certain, United States and China are the leading members of the panel of nuclear nations, and therefore they share common practical interest in the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons in sensitive areas like the Middle East. On the other hand, it is also in the interest of China…
China, U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Delpech, Therese. Iran and the Bomb: The Abdication of International Responsibility. Columbia University Press, 2006.
Dorraj, Manochehr & Currier, Carrie L. "Lubricated with Oil: Iran-China Relations in a Changing World" Middle East Policy, 2008.
Downs, Erica&Moloney, Suzanne Moloney."Getting China to Sanction Iran" Foreign Affairs, 2011.
Persia became Iran
Iran, which is the name nowadays for its country, was formerly known as Persia. The two identities of present day Iran is associated both to the peak of power of pre-Islamic, Achaemenid Persia, as also to its Islamic origin situated both in the 7th century start of Islam in Iran via Arab invasion, and to its 16th century when Shiite Islam formally turned out the state religion of Iran. The country has always been acknowledged among its own people as Iran (land of the Aryans); even though for centuries it was pinpointed to as Persia (Pars or Fars, a provincial state in southern Iran) by the Europeans, mainly because of the writings of Greek historians. In 1935 the government mentioned that it should be called Iran, although in 1949 allowances were made for both names to be implemented. Persia turned out a powerful empire under the Cyrus…
Gold Coins of Persia: A Brief History of Persia" (n.d) Retrieved at http://www.taxfreegold.co.uk/persia.html . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Iran or Persia." (2003) Retrieved at http://www.sanibrite.ca/iran/page10.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Mackey, Sandra. "The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation" (1996) Plume: New York, p.5
Yarshater, Ehsan. "Persia or Iran? When Persia Became Iran" (n.d) Retrieved from Iranian Studies, Vol. XXII, No.1, 1989. Accessed on 12/08/2003
preemptive force in Iran after the event of eptember 11. It has 11 sources.
Though the United tates would have to bear the economic repercussions of pursuing another invasion, a preemptive effort in Iran would be in their best interest if they endeavor to rid the world of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction.
In recent times there have been great concerns over countries that possess weapons capable of mass destruction. Particular concern has been prompted over countries that hold grudges against the United tates. This is because of the fact that in recent times the United tates has fallen prey to such countries. Countries in the past that had been considered a threat to western interests have in recent times proven to be dangerous. Examples of these are countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq. In the past they warned and threatened the United tates that they would have damnation…
Decade of Deception and Defiance; Saddam Hussein's Defiance of the United Nations," The White House, September 12, 2002, 21 pp.
Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction," The Assessment of the British Government, September 24, 2002, 50 pp.
Russia's Risky Iran Connection," The New York Times, June 10, 2002, p. A24.
Chubin, Shahram and Robert S. Litwak. "Debating Iran's Nuclear Aspirations," The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2003, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 99-114.
This is when the available supply will address demand.
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Bakar, a, 2010, 'Causes of Delays in Iranian Construction,' International Journal…
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The lasting legacy of the Iran hostage crisis is that the American public and government developed an attitude that the Iran people and government were a group of evil and crazy individuals who lacked the capacity to negotiate. This attitude caused a breakdown in negotiations at the time of the hostage crisis and has continued to the present day. Americans, as a rule, still fail to recognize that the Iranian people have legitimate concerns and that these legitimate concerns have value. Over the decades since the hostage crisis there has been little movement forward in regard to how Americans view Iran and the level of animosity between the two nations remains high. Farber suggests that this level of animosity helped to ensure that America's relations with the Muslim world would remain contentious and that such contentiousness led to the attacks of September 11 that resulted in the escalation of the…
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
Iranian hostage and Jimmy Carter
Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)
It should be pointed out, however, that many of these issues exist for women in developed countries such as the United States.
Voices from Iran, however, also looks at aspects of Iranian women's power and influence, an issue that often receives little notice with Western scholars and activists. Iranian wives, the interviewees point out, possess a great influence over their husbands, giving them great power within their families. Among younger generations, women have made strides towards amassing greater social capital, through institutions such as education.
More than fifty percent of new college admissions, for example, are female students. After the Islamic Revolution (1978-1979), and the following war with Iraq, female college graduates began to enter emerging businesses and industries. Many women, for example, enter the publishing industry, open private medical clinics or enter artistic fields such as film. Younger women have turned to writing and graphic design. This influx has…
This does not build trust" (Dupre, 2007).
Tehran's main revenue still comes from oil, and a realist would suggest hitting Iran where it could 'hurt' it, economically. This would mean threatening to isolate Iran from the international community by seeking other sources of oil on the part of the United States, unless Iran abides by the non-proliferation treaty, and that the U.S. should pressure Iran's major oil 'clients' to find other sources, with incentive packages offered to those states, such as India. Ultimately, "Iranian authorities know that there is no other alternative than Iran's integration in the international society and becoming a key constructive player in the region," and that it cannot become a rogue state like North Korea because it is dependant upon the commerce of oil with other nations (Dupre, 2007). Other nations that might be damaged by its nuclear capacity with economic and political leverage must capitalize…
Dupre, Bruno. "Iran Nuclear Crisis: The Right Approach." Carnegie Endowment for Peace. Feb 2007. [11 Feb 2007] http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=print&id=19002
Idealism." IR Theory. [11 Feb 2007]
That same statute requires the Secretary of State to notify certain members of her Senate before making the designation, but she need not notify the groups in question. If complaint were to ensue, the designated groups can file a petition within 30 days, but the court can review only the administrative record that the Secretary has assembled, although the Government may also submit classified information that was used to make the judgment.
This particular case was based on the precedent of a previous one (Anti-Fascist refuge Committee v. McGrath (1951)), where the Attorney General designated certain organizations as Communist, and the appellants appealed on the grounds that the Fifth Amendment required the government to warn the organizations in question before publicly condemning them. Differences between that case and this included the fact that they were a domestic institution and not foreign. More so, examining the first two clauses, "foreign" and…
People's Moujahedin Organization of Iran v. United States Department of State
(182 F.3d 17) (D.C. Cir. 1999). Retrieved on 11/20/2011 from:
In addition, he said there could be protocolsfor intrusive monitoring" (Isaacson 2007).
In the scenario of international pressure coupled with domestic forces that do not favor UN sanctions and economic hardships, some believe that Iran would agree to a plicy that only supports uranium enrichment for civilian energy production. The trouble on the other hand is U.S. stance that doubts that Iran would stick to a civilan program and would not use it for its weapons program. The Iran's stance from its weapons program to civilan prgram could be considered a compromise but how far is U.S. willing to go to accept Iran's situation remains to be seen. U.S. is already entagled in Iraq and pursuing a war in Iran does not seem to be a viable option. Mid term results in U.S. have also caused a blow in the Bush administration's position. The threats of sanctions and diplomatic…
Isaacson, W. March 2007. An offer on the Table.Time. 169(11):31
Macleod, S. March 2007. Iran's War Within. Time. 169(11):28
Hirsh, M. & Bihari, M. February 2007. Rumors of War. Newsweek.
Adas, J. April 2002. Revisiting U.S.-Iran Relations. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 21(3): 90
The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid on Iran
Prior to 9/11 and the invasion of the Middle East by the U.S., the countries in this region, from Afghanistan to Pakistan to Iraq, Egypt and Libya, had used foreign aid and investment to stabilize their governments and build up their economies. In the wake of 9/11 and with the threat of war and revolution, upheavals have occurred, governments have been toppled, and societies have been decimated. As Scott and Carter (2015) point out, “no region in the world has received more US foreign aid than the Middle East” (p. 740). Following 9/11, however, that foreign aid was coupled with invasion and investment became almost impossible. For one country in particular, Iran, which has stood relatively outside the continuing wars (aside from intervening with Russia in Syria to fight back against ISIS), the effects of war and peace on foreign aid…
In order to understand the position of women in Iran as far as their roles, rights and empowerment is concerned, it is significant to understand the wider picture of the prevailing condition in the Middle East and the contrast that there is in the West. These two represent different polarities in the context of culture, perspective on women, roles assigned, rights granted and the positions that women hold in these two societies. There is a still not an in depth understanding of the lives of women in the Middle East and the roles that they are meant to play. In majority of the societies therein, women are hardly seen carrying out any meaningful role, let alone being heard. They are assigned a background role in this Muslim world and the persistent stereotypes and judgments about the social practices form a single dimensional depiction of women that rarely reflects the real…
United States policy towards the Iran's nuclear program has been complicated by a variety of issues. Some of these issues include Iran's alleged sponsorship of terrorism, regional stability, hostility towards U.S. allies, and the complication of the peace process between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. The United States' approach in policy toward Iran's nuclear program has changed very little from the Bush administration to the current Obama Administration. A writer for time magazine cleverly stated, in regard to the United States' approach to Iran's nuclear program that Obama taking over the presidency "is more like taking over the controls of a train than getting behind the wheel of a car" (T. Karon). This analogy is appropriate because Obama's administration is following the foundation laid by the Bush Administration.
Both the Obama and Bush administrations recognized the potential global and regional danger that could surfaces as a result of…
Katzman, K. (2008). Iran: U.S. concerns and policy responses. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Obama's Foreign Policy Similar to Bush's at End of 2009 - TIME. (n.d.). Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1950827,00.html
Renshon, S.A. (2009). National Security in the Obama Administration: Reassessing the Bush doctrine.. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.
Us Diplomacy With Iran - Clinton says U.S. diplomacy unlikely to end Iran nuclear program - Los Angeles Times. (n.d.). Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/03/world/fg-clinton3
" (Beeman 2005, p.6)
In addition to the way they saw the "other" was the manner in which they saw themselves and their action. The creation of correctness of their action complemented the myth of the evil inherent in the action of the other state. The actions that they engage in are considered as not simply retaliation but also as deserved retaliation. The success of these actions, like the revolution of 1978 was demonstrable evidence that this estern behemoth could be brought to heel. This allowed them to expand their ideology as liberators not only of their own people but also of all peoples who are victims of the est.
Both nations employ highly colorful and inflammatory language as part of the demonization strategy. Political leaders and religious leaders employ motifs out of the religious discourse designed to convey the message that each group is inherently evil. The use of…
Beeman, William. O. The Great Satan vs. The Mad Mullahs: How the United States
and Iran Demonize Each Other. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Wright, Robin, and Bakhash, S. The U.S. And Iran: An offer they can't refuse? Foreign
Policy 108, (1997): 24-137.
When we think of warfare and terrorist attacks, we tend to think of large destructive pieces of machinery -- nuclear missiles and/or bombs, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and even the still-too-recent memory of massive airplanes being turned from passenger vehicles into weapons. Not all forces of mass death and destruction come in large packages, however. In the years following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, several small, standard envelopes were also used in an attempt at terrorist action. Though these attempts were not successful, they highlight an important part of the battle against terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. Biological agents can be delivered in small and hard to catch ways -- via the U.S. mail in what appear to be normal envelopes, for instance -- and if the agent is contagious enough the effects of biological warfare can be completely devastating and almost impossible to control.…
Turkey and Iran
In the early 1920s both Turkey and Iran found themselves in an identity crisis. Formerly famous for their respective empires that were now crumbling, they found themselves in need of resurgence after the previous institutions of government had failed them. Mustafa Kemal (1923) or Ataturk, which means father of Turks, and Reza Shah (1925) came to power and contributed to the formation of the modern day national identity. They are both celebrated leaders who generated the feelings of nationalism and brought their people together to acknowledge and be proud of their national identity.
It was a revolutionary time for the Turks and Ataturk was determined to bring the nation from a "backward" land (compared to the developed est) to a more "respectable" nation of sophisticated and progressive ideals and culture. As a true nationalist he aimed to create a homogeneous, ethnically Turkish state. Likewise in Iran, the…
Cook, Steven A. "How happy is the one who says, I am a Turk,'" Foreign Policy, March
28, 2016. Web.
Fradkin, Hillel; Lewis Libby. "Erdogan's Grand Vision: Rise and Decline," World
Affairs, March/April 2013 File
characteristic features of the Basseri of Iran. Its first part will identify and classify "pastoralism" as the Basseri culture's primary mode of subsistence. He second part will show that "tribal chiefship" is underlies the organization of the Basseri society. Furthermore it will show that agriculture and trading determine the Basseri economic organization. Finally, as regards to gender relations, the paper will point out that the importance of the male contribution to subsistence in sheep herding leads to an emphasis on male social roles and patrilineality
Identify and classify the selected culture's primary mode of subsistence
The Basseri are a prime example of a pastoral tribe that is not self-sufficient (Pastoralism, p. 2). They are a tribe of nomads who inhabit the Iranian province of Fars and migrate along the steppes and mountains near the town of Shiraz (Johnson (1996), p. 1). In general, societies specializing in animal husbandry requiring periodic…
Barfield, T. (1984). Nomads: Stopped in their tracks? 1-5. Accessed 2 October 2011.Cached -- Similar
Basseri. 1-3. Accessed 2 October 2011.
longstanding territorial disputes between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Iran, regarding three islands in the Persian Gulf. The first dispute is with respect to the island of Abu Musa, which is claimed by Sharjah. The other is with respect to Greater Tunbs and Lesser Tunbs, both of which are claimed by as al-Khaimah. All three are presently viewed by the international community as territory of Iran. The issue dates back to the formation of the UAE. The former colonial power, the United Kingdom, transferred the islands to Iran at this time, in 1971, ostensibly in exchange for Iran dropping its claim to Bahrain. This paper looks at the dispute between the UAE and Iran over these islands, both in its historical context and in terms of its modern manifestations.
The dispute over the status of Abu Musa pre-dates the formation of the UAE. The island was under…
American.edu (no date) Abu Musa. American University. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://www1.american.edu/ted/abumusa.htm
FAs.org (2000) Abu Musa island. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://fas.org/nuke/guide/iran/facility/abu-musa.htm
Kaikobad, K. (no date) The Abu Musa and Tunb Islands dispute. Strategics International. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://www.strategicsinternational.com/Sem_Islands.pdf
Shoichet, C. & Castillo, M. (2016) Saudi Arabia -- Iran row spreads to other nations. CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/04/middleeast/saudi-arabia-iran-severing-ties-whats-next/
Persian Contraction From 1700 to 2000
Persia represented an important link between East and West. It held the Middle position and in geopolitical terms, this position meant a lot as the Industrial Age began to get underway in the modern era. Persian territory was viewed with envious eyes by other nations that saw the strategic location Persia occupied. The decadence of the Ottoman Empire, a series of wars, power plays, globalization, cultural changes and influences, and diaspora have all impacted Persia and accounted for its contraction between 1700 and 2000. This paper will analyze these factors and show how in these three hundred years, changes in the way of the world, such as the influence of technology and industry, had a direct effect on the shape of Persia and its geographical location.
Persia in the 18th Century
The Suffavean dynasty was founded in the 16th century and it lasted for…
Bashir, Hassan. "Qanun and the Modernisation of Political Thought in Iran," Global
Media Journal, vol. 8, no. 14 (Spring 2009).
Ekhtiar, Maryam. "Nasir al-din Shah and the Dar al-Funum: The Evolution of Institution," International Society for Iranian Studies: Qajar Art and Society, vol. 34, no. 1/4 (2001).
Fisher, Michael. "Teaching Persian as an Imperial Language in India and in England
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.