For example, he wrote on the walls in my sister's home and when she asked him if he was the culprit he said "No" even though he is the only child in the household. However, his Stage 1 moral reasoning is residual. He is growing and maturing and operates at later stages of moral development.
My nephew is most often operating at Stage 2, which relates to an exchange of favors. Moral reasoning is more a matter of personal consequences, and therefore he is still calculating the moral value of a decision based on how the outcome will affect him. At the same time, he is concerned with how his actions affect other people and is empathetic if he notices that another person is suffering.
Sometimes my six-year-old nephew demonstrates enough moral maturity to graduate from Level One (Pre-Conventional) to Level Two (Conventional) morality. For example, he is aware of…… [Read More]
Kohlberg's Moral Stages
What would you do if confronted with this same dilemma?
f was confronted with this dilemma, would tell the truth about my son and not let my wife take the blame. However, would not do so out of higher moral principles but because would tend to assume that law enforcement would likely figure out eventually what was the truth and then both my son and my wife might suffer severe consequences, instead of only my son, once the authorities were involved. t is also worthy of note that the son might not be willing to allow his mother to take the blame, further complicating the issue when arguing with authorities.
Although it may be difficult to gain legal assistance, the best that can be done is admit to nothing and to request legal aid from the U.S. embassy, although there may be some reluctance to help the…… [Read More]
In both Stages 3 and 4, the individual has developed to the point that moral decisions are made based on an accepted understanding of the norms and conventions of society (Nucci, 2002). Stage 3 is called Good Interpersonal elationships and children, now entering their teenage years, begin to believe that individuals should live up to the expectations made by family and society to behave in appropriate and moral ways. The greater concern at this stage is on good motives and social responsibility, such as stealing to save someone's life. In Stage 4, Maintaining the Social Order, Kohlberg first moves fully beyond Piaget and his relativistic moral development. Whereas Stage 3 focuses on moral relationships between individuals who have the ability to closely understand each other's motives, such as in a family situation. In Stage 4, the individual begins to reasoned moral decisions based on the whole of society. The individual…… [Read More]
Physical ailments become more common as the body ages, so older adults are more frequently susceptible to illnesses and disabilities.
In order to cope, older people should consult a doctor or therapist for any health or mental health concerns. In addition, they should make an effort to preserve their health with nutritious food and gentle exercise. Social isolation can become a problem for older adults, so making an effort to keep in contact with friends, children, and grandchildren is critical to emotional health. Retirement itself can lead to feelings of social isolation and a loss of meaning to life; seniors should find new projects and activities to keep active and involved with others in meaningful ways.
3) Identify three general tips for studying for a test. Describe the three steps to overcoming test anxiety. Explain how best to answer an essay question.
Studying for a test should involve three basic…… [Read More]
When it comes to socialization, circles of friends, peer groups and so forth, it is clear that there is what is considered healthy and what is considered less than optimal. Beyond there, there will always tend to be subgroups and subcultures that emerge from within and from under a more dominant culture. This brief report shall describe the importance of peer groups, how subcultures can emerge and the significance of those subgroups emerging. Further, the way in which friendship circles are created and changed throughout the school years, how problems are associated with children that are rejected, bullying and their victims and beyond will be mentioned. Finally, there shall be the specific bits of advice offered by Kohlberg when it comes to moral development, growth of vocabulary and the seasoning of reasoning ability with kids will be part of what is discussed. While not all children and peer groups…… [Read More]
Firstly, in Piagetian manner, the subject is confronted with a moral dilemma, that is, a short story in which two or more moral principles oppose each other. He or she is asked to make a choice. Secondly, the interviewer uses intensive probing, that is, why-questions, and questions which stimulate the respondent to consider varying situational contexts. Thirdly, stage scoring of interview is based on well conceived and meaningful measurement units.Through the confrontation with moral dilemmas, the subject is stimulated to consider moral norms rather than merely technical knowledge of solving a problem (most people suggest a technical solution first, which seems an appropriate strategy in most every-day decision making).(Kolhberg)
There are six levels of leaders, according to the combined works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and obert Kegan. esearch shows the majority of leaders are level four leaders or level five leaders. Level four leader 'Achiever' is categorized as…… [Read More]
Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).
Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…… [Read More]
According to the Kohlberg theory, the post-conventional level is when a person develops social contract orientation and becomes principled. I believe I felt that I owed society an obligation to work and try to make it better, so I sought public welfare work (Fowler, p. 56).
Eventually, a better job opportunity came to me in the form of a state job in the Department of Youth and Family Services, so I decided to leave the school system. I transferred from my city job and was able work in my chosen field. Between working there and at Families Matter, New Jersey, I learned quite a bit. I would spend hours with parents who did not have the skills to help themselves and children who were in crisis. This motivated me even more to finish my bachelor's degree. This experience made me realize how lucky I was to have supportive family and…… [Read More]
Death anxiety was given a broad definition and seemed to point to how one dealt with the death of others also. I found that I did not deal with death very well. Mainly because I was not able to know my real father, and I felt betrayed by the man who was my actual father when I had to experience the abuse that my family went through. It was an ordeal because my father died, but it was a bigger ordeal because of the revelations that came afterwards. I found that one can regress from a level of maturity when a major negative event occurs.
I look back at my life through the prism of these two theories and there is not much that I regret, even though there were some significant bumps along the way. I agree with the precepts because I can see a lot of what both…… [Read More]
In Erikson's "Stage Two" children are trying to become self-confident and do things themselves ("Autonomy vs. Doubt"), like tying their own shoes even if it takes hours. Parents should let them do things because, according to Erikson, "...failure to reinforce these efforts will lead the child to doubt themselves" and doubt a parents' trust in them. hen Bambi ventured out of his little sleeping spot into the snow for the first time, surely his mom knew he would slip and slide and even get banged up a little. But she stayed in the sleeping nest spot and let Bambi learn for himself, which he did by slipping on the ice over and over before he finally got his feet under him and learned about the reality of slippery ice.
Jean Piaget put forward a theory for very young children, that he called "heteronomous moral orientation." He theorized that in the…… [Read More]
business people study ethics. What are the possible benefits to companies, individuals, society and the world of business?
According to a gallop poll administered by the Better Business Bureau in 2008, consumer trust in business professionals is on the decline. Of the consumer populous polled, only 42% expressed trust in banks and financial institutions, representing a 6% decline in trust since 2007, while only 24% responded positively toward contractors and service professionals, representing a decline in trust of 4%. Of the 14 industries polled, trust was lowest in real estate brokers and auto dealers, with a positive trust response of only 13%, representing a 3% decline in trust (Farrell, Fraedrich and Farrell, 2009). In particular, trust levels declined rapidly as a result of public scandals which "cost many companies their emotional appeal, the strongest driver of reputation" (Ferrell et al., 2009).
According to ethics professor Rick Garlikov, the reputation of…… [Read More]
Now, at 16, having returned again to her parents' home with Drake, she "has agreed to earn her GED and enroll in a vocational school to train for a job" and to thereby increase her current cognitive skills. However, "her classes begin a week from now; she has not made arrangements for Drake's care while she is in class." This lack of planning and preparation for long periods of the day away from Drake could be seen as a sign that Katie lacks problem-solving skills for a 16-year-old that should have been mostly learned at Erickson's Stage 4 (6-10 years old). A more likely explanation though is that care-giving, an activity Katie is uninterested in and performs poorly or not at all, properly belongs to Erikson's Stage 6, Early Adulthood (ages 18-34), Katie has not yet reached that stage even chronologically (obviously, she is completely unprepared for it emotionally, or…… [Read More]
Furthermore, Vgotsky's held that the bond between word and meaning is a bond that is associative in nature and is established through the repeated simultaneous perceptions of a certain sound and a certain object.
Most of the children in this class had good motor skills and followed instructions very well. Furthermore the children used "please" and "thank you" in their interactions with teachers. Also observed was the fact that Tarek, a student, acts like group-leader among other students and the children in the class try to please him. Tarek is very considerate and caring. This shows early development on the part of the children, which can be expected, in "advanced curriculum" preschool programs.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) contended that children and adults both pass through stages of moral development in their reasoning ability via judgments of a moral nature. Kohlberg's theory is called the "cognitive-developmental theory and suggests a tri-level sequence…… [Read More]
Lisa was a sophomore and while in the Alternative school, as was the case in the regular high school, she had been a student who had been in trouble frequently for talking back to and swearing at teachers, skipping class, not doing homework, hanging out after school and violating many of the community rules that were established by the group including smoking on school grounds, lying, being late for classes, and doing drugs. She hung out with what teachers called "the wrong crowd" after school: kids from a nearby community that were not as well off, and were part of a street gang. Lisa was white, but many of her friends were black, and the kids in this gang were vocally resistant to the inequalities that they saw in wealthy Scarsdale that were not in their poor community. Some of her afterschool friends were dropping out, and others were fighting…… [Read More]
The book Autobiography of My Dead Brother also deals with the identity crises of youth. It begins with three teenagers attending a funeral of their friend who died in a drive-by shooting. The main characters, Jesse and Rise, are not actually blood brothers, but they consider themselves brothers because of their close friendship. However, over the course of the book, the two young men began to become estranged. Rise becomes more and more interested with making a living on the street, selling drugs and living the life of the sort of people who killed Bobby, the boy whose funeral both young men attend at the beginning of the book. Rise justifies this because Bobby played by the rules and still died -- but in contrast, Jesse finds himself growing apart from his brother and instead finding refuge in art rather than violence. Defining his own values in contrast to those…… [Read More]
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…… [Read More]
Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and rickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new tiquette Revolution for tots at…… [Read More]
Anderson et al. (2010) conclude that indeed, violent video games do increase the likelihood for aggressive behavior. How well to deal with violent behavior remains one of the most significant challenges we face in the modern society. This is more so the case given that unlike a couple of years ago, access to weapons that could compromise public safety has today become relatively easy. We only need to look at the recent school shootings to catch a glimpse of the escalating problem of violent behavior. While blame cannot be apportioned entirely on violent video games, research has shown that the said games do indeed have an impact on violent behavior most particularly amongst children. The relevance of exploring measures available to rein in the problem in this case cannot hence be overstated.
To begin with, parents should play an active supervisory role when it comes to the purchase and utilization…… [Read More]
S. minimum wage standards.
As the above scenarios illustrate, it is impossible to rely upon a single moral theory when developing a corporate code of ethics. This is because each individual brings his or her own personal perspective about ethics, so that each theory is biased by personal perspective. While Kohlberg's Model of Cognitive Development attempts to incorporate these differences, it fails to answer the question of whether or not individuals can judge the morality of someone's actions when that person comes from a different ethical and cultural background. (AllPsych, 2004). Therefore, it seems like the best thing a corporation can do is to consult the cultural norms of its stakeholders and try to fashion a corporate code that respects all of those norms. Such a code would focus on individual rights, utilitarianism, and justice. Therefore, DWI's corporate code should pledge to create value and enhance quality of life for…… [Read More]
Nina is an eight-year-old girl who lives in my neighborhood. She is a good friend of mine daughter, who I have known since birth. She is the first of two children and was born premature at six months. She is now about four and a half feet tall and very thin, she weighs about seventy pounds. She lives with her mother who is 39 years old and her father who is 40 years old. Her mother graduated high school and father has an Associate's degree. Her mother is a stay at home mom and father works in the mortgage industry. The family lives in an urban community, where they own their own home. Nina is musically talented and plays the piano well.
Nina was very tiny when she was younger. She was a premature baby and it took her a while to catch up with her peers.…… [Read More]
Business Ethics 9224
The Waiter ule: What Makes for a Good CEO?
Is character an essential ingredient in ethical leadership? Is it especially important in managers? In leadership, especially among CEOs, is character important?
Character: An essential Ingredient in Ethical Leadership:
Character is an essential component in an employee's personality. It shows integrity, honesty, and loyalty of that employee with the organization. When it comes to top leadership, the need to have a sound character in the personality of top managers, CEO's, and directors is highly essential for the success of the organization. In addition to performing their assigned duties and responsibilities, it is also expected from these higher officials that they would exert full efforts in achieving the organizational goals without taking any undue advantage from its public image or resources. In the past, numerous ethical scandals have been pointed which have made the organizations think twice while hiring…… [Read More]
business and professional ethics in the movie "all Street." Discussed are the ethical principles that are violated as related to business; how greed is presented as part of American business; Gecko's view; how Buddy reacts and deals with the issues of ethics; how Buddy's view of greed and ethics evolves and changes throughout the film; what is/are the ethical dilemmas he faces and how does he handle them.
all Street, the Movie
Capitalism is said to be the path to the American dream. The barons of the early twentieth century built empires, the majority of which remain major players in the corporate world today. The goal of a capitalist is to make the best product for maximum profit and at the same time sell it at a competitive price to give the consumer the best buy, thus, acing out market competitors. The force behind this is basically self-interest. The American…… [Read More]
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…… [Read More]
The Federal Security Service (FSB) will monitor the law's enforcement. If it finds that foreigners have been buying up shares in strategic enterprises via front firms, the Russian government will have the right to protest against such purchase in court. (Quoted by Anderson, 2008, 57)
If the FSB garners authority to monitor all cash flows and transactions allegedly in order to protect Russia from foreign control, implications could extend to Russia, seizing foreign-owned private property. The economic future does not look too propitious for foreign investors.
Most ominously, as Anderson (2008) points out, it is no longer the private company that will sell itself, but Russia that will now serve as its marketing agent. What this implies is that promotion of the firm will now transfer to promotion of the state, creating a potentially conflictual situation for the West where Russia will attempt to maximize its show of national power…… [Read More]
Measure Value Vice Versa." - Joseph Stiglitz. Having started module question:" What purpose business? "You finish assignment links question individual level. IMPOTANT*** PLEASE ONLY USE THE EADINGS / TEXT / MATEIAL FOM THE ATTACHED FILE COUSE EADINGS AND TEXT.
The Importance of Values on Decision Making
The following pages focus on providing an analysis of the application of ethical in several types of activity. The Introduction presents the points-of-view used in this paper. The following section focuses on using several models in answering the questions addressed by the Christensen article. The Ethical Decision Making Guide section is intended to discuss the ethical guide that I find useful in my situation. The Ethical Guide Application section provides some examples of different situations where this ethical guide was successfully applied. The Key Concepts section discusses some of the concepts that I became aware of during this course. The Conclusions section presents some…… [Read More]
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…… [Read More]
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Studies have…… [Read More]
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…… [Read More]
As Kohlberg proposed, children undergo "a sequence of qualitative changes in the way an individual thinks," (Nucci 2002). As children encounter new environmental stimuli including new peers, new social group situations, and new challenges to the developing ego, moral character begins to emerge. While it would be impossible to assess the ising Star Montessori academy based on the Web copy on their site, it is safe to say that the school does not overtly claim to contribute to their students' moral and character development. Learning and interacting with the environment at the child's own pace are emphasized, and social interactions may be left to the individual teachers at the school.
Kohlberg proposed three stages of moral reasoning that impact character development: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Pre-conventional moral reasoning is based on an egocentric outlook and reciprocal actions. Social norms are of little worth to a child at the pre-conventional stage…… [Read More]
Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care
The central theme to Carol Gilligan's argument is that while women more often focus on care, men focus more on justice. The "care orientation," according to Gilligan, focuses on emotional relationships of attachment. Gilligan suggests that "humans who think in terms of the care orientation define themselves in terms of a system of relationships, connections, loyalties and circles of concern." (University of Reading Website)
The author also argues that psychology has "persistently and systematically misunderstood women - their motives, their moral commitments, the course of their psychological growth, and their special view of what is important in life." (Harvard).) A point she challenges is that if male development is largely a matter of increasing separation from others to achieve autonomy and independence, does that mean that women have failed to grow into mature adults if their development involves a continuing and unresolved struggle to…… [Read More]
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]
Discussion and Inference
Comprehension about esearch
A key responsibility of the work of a professional researcher is that of publishing research results. esearchers' writings always serve as a store of knowledge for the writer, but researchers also pen their findings because their peers and readers expect a standard language, form and style when reviewing their work. While it can be hard for beginners to write in a clear scientific style, the skill is trainable and can be mastered with practice (Michael Derntl, 2014).
When doing case study research, as one looks at past studies and reports, the researcher gets a unique opportunity to explore and understand some of the most complicated issues in society from differing perspectives. This approach can be viewed as robust approach especially when in depth and holistic investigations are involved. Case study is appreciated in many fields as a critical tool to…… [Read More]
" hile there are factors like peer pressure and authority that come into play, some research claims to have isolated significant features of an individual's character that make them more likely to commit acts of fraud, bribery and falsification in the corporate context (27, 2009). For example, those people with "high levels of ambition were more likely to transgress moral codes, competitively stab colleagues in the back and make dubious decisions relating to asset-stripping, disinvestment, and so on" (27, 2009).
Trevino's (1986) work is relevant when it comes to understanding individuals and corruption. There are a couple questions regarding moral personality that come up: first of all, whether or not a person sees an event or issue as a moral problem; the second is how they decide to act in relation to that problem. Kohlberg's theory of cognitive moral development emphasizes the cognitive or reasoning aspect of moral-decision making (604,…… [Read More]
Despite the catastrophic job market, at least current students can use the present-day crisis as a teachable moment. No matter how bad things may be, the university must strive to create positive educational debates and experiences.
It is not the responsibility of the university to provide answers to student's questions of morality and identity. But a university has a responsibility not to stifle debate; rather it must enable students to feel free to ask questions. The university must encourage graduates to comfortably tolerate ambiguity and diversity of beliefs amongst their fellow students and within their own hearts. In this tolerance of diversity, of course, there is an implied moral system to some degree, just as there is in Kohlberg's prioritization of moralistic abstractions. The modern university that values ethical questioning must allow for multiplicity of opinions. This tolerance is not cross-culturally universal in its nature. But for an American university,…… [Read More]
Unrecognized Genius of Jean Piaget
Kegan reflects on the work of Jean Piaget, emphasizing the importance of his work. He first looks at Kegan's most famous study, in which he fills two identically shaped beakers with equal amounts of water. He then asks the child whether or not they are of equal volume, and when the child agrees, he pours the contents into a thinner beaker. The child then has to decide which has more, and usually opts for the taller and thinner beaker. Kegan is pointing out the relative adaptive balance that is being made by the child. Children have their own perceptions of the physical world, and often have difficulty discerning relative differences in shapes and forms, among other things. Kegan purports that, "For the preoperational child, it is never just one's perceptions that change; rather, the world itself, as a consequence, changes" (29).
Kegan then goes on…… [Read More]
Changing Attitudes Regarding Same-Sex Marriages
Even in today's modern, permissive society, many people are still jolted by the idea of same-sex marriage. However, throughout history, regardless of whether or not society encouraged it, gay and lesbian couples have been living with one another for centuries. The only difference today is that gays and lesbians are now demanding the same rights as heterosexuals, including the government's recognition of their relationships.
With official recognition, gay and lesbian couples would have the right to all economic and family-oriented privileges as heterosexual couples have. For example, surviving gay partners would have the right to obtain pension and Social Security payments. And gays and lesbians would be able to include their partners in their health insurance packages.
However, many state and national agencies still have old-fashioned attitudes toward same-sex marriages. For example, the New Jersey Family Policy Council believes that the institution of marriage would…… [Read More]
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…… [Read More]
So it has been suggested that social context of care must be examined and to establish limits to the ethics of care. In contrast, constructive evaluation of care ethic indicates that sensitivity as well as emotional response to particular state of affairs such as family discussions with doctor provide significant guides to morally satisfactory actions plus care ethic also seem to favor accepting procedures from Conflict Resolution as well as Dispute Mediation as optional way to approach evident ethical disagreement (Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy, 1996).
So on the whole, if we think regarding repair as something that should involve tools at least the type of tools found in hardware as well as plumbing supply stores and at construction sites, our cast of fixing characters is frequently going to involve men not for the reason that all men have them or apply them even if they have them…… [Read More]
Theoretical approaches to ethics.
Normative ethical theory
Normative ethics is the descriptor that is applied to the entire caliber of a certain perspective of ethics that has various sub-categories to it. As general definition, normative ethics is the term given to the moral investigation that queries how one should act in an ethical manner. To this end, a quantity of ethical systems exists that seek to answer that question. To differentiate normative ethics from other philosophical ethical theories, meta-ethics, for instance, attempts to objectively examine standards for right and wrong in a comparative, phenomenological manner, whilst descriptive ethics -- another brand of ethics is an empirical investigation of people's moral beliefs.
Normative ethics may also be called 'prescriptive' since it recommends a certain moral route of conduct for an individual. So, for instance, descriptive ethics would be concerned with investigating and describing the proportion of people that hold ethnic discrimination…… [Read More]
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]
Ainsworth conducted an experiment dubbed 'The Strange Situation' in which one-year-old children and their mothers were observed in an unfamiliar surrounding. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the babies' reactions to separation from and reunification with their mothers. Based on their responses, Ainsworth placed the children into one of three categories: securely attached infants, insecure-avoidant infants, and insecure-resistant infants. The securely attached infants used their mothers as a base from which to explore the unfamiliar setting. When the mothers left, the children were sometimes plainly distressed; however, when the mothers returned, the babies became placid and resumed exploration of the novel surrounding. The insecure-avoidant infants ignored their mothers and immediately began to explore their surroundings. When their mothers exited the room, they appeared unaffected; moreover, these children did not acknowledge their mothers' return and even tended to avoid their contact. The insecure-resistant infants were reluctant to explore whatsoever.…… [Read More]
Social learning theory views education as an inculcation in social norms. Sexuality education requires the individual to learn the biological mechanics of sexuality, but also to understand the social assumptions connected to this facet of human life. Sexuality is not acquired instinctively, even though puberty is a biological phenomenon all adolescents experience. Sexuality is also about acquiring social norms and knowledge. Learning never takes place in isolation. Sexual norms are not learned simply through formal sex education, but also from peers and the media. However, sexual education must strive to counteract misinformation and negative stereotypes, empowering students with facts. Sexual education in the classroom must counteract some of the negative misinformation students will learn, and better equip them to make intelligent decisions.
Because a principle of social learning theory is that it takes place all of the time, adult role models are important for…… [Read More]
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…… [Read More]
esolving Ethical Business Challenges: Elaine
Business managers and executives usually face several ethical challenges that require them to demonstrate ethical leadership in resolving. Elaine's situation is an example of some of ethical business challenges that these leaders experience with regards to the advantage and disadvantage of each decision. The first decision relates to Graphic, Inc. loan, which was engaged in litigation about promotion of its products to children (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2012, p.177). The advantage of Elaine's decision in this case is that she did what was morally acceptable while the disadvantage is that she lost a money-making opportunity and had no reason to doubt the firm's ability to repay the loan.
In the second situation involving the Canadian firm that was importing cigars from Cuba, the advantage of her decision is that it was based on clear policy guidance i.e. The 1996 Helms-Burton Act. The disadvantage is that…… [Read More]
Public, Private and Parochial Education, and Character Education
The consensus that exists among educators and parents concerning the form that moral education should take in our schools is one that presently needs to be developed, according to Dr. Thomas Lickona (1993). As Lickona (1993) states, "In the 20th century, the consensus supporting character education began to crumble under the blows of several powerful forces" such as Social Darwinism, positivism and increasing subjectivity with regard to morality and values. In other words, in the 20th century, what was good for one was not necessarily good for another or for all, as modern philosophers put it. Lickona asserts that educators and parents need to work together to arrive at a new consensus regarding character education: they need to identify goals and values that they agree on as being important and vital for children's formation.
Educators can help students become caring, morally responsible…… [Read More]
Definition of an Ethical Framework
An ethical framework that would be useful to me is one which I can use it to assess how to go about behaving in a given circumstance. The framework should be based on the virtue-ethics perspective. As Lutz (1996) points out, “Piaget and Kohlberg belong to the cognitive-developmental tradition of developmental psychology” in which the moral development of a child is decided through social interaction and comes about naturally rather than through formal education (p. 1). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is that there are six stages of moral development. First, there is the stage in which the child does what is right to avoid being punished. Second comes the stage in which the child does what is right because he perceives it serves his own interests. Third comes the stage in which the child desires to see himself as a good person and for…… [Read More]
Teach like your hair's on fire: The methods and madness inside room 56 by afe Esquith. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book. This book, written by a teacher with nearly 25 years experience, talks about how to make a difference in the classroom, and make a difference in children's lives. He writes about his classroom, "It's a world where character matters, hard work is respected, humility is valued, and support for one another is unconditional" (Esquith x). That is the thesis of this book, that our culture is insane, and that the right things no longer matter to society, which he is attempting to change through his teaching. He believes if you teach as if your hair is on fire and you do not know it (which happened to him in the classroom), you are moving in the right direction as a teacher, and you will…… [Read More]
He says that if the prices are still too high, the UN should offer subsidies. (oseley, 2003)
2. Rupert ondy - Senior Vice President and General Counsel
He played a key role in the merger between Glaxo Welcome and SmithKline as well as after the merger. ondy developed an efficient post merger legal department and he ensured legal representation to all organizational departments. (Practical Law Company, 2003)
3. John Clarke - President, Consumer Healthcare
Clarke is the main actor on the company's Consumer Healthcare market and it is due to him that oral hygiene, over-the-counter and nutritional healthcare products have been promoted by GlaxoSmithKline. (Forbes Magazine, 2007)
4. Marc Dunoyer - President, Pharmaceuticals Japan
He extensively promoted the anti-allergy Zyrtec drugs in Japan and around the world.
5. Russell Greig - President, Pharmaceuticals International
Greig is in charge of the GSK operations outside the United States, mainly Japan and the…… [Read More]
he main battle was expected to take place between SOCAL and ARCO. he latter was confronted with substantial debts and could only bid as much as $75.00 per share. Keller had doubts about the actual amount of money he could bit. His company had limited debts and they could easily receive a bank loan. But there rose the question of whether the Golf Oil Corp. stocks were worth the additional risks and whether they represented a secure source of future profit.
However, the outcome of the bidding was a surprise to most participants to the auction, as the winner was declared small company Mesa Petroleum. hroughout this biting, Mesa Petroleum had increased their share in Gulf Oil up to 13.2%.
But Boone Pickens' objective was to enter the corporation's board of directors and participate to the decision making process. Further on, Pickens borrowed $300 million and purchased 13.5 million shares,…… [Read More]
Finally, the universalizing stage is often referred to as enlightenment, or having achieved a true understanding of the nature of good virtue. (Fowler, 1995; p.p. 73-145).
Clearly, my personal ethical values are heavily influenced by my stage of personal development. As I continue to grow, my values will evolve and adapt to my new way of looking at the world. The way that defining moments influence me will also be controlled by my ethical level of development. However, having at least a conscious understanding of my level of development allows me to better understand my ethical influences, work to overcome the obstacles my ethical development stage creates, and better work to be a better employee and leader.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard usiness School Publishing.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through…… [Read More]
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]
The only reason to continue living is to accept and transcend the absurdity with personal scorn and strength. Camus is overwhelmingly concerned with the impact of his ideas on everyday life -- coping with the severe and confusing realities of everyday existence. Based on all of this, Camus asks, in the face of such defeat can a person be actually be happy? It is possible. It is the only reality that a person has. In this world, an individual must confront the limitations of knowledge.
I don't know whether this world has a meaning that transcends it. But I know that I cannot know that meaning and that it is impossible for me just now to know it. What can a meaning outside my condition mean to me? I can understand only in human terms... I do not want to found anything on the incomprehensible. I want to know whether…… [Read More]
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…… [Read More]
How is the reading related to other theories, concepts, themes, and topics covered in HSBE (503/505)?
The reading relates to all the different psychological theories that are available for one to study. For example, a person can learn about Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg and Abraham Maslow. This helps someone to understand that these are crucial times in children's lives as they grow up and become adults. They need to know that they are nurtured and loved in order to make a difference in society when each of them becomes older (Hartshorne, 2010). Furthermore, the birth order of those that are the first born are considered independent and over protective of their siblings; whereas, the middle child is considered the person who is creative (Kluger, The power of birth order, 2007). The baby is the one who gets anything and everything he or she wants because of becoming the last…… [Read More]
In that view, this litigation is just clean-up or "post-mortem." The final "resolution" stage will be indicated by settlement of all the suits, which we anticipate will take at least a decade.
3-4. Compare and contrast mediators, arbitrators and ombuds.
This case demonstrates the difference between mediators, here represented by the neutral parties facilitating communication between the banks and the AG team negotiating for the Consortium, versus arbitrators who would hand down a binding decision (effectively the courts, here), and ombudsmen who represent the consumer, perhaps here in the person of the Attorneys General.
3-5. Define the corporate stakeholders and describe their primary power.
Corporate stakeholders in this case are the firms whose accounts we process and other banks who borrow from us overnight. If these firms and banks will see their costs go up from these potential legal actions, they have a direct stake in undermining the AG's ability…… [Read More]
people you meet in heaven. Each was in your life for a reason. You may not have known the reason at the time, and that is what heaven is for. For understanding your life on earth.
The Five People You Meet in Heaven is a story of a lifetime of self misperception, potential waste of spirit, and ultimate redemption.
Eddie gave his all to the war and now works in a meaningless job at the Ruby Pier amusement park. In a heroic gesture, he gives his life saving a child sitting under a falling ride. Waking in a cotton candy-like heaven, he meets with five people -- some strangers and others well-known -- who guide him on a visual and illuminating journey through his life, theoretically proving that not everything is revealed during the time on earth.
The intended purpose for the five interactions is bi-directional; the communicants are seeking…… [Read More]
Features of Late Adulthood and the Psychosocial Factors that Impact Individuals at this Developmental Stage
A number of psychologists such as Erikson, Levinson and Kohlberg and others have suggested that most humans develop along certain developmental stages during their lives, during which certain key features emerge and various challenges and obstacles must be overcome in order to successfully advance to the more advanced stages (Shaver & Tarpy, 1994). While the authorities may not agree of the precise components of the various stages, it would seem that most people do in fact experience a number of developmental features that provide for some fairly accurate generalizations; these issues as they apply to the key features of late adulthood and the impact of psychosocial factors during this period of life are discussed further below.
Key Features of Late Adulthood. According to Erik Erikson's stages of development, late adulthood occurs during the seventh stage,…… [Read More]
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…… [Read More]
Raise Respectful Children
Children are an extension of their parents and they were they are raised affects their personality to a great extent. It is only right that parents should focus on building the right kind of relationship with them so that they grow up to be better human beings and better citizens and carry that upbringing with them as well.
Since it is a stage where human beings can be easily molded into whatever shape you would like them to, you should particularly care for what you say in front of them or do, and what you teach them, because they are impressionable and pick everything, not just the good.
In raising children, one should always keep God in mind, and seek Him out, and look to Him for help at all times. And teach your kids to do the same. And one should remember that no matter how…… [Read More]
In 1997, numerous key educational institutions including the AASA (American Association of School Administrators); ASCD (the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), NAESP (the National Association of Elementary School Principals), and the NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) worked in the auspices of ISLLC, funded by the CCSSO (Council of Chief State School Officers), to increase educational management standards. The National Policy Board for Educational Administration used the ISLLC principles for accreditation, efficiently holding educational administrative training programs accountable for not only creating pre-service instructive leaders' knowledge of moral concepts and structures but also for budding their capability to apply such ideas and structures to make moral decisions that would optimistically affect the experiences of pupils. This is in line with the fifth criterion deals with morals, saying that "a school superintendent is an educational organizer who promotes the achievement of all pupils by acting with honesty, justice, and…… [Read More]