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For example, he wrote on the walls in my sister's home and when she asked him if he was the culprit he said "No" even though he is the only child in the household. However, his Stage 1 moral reasoning is residual. He is growing and maturing and operates at later stages of moral development.
My nephew is most often operating at Stage 2, which relates to an exchange of favors. Moral reasoning is more a matter of personal consequences, and therefore he is still calculating the moral value of a decision based on how the outcome will affect him. At the same time, he is concerned with how his actions affect other people and is empathetic if he notices that another person is suffering.
Sometimes my six-year-old nephew demonstrates enough moral maturity to graduate from Level One (Pre-Conventional) to Level Two (Conventional) morality. For example, he is aware of…
Kohlberg's Moral Stages
What would you do if confronted with this same dilemma?
f was confronted with this dilemma, would tell the truth about my son and not let my wife take the blame. However, would not do so out of higher moral principles but because would tend to assume that law enforcement would likely figure out eventually what was the truth and then both my son and my wife might suffer severe consequences, instead of only my son, once the authorities were involved. t is also worthy of note that the son might not be willing to allow his mother to take the blame, further complicating the issue when arguing with authorities.
Although it may be difficult to gain legal assistance, the best that can be done is admit to nothing and to request legal aid from the U.S. embassy, although there may be some reluctance to help the…
It should not be, although it is true that quite frequently socioeconomic status does affect drug case trial decisions in the United States. Someone who is poor is often viewed as committing a crime, even for simple possession, while someone who is wealthy is viewed as having an illness. In this instance, however, this law, however barbaric it might seem, seems to be uniformly applied against all persons, regardless of socioeconomic status. In general, I believe that the socioeconomic status of an individual should have no impact on the judgement of whether a particular action is moral or immoral. Justice should be compassionate regardless of whether the person is rich or poor and people must be self-conscious of the fact that the different socioeconomic status of a defendant may bias them against him or her.
Q5. Carol Gilligan (1982) disagreed with Kohlberg's on justice and fairness and would have looked at this dilemma differently. Is there truly a difference in her thinking about this dilemma than that of Kohlberg's? (Text page 313-314)
Gilligan would likely be more understanding of the mother's desire to assume blame for her son, given her focus on relationality in women's moral reasoning. For Gilligan, moral reasoning is something which is often viewed only in male, versus female terms and the highest level of Kohlberg's hierarchy -- abstraction -- reflects a male-dominated view of the world. While a man might state that viewing the son's crime in an objective fashion, as if he was not the man's son but merely an impartial citizen, is the highest level of moral truth, Gilligan would suggest that this is not necessary optimal and reflects a relativist bias in favor of objective, male-dominated, ethical constructs.
In both Stages 3 and 4, the individual has developed to the point that moral decisions are made based on an accepted understanding of the norms and conventions of society (Nucci, 2002). Stage 3 is called Good Interpersonal elationships and children, now entering their teenage years, begin to believe that individuals should live up to the expectations made by family and society to behave in appropriate and moral ways. The greater concern at this stage is on good motives and social responsibility, such as stealing to save someone's life. In Stage 4, Maintaining the Social Order, Kohlberg first moves fully beyond Piaget and his relativistic moral development. Whereas Stage 3 focuses on moral relationships between individuals who have the ability to closely understand each other's motives, such as in a family situation. In Stage 4, the individual begins to reasoned moral decisions based on the whole of society. The individual…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. Pp. 118-136. Retrieved April 23, 2007, at http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Nucci, L. (2002). Moral development and moral education: an overview. Studies in Moral Development and Education. Retrieved April 23, 2007, at http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html
Physical ailments become more common as the body ages, so older adults are more frequently susceptible to illnesses and disabilities.
In order to cope, older people should consult a doctor or therapist for any health or mental health concerns. In addition, they should make an effort to preserve their health with nutritious food and gentle exercise. Social isolation can become a problem for older adults, so making an effort to keep in contact with friends, children, and grandchildren is critical to emotional health. Retirement itself can lead to feelings of social isolation and a loss of meaning to life; seniors should find new projects and activities to keep active and involved with others in meaningful ways.
3) Identify three general tips for studying for a test. Describe the three steps to overcoming test anxiety. Explain how best to answer an essay question.
Studying for a test should involve three basic…
When it comes to socialization, circles of friends, peer groups and so forth, it is clear that there is what is considered healthy and what is considered less than optimal. Beyond there, there will always tend to be subgroups and subcultures that emerge from within and from under a more dominant culture. This brief report shall describe the importance of peer groups, how subcultures can emerge and the significance of those subgroups emerging. Further, the way in which friendship circles are created and changed throughout the school years, how problems are associated with children that are rejected, bullying and their victims and beyond will be mentioned. Finally, there shall be the specific bits of advice offered by Kohlberg when it comes to moral development, growth of vocabulary and the seasoning of reasoning ability with kids will be part of what is discussed. While not all children and peer groups…
Kreager, D. & Moody, J. (2011). DELINQUENCY AND THE STRUCTURE OF ADOLESCENT PEER GROUPS. Pubmed Central (PMC). Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092163/
McLeod, S. (2016). Kohlberg - Moral Development - Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html
MV Media. (2016). Celebrating the unique Islamic-American culture of Black Muslims. Muslimvillage.com. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://muslimvillage.com/2015/07/21/84358/black-muslims-unique-islamic-american-culture/
NIH. (2016). How does bullying affect health & well-being?. Nichd.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 November 2016, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/bullying/conditioninfo/Pages/health.aspx
Firstly, in Piagetian manner, the subject is confronted with a moral dilemma, that is, a short story in which two or more moral principles oppose each other. He or she is asked to make a choice. Secondly, the interviewer uses intensive probing, that is, why-questions, and questions which stimulate the respondent to consider varying situational contexts. Thirdly, stage scoring of interview is based on well conceived and meaningful measurement units.Through the confrontation with moral dilemmas, the subject is stimulated to consider moral norms rather than merely technical knowledge of solving a problem (most people suggest a technical solution first, which seems an appropriate strategy in most every-day decision making).(Kolhberg)
There are six levels of leaders, according to the combined works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and obert Kegan. esearch shows the majority of leaders are level four leaders or level five leaders. Level four leader 'Achiever' is categorized as…
Cherry, Kendra.(2012)About.com guide. Kohlbergs Therory of Moral
Development.Retrieved from website:
Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).
Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…
Gloria R. Leon, Jayne a. Fulkerson, Cheryl L. Perry, and Robert Cudeck. "Personality
and Behavioral Vulnerabilities Associated With Risk Status for Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3; (1993): 438-444.
According to the Kohlberg theory, the post-conventional level is when a person develops social contract orientation and becomes principled. I believe I felt that I owed society an obligation to work and try to make it better, so I sought public welfare work (Fowler, p. 56).
Eventually, a better job opportunity came to me in the form of a state job in the Department of Youth and Family Services, so I decided to leave the school system. I transferred from my city job and was able work in my chosen field. Between working there and at Families Matter, New Jersey, I learned quite a bit. I would spend hours with parents who did not have the skills to help themselves and children who were in crisis. This motivated me even more to finish my bachelor's degree. This experience made me realize how lucky I was to have supportive family and…
Colby, a and Kohlberg, L. (1987). The Measurement of Moral Judgment, Vol 2. Standard Issue Scoring Manual. Cambridge University Press.
Fowler, J.T., Hennesey, T. (ed.) (1976) "Stages in faith: the structural developmental approach," Values and Moral Development. New York: Paulist Press.
Harder, a.F. (2002). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.com. Retrieved August 8, 2007 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm .
Kohlberg, Lawrence (1973). "The claim to moral adequacy of a highest stage of moral judgment." Journal of Philosophy. 70: 630-646.
Death anxiety was given a broad definition and seemed to point to how one dealt with the death of others also. I found that I did not deal with death very well. Mainly because I was not able to know my real father, and I felt betrayed by the man who was my actual father when I had to experience the abuse that my family went through. It was an ordeal because my father died, but it was a bigger ordeal because of the revelations that came afterwards. I found that one can regress from a level of maturity when a major negative event occurs.
I look back at my life through the prism of these two theories and there is not much that I regret, even though there were some significant bumps along the way. I agree with the precepts because I can see a lot of what both…
Boeree, G.C. (2005). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/345/2007_erikson/erikson.pdf
Bruess, B.J., & Pearson, F.C. (2002). Are there gender differences in moral
reasoning as defined by Kohlberg? College Student Affairs Journal, 21(2),
In Erikson's "Stage Two" children are trying to become self-confident and do things themselves ("Autonomy vs. Doubt"), like tying their own shoes even if it takes hours. Parents should let them do things because, according to Erikson, "...failure to reinforce these efforts will lead the child to doubt themselves" and doubt a parents' trust in them. hen Bambi ventured out of his little sleeping spot into the snow for the first time, surely his mom knew he would slip and slide and even get banged up a little. But she stayed in the sleeping nest spot and let Bambi learn for himself, which he did by slipping on the ice over and over before he finally got his feet under him and learned about the reality of slippery ice.
Jean Piaget put forward a theory for very young children, that he called "heteronomous moral orientation." He theorized that in the…
Disney, Walt. (2005). Bambi: 2-Disc Special Edition. Buena Vista Home Entertainment.
Burbank, California. J4756.
Levine, Melvin D. (1999). Developmental Variation and Learning Disorders: Second Edition.
Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service, Inc.
business people study ethics. What are the possible benefits to companies, individuals, society and the world of business?
According to a gallop poll administered by the Better Business Bureau in 2008, consumer trust in business professionals is on the decline. Of the consumer populous polled, only 42% expressed trust in banks and financial institutions, representing a 6% decline in trust since 2007, while only 24% responded positively toward contractors and service professionals, representing a decline in trust of 4%. Of the 14 industries polled, trust was lowest in real estate brokers and auto dealers, with a positive trust response of only 13%, representing a 3% decline in trust (Farrell, Fraedrich and Farrell, 2009). In particular, trust levels declined rapidly as a result of public scandals which "cost many companies their emotional appeal, the strongest driver of reputation" (Ferrell et al., 2009).
According to ethics professor Rick Garlikov, the reputation of…
Kohlberg's model of ethical development varies from previous models insofar as development is not the product of maturation or socialization alone, but rather the product of one's cognitive contemplation of moral problems (Cain, 1985). Kohlberg's model coincides with character development specialist Thomas I. White's assertion that ethical character development is the result of ethical reasoning as opposed to a focus on "being a good person" (Ferrell et al., 2009). Studying ethics and contemplating ethical frameworks, therefore, is imperative to the development of an ethical character and the ability make ethically informed decisions.
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136. Retrieved Jan. 31, 2011 from http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. (2009). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases. (7th ed.) Mason: South-Western Cenage Learning.
Now, at 16, having returned again to her parents' home with Drake, she "has agreed to earn her GED and enroll in a vocational school to train for a job" and to thereby increase her current cognitive skills. However, "her classes begin a week from now; she has not made arrangements for Drake's care while she is in class." This lack of planning and preparation for long periods of the day away from Drake could be seen as a sign that Katie lacks problem-solving skills for a 16-year-old that should have been mostly learned at Erickson's Stage 4 (6-10 years old). A more likely explanation though is that care-giving, an activity Katie is uninterested in and performs poorly or not at all, properly belongs to Erikson's Stage 6, Early Adulthood (ages 18-34), Katie has not yet reached that stage even chronologically (obviously, she is completely unprepared for it emotionally, or…
Katie exhibits fundamental lack-of-trust issues vis-a-vis her parents, probably stemming from as early as Erikson's Stage One (birth through age one); autonomy issues unresolved from Stage 2 (ages 1-3); "initiative vs. guilt" (Harris, 2000) issues from Stage 3 (ages 3-5) "industry" issues (i.e., "Am I able to succeed at what I try to do?") issues from Stage 4 (ages 6-10) (Harris). Further, it appears that Katie struggles now with identity issues at Stage 5 (ages 11-18) (Huitt, 1997; Huitt & Hummel, 2003). For example, Katie neither wants to return to school (she has agreed to complete her GED instead) nor seems to very strongly exhibit eagerness or enthusiasm about beginning her vocational courses next week (e.g., she has not gotten her driver's license, preferring to ride the bus when she (presumably) would not have to if she could drive; and also has taken no initiative in finding daytime care for Drake while she is away from the house. In Kohlberg's Stage 3 (Huitt, 1997), adolescents at 12 or 13 (Katie is 13 when she becomes pregnant by an 18-year-old drug user) are more vulnerable than earlier to influences outside the family. Katie's relationships with her own parents (perhaps this is mirrored by her own non-relationship to Drake, and has something to do with Drake's own compliant passivity); since she ran away from home, are unhealthy. As current evidence of the latter, Katie hardly communicates with them verbally, much less confiding in them about her thoughts and feelings. Katie shows various signs of having had (and of still having) not completed important developmental work from each of the first five of Erikson's eight stages (Marcia, 1966); the equivalent also of being stuck in Kohlberg's Stage 2 of moral development, the "Conventional" (Harris, 2000) and having less-than adequately mastered any of the developmental tasks of Piaget's Stage 4 (Huitt & Hummel, 2003) although this stage beings at around age 11.
In Piaget's second stage of childhood/adolescent development (see Huitt, 1997; Huitt & Hummel, 2003), and in Kohlberg's (similar) third stage (see Huitt), rules are not as ironclad as in earlier stages of childhood, and are instead typically regarded more as principles that facilitate peoples' getting along smoothly with one another. Katie, however, has no interest in following her mother's current rules, e.g., pitching in around the house or doing any of her mother's daily list of chores, even though such help (or at least some or most of
Furthermore, Vgotsky's held that the bond between word and meaning is a bond that is associative in nature and is established through the repeated simultaneous perceptions of a certain sound and a certain object.
Most of the children in this class had good motor skills and followed instructions very well. Furthermore the children used "please" and "thank you" in their interactions with teachers. Also observed was the fact that Tarek, a student, acts like group-leader among other students and the children in the class try to please him. Tarek is very considerate and caring. This shows early development on the part of the children, which can be expected, in "advanced curriculum" preschool programs.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) contended that children and adults both pass through stages of moral development in their reasoning ability via judgments of a moral nature. Kohlberg's theory is called the "cognitive-developmental theory and suggests a tri-level sequence…
CEU Station - Child Development - Introduction and Theory Theoretical Framework for Child Development [Online available at: http:/ / www.ceus tation.com / childdeve lopment1.html
Vgotksy: Thinking and Speaking, Thought and Word Online at: http://www .marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/works/words/vygotsky.htm
Lisa was a sophomore and while in the Alternative school, as was the case in the regular high school, she had been a student who had been in trouble frequently for talking back to and swearing at teachers, skipping class, not doing homework, hanging out after school and violating many of the community rules that were established by the group including smoking on school grounds, lying, being late for classes, and doing drugs. She hung out with what teachers called "the wrong crowd" after school: kids from a nearby community that were not as well off, and were part of a street gang. Lisa was white, but many of her friends were black, and the kids in this gang were vocally resistant to the inequalities that they saw in wealthy Scarsdale that were not in their poor community. Some of her afterschool friends were dropping out, and others were fighting…
Lapsley, D. Moral Stage Theory. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Ed). Handbook of Moral Development.
Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview http://tigger.uic.edu/~lnucci/MoralEd/overview.html
Week 9: (October 22): Self development and Social Contexts
The book Autobiography of My Dead Brother also deals with the identity crises of youth. It begins with three teenagers attending a funeral of their friend who died in a drive-by shooting. The main characters, Jesse and Rise, are not actually blood brothers, but they consider themselves brothers because of their close friendship. However, over the course of the book, the two young men began to become estranged. Rise becomes more and more interested with making a living on the street, selling drugs and living the life of the sort of people who killed Bobby, the boy whose funeral both young men attend at the beginning of the book. Rise justifies this because Bobby played by the rules and still died -- but in contrast, Jesse finds himself growing apart from his brother and instead finding refuge in art rather than violence. Defining his own values in contrast to those…
Crain, W.C. "Chapter 7: Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Evolution. From Theories of Development.
Prentice-Hall, 1985. pp. 118-136. 10 Jun 2008. http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Cutter, Chris. Whale Talk. New York: Dell, 2001.
Harder, Arlene. "The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson." The Learning Place. 10 Jun 2008. http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…
Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and rickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new tiquette Revolution for tots at…
Erik Erikson accepted the Freudian theory of infantile sexuality, but believed that other non-sexual issues were equally important in childhood development. He theorized that the infant moved from stages of "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust," followed by conflicts of "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt," "Initiative vs. Guilt," Industry vs. Inferiority, "Identity vs. Role Confusion, "Intimacy vs. Isolation," Generativity vs. Stagnation," and finally into the stage of "Ego Integrity vs. Despair." Personality malformation was likely to occur if the child's conflicts were not resolved, resulting in the child being stuck in one of these stages (Davis & Clifton, 2007, p.1). Jean Piaget, in contrast believed that the child's neurological capacity was the primary influence upon his or her ability to comprehend the world, as the child moved from the sensorimotor, to the preoperational, to the concrete operational stages, followed by the formal operational stage when the child could comprehend such concepts as 'here' and 'away,' and size, shape and mass ("Jean Piaget's Theory of Development,"2007). Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and Erickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new Etiquette Revolution for tots at New York's Plaza Hotel, which hosts a class the teaches children how to be respectful of others by offering advice on how to choose the right silverware.
Kohlberg would no doubt see the age group that apparently delights in the class as being in the 'nice/good' child stage or law and order conventional periods of development, and are thus eager to obey parents in exchange for approval while Erickson would see the desire to receive rule-governed behavior as a desire for affirmation of boundaries and trust in adult authorities. Freud would see such an obsession with control over oral and sanitary issues as a hold over from the anal and oral stages. The teacher of the class does show some acknowledgement of the existence of stages of childhood development, when she states that
Anderson et al. (2010) conclude that indeed, violent video games do increase the likelihood for aggressive behavior. How well to deal with violent behavior remains one of the most significant challenges we face in the modern society. This is more so the case given that unlike a couple of years ago, access to weapons that could compromise public safety has today become relatively easy. We only need to look at the recent school shootings to catch a glimpse of the escalating problem of violent behavior. While blame cannot be apportioned entirely on violent video games, research has shown that the said games do indeed have an impact on violent behavior most particularly amongst children. The relevance of exploring measures available to rein in the problem in this case cannot hence be overstated.
To begin with, parents should play an active supervisory role when it comes to the purchase and utilization…
Anderson, C.A., Ihori, N., Bushman, B.J., Rothstein, H.R., Shibuya, a., Swing, E.L., Sakamoto, a. & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review. American Psychological Association, 136 (2), 151-173. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/bul-136-2-151.pdf
Hill, G. (2001). A Level Psychology through Diagrams. New York: Oxford University Press.
S. minimum wage standards.
As the above scenarios illustrate, it is impossible to rely upon a single moral theory when developing a corporate code of ethics. This is because each individual brings his or her own personal perspective about ethics, so that each theory is biased by personal perspective. While Kohlberg's Model of Cognitive Development attempts to incorporate these differences, it fails to answer the question of whether or not individuals can judge the morality of someone's actions when that person comes from a different ethical and cultural background. (AllPsych, 2004). Therefore, it seems like the best thing a corporation can do is to consult the cultural norms of its stakeholders and try to fashion a corporate code that respects all of those norms. Such a code would focus on individual rights, utilitarianism, and justice. Therefore, DWI's corporate code should pledge to create value and enhance quality of life for…
AllPsych Online. (2004). Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Retrieved December 22, 2008 from AllPsych Online
Web site: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/moral_development.html
Crone v. United Parcel Service, No. 01-3595, http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com / data2/circs/8th/013595p.pdf, (8th Cir. Aug. 30, 2002).
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964).
Nina is an eight-year-old girl who lives in my neighborhood. She is a good friend of mine daughter, who I have known since birth. She is the first of two children and was born premature at six months. She is now about four and a half feet tall and very thin, she weighs about seventy pounds. She lives with her mother who is 39 years old and her father who is 40 years old. Her mother graduated high school and father has an Associate's degree. Her mother is a stay at home mom and father works in the mortgage industry. The family lives in an urban community, where they own their own home. Nina is musically talented and plays the piano well.
Nina was very tiny when she was younger. She was a premature baby and it took her a while to catch up with her peers.…
Business Ethics 9224
The Waiter ule: What Makes for a Good CEO?
Is character an essential ingredient in ethical leadership? Is it especially important in managers? In leadership, especially among CEOs, is character important?
Character: An essential Ingredient in Ethical Leadership:
Character is an essential component in an employee's personality. It shows integrity, honesty, and loyalty of that employee with the organization. When it comes to top leadership, the need to have a sound character in the personality of top managers, CEO's, and directors is highly essential for the success of the organization. In addition to performing their assigned duties and responsibilities, it is also expected from these higher officials that they would exert full efforts in achieving the organizational goals without taking any undue advantage from its public image or resources. In the past, numerous ethical scandals have been pointed which have made the organizations think twice while hiring…
Carroll, A.B. & Buchholtz, A.K. (2012). Business Ethics, 1st Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Del, J. (2006). "CEO Vouch for Waiter Rule: Watch How People Treat Staff." USA Today, B1.
Morrow, R. (2011, 01, 04). A Critical Analysis of the U.S. Causes of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008. Retrieved on October 31st, 2013, from
Shaw, W.H. (2011). Business Ethics, 7th Edition. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
business and professional ethics in the movie "all Street." Discussed are the ethical principles that are violated as related to business; how greed is presented as part of American business; Gecko's view; how Buddy reacts and deals with the issues of ethics; how Buddy's view of greed and ethics evolves and changes throughout the film; what is/are the ethical dilemmas he faces and how does he handle them.
all Street, the Movie
Capitalism is said to be the path to the American dream. The barons of the early twentieth century built empires, the majority of which remain major players in the corporate world today. The goal of a capitalist is to make the best product for maximum profit and at the same time sell it at a competitive price to give the consumer the best buy, thus, acing out market competitors. The force behind this is basically self-interest. The American…
Velazquez, Manuel G. Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. Prentice Hall. 2002.
Stone, Oliver. "Wall Street." 20th Century Fox. 1987.
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…
The Federal Security Service (FSB) will monitor the law's enforcement. If it finds that foreigners have been buying up shares in strategic enterprises via front firms, the Russian government will have the right to protest against such purchase in court. (Quoted by Anderson, 2008, 57)
If the FSB garners authority to monitor all cash flows and transactions allegedly in order to protect Russia from foreign control, implications could extend to Russia, seizing foreign-owned private property. The economic future does not look too propitious for foreign investors.
Most ominously, as Anderson (2008) points out, it is no longer the private company that will sell itself, but Russia that will now serve as its marketing agent. What this implies is that promotion of the firm will now transfer to promotion of the state, creating a potentially conflictual situation for the West where Russia will attempt to maximize its show of national power…
Measure Value Vice Versa." - Joseph Stiglitz. Having started module question:" What purpose business? "You finish assignment links question individual level. IMPOTANT*** PLEASE ONLY USE THE EADINGS / TEXT / MATEIAL FOM THE ATTACHED FILE COUSE EADINGS AND TEXT.
The Importance of Values on Decision Making
The following pages focus on providing an analysis of the application of ethical in several types of activity. The Introduction presents the points-of-view used in this paper. The following section focuses on using several models in answering the questions addressed by the Christensen article. The Ethical Decision Making Guide section is intended to discuss the ethical guide that I find useful in my situation. The Ethical Guide Application section provides some examples of different situations where this ethical guide was successfully applied. The Key Concepts section discusses some of the concepts that I became aware of during this course. The Conclusions section presents some…
1. Consequentialism (2011). Stanford University. Retrieved August 24, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/ .
2. Christensen, C. (2010). How Will You Measure your Life? Harvard Business Review. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
3. Trevino, L. et al. (2004). Managing to Be Ethical: Debunking Five Business Ethics Myths. Academy of Management. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
4. Porter, M. & Kramer, M. (2011). Creating Shared Value. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…
DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…
Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.
In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.
According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.
Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care
The central theme to Carol Gilligan's argument is that while women more often focus on care, men focus more on justice. The "care orientation," according to Gilligan, focuses on emotional relationships of attachment. Gilligan suggests that "humans who think in terms of the care orientation define themselves in terms of a system of relationships, connections, loyalties and circles of concern." (University of Reading Website)
The author also argues that psychology has "persistently and systematically misunderstood women - their motives, their moral commitments, the course of their psychological growth, and their special view of what is important in life." (Harvard).) A point she challenges is that if male development is largely a matter of increasing separation from others to achieve autonomy and independence, does that mean that women have failed to grow into mature adults if their development involves a continuing and unresolved struggle to…
In a Different Voice. Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Retrieved January 29, 2004, from Harvard University Press Website: http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/GILDIF.html
Feminist Ethics / The Ethics of Care. Retrieved January 29, 2004, from the University of Reading Website: http://www.rdg.ac.uk/AcaDepts/ld/Philos/Feminist_Ethics.htm
Gilligan's In a Different Voice. Retrieved 29 January, 2004, from St. Olaf College Website: http://www.stolaf.edu/people/huff/classes/Intro/Gilligan.html
Velasquez, M. Business Ethics, Concepts and Cases. Fifth Edition. pp. 27-32.
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
Discussion and Inference
Comprehension about esearch
A key responsibility of the work of a professional researcher is that of publishing research results. esearchers' writings always serve as a store of knowledge for the writer, but researchers also pen their findings because their peers and readers expect a standard language, form and style when reviewing their work. While it can be hard for beginners to write in a clear scientific style, the skill is trainable and can be mastered with practice (Michael Derntl, 2014).
When doing case study research, as one looks at past studies and reports, the researcher gets a unique opportunity to explore and understand some of the most complicated issues in society from differing perspectives. This approach can be viewed as robust approach especially when in depth and holistic investigations are involved. Case study is appreciated in many fields as a critical tool to…
Kristina Olson, & C.A. Meyersburg. (2008). A Brief Guide to Writing the Psychology Paper. Harvard College Writing Center.
Jennifer Marie Mccarron. (2004). An Integration Of Biblical Principles In Counseling: Psychology Filtered Through Scripture. Honors Program Liberty University.
Kohlberg, L.. (1971). From is to ought: How to commit the naturalistic fallacy and get away with it in the study of moral development. New York: Academic Press.
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: A Christian Apprisal. (2016, October 8). Retrieved from Reclaim The Mind: http://www.reclaimingthemind.org/papers/ets/2005/Moroney/Moroney.pdf
" hile there are factors like peer pressure and authority that come into play, some research claims to have isolated significant features of an individual's character that make them more likely to commit acts of fraud, bribery and falsification in the corporate context (27, 2009). For example, those people with "high levels of ambition were more likely to transgress moral codes, competitively stab colleagues in the back and make dubious decisions relating to asset-stripping, disinvestment, and so on" (27, 2009).
Trevino's (1986) work is relevant when it comes to understanding individuals and corruption. There are a couple questions regarding moral personality that come up: first of all, whether or not a person sees an event or issue as a moral problem; the second is how they decide to act in relation to that problem. Kohlberg's theory of cognitive moral development emphasizes the cognitive or reasoning aspect of moral-decision making (604,…
Bratsis, Peter. The Construction of Corruption, or Rules of Separation and Illusions of Purity in Bourgeois Societies. Social Texts, 21(4), 9-33.
Burke, Ronald J. & Cooper, Cary L. Research Companion to Corruption in Organizations
(New Horizons in Management). Edward Elgar Publishers, 2009.
Fleming, Peter. & Zyglodopoulos, Stelios C. Charting Corporate Corruption: Agency,
Despite the catastrophic job market, at least current students can use the present-day crisis as a teachable moment. No matter how bad things may be, the university must strive to create positive educational debates and experiences.
It is not the responsibility of the university to provide answers to student's questions of morality and identity. But a university has a responsibility not to stifle debate; rather it must enable students to feel free to ask questions. The university must encourage graduates to comfortably tolerate ambiguity and diversity of beliefs amongst their fellow students and within their own hearts. In this tolerance of diversity, of course, there is an implied moral system to some degree, just as there is in Kohlberg's prioritization of moralistic abstractions. The modern university that values ethical questioning must allow for multiplicity of opinions. This tolerance is not cross-culturally universal in its nature. But for an American university,…
Unrecognized Genius of Jean Piaget
Kegan reflects on the work of Jean Piaget, emphasizing the importance of his work. He first looks at Kegan's most famous study, in which he fills two identically shaped beakers with equal amounts of water. He then asks the child whether or not they are of equal volume, and when the child agrees, he pours the contents into a thinner beaker. The child then has to decide which has more, and usually opts for the taller and thinner beaker. Kegan is pointing out the relative adaptive balance that is being made by the child. Children have their own perceptions of the physical world, and often have difficulty discerning relative differences in shapes and forms, among other things. Kegan purports that, "For the preoperational child, it is never just one's perceptions that change; rather, the world itself, as a consequence, changes" (29).
Kegan then goes on…
Kegan, Arthur. The Evolving Self. Massachusetts: Harvard UP. 1982.
Changing Attitudes Regarding Same-Sex Marriages
Even in today's modern, permissive society, many people are still jolted by the idea of same-sex marriage. However, throughout history, regardless of whether or not society encouraged it, gay and lesbian couples have been living with one another for centuries. The only difference today is that gays and lesbians are now demanding the same rights as heterosexuals, including the government's recognition of their relationships.
With official recognition, gay and lesbian couples would have the right to all economic and family-oriented privileges as heterosexual couples have. For example, surviving gay partners would have the right to obtain pension and Social Security payments. And gays and lesbians would be able to include their partners in their health insurance packages.
However, many state and national agencies still have old-fashioned attitudes toward same-sex marriages. For example, the New Jersey Family Policy Council believes that the institution of marriage would…
Page, Jeffrey. (July 2, 2002). Recognition for same-sex marriages. The Record.
Romanceopedia. (2003). Examining the Issue. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.romanceopedia.com/A-SameSexMarriages.html .
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x
Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340
Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.
Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
So it has been suggested that social context of care must be examined and to establish limits to the ethics of care. In contrast, constructive evaluation of care ethic indicates that sensitivity as well as emotional response to particular state of affairs such as family discussions with doctor provide significant guides to morally satisfactory actions plus care ethic also seem to favor accepting procedures from Conflict Resolution as well as Dispute Mediation as optional way to approach evident ethical disagreement (Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy, 1996).
So on the whole, if we think regarding repair as something that should involve tools at least the type of tools found in hardware as well as plumbing supply stores and at construction sites, our cast of fixing characters is frequently going to involve men not for the reason that all men have them or apply them even if they have them…
Virginia Held. The Ethics of Care. New York: Oxford University Press, Feb 2007.
Gilligan, Carol, et al. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Devolpment. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Ethics of Care." Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosphy 1996. April 4, 2008 http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/part2/II_7.html .
Spelman, Elizabeth V. "2 the Household as Repair Shop." Setting the Moral Compass: Essays by Women Philosophers. Ed. Cheshire Calhoun. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
Ainsworth conducted an experiment dubbed 'The Strange Situation' in which one-year-old children and their mothers were observed in an unfamiliar surrounding. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the babies' reactions to separation from and reunification with their mothers. Based on their responses, Ainsworth placed the children into one of three categories: securely attached infants, insecure-avoidant infants, and insecure-resistant infants. The securely attached infants used their mothers as a base from which to explore the unfamiliar setting. When the mothers left, the children were sometimes plainly distressed; however, when the mothers returned, the babies became placid and resumed exploration of the novel surrounding. The insecure-avoidant infants ignored their mothers and immediately began to explore their surroundings. When their mothers exited the room, they appeared unaffected; moreover, these children did not acknowledge their mothers' return and even tended to avoid their contact. The insecure-resistant infants were reluctant to explore whatsoever.…
Morris, Charles & Maisto, Albert. Psychology: An Introduction. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
Social learning theory views education as an inculcation in social norms. Sexuality education requires the individual to learn the biological mechanics of sexuality, but also to understand the social assumptions connected to this facet of human life. Sexuality is not acquired instinctively, even though puberty is a biological phenomenon all adolescents experience. Sexuality is also about acquiring social norms and knowledge. Learning never takes place in isolation. Sexual norms are not learned simply through formal sex education, but also from peers and the media. However, sexual education must strive to counteract misinformation and negative stereotypes, empowering students with facts. Sexual education in the classroom must counteract some of the negative misinformation students will learn, and better equip them to make intelligent decisions.
Because a principle of social learning theory is that it takes place all of the time, adult role models are important for…
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). Moral development. Retrieved:
Social learning theory. (2009). National Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention.
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/
Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
esolving Ethical Business Challenges: Elaine
Business managers and executives usually face several ethical challenges that require them to demonstrate ethical leadership in resolving. Elaine's situation is an example of some of ethical business challenges that these leaders experience with regards to the advantage and disadvantage of each decision. The first decision relates to Graphic, Inc. loan, which was engaged in litigation about promotion of its products to children (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2012, p.177). The advantage of Elaine's decision in this case is that she did what was morally acceptable while the disadvantage is that she lost a money-making opportunity and had no reason to doubt the firm's ability to repay the loan.
In the second situation involving the Canadian firm that was importing cigars from Cuba, the advantage of her decision is that it was based on clear policy guidance i.e. The 1996 Helms-Burton Act. The disadvantage is that…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. In Theories of development
(Prentice-Hall, Chapter 7, pp.118-136). Retrieved from http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Farrell, L. (2012). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Public, Private and Parochial Education, and Character Education
The consensus that exists among educators and parents concerning the form that moral education should take in our schools is one that presently needs to be developed, according to Dr. Thomas Lickona (1993). As Lickona (1993) states, "In the 20th century, the consensus supporting character education began to crumble under the blows of several powerful forces" such as Social Darwinism, positivism and increasing subjectivity with regard to morality and values. In other words, in the 20th century, what was good for one was not necessarily good for another or for all, as modern philosophers put it. Lickona asserts that educators and parents need to work together to arrive at a new consensus regarding character education: they need to identify goals and values that they agree on as being important and vital for children's formation.
Educators can help students become caring, morally responsible…
Knight, G. (2008). Issues and alternatives in educational philosophy (4th ed.). Berrien
Springs, MI: Andrews University Press.
Kohlberg, L. (1963). The development of children's orientations toward a moral order.
Vita Humana, 6: 11-33.
Definition of an Ethical Framework
An ethical framework that would be useful to me is one which I can use it to assess how to go about behaving in a given circumstance. The framework should be based on the virtue-ethics perspective. As Lutz (1996) points out, “Piaget and Kohlberg belong to the cognitive-developmental tradition of developmental psychology” in which the moral development of a child is decided through social interaction and comes about naturally rather than through formal education (p. 1). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is that there are six stages of moral development. First, there is the stage in which the child does what is right to avoid being punished. Second comes the stage in which the child does what is right because he perceives it serves his own interests. Third comes the stage in which the child desires to see himself as a good person and for…
Teach like your hair's on fire: The methods and madness inside room 56 by afe Esquith. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book. This book, written by a teacher with nearly 25 years experience, talks about how to make a difference in the classroom, and make a difference in children's lives. He writes about his classroom, "It's a world where character matters, hard work is respected, humility is valued, and support for one another is unconditional" (Esquith x). That is the thesis of this book, that our culture is insane, and that the right things no longer matter to society, which he is attempting to change through his teaching. He believes if you teach as if your hair is on fire and you do not know it (which happened to him in the classroom), you are moving in the right direction as a teacher, and you will…
Esquith, R. (2007). Teach like your hair's on fire: The methods and madness inside room 56. New York: Viking.
He says that if the prices are still too high, the UN should offer subsidies. (oseley, 2003)
2. Rupert ondy - Senior Vice President and General Counsel
He played a key role in the merger between Glaxo Welcome and SmithKline as well as after the merger. ondy developed an efficient post merger legal department and he ensured legal representation to all organizational departments. (Practical Law Company, 2003)
3. John Clarke - President, Consumer Healthcare
Clarke is the main actor on the company's Consumer Healthcare market and it is due to him that oral hygiene, over-the-counter and nutritional healthcare products have been promoted by GlaxoSmithKline. (Forbes Magazine, 2007)
4. Marc Dunoyer - President, Pharmaceuticals Japan
He extensively promoted the anti-allergy Zyrtec drugs in Japan and around the world.
5. Russell Greig - President, Pharmaceuticals International
Greig is in charge of the GSK operations outside the United States, mainly Japan and the…
2007, GlaxoSmithKline PLC GSK Ratios, Reuters Information on Stocks, http://stocks.us.reuters.com/stocks/ratios.asp?rpc=66&symbol=GSK , last accessed on October 26, 2007
GlaxoSmithKline Official Website, http://gsk.com/,last accessed on October 28, 2007
GlaxoSmithKline Annual Report for 2006, a Human Race, Retrieved on October 28, 2007 at http://www.gsk.com /investors/reps06/annual-report-2006.pdf
Smith Shull, S., Morris, R.J., 2003, GlaxoSmithKline's Retaliation Against Cross-Border Sales of Prescription Drugs
he main battle was expected to take place between SOCAL and ARCO. he latter was confronted with substantial debts and could only bid as much as $75.00 per share. Keller had doubts about the actual amount of money he could bit. His company had limited debts and they could easily receive a bank loan. But there rose the question of whether the Golf Oil Corp. stocks were worth the additional risks and whether they represented a secure source of future profit.
However, the outcome of the bidding was a surprise to most participants to the auction, as the winner was declared small company Mesa Petroleum. hroughout this biting, Mesa Petroleum had increased their share in Gulf Oil up to 13.2%.
But Boone Pickens' objective was to enter the corporation's board of directors and participate to the decision making process. Further on, Pickens borrowed $300 million and purchased 13.5 million shares,…
The company that now possessed 21.3% of Gulf Oil's stocks was an old competitor of the corporations'. The two companies, represented by Mesa CEO Boone Pickens and Gulf Oil's CEO James Lee had previously bid against each other in order to purchase Cities Service, auction lost by both companies.
Even if James Lee's motto was "discoveries and acquisitions," in the year prior to the big auction (1984), Gulf Oil Corporation's CEO decided to cut down on the funds destined to new discoveries in the area of oil. He based his decisions on the popular belief that in the near future, the international petroleum price would remain the same, and as such the company could not generate additional profits to invest in new technologies.
Pittsburgh Post Gazette, February 23, 1984
Finally, the universalizing stage is often referred to as enlightenment, or having achieved a true understanding of the nature of good virtue. (Fowler, 1995; p.p. 73-145).
Clearly, my personal ethical values are heavily influenced by my stage of personal development. As I continue to grow, my values will evolve and adapt to my new way of looking at the world. The way that defining moments influence me will also be controlled by my ethical level of development. However, having at least a conscious understanding of my level of development allows me to better understand my ethical influences, work to overcome the obstacles my ethical development stage creates, and better work to be a better employee and leader.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard usiness School Publishing.
adaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through…
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2002): Leading Quietly: An Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Badaracco, Joseph L. (2006): Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership through Literature. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Fowler, James W. (1995): Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Gilligan, Carol. (1993): In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
The only reason to continue living is to accept and transcend the absurdity with personal scorn and strength. Camus is overwhelmingly concerned with the impact of his ideas on everyday life -- coping with the severe and confusing realities of everyday existence. Based on all of this, Camus asks, in the face of such defeat can a person be actually be happy? It is possible. It is the only reality that a person has. In this world, an individual must confront the limitations of knowledge.
I don't know whether this world has a meaning that transcends it. But I know that I cannot know that meaning and that it is impossible for me just now to know it. What can a meaning outside my condition mean to me? I can understand only in human terms... I do not want to found anything on the incomprehensible. I want to know whether…
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…
DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: APA. - (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Aaronson, C.J., Bender, D.S., Skodol, a.E. And Gunderson, J.G. (2006) Comparison of Attachment Styles in Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Journal Psychiatric Quarterly Vol. 77 No. 1 March 2006. Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=attachment+theory+and+borderline+personality+disorder&page=3&nt=null&userid=9218600308675950091&encquery=431f3e36d133ebdff7537ee6febc11c6eca098f7674f16b90920f3bd5b092d5ab49460504194f6e58ee065b5a3272811bc442682a5c9c059&ie=UTF-8&invocationType=keyword_rollover&clickstreamid=5154621097040471491 .
Adalist-Estrin, Ann (1993) Moral Development and Attachment: Disruptions that Create Cycles of Criminal Behavior October 10-12. The Fourth North American Conference on the Family & Corrections Family and Corrections Network. Family Pathway Project. Online available at http://www.fcnetwork.org/4thnorth/moral.html
Agrawal, H.R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B.M. And Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004) Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review. HARV REV PSYCHIATRY 2004;12:94-104
How is the reading related to other theories, concepts, themes, and topics covered in HSBE (503/505)?
The reading relates to all the different psychological theories that are available for one to study. For example, a person can learn about Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg and Abraham Maslow. This helps someone to understand that these are crucial times in children's lives as they grow up and become adults. They need to know that they are nurtured and loved in order to make a difference in society when each of them becomes older (Hartshorne, 2010). Furthermore, the birth order of those that are the first born are considered independent and over protective of their siblings; whereas, the middle child is considered the person who is creative (Kluger, The power of birth order, 2007). The baby is the one who gets anything and everything he or she wants because of becoming the last…
Child Development Info. (2010). Birth Order. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Child Development Institute: http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/birth_order.shtml .
Hartshorne, J.K. (2010). How birth order affects your personalitly. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=ruled-by-birth-order .
Kluger, J. (2006, July). The New Science of Siblings. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Pleasanton: http://www.pleasanton.k12.ca.us/avhsweb/emersond/appsych/ch11_development/sibs.pdf.
Kluger, J. (2007). The power of birth order. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from Time: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1673284,00.html .
In that view, this litigation is just clean-up or "post-mortem." The final "resolution" stage will be indicated by settlement of all the suits, which we anticipate will take at least a decade.
3-4. Compare and contrast mediators, arbitrators and ombuds.
This case demonstrates the difference between mediators, here represented by the neutral parties facilitating communication between the banks and the AG team negotiating for the Consortium, versus arbitrators who would hand down a binding decision (effectively the courts, here), and ombudsmen who represent the consumer, perhaps here in the person of the Attorneys General.
3-5. Define the corporate stakeholders and describe their primary power.
Corporate stakeholders in this case are the firms whose accounts we process and other banks who borrow from us overnight. If these firms and banks will see their costs go up from these potential legal actions, they have a direct stake in undermining the AG's ability…
people you meet in heaven. Each was in your life for a reason. You may not have known the reason at the time, and that is what heaven is for. For understanding your life on earth.
The Five People You Meet in Heaven is a story of a lifetime of self misperception, potential waste of spirit, and ultimate redemption.
Eddie gave his all to the war and now works in a meaningless job at the Ruby Pier amusement park. In a heroic gesture, he gives his life saving a child sitting under a falling ride. Waking in a cotton candy-like heaven, he meets with five people -- some strangers and others well-known -- who guide him on a visual and illuminating journey through his life, theoretically proving that not everything is revealed during the time on earth.
The intended purpose for the five interactions is bi-directional; the communicants are seeking…
Dychtwald, K. & Flower, J. (1989). Age Wave: The Challenges of Opportunities of an Aging Society. Troy, AL: JP Tarcher
Lerner, R.M., Easterbrooks, M.A., Mistry, J. & Weiner, I.B. (eds) (1982). Handbook of Developmental Psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall
Reimer, J., Pritchard-Paolitto, D. & Hersh, R. (1979) Promoting Moral Growth: From Piaget to Kohlberg. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press
Features of Late Adulthood and the Psychosocial Factors that Impact Individuals at this Developmental Stage
A number of psychologists such as Erikson, Levinson and Kohlberg and others have suggested that most humans develop along certain developmental stages during their lives, during which certain key features emerge and various challenges and obstacles must be overcome in order to successfully advance to the more advanced stages (Shaver & Tarpy, 1994). While the authorities may not agree of the precise components of the various stages, it would seem that most people do in fact experience a number of developmental features that provide for some fairly accurate generalizations; these issues as they apply to the key features of late adulthood and the impact of psychosocial factors during this period of life are discussed further below.
Key Features of Late Adulthood. According to Erik Erikson's stages of development, late adulthood occurs during the seventh stage,…
Adams-Price, C.E. (1998). Creativity and successful aging: Theoretical and empirical approaches. New York: Springer.
Austrian, S.G. (2002). Developmental theories through the life cycle. New York: Columbia
Coupland, J., & Nussbaum, J.F. (2004). Handbook of communication and aging research.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
Raise Respectful Children
Children are an extension of their parents and they were they are raised affects their personality to a great extent. It is only right that parents should focus on building the right kind of relationship with them so that they grow up to be better human beings and better citizens and carry that upbringing with them as well.
Since it is a stage where human beings can be easily molded into whatever shape you would like them to, you should particularly care for what you say in front of them or do, and what you teach them, because they are impressionable and pick everything, not just the good.
In raising children, one should always keep God in mind, and seek Him out, and look to Him for help at all times. And teach your kids to do the same. And one should remember that no matter how…
Palmer, P.J. (1998/1999). Evoking the spirit in public education. Educational Leadership, 1-7.
Rigby, J. (2006). Raising respectful children in a disrespectful world. New York, NY: Howard Books.
Farber, A. (1995). How to talk so kids can learn at home & in school. New York, NY: Scribner.
In 1997, numerous key educational institutions including the AASA (American Association of School Administrators); ASCD (the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), NAESP (the National Association of Elementary School Principals), and the NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) worked in the auspices of ISLLC, funded by the CCSSO (Council of Chief State School Officers), to increase educational management standards. The National Policy Board for Educational Administration used the ISLLC principles for accreditation, efficiently holding educational administrative training programs accountable for not only creating pre-service instructive leaders' knowledge of moral concepts and structures but also for budding their capability to apply such ideas and structures to make moral decisions that would optimistically affect the experiences of pupils. This is in line with the fifth criterion deals with morals, saying that "a school superintendent is an educational organizer who promotes the achievement of all pupils by acting with honesty, justice, and…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-449.
Blanchard, K. And Hodges, P. (2003). Servant leadership. Nashville, TN Thomas Nelson.
Farling, M.L., Stone, A.G., & Winston, B.E. (1999). Servant leadership: Setting the stage for empirical research. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(1-2), 49-72.
Fullan, M. (2003). The moral imperative of school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Moral reasoning: An intercultural comparison
Until recently, many Western developmental theorists tended to see morality as a transcultural phenomenon, reflecting their belief that all cultures shared certain common moral assumptions. Both Piaget and Kohlberg stressed that moral development passes through a series of stages, just like the child's ability to understand other complex subjects like mass and volume (Jensen 2008; Sunac n.d). However, this tends to assume that the individual is the primary moral decision-making unit and reflects an individualistic bias. American culture is defined by certain assumptions, such as the importance of individualism and material advancement, which are not necessarily shared by all cultures (or indeed all subcultures within America) (Humphries & Jagers 2009: 206). In America, an individual who 'stands up' to a crowd, or who goes against established ideas and makes a profit in the case of an entrepreneur like Steve Jobs or…
Bedford, Olwen & Kwang-Kuo Hwang. (2003). Guilt and shame in Chinese culture:
A cross-cultural framework from the perspective of morality and identity.
Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33:2.
Humphries, Marisha L. & Robert J. Jagers (2009). Culture: A possible predictor of morality for African-American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(2), 205 -- 215
Human Development and Education Theory
Behavioral psychologists and developmental theorists have traditionally categorized various periods of childhood and adolescence that correspond to VEY specific stages of cognitive and emotional development. While various experts differ widely in their characterization and analyses of the human developmental stages, modern educators recognize the importance of certain elements of behavioral and emotional development as equally important to early education as age-related cognitive stages of purely intellectual growth.
Traditional primary and secondary education programs are based on teaching methods and concepts designed in the nineteenth century and earlier. While the academic curricula expanded considerably during the course of the last hundred years' of American education, many of the methods still relied upon by modern educators mirror the principles designed primarily just to teach elementary reading and writing skills, which was the main (if not the sole) focus of the early education even well into the twentieth…
Smith, M.K. (2002) Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences.
The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Accessed July 6, 2004 at http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm .(Last updated: 2/14/04)
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2001) Psychology and Life 16th ed.
Allyn & Bacon, New Jersey