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The INA still influences the field of American immigration law today. In order to enforce the quotas that had been established, the INA created the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The INS served as the federal agency that enforced these limits for the remainder of the 20th century (Immigration, n.d).
When Congress passed the INA, an alien was defined as any person lacking citizenship or status as a national of the United States. Different categories of aliens include resident and nonresident, immigrant and nonimmigrant, and documented and undocumented or illegal. "The terms documented and undocumented refer to whether an arriving alien has the proper records and identification for admission into the U.S. Having the proper records and identification typically requires the alien to possess a valid, unexpired passport and either a visa, border crossing identification card, permanent resident card, or a reentry permit" (Immigration, n.d).
The need to limit illegal immigration…
Constructing Whiteness. (2009). Retrieved October 18, 2009, from Web site:
Immigration. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2009, from Cornell University Law School Web
However, mentorship alone will not satisfy some of the practical concerns in promoting Latino advancement, such as the language barriers some Latinos experience when transitioning from a primarily non-English speaking household to a mainstream classroom. Depending on the district, students may participate in stand-alone ESL programs where students are removed from their regular classrooms and taught English as a foreign language in a resource room or ESL students may receive instruction in a more intensive format. The 'pull out' method has the disadvantage of forcing students to grapple with math and science with their English-speaking peers, even though many students find such subjects difficult even in their primary language,. ESL-plus programs may comprise bilingual classrooms, or consist of classrooms where students receive content area instruction in their own language, along with English classes designed to enhance the second language learner's proficiency. or, the ESL-plus program may be in English,…
Informal science for Latinos. (2008). Self-Reliance Foundation.
Retrieved February 23, 2010 at http://www.informalscience.org/project/show/1724
Kane, M.A; Beals, C.; Valeau, E.J.; Johnson, M.J. (2004). Fostering success among traditionally underrepresented student groups: Hartnell College's approach to implementation of the Math, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program. Community College
Journal of Research & Practice 28: 17:-26
Like so many people throughout history, including Martin Luther King, they may place their lives at stake if the political environment they interact with or live in is volatile.
The ideals and concepts presented in this paper reflect the views of the author. I chose the ideas of a collective consciousness and the idea of developing personality first, outside the realm of politics, before any one person or group commits to a "cause" they may or may not know anything about. Far too often in modern society youths are tempted to engage in activities and acts that defy their culture, integrity and nature. Through collective reasoning however, and discovery of ones skills, students can grow into adults that are diverse, adults that recognize change as positive, and adults that are less likely to engage in combat to make a point. There is an old saying that people have an…
Reference (from customer)
Lipsitz, (2001): 176-77, in, Latinos, Alvarez Luis, Latino Studies vol 5: no 1.
Latino - Politics - Identity
For instance, the September 1917 celebration of Mexican Independence, was marketed as a ed Cross fundraising event, and the celebration of Cinco De Mayo was postponed for the duration of the War. (Mac Donald 150).
During World War II, the ranks of Latinos in the U.S. Armed Forces swelled to more than 400,000, a higher percentage than any other minority. Puerto icans had the second largest number of wartime casualties after the Hawaiians (odgriguez 40). There were approximately 65,000 Puerto ican troops, including 200 who served in the Women's Army Corps. Discrimination continued in this war, as well. The Department of Defense classified non-black Hispanics as Caucasians and black or dark skinned Hispanics as African-Americans, as a result official statistics recognizing Hispanic contributions in World War II are not available. Do to the lack of documentation, Hispanics' contributions are rarely found in history books.
During WWII, Mexican-Americans had the highest…
Fontana Bernard L. Pictorial Images of Spanish North America Journal of the Southwest.(2000) 42.4
Hispanics. U.S. Military website. 8 December 2007. http://www.prb.org/Articles/2007/HispanicsUSMilitary.aspx
Mac Donald, Jason. Marginalising the Marginalised in Wartime: African-Americans and Mexican-Americans in Austin, Texas, during the World War I Era. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. (2006) 32.1.
Rodgriguez, Clara E.: Puerto Ricans: Born in the U.S.A. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
(State law did allow the segregation of black, Asian, and
Indian children.)" (Espinosa, 2)
In other words, even though the decision would reflect a positive
push forward for those involved in the Lemon Grove Incident and for Mexican
Americans of the time, it would hinge on a racialist rationalization that
maintained the overtones of prejudice enabling the segregation on schools
on a more general level. Even for Latinos on the longer timeline, this
would prove a poor resolution to the question of equal treatment in terms
of opportunity, or at least it would have mixed implications. The positive
and negative implications of the decision are revealed in the aftermath of
the Alvarez decision. As the article by Espinosa tells, "the Lemon Grove
case ultimately helped defeat the Bliss Bill in the California legislative,
which attempted to reclassify Mexicans as Indians so that they could be
legally segregated under California laws…
Alvarez, R.R. (1986). The Lemon Grove Incident: The Nation's First
Successful Desegregation Court Case. The Journal of San Diego History,
Espinosa, P. (1986). Lemon Grove Incident. National PBS Broadcast.
Padilla, R.V. & Chavez, R. (1995). The Leaning Ivory Tower: Latino
At the moment Latino students find it easy to seek for help from their family members and find so difficult to find the same help from members outside the family such as friends or the community. Since there is a great disparity between the Latino culture and the expectations of the United States educational system it is obvious that the Latino students require assistance to help them cope with this new culture which they can only get from those who are familiar with the new system; the Whites. Even though there are counseling services it has been noted that Latino students either underutilize them or never use them at all due to the lack of knowledge of their existence or not knowing the means of accessing them. This lack of access to such vital services can prevent them from gaining from the educational opportunities and ultimately leads to underachievement and…
Alanis, I. & Rodriguez, M.A. (2008). Sustaining a dual language immersion program: Features of success. LLC: Taylor & Francis Group.
Arce, J. (2004). Latino bilingual teachers: The struggle to sustain an emancipator pedagogy in public schools, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education,17(2).
Collier, V.P. (1995) Acquiring a second language for school, Directions in Language & Education, 1(4) (Washington, DC, George Washington University, National
Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education).
Latino Literature: Opposing Traditional Values
There are several different facets of Latino literature that I am familiar with today that I was previously unaware of. Most of these are related to the variety of themes that recur in various manifestations throughout this genre of literature. The most fundamental aspect of learning that I have come away from this course with is that in this particular type of literature, themes and subject matter are not always what they appear as.
Even a cursory examination of the authors read in this course and some of the works of literature they produced confirm this thesis statement. There is a palpable subversion of traditional gender roles and conceptions in the works of Junot Diaz, who authored "Drown and "Aguantando," as well as in those of Sandra Cisneros, whose "Bien Pretty" exemplifies this characteristic. The works of Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortaza, and…
Borges, J.L. (1953). "The South." Writing to live.com. http://www.writingtolive.com/2011/10/fiction-stories-jorge-luis-borges-south.html
Cisneros, S. (1992). Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories. New York: Vintage.
Diaz, J. (1997). Drown. New York: Riverhead Trade.
" (Hernandez & Lopez 2005; 38)
This set of general descriptors which may not necessarily apply universally, nonetheless helps to warrant the theory driving the research. Such is to say that this contributes to the argument that "retention is a complex and multidimensional issue [that] cannot be quickly or easily understood" and continues to suggest that "personal, involvement, environmental, and socio-cultural influences" all devise the experience of Latinos in America's schools. It suggests that intervention must consider a broad array causes extending from American society as a whole in order to improve graduation rates.
This theory is decidedly unempirical because the study by Hernandez & Lopez is largely preoccupied with descriptive imperatives for its study. The frame of the study is non-experimental, with an examination instead qualitative elaboration on the various features of the Latino experience that are likely to have had an impact on their retention rates in the…
Cozby. (2009). Studying Behavior. .
Creswell (2009). The Use of Theory. .
Hernandez, J.C. & Lopez, M.A. (2005). Leaking Pipeline: Issues Impacting Latino/A College Student Retention. J. College Student Retention, 6(1), 37-60.
Torres, V. (2006) A Mixed Method Study Testing Data-Model Fit of a Retention Model for Latino/a Students at Urban Universities. J. College Student Development, 47(3), 299-317.
Finally, in 1959, the last Mexican-American holdouts in Chavez Ravine were forcibly removed from their homes by police, and the bulldozers were brought in to clear all remaining buildings, according to the PBS report. Los Angeles Times reporter Dan Lai wrote in his blog on April 20, 2010:
"[Chavez Ravine] is a story of broken promises, wicked land deals, slimy business proceedings, highly questionable political wrangling, mayoral lies, forcible evictions, eminent domain, and baseball… the short of the story…is that basically the City of Los Angeles kicked out a huge group of Chicano Americans living self-sufficiently in the Chavez Ravine area…bulldozed their homes and promised to re-house them by building high rise public housing projects…"
Meanwhile, in the book Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles, essayist Camille Zubrinsky Charles writes that immigrant status "significantly impacts the likelihood of homeownership" (Charles, 2002, p. 172). In fact slightly more than half of…
Acuna, Rodolfo. (1996). Anything but Mexican: Chicanos in Contemporary Los Angeles.
Chicago: Haymarket Books / Haymarket Series.
Charles, Camille Zubrinsky. (2002). Residential Segregation in Los Angeles. In L. Bobo (Ed.),
Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles (pp. 167-180). New York: Russell Sage
Latino players in major league baseball. Specifically, it will concentrate on information about the players' struggles, fame, and fans.
LATINO BASEBALL PLAYES
Latinos playing professional baseball in the United States is nothing new. Puerto ican oberto Clemente, the first Latin American to enter baseball's Hall of Fame, began his major league career in 1954 with a Dodger farm team in Montreal, and there were others before him, but not many. "Thus far, Puerto ico had produced few major league players, and none of superstar caliber. Hiram Gabriel Bithorn had joined the Chicago Cubs in 1942 and pitched four seasons. Luis odriguez Olmo became a popular outfielder for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1943, winding up his big league career in 1951 with the Boston Braves. But they were light-skinned Latins who had passed through the game's color bar" (Wagenheim 33).
The Latinos really started showing up in the big leagues in…
Partin, Clyde, et al. Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States. Eds. Kirsch, George B., Othello Harris, and Claire E. Nolte. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 1-39.
Pi-Gonzalez, Amaury. "2002 World Series: An International Affair." LatinoBaseball.com. 2002. 4 Dec. 2002. http://www.latinobaseball.com/articles/index.php?section=Regular&articleid=90
Felipe Alou Welcomed in San Francisco." LatinoBaseball.com. 2002. 4 Dec. 2002. http://www.latinobaseball.com/articles/index.php?section=Feature&articleid=94
Singer, Marc, et al. Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States. Eds. Kirsch, George B., Othello Harris, and Claire E. Nolte. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 40-81.
Latino community leaders want to achieve equality in the United States for Latino-Americans and immigrants, but they want to preserve their cultural uniqueness and traditions in the same way that other immigrant groups have done in America. hile the academic opportunities that are now open to Latinos in America are encouraging, and the career opportunities that are becoming available through alternative dispute resolution is helpful, Latinos are still struggling, as has every immigrant in American society, with maintaining their identity as a cultural group. Assimilation, Latino experts hold, is a good thing, but loss of cultural identity is not (119). So there remains an emphasis on helping the Latino community recognize and to celebrate its own identity.
Contreras, Josefina M., Kathryn a. Kerns, and Angela M. Neal-Barnett, eds. Latino Children and Families in the United States: Current Research and Future Directions / . estport, CT: Praeger, 2002.…
Contreras, Josefina M., Kathryn a. Kerns, and Angela M. Neal-Barnett, eds. Latino Children and Families in the United States: Current Research and Future Directions / . Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002. Questia. 22 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102099820 .
Shaunessy, Elizabeth, et al. "Understanding the Experiences of Bilingual, Latino/a Adolescents: Voices from Gifted and General Education." Roeper Review 29.3 (2007): 174+. Questia. 22 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020787821 .
And Vela-Gude's article offers several of the main points of this paper's research; the services must be ready, and the counselors must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the cultural implications as well as the academic realities facing those Latino students (2009).
Racism Against Latinos
This paper alludes to the high number of Latinos in California and Texas, but according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's research, the South is home to one of the "fastest growing populations of Latinos in the country" (Bauer, et al., 2009, p. 4). But though the typical Latino immigrant comes to the South to escape "crushing poverty in their home countries" they often encounter "…widespread hostility, discrimination and exploitation" (Bauer, 2009, p. 4).
hat kinds of discrimination do Latinos come up against in the South? Mary Bauer and her chief researcher, Sarah Reynolds, claim that Latinos are "…routinely cheated out of their earnings…
Barneclo, Nick Anthony. (2008). El Laberinto del exito: A Mixed methods investigation of resilience within the context of Mexican-American late adolescents lives. Dissertation at New Mexico State University in Counseling Psychology. ProQuest Publication Number:
Cannon, Edward, and Levy, Marielle. (2008). Substance-Using Hispanic Youth and Their
Families: Review of Engagement and Treatment Strategies. The Family Journal: Counseling
Relationships between Race and Justice in Immigration
Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has seen a 43% rise in immigrations arrests since the Trump Administration took office in 2017 (Wamsley, 2017). This should not be surprising as it comes on the heels of a presidential campaign in which Trump promoted an anti-immigration agenda and identified illegal Latino immigrants as virtually enemy #1 of the American people. Using concepts of race, violence, and justice, Trump fostered an “America First” platform that sought to place the problems of the American community, economy, ethics and justice on the backs of Latinos in a way that made them seem remarkably like a scapegoat for the presidential hopeful. With Trump’s election, the campaign pledges became promises that would be kept. As the Associated Press reported in February 2018, “people arrested by deportation officers increasingly have no criminal backgrounds, according to figures released Friday, reflecting the Trump…
acial discrimination is a term that signifies treating people with different skin tone and cultural heritage and not only different but also as inferior. This feeling or societal approach is not limited to just one area of the world, it is a habit being carried from generation to generation in all the countries of the world. Each skin color whether white, black, pin k or brown all view themselves as someone important while considering the other as subordinate or lower in rank to them. Discrimination has been the curse of the nineteenth and twentieth century's. This is the reason that this era is full to the brim with violent protests, wars, conflicts and civil rights movement, some of which have been quiet successful. The paper will look at the place of Hispanics in the U.S. And more specifically Houston society. It will examine their condition in the city…
Acuna, R.F. (2003). U.S. Latino Issues. Retrieved 25 July, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113036521
Chomsky, A. (2007). "They Take Our Jobs!"and 20 Other Myths about immigration. Retrieved 25 July, 2012, fromhttp://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=116694607
CRM (2011) Hispanics in the Civil War. (Vol: 20, I: 11). Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/20-11/20-11-31.pdf
Emerson, M.O, Bratter, J, et al., (2010). Houston Grows More Racially / Ethnically Diverse, With Small Declines in Segregation. Retrieved July, 25, 2012, from http://kinder.rice.edu/uploadedFiles/Urban_Research_Center/Media/Houston%20Region%20Grows%20More%20Ethnically%20Diverse%202-13.pdf
Latino's In The Media
Latinos make up a large portion of the population of the United States. According to odriguez (1997) the rapidly increasing population of Latinos accounts not only for 17% of the people in the U.S., but also 20% of the 18-34 demographics that are the focus of marketing. Thus, it is a key target group in marketing. This ethnic group's dedication to movies and radio has surpassed that of any other group in America, whether racial or ethnic (Meehan and iordan, 2002). In terms of economic contribution, this group's buying power is expected to reach 1.6 trillion dollars by 2016, ranking it at number fourteen in the economies of the nations of the world, if it was a country on its own. Thus, they make up a large part of the economy. Nevertheless, as Disch (2009) and obb (2014) state the rate of their participation in the…
Deggans, E. (September 2005). The Story behind Television's Latin Star Surge. Hispanic., Vol. 18 Issue 9, p22-24, 3p
Disch, E. (2009). Reconstructing gender: a multicultural anthology, 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Harwood, J., & Roy, A. (2005). "Social identity theory and mass communication research." In J. Harwood & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup Communication (pp. 189-211). New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Hollar, J. (Sep. 2012). Missing Latino Voices. Extra!; Vol. 25 Issue 9, p7-8, 2p
homosexual latinos: the difficulties latinos face in being homosexual; the differences between homosexual latinos and Caucasian homosexuals; how latino homosexuals are treated within their communities, by their families, and within their countries of origin; and how homosexual latinos are treated within Latin America as a whole.
People have argued that homosexuality is part of the latino culture, and has been since pre-Columbian time, as records from pottery, and accounts from conquistadors of the Aztecs' behavior confirms. As the following quote, from a website championing gay and lesbian rights, shows, "homosexuality is a part of the pre- Columbian history of America. Spanish chroniclers observed various socio-sexual roles, including private same-sex relationships, and homosexuality as public ritual. Surviving effigy pottery demonstrates that Native people practiced a wide array of sexual customs. Among the militaristic and prudish Aztecs, sex also had a religious aspect. Xochiquetzal was considered the goddess of eroticism and sexual…
Marsiglia (1998). Homosexuality and Latinos/as: Towards and Integration of Identities. Journal of Gay and lesbian Social Services 8(3): 113-125. http://www.hivtest.org/docs/factslatino.pdf "HIV / AIDS among latinos: key facts." Accessed 26th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/brazil.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Brazil." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/mexico.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Mexico." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.geocities.com/eltejanito/gaylhis.htm" Gay and Lesbian History, and "Dia de la Raza." Accessed 29th November 2003. http://www.blacklightonline.com/gaylatinos.html " Gay Latinos, "La Raza" and the new "Familia." Article by Sidney Brinkley. Accessed on 27th November 2003.
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…
American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer
Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
6 million of the 17.3 million eligible Hispanic voters cast a ballot (Kaufman 2007).
The language barrier might be yet another reason that Hispanics struggle to find a foothold in American society. ESL programs often fail to address Latino's needs in schools. Latinos have the highest high school dropout rate of any ethnic group in America, and there is no statistically significant difference between drop-out rates for immigrants or the native born, indicating that intensive ESL programs are necessary to supplement the education in English teens receive at home and in informal social contexts. Poverty and an inability to acclimate to the school environment because of inadequate language education in the early grades are two possible reasons that "at 21%, the national Latino high school dropout rate is more than twice the national average of10%" (Pew Center, 2004).
Despite the centrality of the family in Latino culture, many Latino teens…
Kaufman, Stephen. (2007, 11 October). Hispanic-Americans' political clout expected to increase. Pew Center. Retrieved March 26, 2010 at http://www.america.gov/st/usg-english/2007/October/20071011113828esnamfuak0.9106256.html
Pew Hispanic Center fact sheet. (2004, January). Pew Center. Retrieved March 26, 2010 at http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/7.3.pdf
Labels: Latinos or Hispanics
Labeling people by their race is often a controversial subject of debate in political and social circles. Why classify people as Hispanics, Latinos or African-Americans when they can all be simply called Americans by virtue of them being citizens of the United States. However it appears that there is some political gains to be made by the use of ethnic labeling and often this kind of classification is very damaging or restricting. For example a person who comes from a Spanish speaking family and is labeled a Latino is expected to behave in certain race-specific manner. he/she is expected to be really 'hip', an expert in salsa or other forms of dancing, not really good in academics, coming from a poor family and supporting a certain political party. But what if that one individual wants to defy all these restricting attributes because he/she is not a…
Lind, Michael- The Diversity Scam. The New Leader; 7/1/2000;
Irving Lewis Allen: Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to Wasp. Bergin & Garvey. New York 1990.
Abigail Bucuvalas: Interview with Assistant Professor Mica Pollock, "When Race Matters":
Hispanic vs. Latino
In these times of political correctness and cultural awareness and sensitivity, it is very important to know the right term when discussing a people or their culture. It is very easy to offend without intending to so or to cause emotional pain through ignorance. This is why it has become increasingly important to know the right cultural term for a given population. People with Mexican heritage have interchangeably been referred to by the terms Hispanic or Latino for many years. Lately, it has become necessary to create a single identifying term so that the group feels unified and no one feels at all slighted by a term they deem to be in any way offensive to themselves or their culture. Many cultural critics have argued that the term Hispanic is more offensive that Latino because it the term was created by the government and Latino was the…
Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.
Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino: What's in a Name?" Latino Like Me.
Granados, Christine. "Hispanic vs. Latino." Hispanic Magazine. Dec 2000.
Grech, Dan and Jose Maya. "Episode 4: Hispanic vs. Latino."
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
divorce affects the personality of Latino children
Family normally indicates to a group of persons directly associated with kinship, wherein the adult members are liable for the care of their children. The kinship involves genetic ties or ties coming out of marriage. Marriage is considered to be a sexual union between two adults, socially recognized and approved. Marriage and therefore the family in western societies are related to monogamy. A major change has emerged in the common structure of family life during the post-war periods. A high proportion of women participated in the paid labor force, which has a direct impact on growth of divorce and considerable numbers of children are forced to reside either in single parent households or with stepfamilies. Cohabitation has progressively become normal in many of the industrial nations. Many other forms of social and sexual relationship are about to flourish in the future. Still marriage…
"Chapter 15: the Family and Intimate Relationships" Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter15/welcome.htm
Accessed 8 November, 2005
"Child Psychology Lesson 1. Issues in Child Development" Retrieved from http://www.kuce.org/isc/previews/psyc/psyc333_lesson.html
'Children in the Middle" Retrieved from http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/print.cfm?pkProgramid=207
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
Disparities and Diabetes among Latinos
The whole world is experiencing diabetes-related health disparities, co-morbidities and its complications. There is a wide range of literature available showing that ethnic and race minorities are at a greater risk of developing diabetes compared to the majority groups. The disparities are a result of a combination of factors; they are both clinical and biological. They are also strongly associated with the system of health and factors related to social dynamics. The term ethnicity is a complex one. It reflects a convergence of multi-dimensional factors ranging from biological ones to geographically-influenced contributors. Other strong influencers include political, economic cultural, legal and social factors, including racism. Thus, it is important to understand the idea of racism and ethnicity if one is to figure out the full stretch and effect of disparities in healthcare and health, generally (Spanakis & Golden, 2013).
The USA has a large Latino…
Diversity of Aging Population -- Innovative Healthcare
Over the past several decades there has been an avalanche of research and scholarly narratives focusing on the aging of millions of Americans -- among them the "baby boomers" that were born between 1946 and 1964 -- including their numbers and their health vis-a-vis the impact on the sometimes struggling healthcare system. But there has been a dearth of research on how American healthcare services will respond -- and is currently responding -- to an increasingly diverse older population when it comes to racial, cultural and ethnic identities. This paper points to the numerous issues and challenges that not only face an increasingly diverse older American population when it comes to healthcare, but also the challenges that the healthcare system itself faces as these Americans move into the twilight of their lives.
hat should be the Vision and Mission of Healthcare Professionals in…
Administration on Aging. (2010). A Statistical Profile of Black Older Americans Aged 65+.
Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.aoa.gov .
Bookman, A. (2008). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 419-438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). The State of Aging and Health in America
One can see many similarities between the two characters. However, there are also difference in their attitudes towards their future. Yunior sees the future as bleak, largely due to his father's actions and the effect that he knows it will have on the family. Annie sees her family as representative of her security in childhood.
Annie grows up in a proper world, where the father embodies the perfect father figure, according to the rules of Antiguan society. She has a close relationship with her father, unlike the absent father or Yunior. As both adolescents make preparations to go into their lives as adults, they go with very different attitudes, largely as a response to the fatherly figure in their lives. Both adolescents know that they have to leave the security of the home and in order to break the influences of their childhood, only one goes with anticipation and the…
Diaz, Junot. Drown. Riverhead Trade, a Division of Penguin USA. 1997.
Kincaid, Jamaica. Annie John. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 1997.
Additionally, the creation of a trust fund for housing could help to alleviate some of the economic burden on developers in Los Angeles. As compared to other major metropolis' such as San Jose, New York, and Chicago, Los Angeles uses the least amount of federal block grant funds on affordable housing on a per person basis, with just $23 per resident (In Short Demand). In addition to adopting an inclusionary zoning ordinance, the city should also implement an in-lieu fee to help fund it. Such a fee could be an alternative method to the institution of including an affordable unit in new developments, and could be directly applied to a housing trust fund. Estimates indicate that a $7 per square foot in-lieu fee would produce a surplus of upwards of $20 million a year, and could be used to remedy the housing shortage that not only affects Latinos, but other…
Kushner, James. Gov. Discrimination: Equal Protection Law & Litigation. Eagan: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 2008. Print
Los Angeles Housing Department, "Program Components -- City of Los Angeles Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance. 2004. Web. http://cityplanning.lacity.org/Code_Studies/other/ProposedICPolicyMatrix.PDF
Los Angeles Housing Department. In Short Supply: Recommendations of the Los Angeles Housing Crisis task Force. 1999. Web. http://www.ci.la.ca.us/lahd/shrtsup2k.PDF
Liu, Cathy. "Ethnic Enclave Residence and Employment Accessibility of Latino Workers in Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington D.C." University of Southern California, 2008. Web. http://www.usc.edu/schools/sppd/lusk/research/pdf/wp_2008-1001.pdf
This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008).
Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV /…
Arreola, S.G., Neilands, T.B., & Diaz, R. (2009). "Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men." American journal of public health,2(99).
Brooks, R.A., Etzel, M.A., Hinojos, E., Henry, C.L., & Perez, M. (2005). "Preventing HIV
among Latino and African-American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. AIDS patient care
" "This agent of RE/MAX blatantly discriminated against Latinos," said NFHA President and CEO Shanna L. Smith. So, the bottom line of that story is Latinos may be getting good jobs in some cases but finding appropriate housing near one's place of work can be a minefield of bias and deception.
Meanwhile, to answer the question, what effects does being Latino have on seeking a professional career, a study by the AFL-CIO shows that "...three of four Latino workers say workplace rights need more protection" (www.aflcio.org).Accordingto the AFL-CIO research, called "the most exhaustive study ever conducted on worker's rights," nearly one-third of Latinos interviewed on the job said they have faced "workplace discrimination based on their ethnicity" (AFL-CIO). The Peter D. Hart Research Associates group conducted this research for the AFL-CIO; the research sampled 1,792 adult Latinos and Asians. It was called "orker's Rights in America: hat orkers Think About…
FindLaw.com. (2008). Employment Discrimination in Alabama. Federal Law Prohibits
Employment Discrimination. Retrieved February 22, 2009, at http://library.findlaw.com .
Forbes.com. (2009). Department of Justice Settles Racial Discrimination Lawsuit Against RE/MAX Franchisee and Agent: National Fair Housing Alliance & HUD
Investigations Determined Discrimination. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.forbes.com .
Contribution of the Media in the Disintegration of the Hispanic Community
Hispanic identity is a spectrum. There are numerous cultures and ethnicities that compose the Latin American identity. epresentations of Latinos and Hispanics on American television are limited and reflect cultural bias. There are rarely depictions of successful Hispanic business owners or as government agents/employees. Only in the past few decades has attention be formally paid to the quality and quantity of Latino representations in American media. epresentations of this group have increased since the late 20th century, yet there are still relatively scarce representations of Latinos, and many of the ones that are present are stereotypical. Stereotypical depictions of Latin Americans on television impact non-Latinos' perceptions and attitudes toward Hispanics. Hispanics are affected by media representations of their heritage that results in a reshaping of the cultural identity and potentially harming the self-esteem of Hispanic people. Other Hispanics,…
Davila, Arlene. Talking back: hispanic media and U.S. latinidad. Centro Journal, 12(1), 37 -- 47, 2000.
Mastro, Dana E., & Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth. Latino Representation on Primetime Television. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82(1), 110 -- 130, 2005.
Mastro, Dana E., Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth, & Kopacz, Maria A. Exposure to Television Portrayals of Latinos: The Implications of Aversive Racism and Social Identity Theory. Human Communication Research, 34, 1 -- 27, 2008.
Rivadeneyra, Rocio, Ward, L.Monique, & Gordon, Maya. Distorted Reflections: Media Exposure and Latino Adolescents' Conceptions of Self. Media Psychology, 9, 261 -- 290, 2007.
Meng and Meurs (2009) examine the effects of intermarriage, language, and economic advantage. They find that immigrants who have some skill in the dominant language of the country to which they immigrate tend to intermarry and earn more income (Meng and Meurs). Marrying outside of one's culture may influence language acquisition due to social and economic needs to advance within the adopted culture.
Moua and Lamborn (2010) note that ethnic socialization practices by parents of immigrant adolescents strengthen the ethnic heritage connection between adolescent, parent, and ethnic community. These include native language use, marriage ties, taking part in cultural events, sharing history, and preparing traditional foods (Moua and Lamborn). As noted previously, immigrant parents tend to congregate in ethnic communities, where they are essentially immersed in the ethnic culture. The native language is often the most utilized if not the exclusive language in the home. However, children are acculturated into…
Akresh, I. "Contexts of English Language Use among Immigrants to the United States." International Migration Review (2007): 930-955.
Bacallao, M and P. Smokowski. "The Costs of Getting Ahead: Mexican Family System Changes After Immigration." Family Relations (2006): 52-66.
Blatchley, L and M. Lau. "Culturally Competent Assessment of English Language Learners for Special Education Services." Communique: Newspaper of National Association of School Psychologists May 2010: 1-8.
Bleakley, H and A. Chin. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants." American Economic Journal of Applied Economics (2010): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813069/pdf/nihms-132959.pdf .
As a result, it becomes more difficult to ascertain exactly what mode of intervention would best be suited for helping children overcome health matters that are at least to some degree beyond their control.
That said, a defining strength of the research is its chosen method of intervention. The perspective that the health of the children at the center of this study cannot be improved without effectively improving the health habits of their respective families is a centering position and one that endows the study with a significant value to the public health. As the study finds in its conclusion, "social and structural environments in which Hispanic children are reared may play an important role in determining their risk for obesity and related behaviors." (Arredondo et al., p. 30) Even lacking any empirical validity and lacking the capacity to be replicated, it does offer an array of correlations that can…
Arredondo, E.M.; Elder, J.P.; Campbell, N.; Baquero, B.; Duerksen, S.; Ayala, G.; Crespo, MPH, Slymen, D. & McKenzie, T. (2010). Individual, Family, and Community Environmental Correlates of Obesity in Latino Elementary School Children. Journal of School Health, 80, No.1, pp. 20-30.
Alternative Assessment for Latino Students
In this article, the authors discuss the fact that there must be a better way for assessing the knowledge of Latino students. This is largely due to the fact that a test given in English to these students does not accurately give an indication as to whether the student understands the content of the material. Instead, it more likely accurately gives it depiction of whether the student understands English. For many of the students English is a second language, and while they may know the content of the information that they are given, they may not be able to express it accurately in English. It is for this reason that the authors suggest that other measures should be taken to help Latino students excel and pass assessment tests correctly. In order to correct this problem the authors suggest using multiple measures instead of only a…
S. democracy. In 1998, the Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture at UCLA convened several middle-aged Latinos to discuss the Latino society in California while they were growing up. Born in the 1940s and 1950s, they remembered a much more segregated and exclusionary society than the one today, and the hurt remains: They described growing up in a situation in which being Latino was simply not validated. "Back then [1950s]... who cares? You're just a Mexican, you're a 'beaner,' you know, you're a 'greaser'" (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 14).
The Mexicans born after the war had a very different experience than their parents and grandparents. The children of the postwar era were mostly children of U.S.-born Mexicans and grew up in barrios populated almost completely by the U.S.-born residents (Hayes-Bautista, 2004, p. 19)
Much did not change for the Mexicans from the 1940s to 1960s, with discrimination and…
Hayes-Bautista, David E. Latinos in the Golden State. Berkley: University of California Press, 2004.
Kowalski, Kathiann. Life in the Barrio. Cobblestone (2004) 25.5.
Menchaca, Martha. Mexican Outsiders. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. We feel the want of protection: The politics of law and race in California, 1848-1878. California History (2003) 81:3-4, 96(31).
Through descriptive statistics, the mean, mode and percentiles will be obtained in regards to the answers in each item in the questionnaires.
The flow of discussion of results followed by the conclusion is clear and properly written. The purposes of the study stated in the beginning were all given due consideration and were all achieved.
In general, this research paper is very simple. What is good in it is the fact that the topic is very profound and yet the researchers were able to simplify it and formulate their own research questions based on the general topic. However, the methodology involved needs some minor modification because some of the most important aspects of research were not clearly stated.
There was not specific number of audience or participants stated. This is important because this will show if the conclusion will be able to generalize the overall population. Is the number of…
As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…
All readings from: Augenbraum, Harold and Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader.. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Thomas, Piri. Down these Mean Streets. Vintage, 1997.
In the most extensive study till date including nearly 3,000 people, Prof Vega has revealed that acculturation to U.S. customs has a damaging impact in the U.S. He found double the rate of mental disturbance in U.S. compared to the latest happenings of immigration or Mexicans who stayed in their country. Prof Vega along with his team of associates found that U.S. born Mexican-American, the lifetime threat of being detected with any mental disorder was analogous to that for non-Hispanic whites which is 48.1% that roughly one in two people. However, in case of new immigrants and Mexican citizen, the rate dropped down to 24.9%. Besides, they found out that the rate of psychological effect went up progressively after immigration in such a measure that Mexicans who had stayed in the country for more than 13 years had roughly identical rate as who were born in U.S. (as Mexican Immigrants…
Causes and Consequences of California's Latin American Origin Immigration" Retrieved at http://clnet.ucla.edu/challenge/ccorigin.htm. Accessed on 4 May, 2005
Chac n, Oscar; Rodr'guez, Aide; Shannon, Amy. (June, 2004) "Latino Immigrant Leaders Push for Immigration Reform: Background on Immigrant-Led, Community-Based Organization." Citizen Action in the Americas, No. 10; Americas Program, Interhemispheric Resource Center (IRC) Retrieved at http://www.americaspolicy.org/citizen-action/series/10enlaces_body.html
Huntington, Samuel P. "The Special Case of Mexican Immigration" the America Enterprise online. Retrieved at http://www.taemag.com/issues/articleid.12114/article_detail.asp. Accessed on 4 May, 2005
Marti, Dinerstein. (September, 2004) "Social Security 'Totalization' - Examining a Lopsided Agreement with Mexico" Retrieved at http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/back904.html . Accessed on 4 May, 2005
We can simply say that the discussion is an important element to get rid of this system.
In this entire teaching and learning process, teacher plays an important role in the positive growth of a student and for this purpose we not only do need a skill teacher but also need a responsible and cultural instructor. It is also considerable that the teachers should have the relevant curriculum and roadmap so that they can provide knowledge to their students in a right way.
Teacher is a main element who may give the success to both the five schools or the lack and Latinos male through their curriculum. They develop students through their own knowledge or experience and create "diamonds" for the country. ut if we talk about the system of lack and Latino males or color boys we need the highly developed teachers who are not only skilled but also…
A, G., D, C., & X., F. (2011). The relationship of school structure and support to suspension rates for Black and White high school students. . Am Educ Res J, 904-934.
Alexander, K., & Entwisle., d. (1988). Achievement in the first 2 Years of school: Patterns and Processes. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53, no. 2.
Arbona, c., & nora, a. (2007). The influence of Academic and Environmental factors on hispanic college degree Attainment. The Review of Higher Education, 30(3), 247 -- 269. .
Artiles, a.J., B. harry, d. r., & chinn, P. (2002). over-identification of students of color in special Education: A critical overview. Multicultural Perspectives, 4, 3 -- 10.
Type I diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Type 1 account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). The most common form of diabetes is Type II, which accounts for about 90 to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). Pre- diabetes is a condition often present prior to the development of Type II diabetes. In pre-diabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered diabetic.
Pre-diabetes does not have to lead to the development of diabetes if a person diagnosed with this condition: Patients who work to control their weight and increase their physical activity can often prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. There are 41 million Americans…
American Diabetics Association. Retrieved 22 March 2010 from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/
Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet.Retrieved 18 March 2010 from www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf
Hispanics and 40,375,000 African-Americans live in the United States and the respective percentages of these population groups are projected to continue to increase well into the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptions of these two cultures and why they are of interest as well as a comparison of similarities and differences related to time orientation, communication, physical and mental health, group relationships, and perceptions and measures of intelligence between these two population groups. The study also presents a description of the theoretical framework that guided the analysis of both of these cultures as well as an explanation concerning how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it. An examination concerning how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and marital fidelity and an explanation concerning potential biases that may influence the analysis of these cultures…
Brown, D. (2002, Winter). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1), 48-51.
Buzi, R. S. & Weinman, M. L. (2010, Summer). Depression and risk behaviors among males attending family planning clinics. International Journal of Men's Health, 9(2), 91-93.
Carter-Parker, K., Edwards, K. A. & McCleary-Jones, V. (2012, Summer). Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African-American women who are physically active and those who are not. The ABNF Journal, 51-58.
Choi, K-H, Paul, J., Ayala, G., Boylan, R. & Gregorich, S. E. (2013, March 14). Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African-American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 1-7.
population of California underwent dramatic changes in the last 60 years. In the 1940s, the Latinos were a minority of only 6% of the state or roughly 374,000 (autista 1991). ut by 1980, the Latino population grew to 4 million, almost doubling the figure and increased to more than 7 million in the 90s. In the 2000s, Latinos accounted for a third of California's total population, creating huge political, economic and social impact upon its entire society (autista). esides sheer volume, the continuously increasing Latino population has developed the distinct feature. efore the 60s, immigrants were rare and less than 20% of these Latinos were foreign born, most of them from Northern Mexico. Immigration, however began to fill the ranks since the 80s so that, today, the majority of adult Latinos in California are immigrants. These developments are among the most important criteria to social and demographic policy makers in…
California Labor and Workforce Development Agency. (2004). 1975 Agricultural Labor Relations Act. Agricultural Labor Relations Board. http://www.alrb.ca.gov
Democrats Assembly. (2004). Measure to Prohibit Employers from Locking In Their Workers Passes Assembly. California State Assembly. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/template/ademmain.sp?articleid=122&zoneid=2
Full Assembly Approves Proposed Increase in the State's Minimum Wage. http://democrats.assembly.ca.gov/templates/ademmain.asp?articleid=106&zoneid=2
House of Representatives. ((1998). Hearing on the Failures and Promises of the California Garment Industry. 105th Congress, Subcommittee on Oversight Investigations, Committee on Education and the Workforce, serial 105-110. http://commdocs.gov/committee/edu/hedo&i5-110.html
House Mango Street Sandra Cisnero"(book) the question paper: Is book represe
It would be exceedingly difficult to represent all of Latino culture in any book, regardless of how talented the author is. Nonetheless, Sandra Cisneros is that rare breed of author for whom, particularly as it relates to her unique blend of poetry and prose, virtually nothing is impossible. She has been hailed as "a major literary talent" (Cruz, 2010, p. 56). One of her most revered works, The House on Mango Street, details her life and those around her who grew up in the continental United States. Virtually all of the characters (and the vast majority of people that the characters interact with, for that matter) are Latino. Still, the Latino culture is, if nothing else, extremely diverse and as variegated a group of people as one can find on the earth itself. This fact takes on a particular…
Cruz, F.J. (2010). On the "simplicity" of Sandra Cisneros's House on Mango Street. Critical Insights. Database: Literary Reference Center. Retrieved from eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer
Dubb, C.R. (2007). Adolescent journeys: finding female authority in The Rain Catchers and The House on Mango Street. Children's Literature in Education. 38: 219-232.
Renner, C. (2005). The House on Mango Street. School Library Journal. 51(7), 44-45.
Wissman, K. (2007). "Writing will keep you free": Allusions to and recreations of the fairy tale heroine in The House on Mango Street. Children's Literature in Education. 38: 17-34.
In the Struggle for Democracy (Greenberg, 483-84) the author explains that gradually, little by little, the Supreme Court of the United States responded to the need to rule segregation unconstitutional. And in the process the Court ruled that any law passed using the criteria of race was also unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education vote in 1954 meant that segregation in schools was not constitutional and it was the agency of black activists and advocates that got it done by bringing litigation forward. Meantime Jones mentions that Eisenhower had a "hands-off" policy regarding enforcing the Brown v. Board of Education; and while that "emboldened" segregationists and racists to resist the Supreme Court ruling, it activated ordinary African-Americans to joined in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Thanks to the marching feet of tens of thousands of Black Americans - and the boycotts led by people like Rosa Parks…
Greenberg, Edward S. The Struggle for Democracy.
Jones, Jacqueline. Created Equal: A Social and Political history of the United States.
Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center. 2008. Northeastern University. Retrieved April 14, 2008, at http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu
Fear and Access to Mental Health Support
Mental health treatment is, in a certain regard, a widely accepted sector of the healthcare community. However, in spite of continued advances in this field, there remain many demographics which present a heightened and unmet need for mental health support. The review here, which assess two recent newspaper articles on the subject to mental health, reports on the need for an expansion and refinement of the responsibilities assumed by the mental health community.
Craft, C.H. (2012). U.S. mental health programs little help to Latinos, UC Davis study says. The Sacramento Bee.
A 2012 article by Cynthia H. Craft, published in The Sacramento Bee and entitled "U.S. mental health programs little help to Latinos, UC Davis study says," evaluates the relative experience of disenfranchisement from mental health treatment and counseling among Latinos living in the United States. The article evaluates the various…
Craft, C.H. (2012). U.S. mental health programs little help to Latinos, UC Davis study says. The Sacramento Bee.
Ortega, J.R. (2012). Behavioral health expert talks future of mental, primary health care. Victoria Advocate.
New Campaign for the New Mayor of Los Angeles:
"Angels of Many Faces, One L.A." -- The Changing Face of L.A.
Attn: The L.A. mayor-elect Antonio Villaraigosa
Priority 1:hat is required for minority political incorporation for the future administration?
In the increasingly diverse and non-white community of Los Angeles, it is critical that alliances be forged between different racial and ethnic minorities to move the city into the next millennium. The urban scholar R.P. Browning, in his 2003 text: Racial Politics in American Cities (edited by Browning, Marshall & Tab, 2003) has called for what the author calls a policy of racial incorporation to meet this challenge. Racial incorporation calls for a leaving behind of purely community and uni-racial-based urban and suburban affiliations. This policy calls for alliances between different groups of similar political interests within new political coalitions, without requiring the groups to wholly do away with their previous…
Browning, R., D. Marshall, and D. Tabb, Eds. 2003. Racial politics in American cities. 3rd Ed. New York: Longman.
Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:
Reducing The Barriers
There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…
Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf
Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
Byars-Winston, A., Estrada, Y., Howard, C., Davis, D., & Zalapa, J. (2010). Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(2), doi:10.1037/a0018608
• This article explores how both social cognitive and ethnic variables can play a part in determining the academic goals of people and groups that are "under-represented" within the academic sphere. The groups centered on this study include Africa-Americans, Latinos, Southeast Asians and Native Americans. There were 223 people in the study and the study itself was centered on what is known as the social cognitive theory, as proposed and discussed by Lent, Brown and Hackett in 1994. There was a significant relationship found between outcome expectations, interests and goals. Self-efficacy and efficacy-mediated relationships were also in play. One area that is touched upon with fervor in this study is…
Goldenberg, et al. (2001), and titled "Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance." (p. 547). The authors collected data using the longitudinal study from randomly selected immigrant Latino families whose children were mostly born in the United States. The research used the mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research, and the authors tracked N= 121 families of schools children in two Los Angeles school area districts, and the families of the children were tracked from "kindergarten to sixth grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001, p 547),
The procedures used in the research are by randomly selecting N= 32 families for the case study and the interviews were conducted for the families "10 times between the time their children were admitted into kindergarten and completed 6th grade." (Goldenberg, et al. 2001 p 554). The interviews were conducted within three years…
Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., et al. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents' aspirations and expectations of their children's school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582.
Reports indicated by the Pew Hispanic Center show that the Hispanic immigrants are twice as likely to lack health care as the black Americans and three times as likely compared to the whites non-Hispanic (Pew Hispanic Center). Illegal immigrants are even worse since they are probably subjected to accepting lower paid jobs that are not providing health care and since their financial situation does not allow them to have a health insurance. Surprisingly, even those who are born in the U.S. (from Hispanic origin) and also have a health care insurance are declaring that they are not using a particular health care provider because they seldom need medical assistance.
Recent report show that the rate of unemployment is almost twice as high among the Hispanic immigrants compared to the rest of the population unemployment rate. On the other hand, it is also more visible, compared to the immigrants coming from…
The political arena in the U.S. has plaid the illegal immigrants' issues card and during the last elections, the Latinos are reported to have voted in favor of the democrat party in a proportion of 2:1 (Ludden, 2008). If those measures president Obama promised to take in trying to improve overall life conditions for the illegal immigrants and changing their status into legal emigrants are going to be taken and how soon, it is still a matter to be debated over. The elected president, Barack Obama will have to face the present economic situation in the U.S. with a firm hand, aware that the majority who voted for him has high expectations and its complete trust. Among those who voted for the democrats are the Hispanics.
Many Hispanic men have lost their jobs, during the last year, especially in the construction field, but the Hispanic women facing the same situation them (Pew Hispanic Center). On the other hand, the general situation of the immigrants working in fields like construction is considered worse than last year. The Hispanic population is suffering the consequences of an economy in recession along with anybody else living and working in this country. The fact that they outnumber all the other immigrants is making thir problematic worse.
The complex situation of the illegal Latino immigrants risking their lives to come to the U.S. through the U.S. - Mexico border is asking for complex and thought through measures. The Hispanic population in the U.S. who is working in the low-skilled labor is facing problems like bad working conditions, underpayment and discrimination because of the lack of education and the precarious status people living under such conditions face. Education is a key factor and the future programs will have to focus more in this side on their problems. Health is another key factor that has to come up in further discussions regarding the improvement of the living standards for those Hispanics who are living and working here. The economy is officially in recession, but the demand for cheap working force has not decreased.
GM / UAW
The general maxim is, "What's good for General Motors is good for America." The accuracy of that maxim has been severely hampered over the years by General Motors' dealings with United Auto Workers.
The labor/management synergy in America is one of most important facets -- and variables -- in our nation's economy. As was illustrated in an extreme example in last summer's baseball labor relations tensions, management and labor work towards a common end, yes, but their means to that end may be entirely different.
Management often holds the upper hand in any dealings with labor, as it controls its workers' livelihood and ability to live comfortably. Labor has only one trump card: the strike. And United Auto Workers used that weapon on December 28, 1936 when it struck the Cleveland Fisher Body Plant, a key plant which supplied the tops for nearly all General Motors cars.…
Analysis of the Results of the California Recall Election
Although the general issues pertaining to the current California crisis, such as the hated car tax and the fear of yet another electricity crisis, no doubt affected all voters across the state, in general, Caucasians were more apt to vote to recall Governor Davis than were Black and Latino voters. This may be attributed to the fact that these, and other hot-button issues of recent date, negatively impacted whites in such a fashion that they were likely to vote for the recall. This does not mean that all Californians were not affected, but that Whites and affluent individuals in general were more likely to experience these negative issues as recent events.
Because affluent suburban whites were more apt to see such events as negatively impacting their lifestyle quite recently, these Caucasians were more apt to blame Governor Davis as…
2010: 336). The data was accumulated by trained interviewers regarding worker's mental health status. They used a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale to measure depressive symptoms. "Descriptive statistics were used to examine the distributions of the individual-level variables" (Grzywacz et al. 2010: 337).
esults including analyses performed
Depressive symptoms were not uniformly constant, but highest in the beginning of the agricultural season, as the workers adjusted to their new conditions. The symptoms then abated, but at the end of the season when the worker's uncertainty about finding further work increased, depression increased. Situational variables such as legal threats of deportation also impacted worker's depression, and undocumented workers lacking an H2A were far more apt to manifest depression, even if they suffered from the same symptoms of poverty as their fellow documented employees.
Depression is a multifaceted illness. The authors noted that marital status…
Grzywacz, Joseph G., Sara a. Quandt, Haiying Chen, Scott Isom, Lisa Kiang, Quirina Vallejos, & Thomas a. Arcury. (2010). Depressive symptoms among Latino farm workers across the agricultural season: Structural and situational influences. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16 (3) 335 -- 343
He did clean up the area around the store from garbage lying around but never did anything apart from that. He did express interest in being a part of any group working towards helping out with the environment. He denied that his Chinese background might have had any impact on his attitude.
The individual from the Hispanic background was deeply involved with activities to help out with environmental issues. He is a computer Science major and manages had two websites dealing with those issues. He also maintains a blog about environmental hazards that he encounters. He takes pictures of whatever he thinks might be important and uploads them to his blog. He mentioned how he wants to use his skills in web design to reach out to students and make them aware of such issues. He has listed a lot of ways to get involved on his websites and uses…
This research study will examine the impact of teachers' expectation on students' overall academic achievement. The research will be conducted at Huntington Park High School, located in the city of Huntington Park. It is one of the largest high schools in Los Angeles Unified School District and has an enrollment of over 5000 students with 3-track calendar. The ethnic backgrounds of the students consist of 98.6% Latino, 0.6% black and 0.3% white. The students of Huntington Park High School (HPHS) have not been challenged to perform to their best abilities. One of the reasons may be that the teachers perceive them as incapable and lacking motivation, and so they feel it is unfair or hopeless to expect more from the students. The subtle messages received from their teachers may make the students feel incapable of handling demanding work. This could also be a factor in the students'…
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Tradition -- Qualitative traditions, also known as approaches, view the more multidimensional and multidisciplinary paradigm of research (conceptions of self, ethics, the environment, etc. (Creswell, p. 51). It is an approach or mind-set to the way research is conducted, but more than that it is the approach to the subject matter that may be sociological, cultural, historical, etc. -- all depending on the expertise of the researcher, the desired inquiry, and the theoretical grounding that is most appropriate for the project (p. 103).
In general, there are five qualitative traditions/approaches to research studies:
Narrative -- Narrative is a method and phenomenon of study -- it focuses on experiences, stories, and the spoken or written text that gives and account of events and actions that are then chronologically connected (pp. 70-2).
Phenomenological -- Narrative studies report single individual, phenomenological studies account the meaning of issues for several experiences of their "lived"…
Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design; choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
Although the absolute magnitude of group differences on measures such as the BDI may appear moderate, the finding that 22% of troops deployed to the Persian Gulf reported at least mild levels of depression on the BDI compared to 9% of those who served stateside within the first year of such military duty is of clinical significance (p. 422)."
Amy B. Adler (1996), writing for Military Psychology, points out that soldiers experiencing the highest levels of combat stress were those exposed to dead troops and civilians, but exposure to their own fallen comrades, people with whom they had bonded, resulted in the highest levels of stress (p. 2).
The goals of the study were to identify the extent of PTS symptomatology following redeployment and to identify the relation between such symptoms and rank and type of traumatic exposure. It was hypothesized that soldiers who had been exposed to the most…
Adler, Amy B. "Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology among U.S. Soldiers Deployed to the Gulf War." Military Psychology 8.1 (1996): 1-14. Questia. 7 Mar. 2008
Therefore, in order to achieve equality in right as well, the society must be more educated in the spirit of equality and non-differentiation.
3.State and describe at least three major challenges facing the Latino cultures' ability to prosper in the U.S.A. today?
The Latino population represents one of the most consistent group of immigrants in the United States. Most often, they come from Latin America in search for a better life and democratic environment, given the volatile situation and political conditions that have characterized Latin America in the last decades. However, most of the times, Latin Americans are often faced with the single possibility of undergoing unqualified labor, lack of education, and precarious living conditions.
One of the most important problems facing the Latin American immigrants is represented by the constant growth of the Latin population in the United States. (NPR News, 2011). This is largely due to the fact…
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La Mission act together as a historical document of interracial and other lifestyle issues in today's urban environment. Although the film takes place within San Francisco and the documentary evidence cannot necessarily be applied to any other city or geographic region, La Mission does tell a story that is familiar to many Americans. Homophobia is one of the central themes of La Mission. Americans throughout the nation are challenging homophobia, which is part of what the filmmakers are trying to say. Moreover, San Francisco is a highly heterogeneous city. Yet issues related to interracial relationships are raised. These same issues play themselves out in the lives of millions of Americans who feel the residual effects of prejudice in their lives.
Che, the protagonist, embodies the complexities of life in a modern and progressive city like San Francisco. He is Latino, and therefore identifies as being a minority. This is an…
Bratt, B & Bratt, P. La Mission. Feature film.
"La Mission Lecture."
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Interaction between SES and College Performance
wick, R. & Himelfarb, I. (2011). The effect of high school socioeconomic status on the predictive validity of SAT scores and high school grade-point average. Journal of Educational Measurement, 48(2), 101-121.
African-American (AA) and Latino students underperform other racial groups during their first year of college if SAT scores are used in the prediction formula. The reasons for this are unknown, although socioeconomic status (SES) is suspected.
The current study was undertaken to evaluate whether an SES index could improve the predictive performance of a formula incorporating high school grade-point averages (HSGPAs) and SAT scores.
Evaluate the value of including a SES correction factor in the formula used for predicting first-year college grade-point average (FGPA) performance, for the purpose of correcting for errors introduced by the suspected racially-insensitive HSGPAs. The predictive value of the SAT score in relation to SES will also be…
Zwick, R., & Green, J.G. (2007). New perspectives on the correlation of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors. Journal of Educational Measurement, 44, 23 -- 45.
Zwick, R., & Himelfarb, I. (2009, April). The effect of high school quality on the predictive validity of SAT scores and high school grade-point average. Presented by I. Himelfarb at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.
Zwick, R., & Schlemer, L. (2004). SAT validity for linguistic minorities at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 25(2), 6 -- 16.