Innate vs. Learned Behavior
According to the University of Illinois at Chicago innate behavior is fixed through developmental processes. It does not matter what environment one has been brought up in, all individuals that "…can exhibit the [innate] behavior do exhibit the behavior" (www.uic.edu). That said, this definition doesn't mean that the environment does not play a role in innate behavior, because it does; innate behaviors are "triggered by a stimulus" that "must occur within the context of the animal's environment" (www.uic.edu).
As to learned behaviors, they are formed and modified by experience; however, there is no "hard and fast distinction between the two," the UIC definition continues. There are ample number of learned behaviors that are "strongly pre-determined chronology (i.e., language learning) and many 'innate' behaviors are improved by experience (i.e., parasitoid foraging) (www.uic.edu).
Meanwhile the North Caroline State University Entomology Department explains that Ethology is the scientific study…… [Read More]
hree developmental theories that provide interesting research for those seeking knowledge concerning this particular field of study include the theory of nature vs. nurture, continuous vs. discontinuous development and critical and sensitive periods of development during those periods in life when either critical or sensitive development is taking place. Comparing and contrasting these three developmental theories should lead the researcher to a better understanding of not only the three theories, but a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the field as well.
For instance, a recent study determined that "genetic and environmental factors provides a potential explanation of the individual differences in responses to environmental influences" (Wermter, Laucht, Schimmelmann, Banaschweski, Sonuga-Barke, Rietschel, Becker, 2010, p. 200). Additionally, the study determined that children exposed to an environment stressor known to increase risk for a certain psychiatric disorder (e.g. high family adversity) are at a higher risk for that disorder…… [Read More]
attitudes emotions influence behavios -Explain ways pesonality values influence behavios -Ceate a plan incease employee motivation, satisfaction, pefomance -Discuss topics comfotable -Discuss stuggle -Discuss elate oganiazation (human esouces) • Use ONLY pesent tense! NO PAST TENSE a -wite equested. Souces
The influences of attitudes and emotions on behavios
The behavio of individuals is influenced by seveal factos. Some of the most impotant factos that influence human behavio ae epesented by upbinging, education, pesonal expeience, the envionment, leaned behavios, thei thinking style, and othes. These factos basically shape the geneal lines of human behavio. Thee ae also othe factos that influence it.
The attitudes and emotions of individuals influence thei behavio on contextual basis. In othe wods, the behavio of individuals can be diffeent in situations that have little diffeence between them. This is because duing the situations in case, the individual can be affected by cetain attitudes and…… [Read More]
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…… [Read More]
Basic biological needs generally take precedence over psychological needs. If two needs are incompatible, the more basic one is usually satisfied first. filling needs, and under the most common circumstances, both a need and a drive can be identified in motivated behavior, particularly when physiological needs are involved. However, there are also drives such as curiosity, which don't depend on deprivation and for physiological, safety and security needs, must be satisfied before higher-order needs for love and belongingness, esteem, and finally for http://www.arches.uga.edu/~danni/maslow1.gif
While Maslow's hierarchy makes sense intuitively, little evidence exists to support its strict hierarchy. ctually, most research refutes the order of needs the model spcifies. For example, some cultures seem to place social needs before others. Maslow's hierarchy also has difficulty when, for example, a person neglects physical needs in pursuit of aesthetic or spiritual ones. Finally, studies show that people are usually motivated to satisfy more…… [Read More]
Sociobiology Theory and Criminology
Criminology field has varying psychological and biological theories that explain the criminality and factors that predispose individuals to engaging in criminal behaviors. Biological theories consider criminal behavior as a product of biological abnormality or defect. The criminal cannot change their behaviors because of the variation of their biological traits, thereby, forcing them to act in a specific manner. However, biological theory is considered odd with the presence of psychological theories that try to explain the factors and reasons behind criminality. Unlike the earlier, psychological theories, consider criminality as a product of offenders due to defects of the mental functioning, adjustment to the environmental forces, and individual development (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007). Therefore, this essay analyzes the sociobiological theory that tries to explain the relationship between personality and criminality. The essay also analyzes the key elements that underpin the sociobiological theory and its philosophical basis.
Sociobiology refers…… [Read More]
Behavior Change Chart
Janesta takes the doll Emily was playing with.
Emily bit Janesta.
Emily was picked up and told, "We don't bite," and held in lap for a few minutes before she runs to play with blocks.
Emily bit someone that was taking something from her in order to defend herself and received individual attention.
Without provocation Emily bites a boy
Emily bit the boy on the shoulder.
Emily was picked up by the assistant and moved her to the reading area where a book is read to her. Emily stayed there for ten minutes, quietly turning pages.
Emily bit the boy because she learned that she would get individual attention when she acted out in this way.
CE300 Unit 6 Project: Behavior Change Chart
How would you change the antecedent?
What do you expect to happen and why?
What else…… [Read More]
For example, the fact that I am calm and in control helps me make good decisions based on analyzing the facts of a situation, rather than relying on emotions or factors that cannot be controlled. In my opinion, such characteristics are very important for managers. Also, I am interested in theoretical aspects, in identifying patterns and innovation oriented, which is extremely useful for entrepreneurs. I am logical and critical in work situations, which allows me to correctly assess various situations.
I am systematic, I enjoy making plans, developing schedules and procedures, I have a structured and strategic thinking. These are characteristics that managers must have, given the importance of the planning process within companies. I am interested in identifying the advantages and disadvantages of a situation before making a decision.
However, this type of personality reveals that I must improve my communication skills. This is because I have the tendency…… [Read More]
As mentioned above, communication issues are frequent in this company in the case of top-down communication. This is probably because managers do not appreciate the importance of communication, or they prefer not to include their subordinates in the decision making process. The availability of top managers for their subordinates is another issue that must be modified in order to develop a fair organizational culture.
The Glaser test has also revealed some interesting facts about my company that I did not manage to observe previously, probably because of the involvement in the company's processes. For example, the rather high score in the teamwork and conflict scale reveals that the company is characterized by frequent conflict. Although the atmosphere at work is a rather friendly, collegial, and supportive one, small conflicts tend to develop quickly. This can be attributed to the reduced level of control exerted by the managers as a result…… [Read More]
Helplessness and Depression
The concept of learned helplessness is most strongly identified with psychologist Martin Seligman. Early animal experimentation by Seligman and colleagues defined the phenomenon of learned helplessness (Overmier & Seligman, 1967). The concept of learned helplessness describes the phenomenon that occurs when an animal or person observes or experiences traumatic events that they can exert little influence or control over. When the animal or person discovers that it can do nothing to escape or affect such an event it may acquire learned helplessness and not attempt to even try to remove itself from potentially harmful situations. In behavioral terms the organism learns that reinforcement and behavior are not contingent on one another (Seligman, 1976). The organism essentially becomes conditioned to form a belief that nothing it can do can affect the situation and it simply "gives up."
The original learned helplessness experiments had dogs learning through classical conditioning…… [Read More]
Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.
This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…… [Read More]
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…… [Read More]
learning? What role does behavior play in learning?
Learning is the acquisition of skills through behaviors. Behaviors help an individual learn through experiences, both favorable and unfavorable. Learning is a life long endeavor which is garnered in the beliefs and behaviors of the individual. The overall process takes time, as beliefs are often broken down, eliminated, and reborn through experience. Behaviors directly impact learning as they are correlated to experiences. Experiences therefore follow behaviors. For example, if an individual behaves in an inappropriate manner regarding his spending, he or she will experience debt. Through this experience the individual will "learn" to manage his or her money in a more appropriate manner.
What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response.
The two primary learning styles are that of hands on (kinesthetic) learning and visual learning. A hands on experiments allows the individual to develop in a…… [Read More]
However, the purpose of the article is to explain how 9/11 changed the approach to psychological intervention. The article discusses advances that have been made in a variety of areas, including different ways to assess needs, screen potential clients, determine the efficacy of programs, and look at how different programs impact survivors (Watson, 2011). What the article reveals is that there have been significant differences in how psychological interventions are conducted post 9/11. Not surprisingly, they found that traumatic bereavement counseling is not yet an adequately developed area. First, they suggested that disaster response could be better coordinated to respond to huge disasters like 9/11. Next, they discussed how policy decisions are needed to enhance federal funding and access to services. They also discuss the fact that traumatic bereavement represents an area for critical future research.
This article is important in the approach to both interview and diagnosing, not so…… [Read More]
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…… [Read More]
Accordingly, a McDonald's restaurant team is successively inter-reliant (Daft, 2008). Deprived of everyone working in unison and having adequate inspiration to deliver respectable and rapid good service, all members of the team usually fail. Consequently of one person losing inspiration or flopping to sufficiently achieve his duties, clients can protest and business can fail and be lost. Although most workers are trained to achieve multiple errands at numerous stations, they are not typically able to achieve all of these responsibilities concurrently.
Organizational justice which is really based on equity theory] and organizational citizenship behavior [OCB] have now really finally come into a worldwide business and cross-cultural research point-of-view. The investigation of these two theoretical frameworks really has unraveled over the past couple of years. From Adams' (Northouse, 2007) the equity theory has evolved into the idea of organizational justice and from Bateman and Organ progressed the idea of…… [Read More]
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…… [Read More]
The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.
The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…… [Read More]
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…… [Read More]
Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.
Outcomes and New Learning
Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…… [Read More]
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…… [Read More]
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…… [Read More]
Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Activities
For most of the developing countries tourism industry is playing a very important role in boosting their economies. In 2004, it was found out that Asia Pacific was one of the fastest growing tourism regions (Cruey, 2005). According to WTO, up to 3% of world's tourism market is made up of Thailand, Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka. It was in 1970's that the development of Thai international tourism started (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). Tourism industry accounts for 5.1% of Thailand's National Gross Domestic Product (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2009). For the purpose of providing a proper development direction, the National Economics and Social Development Plan (NESDP) served as a guide (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). The result of the survey which was conducted by the Universities of USA and Thailand, showed that Thailand stood on the first place as best hospital city for all the…… [Read More]
Behaviors to Improve Customer Service
Library scientists are confronted with patrons with a diverse background in library usage, as well as experience in accessing information from online resources. Understanding how people interact with information and theories such as Marchionini's Information-Seeking Process and Kuhlthau's Information Search Process can help practitioners provide better service to patrons. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning these issues, followed by a summary of the research and important findings
Some people walk into learning resource centers fully equipped with the skill set needed to intuitively navigate their way through the ISBNs, Dewey Decimals and the Internet maze to find precisely what they need and many information-seeking models assume this level of expertise for all students. For instance, Savin-Baden and Wilkie (2006) report that, "Many information-seeking models approach students as experts, who are completely aware of what they…… [Read More]
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…… [Read More]
One of the crucial elements towards the realization of organizational success and profitability is creating a suitable working environment for all employees to thrive as they carry out their respective responsibilities. In essence, employees' contributions towards the achievement of established business goals/objectives is largely influenced by the nature of the working environment and working conditions. However, employees' behaviors also play a crucial role in determining their productivity in the workplace. Self-defeating behaviors in the workplace contributes to stress, which in turn affects employees' input to work processes and the overall profitability of an organization. This paper examines the management of stress brought by self-defeating behaviors in the workplace. The evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior.
The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards…… [Read More]
Culture must not simply be inclusive to an organization. Organizational internal culture must shift with the larger national cultural context in light of the needs posed by globalization.
Chapter 12: Strategic Competency and Organizational Design
IBM, showed a constructive ability to engage in organizational learning. Despite facing political obstacles such as 9-11 and prejudice against technology companies after the dot-com bust it has remained a huge, complex technological powerhouse. IBM's longer-term outlook is bright today, despite the obstacles it has faced, because the infrastructure within the organization allows growth. It has sound decision making chain of command that has stood it well over the years. Firms need to adjust to their environments and contexts as well as to influence them, and IBM has shown itself capable of doing so in terms of the firm's environment, size and…… [Read More]
Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior
The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation…… [Read More]
" This temporary lesson actually applies on a wider scale to life. Clothing, in our society, is closely integrated with sexuality and gender definition. Men often determine who they will have a sexual interest in based on the clothing of the person in question. A woman in a housecoat is not generally seen as a sexual target in the same way that a woman in a leather miniskirt is. ecause women are seen as weaker than men and as belonging to them sexually based on the gender roles of our society, men tend to think they have power over people wearing women's clothes, whether that person be a boy or a girl. This is a power they would not assume that they have over boys, and it is the association with femininity and the stereotypes that are perpetrated about females in general that causes this.
A reflection of how gender…… [Read More]
Innate animal behavior is the internalized congenital system adapted for the facilitation of survival and reproduction. It is a basic element of ethology. The receptor capability of studying this behavior is due to simplified nervous systems among invertebrates. This ethological research through vision is referred to as overt animal behavior. This animal behavior can be categorized into three major classifications; innate, learned or complex. Learned animal behavior is the possession of behavioral characteristics through experience. This context discusses innate and complex animal behaviors in detail.
Reflexes can be referred to as an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. They are responses triggered by disturbances in the environment surrounding an organism. The basic unit in connection to innate behavior is the simple reflex arc. The behavior is a neural alleyway that involves few neurons in most cases two neurons, which are the sensory and the motor neurons.…… [Read More]
Importance of organizational behavior knowledge
Having acquired essential skills in organizational behavior, I plan to use it in the management of my department at place of work to ensure it is a perfect example to the rest of the organization. I will use the skills acquired to study the behavior of employees and know the best way to treat each and every employee in their own skill capability and adjusting the management to a personalized management approach as is recommended by the organizational behavior study. I will also use the skills acquired to understand the organizational culture which can only be easy with the organizational behavior knowledge, and with the understanding of the organizational culture of the particular organization, I will be able to propel the people within my department towards achieving the vision of the organization. The communication skills that is achieved from the organizational behavior study…… [Read More]
Technology to Improve Behavior and Performance in an Elementary Classroom
The role of teachers in a child's education has fundamentally changed. Instruction isn't primarily lecturing to students who sit in rows at desks dutifully listening and recording what they hear but offer each and every child a rich, rewarding and unique learning experience." (Lanier, 1997). Because of revolutions in knowledge and information technology and the demand for learning to be more meaningful and lifelong, schools are changing their structures and teachers are changing with them. Teachers' roles now embrace relating to their students more personally and individually; to integrate social, emotional and intellectual growth. Teachers are now tuning more into how students learn, prompted recently by Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences, and so have had to improve on and add to their instruction methods.
In order to make students more interested in learning, teachers are adding project-based and/or participatory…… [Read More]
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…… [Read More]
Legitimate power is the authority that the position contains. Reward power reflects the ability to motivate through rewards -- the position grants control over resources that can be allocated towards rewards. Coercive power reflects the position's authority to punish. Within the category of personal power is informational power, expert power and referent power. Informational power is that which comes from a leader's rational persuasive power and inspirational appeal. Expert power comes from one's knowledge and ability to apply that knowledge to rational persuasion. Referent power reflects the personal appeal of the leader. The seventh type of power is connection power, which reflects the ability of the leader to form coalitions that help to support his or her objectives.
4. People as leaders should not be judged on their social skills alone. There is a degree to which poor social skills can impact one's leadership potential -- for example in inhibiting…… [Read More]
Organizational behavior is the study of the way people interact within an organization. The aim of organizational behavior is to facilitate efficiency within the organization. The better understood the interaction of workers within a group, the more likely it will be for the group to achieve its outcomes, as management will adopt strategies designed to support the group. Since patterns of behavior can impact and affect any organization, especially a healthcare organization. The provision of quality care relies upon health care providers working together to provide continuity of care, safe care and effective care—and if the organizational behavior of the healthcare facility is subpar, the patients and care providers themselves will suffer as a result. Leadership plays a substantial role in overseeing organizational behavior and, as Schyns and Schilling (2013) have shown, the less effective an organization’s leaders are, the less likely the organizational behavior of the workplace is…… [Read More]
For their part, the employees at Kinko's were wary of change, having just suffered through several years of "change" at the hands of their investment firm owners. FedEx wished to instill their own systems on Kinko's but were not sure how to affect that sort of organizational change.
Ultimately, change at Kinko's has come slowly, primarily through attrition. In an attempt to further impose organizational change on Kinko's, FedEx has just announced they will change the name of the unit to FedEx Office. Yet the entire experience is an example of how even a company with as strong and well-supported culture as FedEx can run into problems in disseminating that culture throughout all parts of its organization.
For the most part, FedEx has successfully built a corporate culture that best supports its business model. The structures that support the culture - human resources, communications, motivation - are well-integrated and…… [Read More]
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]
particular behaviors tend to cross into the realm of crime when they become obsessive and are actually acted upon. Apparently, many individuals within a society may actually think about committing crimes, but never take the actual physical steps to commit it in the flesh. Those who take precautionary measures and anticipate actions that represent the actual physical acting out of their thoughts is when behavior biases can become actual crime. One of the most appropriate schools of thought in criminology to explain this phenomenon is the theory of differential association. Originally described by Edwin Sutherland, differential association aims to explain deviance and how people go from thinking about criminal acts to actually committing criminal acts. Essentially, this theory believes that criminal acts and thoughts are learned through experience with crime. Criminal acts thus become a repercussion of intense motives, drives, and attitudes that have been learned by the individual through…… [Read More]
Atkinson states that the scores from one test to the next do not reflect a reliable picture of a person's motivation. All of these specific (and sometimes esoteric) issues raised by Atkinson should become familiar to those HR people searching for talent that will build organizational strength.
Atkinson goes on to explain that there is a lot to be learned when analyzing the "strength of a motive" verses the "behavioral expression" the individual actually shows. In taking the TAT to task, Atkinson points to the fact that, according to TAT's application, every behavioral incident is looked upon as "a discrete and independent incident in the life of an individual" (Atkinson, p. 22). But the TAT presumes - "gratuitously," in Atkinson's view - that differences in personality traits will also manifest themselves in behavior. But using Atkinson's approach ("achievement motivation") helps explain the "variable behavior" that might occur when the individual…… [Read More]
Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice.
People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs. A choice will then be "good" if it brings one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs in a harmless manner (both to ourselves and others). A less effectual or "bad" choice would be one that fails to bring one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs, or one that…… [Read More]
.....interpersonal skills in the workplace cannot be underestimated, as organizational performance depends on the ability of employees to communicate, solve problems, and make ethical decisions. Employers value interpersonal skills as much as technical skills, and like technical skills, interpersonal skills can be taught and learned in formal and systematic ways (Reece & Reece, 2016). However, interpersonal relations in the workplace often proceed informally. People form alliances and allegiances based on structural factors like formal team membership, or informal alliances based on factors as diverse as gender and ethnicity or personality orientation.
Individuals define themselves in terms of group membership (Ellemers, et al., 2003, p. 11). When individuals feel they are "under surveillance from in-group members," they may not be fully honest in group communications or feel threatened, silenced, or cut off from the group in ways that can impede performance (Ellemers, et al., 2003, p. 11). Therefore, leaders need to…… [Read More]
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior -- Part II
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior
Each question must be 300 words long.
Look carefully and honestly at some of your own age, gender, ethnic, cultural beliefs, and/or attitudes and discuss how such factors may impact your functioning in the work of responding to psychopathy.
I feel fortunate to have taken classes in college that have allowed me to meet and mix with people who are quite different from me in terms of age, ethnicity, cultural beliefs, and mindset. In addition, I participate in community activities that bring me in contact with people who come from different socio-economic and religious groups. My own family has experienced quite a few change-ups from what my parents' and my grandparents' generation experienced. Academically, I have studied about variables that contribute to the development of psychopathy in vulnerable people, and I believe I have a robust understanding of mental…… [Read More]
As we have learned throughout the course of our present studies, stress and anxiety disorders can render a debilitating effect for the subject. The incapacity to control stress, to limit the physiological or emotional panic produced by stressful situations or to go about one's daily life with functional normalcy are all factors which can magnify and intensify an already imposing condition. e proceed with the understanding that chronic stress and the failure to manage this effectively is known to contribute to a host of worsening conditions both physically and emotionally. Among them, our research denotes that poor stress management can lead to chronic illness, a host of psychosomatic symptoms, an array of real bodily responses relating to the body's chemical 'fight' or 'flight' mechanism, and most importantly to our discussion, an intensifying experience of one's psychological symptoms. This is true even to the extent that poor stress management…… [Read More]
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]
The learning atmosphere in schools have changed drastically over the years and the schools which were once considered safe are becoming sites of bullying, violence and anti-social activities, Presently the school administration and also the teachers are under tremendous pressure for ensuring a safe, disciplined and effective learning environment, enabling students to acquire academic and social skills that would equip them in academic achievement and assist them in the overall development of the students. This recent increase in the pressure is greatly due to the increasing incidences of violence in the schools and played up by the media and the challenges faced by the teachers in deciding the most appropriate disciplinary measures to set the problem student back on the learning path. This brings to light the changing profiles of teachers, from that of good academicians to that of a versatile educator-cum-counsellor-disciplinarian, capable of guiding his students through…… [Read More]
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…… [Read More]
Organizational behavior -- globalization and diversity
Diversity is becoming more present within the contemporaneous business climates and it is necessary that economic agents devise and implement the most adequate strategies in responding to the challenges of diversity. Diversity in itself is not only a constant presence, but also a generator of impacts and organizational change. A relevant example in this sense is offered by the fact that diversity forces changes at the level of the leadership styles. Furthermore however, diversity also impacts organizational bottom line and productivity.
In light of the new evolutions at the level of the business climate, numerous changes occur in the previous paradigms. Specifically, one can easily observe shifts in organizational paradigms and to exemplify these, the cases of several Malaysian firms are introduced. Finally, the concept of organizational culture is detailed and emphasis is placed on the strategic strengthening of organizational culture.
Table…… [Read More]
The authors do not indicate why they decided to exclude sexual violence from their study.
In their analysis, Button and Gealt (2010) use several variables independently. These are: substance abuse, delinquency, aggression, and sibling violence. To measure independent variables, they used several dependant variables for each. For example, to measure substance abuse (which refers to the use of cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol in the past thirty days), they asked respondents to indicate frequency of abuse, ranging from 0 to 31 times during thirty-day period (0 = none, 1 = less than one, 2 = 1 to 5, etc.). To measure delinquency, they scaled the frequency of six items that ranged from never to almost every day (0 = never, 1 = before but not in the past, up to 7 = almost every day). These items were: stealing something from a store without paying for it; breaking into a car,…… [Read More]
Desmond Morris does an excellent job of defining his topic and then constructing and creating logical divisions of analysis concerning the various types of territorial behavior. Before analyzing and evaluating the various types of territorial behavior, Morris defines territory as an owned space which is defended when an individual is attacked or threatened. According to Morris, individuals are rarely driven to physical fighting in defense of their territories, but they will fight if they are pushed to the limit. Examples of such defense mechanisms are the invading army encroaching on national territory (i.e., Osama bin Laden and Afghanistan); the gang moving into a rival district (i.e., the continuing turf wars between the Bloods and Crips); the trespasser climbing into an orchard; the burglar breaking into a house; the bully pushing to the front of a line; and the driver trying to steal a parking space. All of these…… [Read More]
Flexibility, adaptability, and a global mindset cause my organization to behave in a responsive rather than hierarchical fashion. These organizational values conspire to create an organizational culture that respects education, values protocol and is detail-oriented, yet is not such a slave to the rules that it loses sight of human beings. After all, if the rules were absolute, there would not be different government laws and bylaws, depending on the country one is sealing with. The services I perform require communication is with diverse doctors from an ever-increasingly wide range of nations, including South Africa, India, British Columbia, Iran, Iraq, China, Cuba, and Segal. Each one of these governments, organizations, and educational systems differs from the United States' own, yet all nations and national must be respected so that the place I work for realizes its goals of improving health care and education across borders.
Organizational learning for Credentials Specialists…… [Read More]
Current Events in Consumer Behavior
I choose to write about the first video on Youtube to reach over one billion views, as of very recently this year. The video comes from South Korea, and is an example of K-Pop, a genre of music and popular culture that has become increasingly popular around the world during this decade. The named of the video is "Gangham Style" by a South Korean artist named Psy. The video is a music video for a song and the video was only posted in July of 2012. Within less than six months, the number of views on this video have surpassed all of the greatest all time leaders in views on Youtube, mostly notably, pop star, Justin Bieber, who became famous because of the sheer number of views on his videos. Bieber went from a nobody, just an aspiring singer, to one of the…… [Read More]
Whereas poor leaders avoid choosing competent members of their inner circle to avoid losing control, superior leaders establish the most talented and effective inner circles as possible. The manager in this case had the benefit of several subordinates who were capable of becoming part of her inner circle.
Instead of inviting their contribution, she deliberately maintained the maximum possible distance from them and insisted on always reviewing their decisions after the fact. Meanwhile, her own decisions were always hers alone and simply announced to the entire team together. Instead of allowing her supervisors to relay her decisions, the manager routinely announced them to supervisors and line employees together, further highlighting the complete non-involvement of supervisors in any meaningful decisions.
Finally, the manager made absolutely no attempt to identify leadership qualities in her subordinates, mainly because she feared any competent leaders as rivals. Effective leaders realize that it is essential to…… [Read More]
The family is embarrassed when the subject goes out because of her antics, but gets frustrated remaining in the same house with her. The mother is torn between what she knows is right for her daughter and what will make her daughter happy. As previously mentioned, the two did not get along well in the daughter's childhood years. In addition to the subject, her mother felt the strain of this relationship bitterly. She still deals with the trauma it caused her. This lack of a relationship between the two women, and the presence of a father who, when rarely in the home, took the position of a strict disciplinarian lead to a stunted development for the subject. Although the abnormal behavior did not begin until after the accident, teachers recall mild paranoid behavior and odd actions toward her mother as early as high school's sophomore year.
Typical Day for the…… [Read More]
BP Organizational Behavior
BP PLC Organizational Behavior
Imagine going to work for BP as an engineer to drill oil in the gulf. What would happen if a disaster occurred? Could the company hold up under pressure? How would management react to the situation? One will study the oil disaster in the gulf and how it pertains to human resources, structure, politics and symbolism.
Management signed a five-year contract with Exult Inc. To help transform human resources. They will have capabilities to use the "latest web-enabled technologies and processes" (BP, 1999). This is a first for the organization because it will become a worldwide effort. Each employee/manager will have access to information work as well as life information needed to do their job in an effective manner (BP, 1999).
"e-H services delivery model will assume management, ownership and accountability for BP Amoco's global H administrative and transactional processes" (BP, 1999). One…… [Read More]
Significance of ethics in the process of decision making and impact of technology on work-related stress
An important aspect in studying organizational behavior is the relevance and significance of ethics in the process of decision making within an organization. This factor, ethics, is vital because this is where the morale and regard of the organization to its people as well as clients are determined.
Members of an organization often create programmed and non-programmed decisions, and through these decisions, people encounter difficulties or challenges wherein their ethical character will be put into test. In the age of information technology, one might say that ethics is but a remnant of a time when people conduct their business personally and not through computer and Internet technologies. Nevertheless, despite these changes, individuals are, in some way, bound to 'recognize morality,' what is right or wrong, not just because s/he is expected to…… [Read More]
There are also lessons on geography, history, and botany. Physical activities such as dancing, cheerleading, skydiving, and parasailing are offered as well. This holistic personal development program is consistent with O'Connell Consolidated's objective of providing education to the youth, regardless of their socio-economic level and financial capability to provide for their education.
The Community Education program is just one example of how the high school fuses education with its Catholic principles and tradition. Education is considered not only as attaining knowledge, but to apply this knowledge into good works and actions. A student who excels in a particular subject is encouraged not just to remain consistent with his/her performance, but also to help out his/her classmates who may be experiencing difficulty in the said course. This way, the student learns to develop a personality that not only derived from his/her academic performance, but on character development as well. Learning, in…… [Read More]
Consumer Needs and Marketing Efforts
A need is defined as "a state of felt deprivation in a person" (Kotler, Chandler, Gibbs, & McColl 1999, p. 4). The most basic human needs are those for food, clothing, warmth, and safety. There are also needs that are more psychological, such as the need to feel loved, to feel successful, or to feel a sense of belonging. A more thorough explanation of needs can be found by considering Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory describes five levels of need that exist in a hierarchical order. In order from highest to lowest, these needs are: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization (Daft 1997, p. 530). The physiological need refers to the basic human needs for food and water. These are essentially the basic things that every individual needs to physically survive. The safety need refers…… [Read More]
Teacher Behavior/Class Culture
Avoiding Seeking Help in the Classroom: Who and Why?" appeared in the Educational Psychology Review in 2001. The article, by Allison Ryan, Paul Pintrich, and Carol Midgley, is mainly a literature review in the interrelated areas of achievement goal theory, social-goal orientation, and classroom dynamics and how these things impact the decision to seek academic help. The researchers investigated the causes of help avoidance, which has been found to increase during early adolescence (p.94). Therefore, the population in question is early adolescents, although the researchers to include references to studies that deal with other student populations. The article is well-written, well-organized, and clear. Help-seeking is the main focus of the paper, and is described by the authors as "an important self-regulatory strategy that contributes to student learning," (93). As help-seeking directly relates to actual student performance, the current research is important and can help educators understand and…… [Read More]
Leaders must be able to avoid the temptation to revert to the status quo when no clear best alternative surfaces during the evaluation process. As Peter Drucker et al. (2001) advise, an executive -- or anyone empowered with decision making authority in an organization -- must "force [himself] to choose" instead of the worse action of defaulting to a status quo that has already proven itself inadequate.
There are many traps that can lead a decision making body away from following these five steps. A command-and-control type hierarchy where the executive or the executive team is not open to input from the lower levels of the organization (such as was present in the infrastructure of Scholar Unlimited) can severely hamper nearly every step of the process. In addition, poorly defined desired outcomes and assumption-laden approaches to alternative solutions can mire the process in conflict and confusion. Keeping these decision making…… [Read More]