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Professional Learning Community within an Educational Context
Peter Senge's learning community is one where all of the team members work together within in a fluid, supportive atmosphere that is future based and oriented around critical, open thinking.
His five principles of learning communities are:
Systems thinking -- namely seeing a problem in terms of its long-term holistic perspective and ramifications. Seeing different connections among the problem or studied material
Personal mastery -- includes characteristics such as commitment to truth, creativity, personal vision, and persistence
Mental models -- we each see in terms of certain heuristics. Interpretations of the world. Openness towards differences of these mental models and willingness to change them are characteristics of a viable learning community.
Building shared vision -- where the team works towards a shared goal.
Team learning -- an interaction where all are open to learning with and from the other
Senge's learning community was…
Munro, J. (n.d.) Fostering school improvement through the leadership of learning http://online.edfac.unimelb.edu.au/selage/pub/readings/leadlcom/School_leadership_widetran.pdf
Senge, P. et. al. (1994) The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization
Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N. Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J. And Kleiner, A. (2000) Schools That Learn. A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares About Education, New York: Doubleday/Currency
Sergiovanni, T. (1994) Building community in schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Operating a school and being responsible for the day-to-day operations is a job that belongs to a special kind of person. Having an open-door policy is good, but principals who want to get out and interact with their students and staff might find their hands tied because they simply have too much to do. They will not have the chance to get out into the hallways as much as they would like to, and that can leave them frustrated. Principals also face obstacles when they try to befriend their staff and students, because there are rules for interaction that must be followed. It would be inappropriate for the principal to date a teacher, for example, and principals have to be careful about touching students, even if they are trying to console or comfort.
Society requires principals to be very careful what they say and do, and that can get in…
Yammarino, F.J., & Bass, B.M. (1990). Transformational leadership and multiple levels of analysis. Human Relations, 43(10), 975-995.
Yukl, G. (1989). Leadership in organizations (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Collaborative Learning Community
Evidence Hierarchy Pyramid
Each of these studies had strengths that should be mentioned:
(1) Jefferies, et al. (2012) -- This study contained information about safety in relation to information transfer through collaboration between nurses that was sound specifically regarding oral transfer of information and the variables that can affect effective information transfer.
(2) Jukkula, et al. (2012) -- This study set out a clinical microsystem framework for improving information transfer between nurses at shift change.
(3) Friesen, et al. (nd) - This study covered the various factors affecting the passing of instructions between nurse at shift change in what was an overview of literature in this area of inquiry.
(4) Chapman (2009) -- This study encourages nursing staff to effectuate change through their own actions.
(5) Evans, et al. (2012) -- This study relates the development and evaluation of an intervention which took the information exchange between…
Chapman, KB (2009) Improving Communication Among Nurses, Patients, and Physicians. American Journal of Nursing, 21-25.
Evans, D. et al. (2012) Bedside Shift-to-Shift Nursing Report: Implementation and Outcomes. MedSurg Nursing. Sept -- Oct. 2012. Vol. 21, No. 5.
Friesen, et al. (nd) Chapter 34: Handoffs: Implications for Nurses. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses: Vol. 2.
Jefferies, D. et al. (2012) Comparing Written and Oral Approaches to Clinical Reporting in Nursing. Contemporary Nurse (2012) 42(1): 129 -- 138.
personal reflection giving past experiences used in selecting an assessment method to evaluate learning. It further outlines how assessment can be used for both individual learner mastery and continuous quality improvement of the instruction. Moreover the paper discusses how critical reflection is essential in the assessment process not only for the educator, but for learners as well. Besides, it presents a profile of own current professional educator role as a reflective practitioner.
Assessment and Critical eflection
In my degree program, I have preferred the use of Personal Communication assessment method in evaluation of' learning progress. This method entails gathering information about what students have learned in the course of interacting with them. This assessment method, involves listening to students' views during classes; responding to their comments, as well as interviewing them (Brodie & Irving, 2007). The information gathered during such interactions provides descriptive feedback helpful in instructional planning, and self-reflection.…
Ash, S.L., & Clayton, P.H. (2004). The Articulated Learning: An Approach to Guided Reflection and Assessment. Innovative Higher Education, 137-154.
Brodie, P., & Irving, K. (2007). Assessment in Work-Based Learning: Investigating a Pedagogical Approach to Enhance Student Learning. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 11-19.
Copland, M.A., & Knapp, M.S. (2006). Connecting Leadership with Learning: A Framework for Reflection, Planning, and Action . Alexandria: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Schon, D.A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. London: Temple Smith.
They may feel threatened by new ideas and fear that they will actually be changes for the worse instead of for the better, simply because they are unfamiliar. Another point is that people may have a vested interest in not accepting change. According to Kotter (1996) people like to feel that they are in control of what is happening to them; they want to be the ones steering their own ship; and the more that change is imposed on them, the more they will see it as something to feel threatened about and the more they will resist it.
Unfortunately, simply being aware that these barriers exist is not sufficient to overcome them. It is the responsibility of the leaders of a learning community to gain an understanding of how to turn around resistance to change that is based on fear rather than rationality. This means not just relying on…
Arlestig, H. (2007) Principals' communication inside schools: a contribution to school improvement? The Educational Forum, 71(3), 262 -- 273.
Felner, R.D., Kasak, D., Mulhall, P., & Flowers, N. (1997). The project on high performance learning communities. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(7), 520-527
Kilpatrick, M.B. & Jones, T. (n.d.) Defining learning communities. Faculty of Education, University of Tasmania, Australia
Kotter, J. (1996) Leading change. Harvard: Harvard Business School Press
Principals are instrumental in sparking professional dialogue amongst teachers and encouraging critical self-reflection within the minds of individual teachers. All of these elements of reflection and reflexiveness are essential during staff meetings, for a true Professional Learning Community to function as it should.
A good principal is willing to provide an honest evaluation as to how the school is progressing in its mission and not allow the school's reputation to rest upon its past laurels. A principal functions as the strategic planner who determines the long-term goals of the school, and the short-term goals or benchmarks the school must reach to achieve those goals. By setting goals and helping generate a collective sense of mission for all persons at the school, principals create the necessary atmosphere at the school for more effective practices.
Principals also play an important role in facilitating professional development, as the ideal of teachers continuing to…
Dufour, R, Eaker R.E., & Baker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work, Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Alexandria: Solution Tree.
49). That goes for leaders in the learning community as well. Thessin asserts that while it is important to teach students to solve problems, there is a lack of focus on another important, related goal: "the need for teachers to learn to do the same" (49). Teachers are leaders and they must be given the training to develop problem solving skills along with the other important skills mentioned in this paper.
Alansari, Eissa M., and Albustan, Suad A. (2009). Center for Continuing Education and Community Service at Kuwait University: A Model in Leadership for Adult and Continuing
Education. College Student Journal, 43(2), 1-8.
Fulton-Calkins, Patsy, and Milling, Charlie. (2005). Community-College Leadership: An Art to be Practiced: 2010 and Beyond. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol.
Jameson, Jill, Ferrell, Gill, Kelly, Jacquie, alker, Simon, and Ryan, Malcolm. (2006). Building
trust and shared knowledge in communities…
Alansari, Eissa M., and Albustan, Suad A. (2009). Center for Continuing Education and Community Service at Kuwait University: A Model in Leadership for Adult and Continuing
Education. College Student Journal, 43(2), 1-8.
Fulton-Calkins, Patsy, and Milling, Charlie. (2005). Community-College Leadership: An Art to be Practiced: 2010 and Beyond. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol.
Women in Film Noir
Teaching is in many ways a solitary profession: A teacher in his or her own classroom spends hours in contact with students but often relatively little time talking to other teachers and educators. Administrators are also in many ways isolated from the teachers. Perhaps because of this fact, the administrators interviewed for this project emphasized the personal importance of collaboration with other members of the professional and the necessity of providing support for each other. This section summarizes the findings of this research concerning how education professionals defined and evaluated different aspects of cooperation within the profession.
Subject Population and Research Design
This study was conducted at a kindergarten through eighth grade school in the district where I am employed. I conducted six interviews with administrators who ranged in experience (in administration) from one to eight years. Five were women and five were former teachers in…
" (Rosser, et al., 1999) Furthermore, Rosser et al. (1999) relates that these changes are overwhelming for some students and "…can overtax their capacity to cope, thereby compromising academic and emotional functioning." Unfortunately, there remains a paucity of recent research, especially longitudinal studies, concerning the experiences of adolescents during their transition to high school. According to Isakson and Jarvis, "The amount of time spent in school serves not only to educate students, but also to shape their social world, contributing to overall development. Yet, changing schools represents a specific life transition that is acknowledged as a challenging and potentially stressful life event" (p. 1). In fact, that transition to high school represents a profound challenge for many young learners no matter what their primary school organization. For instance, Isakson and Jarvis note that, "Whether the eighth-grade year was spent in a kindergarten through eighth-grade school (Grades K-8), a middle school…
(American Lirary Association, 2006)
II. Skills that Students will Possess upon Graduation from High School
The work entitled: "Information Literacy Curriculum" states that upon graduation from high school the student will posses the following skills:
(1) Information literacy -- aility to identify, locate, access, retrieve, evaluate and use information from a variety of formats;
(2) Information management -- aility to use electronic lirary catalogs, microformats, periodical dataases, CD-ROM interfaces, school area network programs, INTERNET, and print materials;
(3) Research Strategies -- aility to use print and electronic lirary sources effectively;
(4) Classification and Grouping of Information -- aility to use word processing, manipulation of dataase files to download, copy, and print information, and note-taking skills;
(5) Organization of Information - aility to correctly cite sources and create note cards and iliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- aility to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes,…
bibliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- ability to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes, Audio Cassette Player and tapes, CD-ROM station, Copy Machine and Printer to retrieve, copy, or print materials.
Information Literacy Curriculum (nd) Clarkstown Central School District West Nyack, NY. Online available at: http://www.ccsd.edu/bardonia/CCSDLibraryCurriculum/hrdcpy/Final%20Draft1.pdf
Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning - Learning and Teaching Principles of School Library Media Programs (2006) American Association of Libraries. Online available at: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslproftools/informationpower/iplearningteaching.cfm
Within a learning setting, each student comes with their individual package and it is not possible to have two pupils learning concepts in the same way despite the fact that they are taught with the same curriculum by the same educators as well. Naseem International School accommodates students from different cultures and backgrounds with different needs. The needs are not purely academic and learning needs only but also cultural and social needs hence care is needed. This paper looks at how teachers can plan for and assess the individual needs of students as well as identify and discuss strategies which promote and enhance the learning of students who have different educational needs (Project Ideal, 2008).
It is critical to asses the pupils in my class since they differ in terms of their abilities to learn and imbibe concepts in class. This assessment can be done as below:
Douglous.D.Christensen, (1996). Teaching Strategies for Students with Diverse Learning Needs.
Centennial Mall South. Nebraska Department of Education. ( Pg 11-16).Retrieved January 24,2013 from http://www.nebraskasocialstudies.org/pdf/tsfswdln.pdf
Sue Watson, (2012). Differentiated Instruction and Assessment. Retrieved January 24, 2013
They are somewhat vague about how the contrasting learning needs of younger and older groups can effectively be met in a single classroom setting, but nonetheless note that there is a great need for community research to clarify this issue. The conclusions and attitudes of these authors are also much more accommodating of the differences in learners than those of Caudron.
Having noted the above, the article could benefit from a clearer explication of different teaching methods that could work not only for the different groups, but for integrated groups as well. Another limitation is that the article differentiates between two age groups, without acknowledging that there could be learning style differences within a single age group. While therefore accepting that there could be different learning styles, the article still treats these somewhat simplistically.
By far the most complex in terms of learning style application is McCarthy's article, which focuses…
Caudron, Shari. Can Generation Xers Be Trained?
McCarthy, Bernice. A Tale of Four Learners.
Murray, Corey & Bank, David. Intergenerational Learning. Community College Journal Washington: Aug/Sep 2007. Vol. 78, Iss. 1
Most significantly, too, the library runs a free service and a book mobile to reach those who are unable for various reasons (such as being handicapped, ill, or elderly) to use the library. The book mobile has its own selection of books, toys, and a teacher who is available to instruct those who desire instruction and those who need help with their homework.
The library's vision statement is that it seeks to help people pursue lifelong leaning and discovery, as well as enjoyment of popular culture and the arts. It also seeks to help residents become well informed, to engage each other in dialogue and respectful discourse, and to actively participate in the life of the community. All of this makes it an organization that disseminates learning in the fullest sense of the word.
In a practical way -- and as per its mission statement -- it does this by…
Brown, J.S. & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Towards a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organization Science. 2(1): 40-57.
Cohen, W.M. & Levinthal, D.A. (2000). Absorptive Capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. In R. Cross and S. Israelit (eds) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. (pp. 39-68) Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.
Comley, L., Arandez, L., Holden, S & Kuriata, E. (2000). Are TAFE organisations learning organisations? Do they 'walk the talk'? The Centre for Curriculum Innovation and Development. Melbourne: Victoria University
Cross, R. And Israelit, S. (2000) Strategic learning in the knowledge economy. Boston: Heinemann.
Google is a Learning Organization
Worth more than General Motors, Disney and McDonald's combined, Google is a leading provider of information services today. This company achieved its meteoric growth in large part due to its ability to respond to changes in the marketplace and provide innovative solutions to consumer and business information needs (Morrison, 2003). Innovation, though, requires creativity and experimentation, but Google has learned how to accomplish this effectively by encouraging a reinforcing loop process throughout its organization (Sungkhawan, 2011). In fact, engineers and managers at Google are allowed 20% of their work time to devote to their own personal projects and tacit knowledge is shared in a reinforcing feedback fashion (Tidd & Bessant, 2013). For example, Tidd and Bessant report that, "Technical employees are expected to spend 20% of their time on projects other than their core job, and similarly managers are required to spend 20% of their…
Morrison, D. (2003). E-learning strategies: How to get implementation and delivery right first time. New York: Wiley.
Senge, P. (1994). The fifth discipline. New York: Doubleday.
Signorelli, P. & Reed, L. (2011, May-June). Professional through growth learning communities:
Knowledge comes with teamwork, and fun-all across the organization. American Libraries, 42(5-6), 56-59.
Money can help bring about the truly necessary elements, however, and without proper funding the ability to give a good public education to eth hundreds or thousands of students most serve becomes a true practical impossibility. There are numerous elements of providing an education that require an investment of financial resources, and like most things in this world you get what you pay for when it comes to education. A higher price tag doesn't guarantee a successful and high-quality education, but a low price tag all but guarantees a poor one.
One of the ways in which underfunding makes it almost impossible for a good education to be delivered is in the selection of educators. If the overall employment arena can be viewed as a market system, and it is very common and very reasonable to view it in just this manner, then job seekers will tend to seek out…
Denney, John. Colorado Education Underfunded by 'Unconscionable' Billions, Judge Rules. Huffington Post. (2011). Accessed 4 May 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/12/colorado-education-underf_n_1143753.html
DiCarlo, Matthew; Johnson, Nate, and Cochran, Pat. Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends 2007. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers, 2007.
Community participation is a key ingredient of any powerful community. The life blood (citizens) of the community is pumped by the heart, called as participation. Community participation is a requirement as well as a condition. It is a condition for raising resources and achieving more results. It engages the citizens deeply in work of the development of community. Community participation is about performing activities for the benefits of any community. The partners of the community follow certain rules and posses unique elements. They have a goal to achieve. This topic has various aspects; the purpose of writing this case study is to explore the minor and major aspects of community participation among kids and adults, both. This case study begins with the background of use of community participation as a tool, its strengths and weaknesses, the role of government in expanding this tool and the ways of communication used for…
10. Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, "The Wellbeing of Young Australians: Technical Report," Journal of Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, no.7 (2008):117.
11. Chen, S, "The transition from juvenile to adult criminal careers," Crime and Justice Bulletin, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, no. 86 (2005): 9-11.
12. Arnstein, S. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, no. 4 (1969): 216 -- 24.
A child can learn that pressing a button on remote changes a channel on a television set. The experiment used two set of participants where one set learnt from a machine while the others learnt from a human participant. It was evident that the use of a ghost machine yielded better results compared to the use of a participant (Nairne, 2011).
The method used to learn how observational learning influences children will be the use of questionnaires. Short questionnaires will be sent to twenty baby care centers to evaluate the observational learning skills possessed by the caregivers. The questionnaires will be filled by the participants using three main methods. Centers that are a long distance from researcher's location will be provided with the questionnaires through emails. Centers where the care giver is busy will be called when convenient and the questionnaire filled through a telephone conversation. Centers that are…
Mishra, B.K. (2008). Psychology; the study of human behavior. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Nairne, J.S. (2011). Psychology. Australia: Thompson/Wadsworth.
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
To train those college students who aim to join the teaching profession;
To provide the teachers with a wide spectrum and grounds for exploration so that they can apply their knowledge and ability in a way that boosts the overall educational standards of the institution and the students;
To design a schedule and academic profile that aims to purely heighten the academic and social growth of the students; and to support and carry out studies that will in eventuality help escalate and improve the educational standards at not only the school level but also the college and university levels.
Harkavy (1998) believes that the partnership between the school, community and the university is far more complex and inter-dependent that believed by the masses. In his study he brings forth new theories and explanation of his statement with the help of annals and current studies and examples. He feels…
Anderson, B.D., & Stetler, E.G., & Midle, T. (2006). A case for expanded school-community partnerships in support of positive youth development. National Association of Social Workers, 28(3), 155-163.
Beaumont, J.J. & Hallmark, D.L. (1998). Introduction: School-university partnerships in urban settings. Urban Education, 32(5), 557-560.
Beaumont, J.J. (1998). Administrator and researcher: Conflicting dual roles in directing a school-university partnership. Urban Education, 32(5), 645-660.
Becker, J. (1999). Partnerships with families promote TRIO student achievement. (ERIC Document 432197)
Adrian Duncan, a night manager at the Y, suggests friendly competitions, such as spelling bees or basketball tournaments, pitting school teams against YMCA teams. The YMCA teams would provide an opportunity for students from different schools and different backgrounds to come together as one.
In challenging economic times, organizations that serve youth and work with volunteers can find sustainable funding difficult. LIVA in particular finds it difficult; the YMCA, with greater name recognition and presumably greater economic resources, did not express that finances are a particular concern.
The current economic climate has been challenging not only for Long Island's non-profits, like LIVA and the YMCA, but for its public school system as well. Long Island property taxes are among the highest in the nation, largely because of the costs of funding public education (umsey, 2010). The schools, under the umbrella of the Education Working Group, are collaborating with the Long…
DiCocco, P. (2011, January). [Interview with Tracy Murtagh, Youth Education Coordinator,
Long Island Volunteer Association].
DiCocco, P. (2011, January). [Interview with Adrian Duncan, Night Manager, Cross Island
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…
Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: < http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/october/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released > [Accessed 8 January 2013].
Grolle, S., 2009. CCTV to Prevent Crime? To What Extent Does CCTV Prevent Crime and How Does it Effect the Life in Our Cities. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
This discussion will cover community-based business, overview of sustained community- based business, social enterprise, weaknesses of community-based business and success and failures of social enterprises.
A sustainable business can be referred to as a business that is operating within a friendly environment or take part in green activities in ensuring that every products, processes as well as manufacturing activities address the current environmental concerns adequately in as much as the profit margin is maintained. The description can be narrowed to; business that meets the needs of the current world while having no compromise on the future generation's ability so that they meet their own needs; or a process of assessing ways of designing products that are going to take advantage of the recent situations of the environment as well as the degree at which products of the company perform with renewable resources.
Some reports emphasize sustainability to be…
Berkes, F., and I.J. Davidson-Hunt, (2007). Communities and social enterprises in the age of globalization. Journal of Enterprising Communities 1:209-221. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.thecommonsjournal.org/index.php/ijc/article/view/206/107
David Kam 2008"Threadless - Community-Based Business" Ezine article. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://EzineArticles.com/1340820
Lionais, D. (2002). Mondragon: Experiment in Cooperatives or Community business? Canadian Association of Studies in Cooperatives Annual Conference 2002, Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, Toronto, Ontario.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (1984). Obstacles and aids to the development of community business ventures. Community business ventures and job creation: Local initiatives for employment creation. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Learning Power-Myth of Educational Empowerment
Education and empowerment
Education is important and essential for everyone be it formal, informal or even public education. It therefore means that everyone is entitled to education. Education is an entry point to many opportunities and it forms an integral part in the preparation for as well as the legitimization of forms of social life in particular. Education is not only purposed to "achievement" that is measured through standardized tests and assessments.
There are other important purposes of education one of them being empowerment. Empowerment is a process through which an individual's assumptions are challenged about how things can be done and are done. Empowerment challenges ones basic assumption on power, achievement, helping and succeeding in life. At the centre of the empowerment concept is the idea of power. For empowerment to take place there are two things to be considered; first requires that power…
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (1996). Finding Common Ground in an Era of Fragile Support. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/newsletters/policy-priorities/dec96/num07/toc.aspx
The Odysseus Group.(2003). Dumping us Down-Reviews. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.johntaylorgatto.com/bookstore/dumbdnlapp.htm
One, in particular, Edison State College, in Florida, is a two-year college that has an outstanding curriculum, and highly qualified staff. The college cooperates with a number of four-year colleges, affording students the opportunity to complete baccalaureate degrees in some majors while taking classes at Edison State. Many of the colleges are impressive, like the University of Florida, Florida State University, Nova Southeastern University, and others. These partner colleges and universities are all accredited, and have rules of performance and grade averages that students must meet and maintain in order to be accepted into those institutions. This, too, would suggest that Cohen and Brawer are flawed in their assessment of students who choose to attend two-year colleges.
Cohen, Arthur M., Brawer, Florence B., and Lombardi, John R. (Foreward by) (2008),
The American Community College, 5th Edition, Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, NY, NY.
Edison State Community College, Baccalaureate Partners (2009),…
Cohen, Arthur M., Brawer, Florence B., and Lombardi, John R. (Foreward by) (2008),
The American Community College, 5th Edition, Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, NY, NY.
Edison State Community College, Baccalaureate Partners (2009), found online at http://www.edison.edu/universitycenter/offering.php, retrieved 8 January 2009.
Community Emergency Preparedness and esponse
It is not only exams that require preparedness. More than a planned activity, preparedness is required for unplanned activities. In health care, emergencies may mean danger to life of self or the loved ones. The medical emergencies are often stressful even for the doctors not only the victims. Hence the more a society is prepared for an emergency, the less will be side effects and in the same way if a society is caught by an emergency unprepared, the loss will can be potentially much higher than otherwise. Therefore, as they say prevention is better than cure, a society should be always prepared for emergencies.
Events in Neighborhood
Like bad time never comes with an alarm, a fire incident took place in forest and spread to the neighborhood nearby. The fire could not be overcome due to the windy season and it brought irrevocable damage…
Looking for a Career in Public Health Program Management? (2013), Retrieved from:
Pfau, S., (2013), "Ten Essential Public Health Services," Retrieved from:
Learning a language: Gaining fluency in a language to be free
The acquisition of language is never a culturally neutral process. When someone learns his or her first or even a second language, that individual also acquires a status in the eyes of the world, based upon how that language is perceived. The race of the speaker, his or her perceived level of education, gender, and race all interact with the stereotypes that exist in the gazer's mind. In Christine Marin's essay "Spanish Lessons," Marin chronicles how her unsteadiness in Spanish did not initially bother her, given the fact that she grew up in a society that prized whiteness. Gradually, as she grew older and her attitude towards her heritage changed, her lack of fluency in her native tongue became a burden. Similarly, Malcolm X was forced to grapple with his complex relationship with the English language. On one hand,…
It is important, therefore to understand the different frameworks by which the ethics of an act can be evaluated.
The art of citizenship, as identified by Barber (no date), must taught as part of one's education. It also holds that practical experience is the best way to teach the art of citizenship. People learn about the consequences of their actions by attaching themselves to those consequences physically. In my case, the sheer volume of shoes that I had to sort made the point clear -- I was helping people clothe themselves. Every box of children's shoes I sent was a child that I helped to live a better life. e have a responsibility, Barber argues, to understand the implications of our actions on our communities.
The different approaches to ethics can also be studied through practical experience. It is social interaction that illustrates for us the outcomes of our actions,…
Barber, B. (no date). A model program: Education-based community service at Rutgers University. In possession of the author.
CharityNavigator.org (2011). World Vision. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=4768
Daniels College of Business. (2011). Daniels today and tomorrow. University of Denver. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.daniels.du.edu/aboutus/missionvisionvalues.html
Fukuyama, F. (1999). Social capital and civil society. International Monetary Fund. In possession of the author.
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
Community outreach and counterterrorism with efforts towards exploitable weaknesses.
Community Outreach and Terrorism
International and domestic terrorism have reached levels previously believed to be impossible. hether fueled by profits they get from trafficking drugs or whether they are fueled by religious ideologies, a series of communities express particular interest in wanting to get actively involved in performing activities characteristic to terrorist organizations. Many governments have the tendency to focus on fighting them directly and fail to understand the significance of addressing factors that influence these people to take up arms against the system. Focusing on underlying concepts encouraging individuals to become terrorists is likely to destabilize terrorist institutions and to make it increasingly difficult for them to recruit people.
The intelligence community in the contemporary society plays an important role in detecting terrorist threats and in making it less likely for individuals to engage in terrorist acts. Even with…
Coolsaet, R. (2011). "Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American Experiences." Ashgate Publishing.
Johnson, J.A. Ledlow, G.R., & Cwiek, M. (2005)."Community Preparedness and Response to Terrorism: Communication and the media." Greenwood Publishing Group.
Nikbay, O. & Hancerli, S. (2007). "Understanding and Responding to the Terrorism Phenomenon: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective." IOS Press.
Spalek, B. (2012). "Counter-Terrorism: Community-Based Approaches to Preventing Terror Crime." Palgrave Macmillan.
Watson's origin of human life is tied to notions that one's soul possesses a body that is not restricted by objective space and time. The lived world of the experiencing person is not well-known by external and internal notions of time and space, but shapes its own time and space. "Nursing is a human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human care transactions. The process of nursing is human care" (Fawcett, 2002).
The main concept of Watson's theory is transpersonal human caring which is best understood within the concepts of three subsidiary concepts: life, illness and health.
Human life is defined as spiritual, mental and physical being which is continuous in time and space.
Illness is not automatically a disease. Illness is turmoil or disharmony with a person's inner self or soul at some level or disharmony within the…
Fawcett, Jacqueline. (2002). Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Retrieved July 28, 2009,
from DeSales University Web site: http://www4.desales.edu/~sey0/watson.html
Obesity. (2009). Retrieved July 28, 2009, from MedicineNet.com Web site:
Learning Teams; Website Assigned Facilitator
E-Campus Website -- Phoenix.edu
The ecampus website that governs the user portal for the University of Phoenix is an aggressive and modern website design. The Phoenix brand has integrated a marketing approach that incorporates Macromedia flash as a primary means to engage the user to identify the mobile web for use to integrate learning with mobility. The website is able to effectuate the transition from user activity to the classroom by using the Macromedia to visually accentuate the transition.
The use of web design to convey a message regarding the use, convenience, and service of the website is at the heart of proper design. "For organizations engaged in electronic business, the corporate website has emerged as the single most important interface through which transactions are carried out. This being so, appropriate design characteristics are required to make websites effective. Customers expect websites to be designed…
Fonseca, A., Macdonald, A., Dandy, E., & Valenti, P. (2011). The state of sustainability reporting at canadian universities. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 12(1), 22-22-40. doi:10.1108/14676371111098285
Kovacs, P., & Rowell, D. (2001). The merging of systems analysis and design principles with web site development: One university's experience. T.H.E.Journal, 28(6), 60-60-65. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/214800316?accountid=13044
Monideepa T., Jie, Z. 2006. "Analysis of Critical Website Characteristics: A Cross-Category
Nelson, J.L. (2011, Help from higher education. New Jersey Business, 57(4), 53-53. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/863372809?accountid=13044
COPD and the Elderly Population
Although discussions about death and dying can be uncomfortable for patients, family members, and healthcare providers, the subject is important - especially for people with severe chronic illnesses (Covinsky, et al., 1994; Schiff, et al., 2000). The issue of a living will is particularly important for people with COPD, who are at risk for being placed on a ventilator (breathing machine) when they are very ill (Schiff, et al., 2000). As a home health nurse, it is easy to discover that many COPD patients do not have living wills and have not made final decisions and arrangements with their families. While it is natural to want to put off the inevitable decline and demise as long as possible, there is no substitute for making appropriate plans in order to determine what will take place in the future (Covinsky, et al., 1994). For purposes…
Covinsky, K.E., Goldman, L., & Cook, E.F., et al. (1994). The impact of serious illness on patient's families. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272(23):1839-1844.
Schiff, R., Rajkumar, C., & Bulpitt, C. (2000). Views of elderly people on living wills: Interview study. British Medical Journal, 320(7250): 1640-1641.
Type I diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Type 1 account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). The most common form of diabetes is Type II, which accounts for about 90 to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). Pre- diabetes is a condition often present prior to the development of Type II diabetes. In pre-diabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered diabetic.
Pre-diabetes does not have to lead to the development of diabetes if a person diagnosed with this condition: Patients who work to control their weight and increase their physical activity can often prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. There are 41 million Americans…
American Diabetics Association. Retrieved 22 March 2010 from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/
Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet.Retrieved 18 March 2010 from www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf
IV. A Multidisciplinary Approach
The work entitled: "Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach" states that it t has been recommended by the Florida Gubernatorial Task Force for University Campus Safety as follows: "That each college and university develop a multidisciplinary crisis management team, integrating and ensuring communication between the university law enforcement or campus security agency, student affairs, residential housing, counseling center, health center, legal counsel, and any other appropriate campus entities to review individuals and incidents which indicate "at-risk" behavior. The team should facilitate the sharing of information, timely and effective intervention, and a coordinated response when required." (Community Policing Dispatch, 2009) Colleges and universities in the United States are "recognizing the particular applicability of community policing in the campus environment. The community policing model helps to create the framework for a productive relationship between the officers and those whom they serve." (Wilson and Grammich, 2009)…
Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2009) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 2 Issue 4 April 2009. Online available at: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/April_2009/campus_threat.htm
Campus Watch Program (nd) College of Lake County, Illinois. Online available at: http://www.clcillinois.edu/depts/sec/CampusWatchBrochure.pdf
Godfrey, Steven (nd) Assessing the Success of Community-Policing (Neighborhood Watch Program) Online available at: http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache%3AUvBqWMSAHI0J%3Awww.emich.edu%2Fcerns%2Fdownloads%2Fpapers%2FPoliceStaff%2FCommunity%2520Policing%2FAssessing%2520the%2520Success%2520of%2520Community%2520Policing.pdf+colleges+and+universities%3A+community+watch+volunteers&hl=en&gl=us&pli=1
Gummere, Sara Lippincott (2003) Making a Better Place: Planning, Implementing & Managing a Student Volunteer Program. University of Oregon June 2003. Online available at: http://aad.uoregon.edu/icas/project_thesis_pdf/gummere_s.pdf
Community Colleges & Universities -- Comparisons
hat are the major differences between community colleges and four-year colleges and universities as far as financial and academic appropriateness for students? For millions of Americans, community colleges have an enormous advantage over four-year colleges and universities -- but what are those advantages? This paper will examine those and other issues relating to the community college vs. A four-year college / university.
Community Colleges and Universities - Comparisons
There are an estimated 2,604 four-year colleges and universities in the United States, according to data in U.S. News & orld Report. There are an estimated 1,151 community colleges in the U.S. As well. Of those, about 1,000 are public community colleges, and the remainder are funded through private channels (American Community Colleges).
The original intent of a community college (in the past they were called "junior colleges" but that title had a slightly un-dignified sound…
American Community Colleges. "Consider a Community College When Studying in the United
States." Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.americancommunitycolleges.com .
de Vise, Daniel. "More university students taking advantage of cheaper community college courses." The Washington Post. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com .
In theory, this would have students at the physical campus be able to interact with virtual students, as a part of their educational experience and socially. These different elements are important, because they are addressing the centuries of divide that has often separated all nationalities and ethnic groups. When you have them interacting with one another on a regular basis this is helping to achieve diversity and cultural understanding. As the constant interaction will improve understanding and it will provide a more well rounded education to the student.
Studying in a big city or one of the global sites will help to broaden my perspective of the world. This would take place, by allowing me to work with individuals who share the same kind of passion for learning as myself. At the same time, I am able to work with and learn from some of the brightest minds on the…
Community corrections are an integral component of any law enforcement correctional program. Community corrections staff, develop, and administer contracts for community-based correctional programs and serve as the Bureau of Prisons (BOP)'s local liaison with the federal courts, the U.S. Marshals Service, state and local corrections, and a variety of community groups. Through the community corrections program, the BOP has developed agreements with state and local governments to house juveniles and prisoners of non-violent crimes (Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2011).
The BOP contracts with residential reentry centers to provide assistance to inmates who have been found to be non-violent offenders. The community centers also include those inmates nearing release at the end of their determined term of incarceration. esidential reentry centers are always under supervision; in addition, they provide employment counseling, job placement, financial management assistance, and other programs and services. C's help inmates gradually re-enter the community and facilitate supervising…
Akhila, K. (2010) Foreign Prison Conditions Improvement Act of 2010. http://akhilak.com/blog/2010/10/17/foreign-prison-conditions-improvement-act-of-2010 / Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Federal Bureau of Prisons (2011) Community Corrections. http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Public Safety Performance Project (2007) What Works in Community Corrections. www.pewpublicsafety.org Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Community engagement-Related activity: The GROWTH program
Journal entry: Teacher
This has been my first week participating in the See All Academy GROWTH program
(Gaining Reflective Outcomes With Total Harmony). One of my students (Tom) was accused of bullying a younger student on the playground and required to a GROWTH CENTER REFLECTION SHEET that consisted of answering various essay questions. Then, he had to write an apology letter to the bullied student. As part of my role in GROWTH and the ongoing monitoring of program efficacy, when Tom was one of the randomly-selected GROWTH students to receive a weekly progress sheet, I had to give him a letter grade for a list of specific behaviors and classwork and tabulate the number of points he accumulated at the end of the week: because he did not receive any N's or U's I was able to make a 'good' phone call home to…
For example, it's Barbara who mentions the work of the scholar Gillath who asserts, "In making inferences based on shoe characteristics, three interesting patterns emerged: Some real personal characteristics were accurately perceived by others, e.g., owners who wear masculine or high top shoes tend to be less agreeable. Some of the accurate information that shoes carry & #8230; were not perceived by others & #8230; e.g., people high in attachment anxiety were more likely to have dull shoes, but our participants didn't recognize this cue. Finally, some personal characteristics that were not true to the shoe owners were stereotypically identified by others, e.g., participants assumed that people who wear more attractive and well-kept shoes tend to be more conscientious, but attractiveness and repair of shoes were not related to observer ratings of Conscientiousness after controlling for perceived gender, age, and income. By examining the three patterns, we concluded that attractiveness…
Another way of combining these two approaches is by having the students involved in the process of what is learned and how. Each learner brings something different to the classroom, so will want to take away something different as well. The teacher and student can work together to set goals of what is to be achieved. Similarly, the students need continual feedback, so they know how they are accomplishing these goals. Lastly, since all students do learn differently, the classroom environment has to be a place for sharing new ideas. Students can learn considerably by seeing how their peers perceive the same drawing, or science experiment or historical event. They gain both knowledge and acquire new learning about their own abilities and that of others in the room. More importantly, this gives each child a similar opportunity to express him or herself and build self-esteem, regardless of the students' varying…
Learning Journal: Personal eflection
Now more than ever before, diversity is a real issue for the American society, and with this demographic change comes the need to develop strategies and techniques for making people more appreciative of the gender, ethnic, religious, and cultural differences that constitute the fabric of society. One's gender, ethnicity, race, religion, or sexual orientation does not define who they are and what their abilities are. These elements, therefore, ought not to be used as the primary bases for assigning positions, benefits, or advancement opportunities at the workplace. Just because someone is male is no guarantee that they will display better performance in a leadership or supervisory position than a female candidate would. We may consider men better-placed for such positions because we think of them…
Alonso, M. (2012). Best Inclusion Practices: LGBT Diversity. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
Community Tool Box. (2014). Strategies and Activities for Reducing Racial Prejudice and Racism. Kaplan University. Retrieved 22 March 2015 from http://ctb.dept.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence/reduce-prejudice-racism/main
O'Brien, R. (2013). Bodies in Revolt: Gender Disability and a Workplace Ethic of Care. New York, NY: Routledge
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2001). Affirmative Action. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 24 March 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights101/affirmaction.html
This program experience, concurrent with my faith-based experience developing an additional residential treatment program provided the core of my personal and professional learning of both direct patient care and cemented my belief in the need for such programs to exists and grow to better meet the needs of the growing drug problem in my community and many others.
Upon completion of the position of Director of Residential Programs for the Jefferson County Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, I sought out in 2006 another position that would further my learning as a community service provider. My new task would be based around not the management of one county facility but the development of regional programming needs in the are as a member of the Southeast Texas Regional Planning Commission -- Quality Management-Substance Abuse Division. I currently hold this position which includes a variety of tasks and learning opportunities: Conducting organizational…
school-wide inquiry into learning and teaching performance and participating in professional inquiry as a colleague" I have often found my school lacking (Copland & Knapp 2006). My current Capstone project is on the phenomenon of 'teaching to the test,' or the extent to which the pressures of standardized testing have inhibited teacher's creativity and limited the development of individuated curriculums in schools today. Copland and Knapp (2006) suggest that under ideal circumstances, a partnership exists between teachers and administrators as they engage in a joint effort to discover what works and what does not work when comparing teaching strategies. But I often find (which is not uncommon amongst teachers) that the standardized test becomes a kind of 'third party' in the relationship between teachers and other stakeholders.
ather than engaging in research to determine what works and does not work to enhance learning, instead teachers and administrators alike must shape…
Rose, L.P. (2009). Students as researchers: a framework for using action research. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2).
epeat and rephrase is a technique that benefits not only students with little or few English speaking ability, but also students with English as their primary language. epetition is a learning tool that allows students to memorize information and then translate it into a context that is understandable and applicable to their social and educational environment.
Lastly, music is a universal form of expression. Many researchers have emphasized music's ability to enhance student learning. Some believe the music of certain composers including Mozart stimulate centers of the brain known to promote greater learning. The reasons for this are not certain, but music is tool-integrated classrooms can use to boost self-esteem among students and encourage students to interact with each other and share with each other by sharing their own cultural heritage.
The English language is something often learned through rhymes and riddles, in traditional classrooms, as well as in integrated…
Colvin, G. (2002). "Designing classroom organization and structure." in, K.L. Lane, F.M.
Gresham, & T.E. O'Shaughnessy (Eds.), Interventions for children with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders, pp.159-174, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Givner, G.C., Lane, K.L. & Pierson, M.R. (2003). Teacher expectations of student behavior: Which skills do elementary and secondary teachers deem necessary for success in the classroom? Education & Treatment of Children, 26(4):413.
Hall, K., Marchenkova, L., & Vitanova, G. (2004). Dialogue with Bakhtin on second and foreign language learning: new perspectives. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
It should have automated training so that it will be easy to learn how to use. It should be able to centralize organizational learning while still providing for local ownership. It should provide for self-service learning for faculty as well as students. And it should be able to deploying learning resources and training programs in a quick manner (Zeiberg, 2004).
If one takes all of these things into consideration when deciding on a learning platform will help to ensure that the best learning environment is created for both faculty members and students. Considering that the main purpose of schools is to create a learning community then being able to create the more effective and efficient one possible should be a top priority.
Educational Platform. (n.d.). etrieved September 26, 2009, from Web site:
Garcia, Francisco J., ego, Hugo and Moreira, Tiago. (n.d.). etrieved September 26, 2009,
from Web site:…
Educational Platform. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2009, from Web site:
Garcia, Francisco J., Rego, Hugo and Moreira, Tiago. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2009,
from Web site: http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media10018.pdf
In addition, the structure and presentation of required, basic course material are more goal-oriented and motivating to meet the needs of students.
While critics initially charged that Net-based learning was vastly inferior to traditional classroom settings, some now wonder if traditional education will survive as the transformational possibilities of Net-based learning, teaching and developing course content are fully realized. he answer is a resounding 'yes'. he reason is that net-based learning can be designed to include some elements of socialization, but not all. Physically attending college is a great experience. Colleges shape students' lives and teach values, ethics and cultures that are unique to schools. Often, one can tell which school a person has attended just by listening to the person's communication style. Going to an online school is different. Students can have a great learning experience in an online school, but students may not get a chance to fully…
Teachers will have to adapt to the new role of the student on the Net. For instance, the teacher role must shift from being a leader to being a coach as student autonomy in the learning process increases. The traditional methods of oral and written review of assigned textual material will no longer be the way to measure learning. Instead, students will measure and document their own learning progress. Within the knowledge building community, teachers will be one expert of many and must now function as a "team of experts" rather than as a sole source of expertise.
With regards to course development, technologies in Net-based learning such as multimedia, hypertext, and search engines for ubiquitous information access "are creating non-linear and multidimensional learning environments" to support student autonomy. In addition, the structure and presentation of required, basic course material are more goal-oriented and motivating to meet the needs of students.
While critics initially charged that Net-based learning was vastly inferior to traditional classroom settings, some now wonder if traditional education will survive as the transformational possibilities of Net-based learning, teaching and developing course content are fully realized. The answer is a resounding 'yes'. The reason is that net-based learning can be designed to include some elements of socialization, but not all. Physically attending college is a great experience. Colleges shape students' lives and teach values, ethics and cultures that are unique to schools. Often, one can tell which school a person has attended just by listening to the person's communication style. Going to an online school is different. Students can have a great learning experience in an online school, but students may not get a chance to fully immerse themselves the culture of the college they are attending. Colleges offer interactive environments and encourage students to participate in extra-curricular activities. Students join different clubs and student unions at the colleges, and participate in debates, games and sports. These activities help shape students' lives and characters. Online learning communities can offer only some of a college's social environment; it can never replicate the same degree of face-to-face interactions. According to Peters (1998), "Although distance education and Net-based learning will significantly impact university learning, the traditional university will not be lost because it provides experiences that are unavailable to the distance learning student. As a result, "the university of the future will be a mixed mode university and distance education will be a prominent if not the fundamental element in it."
Technology and the Learner-Centered Learning Environment
One of the primary goals of teachers and educators is ensuring that student learning is successful. The educational system within the United States is constantly being evaluated and re-evaluated to determine what technologies and programs are best suited to enhance student achievement. In modern times technology has become synonymous with progress, change, and advancement and learning. It has become a staple in the lives of every day citizens, in classrooms and in corporations.
Technology can impact the classroom in positive ways by helping educators and teachers in creating a team oriented learning community where participants are encouraged to explore the world by capitalizing on their own unique skills, abilities and interests. Technology can also help educators and teachers assess student's learning capability, learning style and knowledge frame of reference, all critical elements of a learner-centered classroom environment. The ways that technology facilitates the learner-centered…
Brown, D.M. (2003). "Learner-Centered conditions that ensure students' success in learning." Education, 124(1):99
Burns, M. (2002). "From compliance to commitment: Technology as a catalyst for communities of learning." Phi Delta Kappan, 84(4):295
Dare, D.E. (2001). Learner Centered instructional practices supporting the new vocationalism. New Directions in Community Colleges, 115. 81-91.
Duderstadt, J.J. (1999). "New roles for the 21st century university." Issues in Science and Technology, 16(2): 37
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
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Topic:Technology to Enhance Learning: Distance & Online Applications
Application: Online Course Design Online education offers convenient and effective means by which nurses, nursing students, and other populations can gain valuable learning experiences. In this Application, you will design an online learning environment on a nursing-education topic of interest to you. If you would like to put your course online, you are invited to try Moodle, a free course management web application, but this is not a requirement of the assignment.To begin, review Chapter 6, EuroDesigning the Online Learning Environment," in Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education (OEuro(TM)Neil, Fisher, &…
The instructor does sit with the student when he or she is training with the devices the FAA approves for the educational computer training. Sometimes a separate computer is used during this process, but the teacher is able to monitor and control the student's flight as well as plan out every detail for him or her at that particular time (United States Gernal Accounting Office, 1999).
For those that are educators, they too have noticed trends with computer-based training. The convenience of learning on the Web has stretched all the possible barriers that occur locally and globally. When it comes to distance learning, the Internet is used to deliver material to the learner, such as Word documents or PowerPoints. However, in other online environments, this is provided through hypertext, which allows the learner more opportunities to explore the information provided as well as to have much interactivity (Khalifa & Lam,…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, A.M., & Mehay, S. (2009). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Naval Postgraduate School, 119.
Information Design, Inc. (2004). Issues in web-based training. 5.
Khalifa, M., & Lam, R. (2002). Web-based learning: Effects on learning process and outcome. IEEE Transactions on Education, 7.
Kulik, C.-L. C., & Kulik, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based: An updated analysis. Computers in human behavior, 20.
Motivating Students to Learn:
One of challenging and difficult tasks for teachers and parents is motivating students to complete their classes with a sense of pride, achievement and graduate with their peers. This task is particularly challenging for students who are have been unenthusiastic over time and those who are struggling. As a result of the lack of motivation and prevailing struggles, such students start to demonstrate learned helplessness. Learned helplessness is where students regard themselves as failures and don't see the reason for attempting to improve and better themselves. While such students also feel that they are lost and have no thought of achievement, teachers and parents can make a difference in motivating these students (Belcher, 2011).
Best Ways of Motivating Students:
As previously mentioned, motivating students is a daunting task for many teachers and parents alike. Teachers face huge difficulties in motivating students because each classroom is made…
Belcher, E. (2011, July 3). How to Motivate High School Students. Retrieved December 28,
2011, from http://www.ehow.com/how_2181850_motivate-high-school-students.html
Durand, M. (n.d.). Motivating Students: Teaching Strategies for Student Learning. Retrieved December 28, 2011, from http://www.howtodothings.com/education/a1892-how-to-motivate-students.html
Harris, R. (2010, October 14). Some Ideas for Motivating Students. Retrieved December 28,
The four pillars that must be included in a technology plan are: Infrastructure, software, hardware and the professional development (Cradler, 2013).
There are two basic categories that the software instruction and curriculum can be divided into:
Teaching and Learning Software Tools: the use of technology to improve the quality of education for the students as well as the teachers. Subscription-based electronic learning resources have enabled the teachers as well as the students to access more reliable and vast sources of information like they were never before able to do (Cradler, 2013).
Productivity Software Tools: the basic technology tools that have increased the usage of technology to the extent that it has changed the landscape of how work was done in the past and how it is being done today. Student information systems and the electronic gradin systems are an example of such tools (Cradler, 2013).
The most important…
Cradler, J. (n.d.). WestEd. Retrieved February, 2013, from Implementing Technology in Education: Recent Findings from Research and Evaluation Studies: http://www.wested.org/techpolicy/recapproach.html
Dexter, S. (2002). ETIPs -- Educational technology integration and implementation principles. In P. (Rogers, Designing instruction for technology-enhanced learning (pp. 56-70). Hershey: Idea Group Publishing.
International Society for Technology in Education. (2002). NETS for Teachers. Retrieved November 2007, from National Education Technology Standards Project: http://cnets.iste.org/
Massachusetts Department of Education. (2007). Technology Self-Assessment Tool (TSAT). Retrieved February, 2013, from the Office of Instructional Technology: http://www.doe.mass.edu/odl/
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)
Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/
Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.
Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
learning organization. *Consolidate research definitions organization learning. *Explain organization a learning organization (teaching federal government hospital). *Discuss advantages disadvantages organizational learning.
The learning organization
The modern day business climate is more challenging and dynamic and it forces the economic agents to seek alternative sources of strategic advantages. One example in this sense is represented by the enhancement of the emphasis placed on supporting learning and the continuous development of the organization of learning. While this concept is gaining more and more interest within the economic agents, it is also highly applicable within public entities, such as hospitals.
This project then starts at the premises that the concept of the learning organization is highly applicable in the context of the teaching federal government hospital. The purpose of this paper is that of supporting a higher understanding of the learning organization, in order to lead to a superior application within the real…
Appelbaum, S.H., 2000, The competitive advantage of organizational learning, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 12, No. 2
Dowshen, S., 2010, Questions and answers, Kids' Health, http://kidshealth.org/parent/question/parenting/hospitals.html last accessed on August 6, 2012
John, D., 2002, Organizational learning and effectiveness, Routledge
Karash, R., Why a learning organization? http://world.std.com/~lo/WhyLO.html last accessed on August 6, 2012
Neighborhood as Community: Scarsdale, New York
With a per capita income of $113,000, a median household income of $230,750, a median sales price of a single-family home of $1.34 million and one of the leading school districts in the state, the Village of Scarsdale is a relatively exclusive suburb of New York City that has a poverty level that even other affluent communities envy. Using an ecosystems perspective, this paper provides a review of the literature as well as online government resources to describe the demographics, available social networks, income and wealth distribution, an assessment of the educational resources, housing, health and welfare issues, as well as formal and informal control systems. An ecosystems perspective merges general systems theory and ecology to provide insights concerning the interactions between individuals and various aspects of their social environment (Tangenberg, 2009) to determine adaptations of the neighborhood over time, the interface of the…
Brenner, E. (2008, May 18). Houses even bigger, scores way above average. The New York
Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/realestate/18livi.html ?
History of Scarsdale. (2013). Village of Scarsdale. Retrieved from http://www.scarsdale.com/
The visits would also include the distribution of basic food items to help alleviate the food shortages and associated hunger in the area. The country is one that has a high reliance on agriculture and subsistence farming, but with the recent civil war the poverty is exacerbated with a need to recover. Recovery is needed for both production and the access to funds that may be realized from the sale of agricultural goods. This is an ongoing issue which one is constantly aware of when handing out food, knowing it is a short-term solution to a long-term problem. However other projects do exist which are seeking to address this issues.
The visits also involve medical checks, with doctors and healthcare workers visiting people in their homes to help with medical issues to carry out checks and to give advice. This was also a learning experience, seeing the range of medical…
community rating in insurance?
Under which pricing system do insurers have an incentive to engage in preferred risk selection?"
Health insurance providers use the rating system to calculate the charge for their insurance. ating systems such as community rating and experience rating use difference statistical method to estimate the amount a given individual or a group will pay for the healthcare insurance. Using the rating system, health insurance providers have been able to determine the amount an individual or a group will pay for their insurance.
Experience rating is defined as the practice of setting a rate for an individual or a group based on the benefits paid on behalf of that group, and experience rating adjusts future premium based on benefit utilization and experience. In insurance, experience rating is based on the traditional insurance concept, which base the premium of a group individual on the probability of the loss…
Enthoven, A.C. (1980). Health Plan: The Practical Solution to the Soaring Cost of Medical Care. Beard Books. USA.
Feldstein, .P.J. (2011). Health Care Economics. Cengage Learning, USA.
Follmann, J.F. (1962). Experience Rating vs. Community Rating. The Journal of Insurance. 29,(3): 403-415.
Mahdavi, G. (2008). Adverse Selection vs. Advantageous Selection in Life Insurance Market. Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto.
How the Previous Experiences, Interests and Thought Processes of Students Influence the Learning of Current Content Area Concepts
The objective of this study is to examine how the previous experiences, interests, and thought processes of students can influence the learning of current content area concepts. This work will examine the link between past experiences of students, student interests and present learning and address key principles of brain-based learning including the importance of meaningful learning, knowledge background. This work will examine how consideration of past experiences, learning and student interest should be an important part of lesson planning for the teacher. Specific examples will be included.
Prior knowledge includes the learner's attitudes and experiences. Attitudes include the learner's beliefs about themselves as learners and the learners' awareness of their own individual strengths and interests. Experiences include normal activities that are relative to learning and the events in the lives of…
Critical Issue: Building on Prior Knowledge and Meaningful Student Contexts/Cultures (nd) NCREL. Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr100.htm
Haverila, M. (nd) The Influence of Experience, Ability and Interest on e-Learning Effectiveness. EURODL. Retrieved from: http://www.eurodl.org/?article=359
Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience. (2004) The National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, The American College Personnel Association. Jan 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/learningreconsidered.pdf
Prior Knowledge (nd) The Strategic Teaching and Reading Project Guidebook (Kujawa & Huske, 1995). Cited in: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1pk.htm
Functionalism is now a widely criticized social theory and the large percentage of this criticism is directed against its inability to explain social change. Emile Durkheim and other functionalists were of the view that society works as a whole and each part of this whole contributes towards keeping the entire system as it is. hey felt that each part of society such as the media, family, government and schools work in such a manner as to keep the society in its present shape. Kuper and Kuper have defined functionalism as a "doctrine which asserts that the principal task of sociology and social anthropology is to examine the contribution which social items make to the social and cultural life of human collectivities; it may additionally assert that to examine social phenomena in this way is to explain why those items occur at all, and/or why they have persisted." his is…
The democratic theory of education needs to be effectively implemented in our learning system because it addresses the grievances of all classes in a society. The theory doesn't represent any particular class and thus gives a chance of equal representation to everyone.
1) Amy Gutmann. Democratic Education. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. 1999
While his loss of accent brought himself and his teachers a sense of pride, it brought sorrow to his parents, who saw the change, however gradual, in their child. The author furthermore admits that for children like him, from a non-white American background, the home and school environment are at cultural extremes. This creates conflict that the young Rodriguez handled by conforming to his school environment. In effect he replaced the importance and roles of his parents in his life with those of his teachers, and as such became an academic success.
The author however admits that this is a shameful and lonely type of success. Nonetheless, it is a success that the author has chosen to conform to. Instead of therefore being successful because he has been educated, Rodriguez emphasizes that his success was chosen. He worked towards academic success with great passion, because this is what he wanted.…
Cremin, Lawrence a. (1957). Horace Mann and the 19th century Education Reform movement. http://www-scf.usc.edu/~clarkjen/Horace%20Mann.htm
Gatto, John Taylor. (2003). Against School. http://www.spinninglobe.net/againstschool.htm
Malcolm X Learning to Read. http://www-scf.usc.edu/~clarkjen/Malcolm%20X.doc
Rodriguez, Richard. The Achievement of Desire. http://www-scf.usc.edu/~clarkjen/Richard%20Rodriguez.doc