Learning Environment Essays (Examples)

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Learning Theory and Its Implications for the

Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78224639

Learning Theory and Its Implications for the Theory and Practice of Instructional Design Paradigm Shift in Instructional Learning Theory


ecause of the global changes transforming every aspect of life there is a need to transform traditional instruction into learner-centered instruction. This requires a re-thinking of the roles played by the teacher and the students in the learning process which involves a major change in one's basic assumption on how people learn.

According to Chickering and Gamson (1987 p. 3) "learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much by just sitting in a class listening to teachers memorizing prepackaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, related it to past experiences, apply it to their lives."

Research on cognition reveals that students who reflect on their learning are better learners than those who do…… [Read More]


Reigeluth, Charles M. 1999. Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Vol. II. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

ERIC Digest. A Paradigm Shift from Instruction to Learning. http://itech1.coe.uga.edu/itforum/paper17/paper17.html. What Is the New Paradigm of Instructional Theory by Reigeluth, Charles M. Indiana University www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802pages/mergel/brenda.html.  http://www.indiana.edu/~idtheory/green2.html . Instructional Design Theories and Models. Vol II by Charles M. Reigeluth, Editor. 1999. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  http://www.indiana.edu/~idtheory/home.html
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Learning Philosophy the Ability to Learn Is

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30098002

Learning Philosophy

The ability to learn is one of man's most important talents, and, in order for one to improve this capacity, the respective person needs to focus on enriching his personal experience through any means available. Similarly, the respective person has to acknowledge that learning should be something that one longs for, regardless of the fact that many individuals tend to end their education after they finish high school. Learning should not be considered as being something exclusively connected to education, as people can gain important information from a series of environments other than educational institutes. Teachers are mainly responsible for the way that learners amass information, thus meaning that they have to develop methods of having students learn individually and on account of their personal values. Moreover, students need to be influenced in seeing learning as something positive and as something that they should gladly take on. In…… [Read More]

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Learning Organization Analyze Concept Learning Organization & 8226

Words: 2445 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5024446

Learning Organization

Analyze Concept Learning Organization, • The Organizational Conditions Suited A Managerial Intervention; • Its Implications Managing People; • Its Likelihood Success

Under what conditions is it likely to be successful?

The idea of a 'learning organization' has become one of the most popular concepts in managerial theory. It originated with the theorist Donald Schon, who stressed that given the mutability of the exterior environment, business organizations must likewise be responsive to changes and change with the times (Smith 2001) . Only by learning from the exterior environment can an organization be effective, and that means creating a workforce that is similarly responsive, teachable, and able to 'learn' in a dynamic fashion.

However, the extent to which such a concept can be realized and what constitutes a learning organization has been hotly debated. "While there has been a lot of talk about learning organizations it is very difficult to…… [Read More]


Bersin, Josh. 2012. 5 keys to building a learning organization. Forbes. Available:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/joshbersin/2012/01/18/5-keys-to-building-a-learning-organization / [23 Jan 2013]

Fenwick, Tara. n.d. Questioning the learning organization concept S.M. Scott, B.

Spencer, & A. Thomas (Eds.). Learning for life: Readings in Canadian adult education.
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Learning Centers

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81441881

Learning Centers

"In a developmentally appropriate classroom, the teacher's role is that of facilitator and enabler," (Crosser). The physical and spatial design of the classroom directly reflects this core philosophy of placing students at the center of their learning environment. However, the learning environment must be a diverse, modular, and highly interactive space that encourages change and flexibility. Teachers are cast in a role of "facilitator and enabler," as well as supervisor to ensure safety and comfort. The design of the classroom and its learning centers is important for study because of the need to strategize, organize, and plan the way the environment looks and feels for both students and the teacher.

This paper addresses four learning centers that are ideal for a classroom composed of four-year-olds. These learning centers will encompass the gamut of needs of preschoolers. Creative enterprises, play, and social interactions are key components of the preschool…… [Read More]


Crosser, S. (2008). . The Butterfly Garden: Developmentally Appropriate Practice Defined. Early Childhood News. Retrieved online:  http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=115 

Kostelnik, Marjorie J., Soderman, Anne K., Whiren, Alice P., Contributor, John Q (2012). Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum: Best Practices in Early Childhood Education [5] (VitalSource Bookshelf), Retrieved from http://online.vitalsource.com/books/9780558706111/id/ch05fig02
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Learning as a Way of

Words: 1800 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8130328

Judgment, however, should be suspended long enough to try to determine why someone does something a certain way. If this can be determined, it is another lesson worth having. This is true of the student that is just learning about business, and true of the established businessperson.

Unlike that student learner, the businessperson that has already been working in the world for a while will be much harder to teach. Once someone has gotten used to doing something a particular way, it becomes more difficult to change that person's behavior. However, those that lead others in business, such as human resource personnel, can take many of the suggestions in Vaill's book and use them to show others in their company how they can change only small things and still be more self-directed learners.

As they become more self-directed, their desire for knowledge will rise and they will begin to try…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Vaill, Peter B. (1996). Learning as a way of being: strategies for survival in a world of permanent white water. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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Learning Platforms

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19243259

Learning Platforms -- K-12 and Beyond

A Comparison of Learning Platforms that Focus on the K-12 and Higher Education Learning Environments

Many of the educational initiatives in recent years have focused on improving the delivery of services by incorporating learning platforms that focus on the K-12 and higher education learning environments, such as WebCT or Blackboard. To determine how these learning platforms are being used today and for what learners, this paper will provide an overview of the features of learning management systems (LMS) that have assumed increasing importance for a wide range of corporate and government-sponsored learning environments. A comparison and evaluation of these platforms and their applicability to the different learning environments is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Background and Overview. In their book, Handbook of Distance Education Technology, Anderson and Moore (2003) suggest that it just makes good sense…… [Read More]


Anderson, W.G., & Moore, M.G. (2003). Handbook of distance education. Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carlivati, P.A. (2002). E-learning evolves. ABA Banking Journal, 94(6), 49.

Granger, D., & Bowman, M. (2003). Constructing knowledge at a distance: The learner in context. In W.G. Anderson & M.G. Moore (Eds.). Handbook of distance education.
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Learning Due Primarily to the Growing Trend

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71546963


Due primarily to the growing trend of globalization, education has now become paramount to the overall success of society. International competition for both jobs and prominent positions poses both threats and benefits. For one, international competition encourages innovations which ultimately increases the overall quality of life for society. Innovations such as the internet have given rise to many unique and attractive markets. However, in order to take full advantage of the opportunities globalization and business presents, society must properly educate itself. Through education, civilization can fill the needed jobs required to utilize growing fields of innovation. The underlying principles within education have now been altered. New techniques are required to retain more information. Alternatively methods must be simple enough that students can utilize it in an effective manner within their respective careers. Many theories have been developed in regards to learning theories. These theories primarily consist of behavior, cognitive,…… [Read More]

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Learning Journal for Organizational Behavior

Words: 2302 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24870783

Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.


Outcomes and New Learning

Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Cheverton, J. 2007. 'Holding our own: Value and performance in nonprofit organizations.'

Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 427-428.
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Learning Motivation Learning and Motivation

Words: 3469 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89082575

') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.

Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…… [Read More]


Bunderson, C.V. (1990). Computers in Educational Assessment: An Opportunity to Restructure Educational Practice. Educational Resource and Information Center.

Eisner, E. (1997). The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 4-10.

Emerson, J. (1989). Review: Dead PoetsSociety. Jeems Cinepad. Online at http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm.

Florio-Ruane, Suzanne; Marianne George & Taffy E. Rapheal. (2004). Book Club Plus: Organizing Your Literacy Curriculum to Bring Students to High Levels of Literacy. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 27.
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Learning Organizations Given Such Rapid

Words: 2725 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63477634

In the present environment of rapid technological change, it is essential for knowledge workers to continuously be in a learning mode. Metrics need to be put into place to assist managers in focusing training funds where they can be of most use.

Kaplan and Norton (1996) emphasize that learning is not the same as training. It consists of factors such as mentoring and tutoring within the organization, in addition to openness of communication among workers that gives them the opportunity to easily get assistance on a problem when needed. It also includes technological tools or what the Baldrige criteria call "high performance work system. The internal business process provides metrics that help managers know how well their business is running and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements. This organizational learning measurement also recognizes the importance of customer service. Poor performance is a leading indicator of future decline…… [Read More]


Demers, D.L. (2007) Organizational change theories: A synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dodgson M. 1993. Organizational learning: A review of some literature.Organization Studies

14: 375 -- 94.

Garvin, D. (1993). Building learning organizations. Harvard Business Review, 71 (4), 78 -- 91.
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Learning Techniques Teaching and Learning

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98259550

They are somewhat vague about how the contrasting learning needs of younger and older groups can effectively be met in a single classroom setting, but nonetheless note that there is a great need for community research to clarify this issue. The conclusions and attitudes of these authors are also much more accommodating of the differences in learners than those of Caudron.

Having noted the above, the article could benefit from a clearer explication of different teaching methods that could work not only for the different groups, but for integrated groups as well. Another limitation is that the article differentiates between two age groups, without acknowledging that there could be learning style differences within a single age group. While therefore accepting that there could be different learning styles, the article still treats these somewhat simplistically.

By far the most complex in terms of learning style application is McCarthy's article, which focuses…… [Read More]


Caudron, Shari. Can Generation Xers Be Trained?

McCarthy, Bernice. A Tale of Four Learners.

Murray, Corey & Bank, David. Intergenerational Learning. Community College Journal Washington: Aug/Sep 2007. Vol. 78, Iss. 1
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Learning Styles and Learning Practices in General

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3539771

Learning Styles and Learning Practices

In general, psychological theorists and educators acknowledge that learning occurs quite differently in different individuals. Some people learn best by observing, whereas others learn best by listening, and still others learn best by participating or experiencing something more tangible in connection with the subject matter (Akkoyunlu, & Soylu, 2008). There are numerous theories about how people learn, and one of the most commonly used is Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), that categorizes learning according to the following broad distinctions: Concrete Experience or considering things substantially the way they are presented; Abstract Conceptualization or considering things as ideas and theories that represent or incorporate what is represented; Active Experimentation or forming conclusions based on what is represented and conducting experiments to confirm those conclusions; and eflective Observation or determining…… [Read More]


Akkoyunlu, B., & Soylu, M.Y. (2008). A Study of Student's Perceptions in a Blended

Learning Environment Based on Different Learning Styles. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (1), 183-193.

Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good

Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47.
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Learning Knowledge Centered the Authors Use

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56731108

Another way of combining these two approaches is by having the students involved in the process of what is learned and how. Each learner brings something different to the classroom, so will want to take away something different as well. The teacher and student can work together to set goals of what is to be achieved. Similarly, the students need continual feedback, so they know how they are accomplishing these goals. Lastly, since all students do learn differently, the classroom environment has to be a place for sharing new ideas. Students can learn considerably by seeing how their peers perceive the same drawing, or science experiment or historical event. They gain both knowledge and acquire new learning about their own abilities and that of others in the room. More importantly, this gives each child a similar opportunity to express him or herself and build self-esteem, regardless of the students' varying…… [Read More]

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Learning - Learning Has Been

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1053829

Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.

My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.

Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage

nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:


Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…… [Read More]

And More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:


Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational, but are rationalizing. For instance, the trauma of 9/11, even for those not directly affected, caused a number of people to commit suicide. Moreover, if someone is the victim of beatings as a child, they tend to repress those memories, internalize some of the actions, and possibly have problems forming attachments. This, according to Dr. Burton, is the mind's way of defending and coping with stress. It becomes part of the unconscious, but often resurfaces in odd forms. The healthy individual can get on a path to deal with these issues; talk through them, analyze, and find coping mechanisms.
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Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would

Words: 1809 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72399275

Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would You Take Into Consideration


The environment is one of the factors that enhance the learning process and offering solutions among learners. The environment refers to any physical and psychological presence, which constitutes a surrounding during the time of learning. In every learning endeavor, it is often important to consider the effects that the environment has on the learning that is taking place, the achievement of the learning objectives, and the nature of the solutions derived from the learning process. The environment influences the learner at the process of learning and deriving solutions to problems at hand. The influence of the environment could be either positive or negative. This factor should be considered since it is intrinsic at the point of learning. The environment also includes the physical and natural existence at the process of learning. As such, the learning environment should be…… [Read More]


Armstrong, S., & Fukami, C. V, 2009, The SAGE handbook of management learning, education and development. London, SAGE.

Park, C. C, 2007, Asian-American education: acculturation, literacy development, and learning. Charlotte, N.C., IAP.
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Learning Clinical Interview Revision How

Words: 1793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59252012

If teachers fail to design connected scaffolds than the class will develop only limited capabilities. He explains that this can be done by choosing only those scaffolding tools which have similar structures, assignment objectives, and interactive styles (Tabak, 2004). Hence when considering the scaffolds for developing skills of weak students, I will make sure that the scaffolds are complementing not only the main learning objective but also one another.


Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.

Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information eview, 26(2), 108-127.

Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological esearch and Development, 50(3), 5-22.

Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.

Jones, P.…… [Read More]


Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.

Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information Review, 26(2), 108-127.

Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological Research and Development, 50(3), 5-22.

Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.
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Learning Style Knowledge of Learning

Words: 1471 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98112955

Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47]

Advantages of Knowing the Learning Style

Now that we have seen the domination of different modalities resulting in different learning styles among students, it is pertinent to understand the implications of such differences in context of their academic performance. Several studies have attested to that fact that only 20% of students learn through their auditory modality while 80% are either visual or kinesthetic. [Donna Walker, pg 16] However, in stark contrast, most of higher education is…… [Read More]


1) Marcia L. Conner, (2004) 'Learn More Now: 10 Simple steps to Learning Better, Smarter and Faster',

2) Richard M. Felder, (2005), 'Understanding Student Differences', Journal of Engineering education, 94(1) 57-72, available online at,  http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf 

3) Donna Walker Tileston, (2005) 10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain research, Learning Styles and Standards Define Teaching Competences', Published by Corwin Press.

4) Steve Garnett, (2005), 'Using Brainpower in the Classroom: Five steps to accelerate Learning', Published by Routledge
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Learning Motivation and Long-Term Retention

Words: 2367 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42018912

In conjunction with these perspectives on how to create a highly effective online learning platform that aligns to the specific needs of students, there is a corresponding area of research that concentrates on teaching resiliency in the teaching process. The work of Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University underscores the need for leading students to continually challenge themselves to grow and have a very strong growth mindset vs. A limited on. She draws on an empirically-derived research study that shows the greater the growth mindset of even the most talented and gifted mindset, the greater the long-term performance gains they make in life (Dweck, 2006). Her book, Mindset, challenges both students and teachers to create a culture of continual focus on excellence and continual striving to improve, never taking a closed or limited mindset to improvement. It is an inspirational book and shows that there is hope for continual improvement…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ahlfeldt, S., Mehta, S., & Sellnow, T. (2005). Measurement and analysis of student engagement in university classes where varying levels of PBL methods of instruction are in use. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 5-20.

Basile, a. & D'Aquila, J.M. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a Principles of Financial Accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137.

Beard, L.A. (2002). Students perceptions of online vs. campus instruction. Education, 122(4), 658.

Dutton, j. d.; Dutton, m.; Perry, j. (2002). How do Online Students Differ from Lecture Students? JALN. Vol. 6, no. 1, July.
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Learning Styles the Theory of Honey and

Words: 2744 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460708

Learning Styles

The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.

It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and atkins, p132-51) hile this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.

So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (aring and Evans, p117-28)

According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lam, Y.L. Defining the effects of transformation leadership on organization learning: a cross-cultural comparison: School Leadership & Management, 2002, pp 439-52.

Marquardt, M. Action learning in action: Transforming problems and people for world- class organizational learning. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 1999, pp45-49.

Marsick, V.J., and Watkins, KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization's learning culture: The Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2003 5, pp132-151.

Evans, C. And Graff, M. "Exploring style: enhancing the capacity to learn?," Education & Training, Vol. 50, 2008, pp. 93-102.
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Learning Styles Assessment Is a

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16171451

On the same note, if my workplace involves physical labor, I won't quite be able to cope as well as some others. I would rather sit down with some coworkers and work out what needs to be done than run around and figure it out as I go along.

Theses assessments of my personal strengths and weaknesses beggars the question: How can I use this test to make me a better manager? The answer is obvious, work on my weaknesses. As a manager I will have to understand and work well with my coworkers, and in that department I am certainly competent. However in order to be a completely competent manager I'll have to learn to be physical, and more able to visualize plans and ideas.

The answer to becoming more physical is an obvious one: learn to work with my hands. On the workplace I'll have to be able…… [Read More]

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Learning Functionalism Is Now a Widely Criticized

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85412828


Functionalism is now a widely criticized social theory and the large percentage of this criticism is directed against its inability to explain social change. Emile Durkheim and other functionalists were of the view that society works as a whole and each part of this whole contributes towards keeping the entire system as it is. hey felt that each part of society such as the media, family, government and schools work in such a manner as to keep the society in its present shape. Kuper and Kuper have defined functionalism as a "doctrine which asserts that the principal task of sociology and social anthropology is to examine the contribution which social items make to the social and cultural life of human collectivities; it may additionally assert that to examine social phenomena in this way is to explain why those items occur at all, and/or why they have persisted." his is…… [Read More]

The democratic theory of education needs to be effectively implemented in our learning system because it addresses the grievances of all classes in a society. The theory doesn't represent any particular class and thus gives a chance of equal representation to everyone.


1) Amy Gutmann. Democratic Education. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. 1999
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Environment of Healthcare

Words: 774 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36455675

Healthcare Environment

The last few decades have seen the healthcare environment change from one that was dictated by physicians to one that is dictated more by big business and government entities. That is particularly problematic, because that puts healthcare into the hands of people who are not really focused on helping people, and are, instead, focused on the financial aspects of ensuring that people get care. While healthcare should be about taking care of people who are ailing, injured, or sick, it becomes who has the most money or the best insurance provider. There are a number of segments to the healthcare environment, as well, and they all play roles in the mission that involves caring for the health and well-being of the greater society. Among these segments is the pharmaceutical industry, which has provided medicines for more than 100 years so that people with disease and health conditions could…… [Read More]


Galloway, S.J., (2009). Simulation techniques to bridge the gap between novice and competent healthcare professionals. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2), manuscript 3. doi:10.3912/OJIN.Vol14No02Man03

Hagler, D., & Wilson, R. (2013). Designing nursing staff competency assessment using simulation. Journal of Radiology Nursing, 32(4), 165-169. doi:10.1016/j.jradnu.2013.10.001

Iacono, M. (2013). The culture of accountability. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 28(2), 107-109. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2013.01.002

Muller, L. (2013). Integrity and accountability the omnibus final rule: Part 1. Professional Case Management, 18(4), 204-207. doi:10.1097/NCM.0b013e3182950694
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Learning and Respiratory Care Problem-Based

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5012745

In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).

White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that…… [Read More]

Many studies have shown that PBL students experience greater motivation toward learning than their traditional counterparts (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Beachey, 2007, Rogal & Snider, 2008). Further PBL has been associated with greater satisfaction in the learning process by physicians than its traditional counterpart (Beachey, 2007; Op't Holt, 2000; Rogal & Snider, 2008). Evaluations of PBL programs have found that not only do students take pleasure in the process, they also believe that they have the capacity to out perform their peers from traditional curricula in clinical settings (Op't Holt, 2005; Kaufman & Mann, 1996). Studies have shown that the teaching method has little bearing on the learning of academically talented students (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Distlehorst, Dawson, Robbs, & Barrows, 2005; Op't Hoyt, 2005). In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).

White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that one would expect significant improvement in clinical knowledge and performance in order to advocate for the use of PBL in the classroom due to the extensive resources that are required to utilize PBL curricula.

One would expect that PBL students would be at a significant advantage over their traditional peers due to the clinical application in the classroom (Colliver, 2000). Some
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Learn How the Law Works by Memorizing

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43280079

learn how the law works by memorizing a set of rules or theorems. A misconception lies in the commonly asked question, "What is the law?" -- since it presupposes that it's all laid out somewhere on great stone tablets. The truth is that the answer often is, "It depends." As you'll soon discover the legal system basically is a method of applying abstract rules or social policy to concrete situations. To comprehend its workings, you have to get involved in the process -- it's a little like learning to swim in that you've got to jump in and splash around a bit. It's not an unpleasant sensation, but it may seem little strange until you get used to it and learn to keep your head above water. You'll discover it's a bit like peeling an onion in that as you strip away one layer of complexity you find another one…… [Read More]


Carter, L.H. (1979) Reason in Law.

New York: Little Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, A.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

New York: Little Brown & Co.
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Learn and Gladly Would He Teach --

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5833534

Learn, and Gladly ould He Teach -- Teaching Values to Students in the Classroom Today

This quotation from The Canterbury Tales in many ways presents the image of the ideal teacher. (Chaucer, 1981, 17) According to the classical ideal, a teacher teaches his or her students, and learns from his or her students as well as a part of the learning process. However, the ideal role of the contemporary teacher in a public school setting, particularly in the lower grades, has become especially murky in regards to values education. Individuals such as the former Secretary of Education and conservative educator illiam Bennett have suggested in texts such as his The Book of Virtues, that a true education is impossible without children becoming instilled with a society's core set of values. Bennett alleges, in contrast to educators such as Robert Banks' stress upon "Multicultural Education in the New Century," that core…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Banks. (2001). "Multicultural Education in the New Century." Featured Article from Kaleidoscope. Tenth Edition. Accessible on the Web at http://college.hmco.com/education/ryan_cooper/kaleidoscope/10e/students/articles.html

Bennett, William. (1993). The Book of Virtues. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. (1981). The Canterbury Tales. New York: Bantam Books.

Hirch, E.D. (2001). "Seeking Breadth and Depth in the Curriculum." Featured Article from Kaleidoscope. Tenth Edition. Accessible on the Web at http://college.hmco.com/education/ryan_cooper/kaleidoscope/10e/students/articles.html
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Learning Hands-On Science Learning Has

Words: 2217 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074387

The natural environment provides students with a calm and quiet place to unwind from the noises of the classroom. It nurtures and supports animal-life all year round. This is critical for areas where commercial and residential development is reducing most natural areas. Wildlife especially needs help during the cold and snowy months. Students can also see how it benefits the environment. It also helps connect students to the world of nature. Increasingly, because children are spending more and more times indoors, they are losing touch with nature.

Humans, because they spent their first 14,000 years in nature, have a special bond with the outdoor world. When they are taken away from this environment, through cities, lack of parks, no outdoor play, there can be psychological affects. When taking time to enjoy nature, children will feel better about themselves and the world at large.

We are also going to put a…… [Read More]


Besecker, I. (June 11, 2000). Greensoboro News and Record. Insanity of Testing Mania.

Bredderman, T. (1985). Laboratory programs for elementary school science: A meta- analysis of effects on learning. Science Education, 69(4), 577-591.

Carpenter, R. (1963). A Reading Method and an Activity Method in Elementary Science Instruction. Science Education, April.

Hake, R. (1992). Socratic Pedagogy in the Introductory Physics Laboratory. The Physics Teacher 30(9), 546-552
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Learning Styles and College Students

Words: 4864 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64521808

Community Colleges in America

In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.

Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.

Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
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Learning Process

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67076734

Brain-Based Learning

There are various learning theories that educationists and psychologists come up with in elation to the process by which people and children in specific acquire knowledge f things that surround them. One of theories that help explain the learning process is the Brain-Based Learning theory. This is a theory that focuses more on the characteristics of the human brain and how that facilitates learning and ultimately education process at the schooling age. It indicates that the human brain is constantly searching for meaning as well as looking for patters and connections between items that the human eye sees everyday. This constant search for meaning hence requires an authentic environment where the child can learn and easily make connections between the new objects they come across and in the process retain the new information that they may come across. According to the Brain-based learning theory therefore, a relaxed and…… [Read More]


ASCD, (2014). Brain-Based Learning. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from  http://www.ascd.org/research-a-topic/brain-based-learning-resources.aspx 

Caine G. & Caine R., (1990). Understanding a Brain-Based Approach to Learning and Teaching. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from  http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el_199010_caine.pdf
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Learning to Work Together Presents a Number

Words: 795 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45359327

Learning to ork Together," presents a number of positive and helpful ideas and policies for use in an academic setting. This paper references two of those aspects from Chapter 6.

Starting a Team: Getting a team started is one very important part of this chapter. The first task a team faces is to build relationships -- with each other and with the manager (6-3). hen first chosen to participate in a team, members need a bit of time to get over their uneasiness. Not knowing exactly what is expected of them, and learning what behaviors are acceptable and what behaviors are not is part of the tension mixed with excitement for new team members. In that initial dynamic, "storming" takes place, and it is a crucial stage because there can be frustration and anxiety experienced by team members. But the frustration cannot allow a team in the education milieu to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chapter 6 "Learning to Work Together." (2003).
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Learning to Use Technology in Class

Words: 2212 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97136931

Planning Process

Explain in detail how you will address each of the needs identified in part 2 include changes necessary for environment, engagement, application, and tools. Make sure to include a list of technology resources currently available and those that must be purchased.

State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures

Environment The changes necessary for the environment involve going from one based on the physical environment to one that is predicated on a cloud-based environment. In this regard, the change is mostly one of architecture. Virtually all applications and requisite software the students and instructors will use will be accessed through the cloud.

Engagement The means of engagement will be the Bring Your Own Device phenomenon, in which students utilize their own mobile devices for the purpose of working in the classroom. Those without such devices will be provided the most accessible ones (a smart phone) via the…… [Read More]

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Promoting ESL in Work-Based Learning

Words: 8696 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24782649

Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…… [Read More]


Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),

Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.

Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]

Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
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Becoming a Learning Organization

Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91984707

Learning Organization is defined as an organization with an ingrained philosophy for anticipating, reacting and responding to change, complexity and uncertainty. It is an organization where you cannot not learned because learning is interwoven into the fabric of the day-to-day business. The concept of the Learning Organization is increasingly relevant given the increasing difficulty and uncertainty of the global business environment. Unfortunately, the Learning Organization has been a long time in coming, and by most accounts it has not yet arrived. The concept of a learning organization is a paradigm shift from the way business has traditionally been done.

One of the characteristics of a learning organization is that it moves beyond simple employee training to more of an environment that stresses problem solving, innovation, and learning. Organizations that embody the traits of such an environment consist of five areas, or disciplines, that make a learning organization what it is.…… [Read More]


Beller, J. (n.d). The Importance of Shifting to Learning Organizations. Retrieved January 20,2005, from the World Wide Web site: ei=UTF-8& fl=0& u=www.justinbeller.com/samples/the_importance_of_shifting_to_learning_organizations.pdf& w=%22five+disciplines+of+a+learning+organization%22& d=BCBF846FF1& icp=1& .international=us

Larsen, K. (1996). Learning Organizations. Retrieved January 21,2005, from the World Wide Web site: http://home.nycap.rr.com/klarsen/learnorg/index.html#tea

Nathans, H. (2000). Double Loop Learning (C. Argyris). Retrieved January 20,2005, from Hannah Nathans and Enneagram Web site: hl=en

Santos, A. (n.d). Peter M. Senge, "The Leader's New Work: Building Learning Organizations," in Sloan Management Review (Fall 1990), pp. 7-23. Retrieved January 21,2005, from Aldo Santos Web site: http://home.nycap.rr.com/klarsen/learnorg/senge2.html
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Cooperative Learning Iterations Across Reforms

Words: 1949 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38328456

Learning Environments

Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.

Learning Theory and Its Importance

A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf

Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085

Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085

Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
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Assessment Between Learning Styles and Overall Academic Achievement

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50505983

Learning Styles

Different researchers have described learning styles largely as an indication for individual differences. These dissimilarities might become a manifestation of themselves in life styles and also in personality types. In particular, learning styles can be perceived as the preferred or characteristic ways of an individual in dispensing and converting knowledge. They can also be deemed to be the reasoning, emotional, and psychosomatic individualities that serve as comparatively unchanging pointers of how learners distinguish, interrelate with, and react to the learning environment. Learning styles have an influence on the academic achievement and performance of individuals (Abidin et al., 2011). This research paper encompasses a synthesis of different literature reviews that cover learning styles and academic performance.

There are several different conceptions and measures that seek to define learning styles. Learning styles can be distinguished into three methods, which include pragmatic (surface), intrinsic (deep), and competitive (achieving) (Furnham, 2012). Every…… [Read More]


Abidin, M. J., Rezaee, A. A., Abdullah, H. N. (2011). Learning Styles and Overall Academic Achievement in a Specific Educational System. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 No. 10.

Boyle, E. A., Duffy, T., & Dunleavy, K. (2003). Learning styles and academic outcome: The validity and utility of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles in a British higher education setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology,73(2), 267-290.

Furnham, A. (2012). Learning style, personality traits and intelligence as predictors of college academic performance. Individual Differences Research,10(3), 117-128.

Pellon, M., Nome, S., & Aran, A. (2013). Relationship between learning styles and academic performance of fifth graders enrolled in the medical course. Revista Brasileira de Oftalmologia, 72(3), 181-184.
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Learning Platforms a Comparison of

Words: 316 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40872737

Security is also a major concern in K-12 education, and WebCT's in-program email service will no doubt assuage many parental and administrative fears regarding the privacy of educational information (eed 2006). The reliability of the software itself and the company behind it are also necessary considerations; as both are now owned by the dame company (Blackboard), both WebCT and Blackboard are likely to have solid support for years to come (Jaschik 2005).


Boyd, M. (2000). "Blackboard vs. WebCT atings." University of Texas. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.utexas.edu/academic/blackboard/about/atut/ratings.html#decide

Jaschik, S. (2005). "Blackboard vs..." Inside higher ed. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/10/17/blackboard

eed, J. (2006). "Blackboard vs. WebCT." Cuyamaca College. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://cis2.cuyamaca.net/jreed//ed214/notes/CMS/CMScomparison.asp… [Read More]


Boyd, M. (2000). "Blackboard vs. WebCT Ratings." University of Texas. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.utexas.edu/academic/blackboard/about/atut/ratings.html#decide

Jaschik, S. (2005). "Blackboard vs..." Inside higher ed. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/10/17/blackboard

Reed, J. (2006). "Blackboard vs. WebCT." Cuyamaca College. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://cis2.cuyamaca.net/jreed//ed214/notes/CMS/CMScomparison.asp
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Learning Model Morris Goes to School by

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52255253

Learning Model

"Morris goes to School" by B. Wiseman.


Your name, whole group, 5th grade, all, 09/03/2012.

Objectives for Lesson

The students will engage in reading and writing activities with reflection and understanding.

The students will be motivated to connect the story to their own particular cultural/ethnic / routine experiences

The students will be encouraged to generate situations and to apply to new circumstances using the story as their base

The students will be encouraged to imagine a recipient of their story and to direct the writing of their story to this recipient.

CSO's or SOLs (WV New Generation Content Standards and Objectives)

Student will:

Engage in reading of the text with understanding and motivation

Apply the story to their own circumstance be able to find launch pads from the story with which they can craft their own informative and meaningful tale.

Participate in collaborative conversation with partners and…… [Read More]

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Learning Psychology Refers to the

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89248303

A child can learn that pressing a button on remote changes a channel on a television set. The experiment used two set of participants where one set learnt from a machine while the others learnt from a human participant. It was evident that the use of a ghost machine yielded better results compared to the use of a participant (Nairne, 2011).


The method used to learn how observational learning influences children will be the use of questionnaires. Short questionnaires will be sent to twenty baby care centers to evaluate the observational learning skills possessed by the caregivers. The questionnaires will be filled by the participants using three main methods. Centers that are a long distance from researcher's location will be provided with the questionnaires through emails. Centers where the care giver is busy will be called when convenient and the questionnaire filled through a telephone conversation. Centers that are…… [Read More]


Mishra, B.K. (2008). Psychology; the study of human behavior. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Nairne, J.S. (2011). Psychology. Australia: Thompson/Wadsworth.
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Learning Organization

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99622440

Learning Organization

In the globalized environment of today, organizations must continually learn and adapt. his is particularly true, as organizations are now under intense competition from firms outside their geographic region. Learning organizations are characterized by their ability to continually learn and innovate. Competitors, particularly those from emerging markets, are learning from their more develop counterparts in the United States and Europe. Aspects such as product know how, and product innovation continue to come under intense pressure from emerging communities. his pressure results in still further innovation from market leading companies to better maintain their overall position. One such example of a learning organization is that of the British Airport Authority. his organization displayed many of more common characteristics of a learning organization to help facilitate its growth. he BAA displayed all five feature of a learning organization. he firm facilitating systems thinking, accomplished personal mastery, utilized mental models, shared…… [Read More]

To help alleviate the concerns mentioned above, the BAA developed the balance scorecard to facilitate learning and innovation within the organization. This scorecard allowed the BAA, a governmental organization, to learn and adapt with its private sector partners. For example, a quadrant within the traditional scorecard is "Financial Focus." The metrics used to evaluate the "Financial Focus" metric will vary between a private contractor and a government entity. Another quadrant within the balanced scorecard is "Internal Focus" which is also different between organizations. As such, the BAA could learn and alter the overall plan to better coincide with the objectives of all the involved parties.

From a training and development perspective, the organization was in a better position to collaborate with independent third parties on a shared vision. This shared vision, ultimately allowed both the government and private enterprise to learn from one another. This shared perspective, better allowed the human resources department to align incentives, learning, and training to achiever the overall goal of the BAA.

In addition to the shared learning and systems thinking mentioned above, a large amount of collaboration was needed to successfully implement the project. The project was delivered by BAA working in partnership with suppliers and the airline operator British Airways. By 2008 around
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Learning Organization Critically Reflect on Your Organizational

Words: 3301 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85995289

Learning Organization

Critically reflect on your organizational context (procurement department) and how it contributes to or hinders a learning organization

Enhancing Individual Learning at the Procurement Department

Unlike traditional organizations, which were static, organizations are becoming dynamic with the consistent changes that are taking place in the market, and in order to take a competitive advantage constant learning is essential. This has formed the basis for a learning organization, whose idea is to gain a competitive advantage through learning. According to Saw, Wilday, and Harte (2010), a learning organization is one that not only appreciates and promotes learning from its own practices, but also looks further than its own systems for lessons, and avoids self-satisfaction. This means that the learning process should be both an internal and external process with the organization appreciating that learning from daily experiences is critical. Learning organization gets its basis on the idea that both…… [Read More]


Garavan N.T., & McCarthy A. (2008). Collective Learning Processes and Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 451 (10).New York: SAGE.

Giannakis, M. (2008). Facilitating learning and knowledge transfer through supplier development. Supply Chain Management, 13(1), 62-72. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13598540810850328

Ji, H.S. & Thomas, J.S. (2008). A Theoretical Approach to the Organizational Knowledge Formation Process: Integrating the Concepts of Individual Learning and Learning Organization Culture. Human Resource Development Review, 7(4), P. 424 -- 442.

Jones, P., & Robinson, P. (2012). Operations management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.