Learning System Essays (Examples)

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Learning Organizations Dynamism and Flexibility

Words: 2015 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13433977

Strategizing is required, but the learning fostered is not necessarily pre-determined and linear in fashion. After all, life and the way that the economic marketplace shifts and changes are often unpredictable in the extreme. Similar in the ways that the parts of a body must adjust to unexpected changes in the exterior environment, such as changes in temperature, the different components of the organization must adjust to the external economic environment to remain healthy and vital.

Judgments about the capacities and performance

The work practices that define a learning organization include investing in employees, team learning, and existing in a state of mutual interdependence so that employee's rights to be heard, to have decent wages and benefits, and to make a contribution to the organization are honored. Soliciting input, informing employees about necessary changes well in advance, and rewarding excellent levels of performance are common practices in most 'learning' organization…… [Read More]


Apple. (2011). The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2011 at http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/business/companies/apple_computer_inc/index.html

Apple. (2011). Official website. Retrieved August 30, 2011 at  http://www.apple.com/contact/ 

Argyris, C., & Schon, D. (1978) Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective.

Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley.
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Learning Functionalism Is Now a Widely Criticized

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85412828


Functionalism is now a widely criticized social theory and the large percentage of this criticism is directed against its inability to explain social change. Emile Durkheim and other functionalists were of the view that society works as a whole and each part of this whole contributes towards keeping the entire system as it is. hey felt that each part of society such as the media, family, government and schools work in such a manner as to keep the society in its present shape. Kuper and Kuper have defined functionalism as a "doctrine which asserts that the principal task of sociology and social anthropology is to examine the contribution which social items make to the social and cultural life of human collectivities; it may additionally assert that to examine social phenomena in this way is to explain why those items occur at all, and/or why they have persisted." his is…… [Read More]

The democratic theory of education needs to be effectively implemented in our learning system because it addresses the grievances of all classes in a society. The theory doesn't represent any particular class and thus gives a chance of equal representation to everyone.


1) Amy Gutmann. Democratic Education. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. 1999
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Learning Organization Peter Senge Is

Words: 2376 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82520132

This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)

The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)

Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…… [Read More]


Five Disciplines: Peter Senge (2008) Value-Based Management 25 Mar 2008. Online available at  http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_senge_five_disciplines.html 

Larsen, Kai, et al. (1996) the Learning Organization. Leader Values. Online available at  http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=186 

Senge, P (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.

Senge, Peter M. (1997) Communities of Leaders and Learners. Harvard Business Review September-October 1997. 75th Anniversary Edition. Reprint Online.
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Learning Model Morris Goes to School by

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52255253

Learning Model

"Morris goes to School" by B. Wiseman.


Your name, whole group, 5th grade, all, 09/03/2012.

Objectives for Lesson

The students will engage in reading and writing activities with reflection and understanding.

The students will be motivated to connect the story to their own particular cultural/ethnic / routine experiences

The students will be encouraged to generate situations and to apply to new circumstances using the story as their base

The students will be encouraged to imagine a recipient of their story and to direct the writing of their story to this recipient.

CSO's or SOLs (WV New Generation Content Standards and Objectives)

Student will:

Engage in reading of the text with understanding and motivation

Apply the story to their own circumstance be able to find launch pads from the story with which they can craft their own informative and meaningful tale.

Participate in collaborative conversation with partners and…… [Read More]

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Systems of Power and Inequality in Early

Words: 2045 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92058571

Systems of Power and Inequality

In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…… [Read More]


Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.

Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.

Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
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Systems Design Project Change Is Integral to

Words: 3839 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56273191

Systems Design Project

Change is integral to the survival of any commercial enterprise in today's globalized, technologically advanced business environment. This requires stakeholders to have personal and organizational transition skills to attain the desired change for future success (Hughes, 2006). Strategizing drives organizational change giving it direction through activities (Thornhill, Lewis, Millmore and Saunders, 2000). Internal and external environmental considerations are both relevant; along with change management required to align with strategic change. Singular change is integral to organizational modification; a concept that bears adopting as a precursor to internalizing change across the organization.

The change agent is responsible for comprehending the concept of strategic change which encompasses an understanding of change models, approaches and tools for proper implementation. Furthermore they must possess an aptness for analytical assessment of contexts, critical thinking adeptness - both of which will be applied along the change continuum within the organization through use of…… [Read More]


Balogun, J., and Hailey, V.H. (2008), Exploring Strategic Change, Pearson Education Limited, England

Burnes, B. (2004), 'Emergent change and planned change - competitors or allies?: The case of XYZ construction', International Journal of Operation & Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 9, pp. 886-902

Change Management Learning Center (2009), 'Five tips for: Succeeding in change management', Change Management Learning Center, available at: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-5-tips-cm-success.htm (accessed 19 November 2009)

Chris, R. (2009), 'Working with Emergent Change in Organisations', available at: http://www.oikos-uk.com/docs_influences/Emergent%20Change%20print.pdf (accessed 20 November 2009)
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System Concepts Company Overview Complete Solutions Plc

Words: 2470 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13716465

System Concepts

Company Overview

Complete Solutions plc (CS) is a successful organization specializing in IT consultancy business with annual turnover of £40 millions. The company is located at North of England with branches in the U.S. And France. Established in 1980, the company was taken over by a larger company, and the take-over bid led to the rapid expansion of the company. Complete Solution has several sections with approximately 400 users in the UK divisions. The company internal services are based in Manchester with the Training Solutions (TS) consultancy section, Sales, and Marketing section. The overall services of Complete Solution consists of the IT consultancy service as well as selling of hardware and software, training and recruitment, software development and, outsourced services. The other services provided by the Complete Solution are consultancy services. With rapid expansion that the company is enjoying, the Complete Solution is planning to go public by…… [Read More]


CO3601 System Concepts (nd).Soft Systems Methodology Case Study: Complete Solutions

Checkland, P.(1985). Achieving 'Desirable and Feasible' Change: An Application of Soft Systems Methodology ST. The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 36(9): 821-831.

Gasson, S. (1995). The Role of Methodologies in IT-Related Organizational changes. Proceedings of BCS Specialist Group on IS Methodologies, 3rd Annual Conference.

Simonsen, J. (1994).Soft Systems Methodology. Computer Science/Roskilde University.
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Learning Platforms

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19243259

Learning Platforms -- K-12 and Beyond

A Comparison of Learning Platforms that Focus on the K-12 and Higher Education Learning Environments

Many of the educational initiatives in recent years have focused on improving the delivery of services by incorporating learning platforms that focus on the K-12 and higher education learning environments, such as WebCT or Blackboard. To determine how these learning platforms are being used today and for what learners, this paper will provide an overview of the features of learning management systems (LMS) that have assumed increasing importance for a wide range of corporate and government-sponsored learning environments. A comparison and evaluation of these platforms and their applicability to the different learning environments is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Background and Overview. In their book, Handbook of Distance Education Technology, Anderson and Moore (2003) suggest that it just makes good sense…… [Read More]


Anderson, W.G., & Moore, M.G. (2003). Handbook of distance education. Mahwah, NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carlivati, P.A. (2002). E-learning evolves. ABA Banking Journal, 94(6), 49.

Granger, D., & Bowman, M. (2003). Constructing knowledge at a distance: The learner in context. In W.G. Anderson & M.G. Moore (Eds.). Handbook of distance education.
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Learning Platforms a Comparison of

Words: 316 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40872737

Security is also a major concern in K-12 education, and WebCT's in-program email service will no doubt assuage many parental and administrative fears regarding the privacy of educational information (eed 2006). The reliability of the software itself and the company behind it are also necessary considerations; as both are now owned by the dame company (Blackboard), both WebCT and Blackboard are likely to have solid support for years to come (Jaschik 2005).


Boyd, M. (2000). "Blackboard vs. WebCT atings." University of Texas. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.utexas.edu/academic/blackboard/about/atut/ratings.html#decide

Jaschik, S. (2005). "Blackboard vs..." Inside higher ed. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/10/17/blackboard

eed, J. (2006). "Blackboard vs. WebCT." Cuyamaca College. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://cis2.cuyamaca.net/jreed//ed214/notes/CMS/CMScomparison.asp… [Read More]


Boyd, M. (2000). "Blackboard vs. WebCT Ratings." University of Texas. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.utexas.edu/academic/blackboard/about/atut/ratings.html#decide

Jaschik, S. (2005). "Blackboard vs..." Inside higher ed. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/10/17/blackboard

Reed, J. (2006). "Blackboard vs. WebCT." Cuyamaca College. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://cis2.cuyamaca.net/jreed//ed214/notes/CMS/CMScomparison.asp
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Systems Thinking and 'Pushing Back'

Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86696703

Despite the occasionally inherent resistance to the learning process in some systems and within certain individuals, Senge stresses a manager must have a vision of a learning organization as a group of people who are continually enhancing their capabilities to create what they want to create. He calls his own view as that of an idealistic pragmatist, seeing organizations as places "where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together." (Senge, 1990, p.3) "hen you ask people about what it is like being part of a great team, what is most striking is the meaningfulness of the experience. People talk about being part of something larger than themselves, of being connected, of being generative."(Senge, 1990, p.13) Thus learning is innate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Senge, Peter. (1990) Catalyzing Systems Thinking Within Organizations.

Senge, Peter (1994) The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization.
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Learning Organization Critically Reflect on Your Organizational

Words: 3301 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85995289

Learning Organization

Critically reflect on your organizational context (procurement department) and how it contributes to or hinders a learning organization

Enhancing Individual Learning at the Procurement Department

Unlike traditional organizations, which were static, organizations are becoming dynamic with the consistent changes that are taking place in the market, and in order to take a competitive advantage constant learning is essential. This has formed the basis for a learning organization, whose idea is to gain a competitive advantage through learning. According to Saw, Wilday, and Harte (2010), a learning organization is one that not only appreciates and promotes learning from its own practices, but also looks further than its own systems for lessons, and avoids self-satisfaction. This means that the learning process should be both an internal and external process with the organization appreciating that learning from daily experiences is critical. Learning organization gets its basis on the idea that both…… [Read More]


Garavan N.T., & McCarthy A. (2008). Collective Learning Processes and Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 451 (10).New York: SAGE.

Giannakis, M. (2008). Facilitating learning and knowledge transfer through supplier development. Supply Chain Management, 13(1), 62-72. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13598540810850328

Ji, H.S. & Thomas, J.S. (2008). A Theoretical Approach to the Organizational Knowledge Formation Process: Integrating the Concepts of Individual Learning and Learning Organization Culture. Human Resource Development Review, 7(4), P. 424 -- 442.

Jones, P., & Robinson, P. (2012). Operations management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Learning Theory The Process Through Which Humans

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41878380

Learning Theory:

The process through which humans learn has been an issue of significant concern since the emergence of formal education thousands of years ago. In attempts to understand the process of human learning, there have been several theories and concepts that have been developed from time to time. These concepts and theories have particularly been a reflection of the various paradigm shifts in thought and practice. The most significant shift or event that contributed to understanding the process of human learning took place in the past century. This shift resulted in the development of a plethora of ideas regarding the most appropriate practices for encouraging learning. Notably, the shift led to the development of learning theory because of the extensive considerations by early educators and philosophers.

Learning theory is centered on identifying the best practices for encouraging learning since it traces the roots of learning and how the process…… [Read More]


Edgar, D.W. (2012). Learning Theories and Historical Events Affecting Instructional Design in Education: Recitation Literacy Toward Extraction Literacy Practices. SAGE Open, 2(4). Retrieved from  http://sgo.sagepub.com/content/2/4/2158244012462707.full 

Knowles, M.S., Holton, E.F. & Swanson, R.A. (2011) The Adult Learner., Oxford, UK: Elsevier,

Retrieved from http://theteachingdoc.hubpages.com/hub/Malcolm-Knowles-and-Adult-Learning-Theory
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Learning Journal for Organizational Behavior

Words: 2302 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24870783

Given the capriciousness of the human condition with respect to continuing redefinitions of personal and professional success, human resource managers are faced with some difficult choices in formulating recommendations for best practices. Therefore, the learning journal would undergo a series of draft versions that would be used to solicit feedback from experts in the field who could point out flaws and areas that required additional research or support to be valid and trustworthy. The solicitation of feedback process would follow the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who recommends having a manuscript reviewed by knowledgeable individuals who possess the requisite credentials to provide informed feedback. This feedback would be carefully reviewed and the collaborative process would result in changes and additions where they were deemed necessary and appropriate.


Outcomes and New Learning

Some of the overriding themes that emerged from the learning episodes outlined above was that the more researchers…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Cheverton, J. 2007. 'Holding our own: Value and performance in nonprofit organizations.'

Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 427-428.
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Learning Methods Within a Learning Setting Each

Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4587189

Learning Methods

Within a learning setting, each student comes with their individual package and it is not possible to have two pupils learning concepts in the same way despite the fact that they are taught with the same curriculum by the same educators as well. Naseem International School accommodates students from different cultures and backgrounds with different needs. The needs are not purely academic and learning needs only but also cultural and social needs hence care is needed. This paper looks at how teachers can plan for and assess the individual needs of students as well as identify and discuss strategies which promote and enhance the learning of students who have different educational needs (Project Ideal, 2008).

It is critical to asses the pupils in my class since they differ in terms of their abilities to learn and imbibe concepts in class. This assessment can be done as below:

Highest…… [Read More]


Douglous.D.Christensen, (1996). Teaching Strategies for Students with Diverse Learning Needs.

Centennial Mall South. Nebraska Department of Education. ( Pg 11-16).Retrieved January 24,2013 from http://www.nebraskasocialstudies.org/pdf/tsfswdln.pdf

Sue Watson, (2012). Differentiated Instruction and Assessment. Retrieved January 24, 2013

from http://specialed.about.com/od/teacherstrategies/a/differentiated.htm
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Learning Disabled During the Course of a

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24918403

Learning Disabled

During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.

Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]


Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:

 http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/self_esteem/teacherresponse.html .

Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
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Learning Tasks There Is a

Words: 1950 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93500046

This study investigates how ESL students' perception affects the teacher-student interaction in the writing conferences. The multiple-case study explores: ESL students' expectations of the writing conference and factors contributing to the expectations, participation patterns of ESL students in the conferences, and ESL students' perception of the effectiveness of teacher-student conferences. A questionnaire, distributed to 110 (65 NS and 45 ESL) students enrolled in the first-year composition classes, examines students' previous writing experience and expectations of the writing conferences. Pre-conference interviews with 19 focus students (8 NS and 11 ESL) were conducted to verify the survey results. Students' participation patterns were investigated via the video-recorded writing conferences of the 19 focus students. Students' perceptions of the conference were investigated through the post conference interviews with the 19 focus students and follow-up interviews with six Chinese students.

esults of the research that Liu (2009) conducted determined that ESL students and NS students…… [Read More]


Beare, K. (n.d.). ESL Writing Workshop 2. Retrieved from http://esl.about.com/od/writinglessonplan/a/l_wwshop2.htm

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2009). The value of a focused approach to written corrective feedback. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 63(3), 204-211. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn043.

Liu, Y.. ESL students in the college writing conferences: Perception and participation. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Arizona, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved September 06, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3359771).

Matthews-Aydinli, J. (2008). OVERLOOKED AND UNDERSTUDIED? A SURVEY OF CURRENT TRENDS IN RESEARCH ON ADULT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS. Adult Education Quarterly, 58(3), 198. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
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Learning Philosophy the Ability to Learn Is

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30098002

Learning Philosophy

The ability to learn is one of man's most important talents, and, in order for one to improve this capacity, the respective person needs to focus on enriching his personal experience through any means available. Similarly, the respective person has to acknowledge that learning should be something that one longs for, regardless of the fact that many individuals tend to end their education after they finish high school. Learning should not be considered as being something exclusively connected to education, as people can gain important information from a series of environments other than educational institutes. Teachers are mainly responsible for the way that learners amass information, thus meaning that they have to develop methods of having students learn individually and on account of their personal values. Moreover, students need to be influenced in seeing learning as something positive and as something that they should gladly take on. In…… [Read More]

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Learning Power Myth of Educational and Empowerment

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74983835

Learning Power-Myth of Educational Empowerment

Education and empowerment

Education is important and essential for everyone be it formal, informal or even public education. It therefore means that everyone is entitled to education. Education is an entry point to many opportunities and it forms an integral part in the preparation for as well as the legitimization of forms of social life in particular. Education is not only purposed to "achievement" that is measured through standardized tests and assessments.

There are other important purposes of education one of them being empowerment. Empowerment is a process through which an individual's assumptions are challenged about how things can be done and are done. Empowerment challenges ones basic assumption on power, achievement, helping and succeeding in life. At the centre of the empowerment concept is the idea of power. For empowerment to take place there are two things to be considered; first requires that power…… [Read More]


Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (1996). Finding Common Ground in an Era of Fragile Support. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from  http://www.ascd.org/publications/newsletters/policy-priorities/dec96/num07/toc.aspx 

The Odysseus Group.(2003). Dumping us Down-Reviews. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.johntaylorgatto.com/bookstore/dumbdnlapp.htm
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Learning Organization Analyze Concept Learning Organization & 8226

Words: 2445 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5024446

Learning Organization

Analyze Concept Learning Organization, • The Organizational Conditions Suited A Managerial Intervention; • Its Implications Managing People; • Its Likelihood Success

Under what conditions is it likely to be successful?

The idea of a 'learning organization' has become one of the most popular concepts in managerial theory. It originated with the theorist Donald Schon, who stressed that given the mutability of the exterior environment, business organizations must likewise be responsive to changes and change with the times (Smith 2001) . Only by learning from the exterior environment can an organization be effective, and that means creating a workforce that is similarly responsive, teachable, and able to 'learn' in a dynamic fashion.

However, the extent to which such a concept can be realized and what constitutes a learning organization has been hotly debated. "While there has been a lot of talk about learning organizations it is very difficult to…… [Read More]


Bersin, Josh. 2012. 5 keys to building a learning organization. Forbes. Available:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/joshbersin/2012/01/18/5-keys-to-building-a-learning-organization / [23 Jan 2013]

Fenwick, Tara. n.d. Questioning the learning organization concept S.M. Scott, B.

Spencer, & A. Thomas (Eds.). Learning for life: Readings in Canadian adult education.
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Learning Theory and Its Implications for the

Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78224639

Learning Theory and Its Implications for the Theory and Practice of Instructional Design Paradigm Shift in Instructional Learning Theory


ecause of the global changes transforming every aspect of life there is a need to transform traditional instruction into learner-centered instruction. This requires a re-thinking of the roles played by the teacher and the students in the learning process which involves a major change in one's basic assumption on how people learn.

According to Chickering and Gamson (1987 p. 3) "learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much by just sitting in a class listening to teachers memorizing prepackaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, related it to past experiences, apply it to their lives."

Research on cognition reveals that students who reflect on their learning are better learners than those who do…… [Read More]


Reigeluth, Charles M. 1999. Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Vol. II. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

ERIC Digest. A Paradigm Shift from Instruction to Learning. http://itech1.coe.uga.edu/itforum/paper17/paper17.html. What Is the New Paradigm of Instructional Theory by Reigeluth, Charles M. Indiana University www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802pages/mergel/brenda.html.  http://www.indiana.edu/~idtheory/green2.html . Instructional Design Theories and Models. Vol II by Charles M. Reigeluth, Editor. 1999. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  http://www.indiana.edu/~idtheory/home.html
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Learning From Leapfrog Creating Educational

Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99164816

Also, by creating school-centered products for older children, it can lessen the criticism that it is imposing technology upon the young, impressionable minds of preschoolers.

Available action alternatives

LeapFrog could continue to stress its core model, or 'razor and blades' approach. However, given that other educational and toy companies are capitalizing upon the LeapFrog platform model, LeapFrog cannot afford to ignore the fact that this market will eventually shrink, even if LeapFrog remains the industry standard. However, the Obama Administration is expanding the focus of the nation on standards-based education. Thus, shifting LeapFrog's focus to its K-high school Leap Start initiative, ESL programming, and other devices that make teaching standards-based education easier for teachers in crowded and cash-strapped classrooms would seem to be the ideal way to ensure that LeapFrog has a comprehensive market approach that covered all potential 'bases' for the company, regardless of the market environment. Furthermore, even…… [Read More]


Bennett, Haynie, McKelvie, Tarallo, Torrens, Wiklund. (2009). Strategic and entrepreneurial management. McGraw-Hill Primis Custom Publishing.

SWOT or TOWS analysis. (2010). Quick MBA. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at http://www.mba-tutorials.com/strategy/96-SWOT-or-tows-analysis-tows-matrix.html
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Learning Recent Report States Too

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84159462

Visual learning - the students need to see the information which can be accomplished by writing the information on the board or using a video with a screen, computer projection etc., 3). Kinesthetic - the instructor will need to present the students with events and activities that will require hands-on practice in the classroom. A disaster situation facing a security guard might take on all three; hands on experience coming from making quick decisions, seeing exactly what is happening and reacting to it, and listening to reports from others that help the guard in understanding the situation. One recent study concludes; "Knowledge in this millennium is increasingly characterized by the creative integration of information and learning from diverse disciplines" (Oon-Seng, 2007, pg 101). This could be especially true for security guards, and it is important to keep in mind that constraints on the ways and methods in which these individuals…… [Read More]


Diaz-Lefebvre, R.; (2004) Multiple intelligences, learning for understanding, and creative assessment: Some pieces to the puzzle of learning, Teachers College Record, Vol. 106, No. 1, pp. 49-57

Tan, Oon-Seng, (2007) Problem-based learning pedagogies: psychological processes and enhancement of intelligences, Educational Resources Policy Practice, Vol. 6, pp. 101-114

Wolf, P.J.; (2007) Academic improvement through regular assessment, Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 82, No. 4, pp. 690-702
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Learning Analysis an Analysis of Personal Learning

Words: 785 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14040543

Learning Analysis

An Analysis of Personal Learning

Throughout much initial schooling in the educational system's current set-up, different areas of knowledge and differing tasks are generally approached in wholly separate manners. The study of history is not combined with the study of mathematics, and lessons meant to expand knowledge in biology don't often include lessons in aesthetics and art. This is actually detrimental to the educational process, however, as the fact is most bodies of knowledge touch upon the skills and knowledge acquired in other learning areas. The fact that skills in English and composition would be so essential in acquiring and demonstrating learning in the social sciences and even in certain areas of the "hard sciences" is something that I did not fully appreciate when beginning this course, and now that this has been made clear I realize that I have made significant progress, yet real challenges still remain.…… [Read More]

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Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis the University

Words: 1825 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12900591

Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis

The University of San Diego Counseling Center (USDCC) has been established to provide enrolled students with access to quality counseling and healthcare services. Employing a diverse selection of the university's most accomplished psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare professionals, the USDCC operates a high-volume Critical Intensive Care Unit with the assistance of a 50-member nursing staff. Although the USDCC has built a reputation for delivering competent and qualified critical care services across a number of years, the organization's management structure has become concerned that educational priorities have not been updated to reflect modern advancements in the field. To that end, the USDCC recently elected to conduct a comprehensive Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis to identify the paramount educational needs in place, and the institutional forces working to facilitate or impede the implementation of these needs. Empirical research on the efficacy of various…… [Read More]


Lewin, K. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: Concepts and methods.

Journal of Sociology, 44, 868-896. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2769418?uid=3739552&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=7


Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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System Analysis of T-System Because of Its

Words: 3124 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5881106

System Analysis of T-SYSTEM

Because of its ability to improve the quality and delivery of health care services, the Electronic Health ecord is becoming a necessity in almost every healthcare organization. The purpose of this paper is to explain the impact of having an electronic health record system in an emergency department. The current computerized system used at Suny Downstate Hospital in Brooklyn is called T-SYSTEM, and has been in operation since 2007. Documentation prior to its implementation was achieved through handwritten notes on various forms as well as through dictation by doctors. Suny Downstate Hospital had to update its system in order to meet state standards and quality core measures. The transition from paper to electronic documentation is major; while it assures many advantages, it also faces many challenges. As the author of this paper, I will be using my workplace as the unit (ED) project observed. I will…… [Read More]

Reference List

B., C. (2012, November 19). Personal interview.

B., G. (2012, December 2). Personal interview.

E., G. (2012, November 19). Personal interview.

Fraser, C. (2012, November 19). Personal interview.
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Systems Theory Is Actually Used by Some

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9379117

Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…… [Read More]

Family system theory, too avoids labeling behaviors as good and bad seeing them as factor of external elements (such as geography or time) that are, often, beyond individual's control and often beyond his or her awareness too. Taking this in mind enables the counselor to not only be more empathic and understanding of client but to also help detach the client from guilt regarding his activities and show him how to effectively reduce his negative behavior in a self-efficacious manner. By seeing the behavior as simply an action that has been learned and robotically repeated / reiterated through the generations, family system theory reuses to evaluate it and teaches the counselor / social worker and client to see it as a negative variable, through no fault of his own, that needs to be altered. Altering it will, in turn, not only make his own life and lives of those who are closest to him happier, but he will also positively impact the lives of countless effected others.

System theory, when applied to treatment of domestic violence, may be helpful too in that it treats not only first-order levels but provides understanding of, and probes underneath, to second-order levels too. First order levels refer to the situation where surface behavior may be changed but the underlying attitude remains unaltered (Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). The perpetrator, for instance, may learn new communication skills but the influence of his cultural internalizations regarding supposed inferiority of the female remains unchanged. System theory, on the other hand, may help the client realize the root of his perspectives and, by so doing, have a greater and more enduring impact on him. This would consequent in a second-order change where the underlying rationale is addressed leading to male and partner affecting a healthier relationship.

It is in this way that I see systems theory as contributing powerfully to amelioration of domestic violence.
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Learning Motivation Learning and Motivation

Words: 3469 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89082575

') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.

Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…… [Read More]


Bunderson, C.V. (1990). Computers in Educational Assessment: An Opportunity to Restructure Educational Practice. Educational Resource and Information Center.

Eisner, E. (1997). The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 6, p. 4-10.

Emerson, J. (1989). Review: Dead PoetsSociety. Jeems Cinepad. Online at http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm.

Florio-Ruane, Suzanne; Marianne George & Taffy E. Rapheal. (2004). Book Club Plus: Organizing Your Literacy Curriculum to Bring Students to High Levels of Literacy. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 27.
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Learning Teams Website Assigned Facilitator E-Campus Website

Words: 2735 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82526873

Learning Teams; Website Assigned Facilitator

E-Campus Website -- Phoenix.edu

The ecampus website that governs the user portal for the University of Phoenix is an aggressive and modern website design. The Phoenix brand has integrated a marketing approach that incorporates Macromedia flash as a primary means to engage the user to identify the mobile web for use to integrate learning with mobility. The website is able to effectuate the transition from user activity to the classroom by using the Macromedia to visually accentuate the transition.

The use of web design to convey a message regarding the use, convenience, and service of the website is at the heart of proper design. "For organizations engaged in electronic business, the corporate website has emerged as the single most important interface through which transactions are carried out. This being so, appropriate design characteristics are required to make websites effective. Customers expect websites to be designed…… [Read More]


Fonseca, A., Macdonald, A., Dandy, E., & Valenti, P. (2011). The state of sustainability reporting at canadian universities. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 12(1), 22-22-40. doi:10.1108/14676371111098285

Kovacs, P., & Rowell, D. (2001). The merging of systems analysis and design principles with web site development: One university's experience. T.H.E.Journal, 28(6), 60-60-65. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/214800316?accountid=13044

Monideepa T., Jie, Z. 2006. "Analysis of Critical Website Characteristics: A Cross-Category

Nelson, J.L. (2011, Help from higher education. New Jersey Business, 57(4), 53-53. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/863372809?accountid=13044
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Learning Organizations

Words: 1140 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61229135

Learning Organizations

All organizations including the lifelines of the structure of the country including general industries, banks, ministries, government organizations, etc. play a role in changes of the society from time to time. These are the organizations to decide the direction of movement of the labor market, changes in different organizational models, choose the direction in which the society will move, take advantages of the new forms of connectivity now achievable through the Internet, and all other matters for taking the society forward. Thus their learning will finally determine what the society will learn. This is why it becomes how the entire exercise of learning takes place within the organizations and that also includes business organizations. There is also a requirement to know how though this learning process, information transfers and knowledge management effects take place on management. The importance is thus on factors within the organization which help or…… [Read More]


Cain, David. A. "Creating a Learning Organization Environment for the Facilities Professional"

Retrieved from http://www.appa.org/FacilitiesManager/articleDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=537

Accessed 18 September, 2005

Gluck, Julia. (October 29, 2001) "What Are the Principle Characteristics of a Learning
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Systems Theory Starbucks

Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92817996

Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…… [Read More]


Beer, S. (2014). Diagnosing the system for organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.

Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.). Berlin: Sage Publications.

Davidson, M., & Fielden, S.L. (2013). Individual diversity and psychology in organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Smith-Acuna, S. (2010). Systems Theory in Action: Applications to Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy. John Wiley & Sons
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Systems Thinking Leadership & Change

Words: 3249 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70793151


II. Peter Senge - the Learning Organization

Peter Senge, who describes himself as the "idealistic pragmatist" states that learning organizations are: "...organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together." (1990: p.3) the learning organization in the view of Senge is an organization that has the capacity to adapt in an environment of rapid change and because of their flexibility will grow and excel. These types of organizations have learned how to connect to the commitment of the individuals in the organization and have the capacity to experience growth through learning at all levels. The learning organization is one that is perpetually and intentionally seeking to expand its creative capacity. According to Senge the organization must do more…… [Read More]


Merrill, Martha (nd) Dialogue from Peter Senge's Perspective. Dialogue Digest. Online available at  http://www.soapboxorations.com/ddigest/senge.htm 

O'Callaghan, William G. Jr. (2004) Think Like Peter Senge: Applying His Laws of Systems Thinking to Identify Patterns that Shape Behavior. School Administrator Journal. November 2004. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JSD/is_10_61/ai_n7069371/pg_3

Peter M. Senge (1990) the Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Currency Doubleday, 1990), 371

Peter Senge Interview on Organizational Learning. Economic Development Leader - Creating the Leading Edge in Economic Development. 1 Apr 2007. Online available at  http://econdevleader.blogspot.com/2007/04/peter-senge-interview-on-organizational.html
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Systems Thinking Is a Way

Words: 2722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11182706

They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).


Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.

Annotated Bibliography

Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…… [Read More]

Swanson and Torrco discuss how the Human Resources Department must not only support but play an active part in a company's overall business strategy. Because of this they must be an integral part in any kind of systems thinking. The authors give multiple examples, such as the type of traning given to employees as well as their efforts to maintain the quality of employees' work. How such HR goals are achieved will have a profound effect on company culture and must be part of the company's overall plan.

Vogelsang-Coombs, Vera. 1997. "Governance Education: Helping City Councils Learn." Public Administration Review, Vol. 57.

This article tightly focuses on how one group can become dysfunctional -- city councils. The authors suggest ways city councils can learn to function more effectively. While it remains to be seen if city councils, as a group, would put in the time and effort to use systems thinking to improve their functioning, and whether dynamics within the group would or would not thwart such attempts, the article has a good discussion on "groupthink," a group phenomenon that blinds the group to lurking risks and dangers.
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Learning Organizations Given Such Rapid

Words: 2725 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63477634

In the present environment of rapid technological change, it is essential for knowledge workers to continuously be in a learning mode. Metrics need to be put into place to assist managers in focusing training funds where they can be of most use.

Kaplan and Norton (1996) emphasize that learning is not the same as training. It consists of factors such as mentoring and tutoring within the organization, in addition to openness of communication among workers that gives them the opportunity to easily get assistance on a problem when needed. It also includes technological tools or what the Baldrige criteria call "high performance work system. The internal business process provides metrics that help managers know how well their business is running and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements. This organizational learning measurement also recognizes the importance of customer service. Poor performance is a leading indicator of future decline…… [Read More]


Demers, D.L. (2007) Organizational change theories: A synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dodgson M. 1993. Organizational learning: A review of some literature.Organization Studies

14: 375 -- 94.

Garvin, D. (1993). Building learning organizations. Harvard Business Review, 71 (4), 78 -- 91.
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Learning Growth Perspective Balanced Scorecard Futura Industries

Words: 811 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50410816

Learning Growth Perspective

Balanced Scorecard

Futura Industries

Balanced Scorecard

The success or failure of any business entity is greatly dependent on how well align its goals and management systems are with its strategic plans. There have been cases reported where businesses failed to make it big despite of having excellent strategic plans. This was because they failed to keep their management systems and activities in line with their strategic plans. While management in itself is a small term, it covers various dimensions of business activity that include both internal and external influences. These include management of business processes, financial management, customer satisfaction, human resource management and the internal and external communications pertaining to the business. All these management aspects must be integrated into a well balanced management system such that it keeps the overall business activity in line with the strategic plans of the business. Many businesses get on the…… [Read More]


Gumbus, A. & Johnson, S.D. (2003). The balanced scorecard at Futura Industries. Strategic Finance. Retrieved from http://www.allbusiness.com/finance/3591611-1.html

Balanced Scorecard Institute (n.d.). Balanced Scorecard Basics. Retrieved from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/library/learning/g_apaguide.shtml#Webpages

Niven, P. (n.d.). Learning and growth perspective. EPM Review. Retrieved from http://www.epmreview.com/Resources/Articles/Learning-and-Growth-Perspective.html

Business Balls (n.d.). Balanced Scorecard. Retrieved from  http://www.businessballs.com/balanced_scorecard.htm
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Learning Organization

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99622440

Learning Organization

In the globalized environment of today, organizations must continually learn and adapt. his is particularly true, as organizations are now under intense competition from firms outside their geographic region. Learning organizations are characterized by their ability to continually learn and innovate. Competitors, particularly those from emerging markets, are learning from their more develop counterparts in the United States and Europe. Aspects such as product know how, and product innovation continue to come under intense pressure from emerging communities. his pressure results in still further innovation from market leading companies to better maintain their overall position. One such example of a learning organization is that of the British Airport Authority. his organization displayed many of more common characteristics of a learning organization to help facilitate its growth. he BAA displayed all five feature of a learning organization. he firm facilitating systems thinking, accomplished personal mastery, utilized mental models, shared…… [Read More]

To help alleviate the concerns mentioned above, the BAA developed the balance scorecard to facilitate learning and innovation within the organization. This scorecard allowed the BAA, a governmental organization, to learn and adapt with its private sector partners. For example, a quadrant within the traditional scorecard is "Financial Focus." The metrics used to evaluate the "Financial Focus" metric will vary between a private contractor and a government entity. Another quadrant within the balanced scorecard is "Internal Focus" which is also different between organizations. As such, the BAA could learn and alter the overall plan to better coincide with the objectives of all the involved parties.

From a training and development perspective, the organization was in a better position to collaborate with independent third parties on a shared vision. This shared vision, ultimately allowed both the government and private enterprise to learn from one another. This shared perspective, better allowed the human resources department to align incentives, learning, and training to achiever the overall goal of the BAA.

In addition to the shared learning and systems thinking mentioned above, a large amount of collaboration was needed to successfully implement the project. The project was delivered by BAA working in partnership with suppliers and the airline operator British Airways. By 2008 around
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Learning Complex Tasks Like Driving

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21767364

There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.

Pages 203-204

There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…… [Read More]

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System Feedback Loop From This

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82459221

The second and third runs, therefore, were largely based on making adjustments to the first run strategy. In each instance, the adjustments made increased the total profit over the four years and it is believed that continuing along that same path of making slight adjustments would consistently increase the profits earned. It is for this reason that the strategy changed little -- there was no insight that was believed to lead to a better strategy and in lieu of such major insight there was no reason to pursue a radically different strategy.

The most useful concepts in this exercise were contribution margin (CVP analysis) and elasticity of demand. Understanding the cost structure of each product allowed for more intelligent pricing decisions. For example, the price cut in the X7 was significant at 25% from the base price in the base case run to 31.5% of that price in the later…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Richards, D. (2010). How to do a breakeven analysis. About.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/businessplan/a/breakeven.htm

QuickMBA.com. (2007). Price elasticity of demand. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from  http://www.quickmba.com/econ/micro/elas/ped.shtml 

QuickMBA/Porter, M. (2007). Porter's generic strategies. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from  http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml
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Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory Attached

Words: 1126 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13817787

Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory

Attached File

Systems theory vs. diffusion of innovation theory

Systems theory is based upon the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Its founder Ludwig von Bertalanffy proposed that, based upon his experience with the biology of organisms, all systems are constantly changing because they are able to interact with their environments. Systems are open and thus can acquire "qualitatively new properties through emergence" (Clark 2011). Living beings of all kinds are capable of taking in and incorporating new elements while expelling the old. This is vitally important for healthcare organizations today to understand, given the need to respect the changing nature of patients and the fact that patient's health can be significantly improved or worsened, depending on the type of care the patients receive and do not receive. Healthcare organizations must be true 'learning organizations' as new patients…… [Read More]


Clark, Don. (2011). Ludwig von Bertalanfy: General System Theory 1950. Big Dog and Little

Dog. Retrieved at:  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/bertalanffy.html 

This article provides a brief introduction to the general concepts of systems theory, beginning with von Bertalanfy's career as a biologist studying organisms. It is a succinct explanation of the theory in lay person's terms, expressing it in phrases such as 'the whole is bigger than the sum of its parts.'

Diffusion of innovation theory. (2010). Utewente. Retrieved at:
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Learning Plan the Aorn Congress

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11972086

Exposure to cutting-edge technologies helps me understand the principles upon which technologies work, and can also prepare me for being able to use such technologies effectively in the future. Furthermore, I am interested in how it can transform hospital administration. I believe that one of the best ways to cut costs and reduce medical errors is to transition to a more robust it system.

Leadership Skills: Within the next five years, I intend to take on more challenging roles in my institutions. I want to understand the bigger picture of how hospital administration works and what I can do to improve it. At the AORN Congress, I will meet and network with perioperative nurses who have incorporated leadership positions into their daily work. In ten years, I may want to transition my career entirely into an administrative position.

Administrative Vision: he main reason why I am attending the 2011 AORN…… [Read More]

Technologies: While I work in an institution that is committed to acquiring the most advanced medical technologies on the market, I believe that perioperative nurses are too narrowly focused on what is being used in their operating rooms. I want to learn about the cutting-edge technologies that are being used in more progressive institutions around the world. Exposure to cutting-edge technologies helps me understand the principles upon which technologies work, and can also prepare me for being able to use such technologies effectively in the future. Furthermore, I am interested in how it can transform hospital administration. I believe that one of the best ways to cut costs and reduce medical errors is to transition to a more robust it system.

Leadership Skills: Within the next five years, I intend to take on more challenging roles in my institutions. I want to understand the bigger picture of how hospital administration works and what I can do to improve it. At the AORN Congress, I will meet and network with perioperative nurses who have incorporated leadership positions into their daily work. In ten years, I may want to transition my career entirely into an administrative position.

Administrative Vision: The main reason why I am attending the 2011 AORN Congress is to present myself with a bigger picture of the healthcare industry. I understand my role in the industry as a perioperative nurse, delivering the best possible quality of care to patients and keeping abreast with the techniques that save lives. The next step is to understand the decision-making processes that are at the root of our work. Issues like financial allocation, budgeting, account management, and human resources development are areas in which I need to improve my knowledge. Seeing the bigger picture of the healthcare industry is my goal. Therefore, ethical and legal considerations as well as issues related to corporate culture and improving the workplace environment are part of my overall learning plan goal. The 2011 AORN Congress will be instrumental in helping me become a more effective leader in healthcare.
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Learning Log Reflections Culture Can Refer to

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19296382

Learning Log: Reflections


Culture can refer to many different aspects of human life that affect personal and professional relationships. We usually think of culture in terms of nationality: the Japanese culture, for example, is said to emphasize personal relationships and interconnectedness more than individualistic American culture. Cultures are often classified as more 'high context' or more 'low context' in orientation. In 'high context' cultures, inside knowledge, the relative position of someone on a leadership hierarchy and an awareness of the 'double meaning' of certain gestures is more important, than in a low context culture in which 'what you say is what you mean,' such as in the U.S.

Learning about different cultural perspectives and worldviews has made me more mindful about contextualizing my own. I have also noticed that even within nations, culture may vary -- a company located in an urban environment, versus one located in a rural…… [Read More]


Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth & David Kessler. 2010. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Grief.com. Accessed at http://grief.com/the-five-stages-of-grief / [December 27, 2010]

McNamara, Carter. 1999. Basic context for organizational change. Management help.

Accessed at http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm#anchor493930 [December 27, 2010]

McNamara, Carter. 2000. Organizational culture. Management help. Accessed at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm[December 27, 2010]
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Learning to Ride a Bicycle

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73816648

After mounting the bike, the biker must now achieve balance in order to get the bike moving forward. Thus, upon mounting the bike (i.e., sitting on the saddle), the biker must put his feet on the bike's pedals. To move forward, s/he must put his/her leg on the floor, give a push, then immediately replace it on the pedal and both legs must begin doing circular motions with the pedals to keep the bike moving forward. While doing these circular motions repeatedly, the biker must maintain his/her balance by firmly gripping the handlebars and pointing the bike straightly toward the path that the rider intends to take. When making turns, the rider must point the bike toward the intended path, maintain his/her balance, and keep cycling by moving the pedals circularly.

When the rider is comfortable with the balance and path that s/he intended to take, s/he can now choose…… [Read More]

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Learning Power and Culture Schools

Words: 1084 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31411921

When a person uses the Five Forces model, it is more likely that he or she will have covered every important angle for the business (Mintzberg, 2005). The reason the model works so well is based on the fact that everything that really matters in a business is covered - customers, suppliers, new entrants, and substitute products, along with the rivalry that is seen within the industry. That last issue is one about which many individuals forget when they are planning for a business. They focus on customers and suppliers, and they consider their products, but they fail to acknowledge the idea that there is already a rivalry in that industry and that it is only going to become more significant. It is not always the customers or the product that causes an issue. It can also be the other competitors and their ways of bringing business to them and…… [Read More]


Mintzberg, H. (2005). Strategy safari: A guided tour through the wilds of strategic management. Chapters 7, 8, & 9. New York: Free Press.

Schein, E. (1978). Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organizational Needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Schein, E. (1985). Career Anchors: Discovering your Real Values. San Diego, CA: University Associates, Inc.
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Learning and Self-Esteem the Main Purpose of

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68497660

Learning and Self-Esteem

The main purpose of Alfie Kohn's article "The Truth about Self-Esteem" is to provide a critique of existing literature and prevailing beliefs about the importance of self-esteem on children's learning. The author points out key problems with the debate between pro-self-esteem educators and the more traditional, "old school" view that self-esteem is irrelevant. Kohn asserts that neither position is totally satisfactory and offers some ideas for more constructive approaches to the subject. The literature review, which is arranged and presented more like an essay than a proper literature review, deals with the limitations of scientific research, with the problem of focusing on self-esteem as opposed to selflessness, and with the problems with Old School education as well. After presenting a review of the literature concurrent with his personal stance on the issues, Kohn concludes that more fruitful research should be conducted if the goal is to improve…… [Read More]

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Systems Administration v Network Administration

Words: 1495 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72869548

The subject matter of systems administration includes computer systems and the ways people use them in an organization. This entails knowledge of operating systems and applications, as well as hardware and software troubleshooting, but also knowledge of the purposes for which people in the organization use the computers.

The most important skill for a system administrator is problem solving. The systems administrator is on call when a computer system goes down or malfunctions, and must be able to quickly and correctly diagnose what is wrong and how best to fix it. In some organizations, computer security administration is a separate role responsible for overall security and the upkeep of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, but all systems administrators are generally responsible for the security of the systems in their keep. (Encyclopedia.com, 2011)

Network Administrator

What is a computer network? According to McGraw Hill Online Learning Center, "a network is two…… [Read More]


Armstrong, L. (1995), Let's Call the Whole Thing Off

Dignan, Ars Technica, Jan 28, 2001, post 305, http://arstechnica.com/civis/viewtopic

Encyclopedia.com - Information Technology- accessed 2011/1/14

Hegel, G.W.F., the Phenomenology of Mind, (1807), translated by J.B. Baillie, New York, Harper & Row, 1967
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Systems Engineering Documentation When a Scientist Is

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74979204

Systems Engineering Documentation

When a scientist is developing a new pharmaceutical, an inventor is creating an alternative to an existing product, and a researcher is determining an easier method to develop a chemical process, they continually take notes or document each of their actions. This significantly reduces the amount of errors when others repeat the work to move ahead in the process and allows for the exact specifications to be copied when successful results are achieved.

Systems engineering follows this same pattern. In fact, documentation is an essential aspect, because of the creation of new designs and end products that meet the identified need of the customer. In Systems Engineering and Analysis, Benjamin Blanchard explains the importance of documentation as a design aid. Throughout the systems design process, which starts on a theoretical plane with an idea and evolves into a more specific set of steps and procedures, engineers often…… [Read More]

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Systems Management Problem Cincom Company Operates in

Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24397429

Systems Management Problem:

Cincom Company operates in a flexible business environment that allows participating business enterprises and customers to be flexible. This flexibility translates into the ability of these businesses to choose the best software option from available options like Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), cloud option, and one or on-premise enterprise software. Generally, the availability of this software options and the flexibility of the business environment implies that Cincom Company can choose the type of software to implement based on its specific needs. However, the company is faced with numerous challenges including difficulty in implementing change, customer lock-in strategy, and lack of flexibility due to its particular organizational structure and culture. Actually, the major challenge for Cincom is the difficulty to adapt to and implement change that will reflect the new business environment it is operating in. This challenge is characterized with the CEO's approval of all products, pricing, sales, and services…… [Read More]


Andreson, D. & Anderson, L.A. (2010). Beyond change management: how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Burman, R. & Evans, A.J. (2008). Target Zero: A Culture of safety. Defence Aviation Safety

Centre Journal, 22 -- 27.

Cameron, Kim S. & Quinn, Robert E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture:
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Systems Theory According to Two

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45693138

Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior:

The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function of the interaction between it and the environment in which it operates." (Longres, 1999, p. 19)

Change and conflict are always evident in a system. Individuals both influence their environments and are influenced by them. Processes of mutual influence generate change and development." (Longres, 1990, p. 19)

Each person in a family is part of the whole system. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." (Longres, 1990, p. 266)

These assumptions make us understand that the responsibility for the acts of the 14-year-old rest not with the child himself, but with the relationships and interactions in his family. More than anything else, the real issue is a family boundary problem where the hierarchical subsystem had not had a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brother Arrested in Slaying of Girl, 4." Washington Post 20. Sept., 2004: B-1

Longres, John F. Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Itasca, IL F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1990

Teen Appears in DC Court In Slaying of Sister, 4." Washington Post 21 Sept. 2004: B-3
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Systems Thinking' Is a New

Words: 331 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54860132

.. Second, to understand a system we need to understand how it fits into the larger system of which it is a part... Third, and most important, what we call the parts need not be taken as primary. In fact, how we define the parts is fundamentally a matter of perspective and purpose, not intrinsic in the nature of the 'real thing' we are looking at. (Kofman and Senge, 1993, p. 27)

This systems thinking allows an individual to grow as part of the whole system and not an individual entity. Individual success is thus dependent on how the system functions and how he manages to influence it from his position in it. For example, a manager in the advertising department can no longer think about his department alone but needs to understand that his performance will directly influence other departments such as sales and finance.


Kofman, Fred and…… [Read More]


Kofman, Fred and Peter M. Senge "Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations." Organization Dynamics.
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Systems Theory Is Systems Theory

Words: 449 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73655962

Similarly, a team of employees working together is greater in terms of skills, abilities, and potential personality conflicts than any one individual working alone.

Systems theory still functions as an important reminder that all systems have optimal sizes, and need to work in concert with the whole business environment. In today's merger-made climate, and in a world where taking a holistic, international perspective is important for all levels of management, systems theory can still be helpful to adopt a multidimensional and broad-reaching perspective, a reminder that bigger is not always better -- and that even when bigger is better, the bigger organization is not the same as what existed before a merger. System theory's weaknesses lie in its difficulty in treating individual employee problems, and motivating individual employees, as it provides little psychological advise as to how to motivate an 'organism's different parts, but these weaknesses do not discount the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kauffman, Jr., Draper L. (1980) "Systems 1: An Introduction to Systems Thinking." Edited by Stephen. A. Carlton. From The Innovative Learning Series by Futures Systems, Inc. Minneapolis, MN: Stephen A. Carlton. Cited by McNamara, Carter. (1999) "Thinking about Organizations as Systems." Management Help Website. Retrieved 9 Aug 2006 at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/org_sytm.htm#anchor1122549
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Systems Thinking and Change Management

Words: 2656 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69084552

This is especially important in the context of the Broker Front Office Tool (BFOT) strategies aimed at streamlining attracting, selling to, and servicing indirect channel partners and resellers. This aspect of bringing the Voice of the Customer (VoC) into the transformation of it initiatives into channel-based strategies is even more difficult than evolving change management programs within the four walls of any organization. Bringing change to agents and the indirect channels in the context of the Broker Front Office Tool (BFOT) forces the issue of gross margins, channel training, and pricing applications, three of the highest priorities for any agent, to the forefront of the change management strategies. Literally any channel relationship hinges on these three priorities and the extent to which strategies can be created to accentuate and strengthen a company's ability to deliver on these is the extent of the lasting success of any channel-facing strategy. it' contribution…… [Read More]


The Agenda (2003) - Chapter 4: Put Processes First. The Agenda: What Every Business Must Do to Dominate the Decade. Accessed from Michael Hammer and Company website on October 2, 2006:


Aguirre, Calderone, Jones (2004) -10 Principles of Change Management. Resilience Report, Booz, Allen Hamilton. New York, NY. Accessed from the Internet on October 2, 2006:

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System Structures Presentation

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94948253

Systems Structures Presentation

Electronic health records are common in the modern era of globalization and high technology. Electronic health records can be defined as a collection of health information, in digitized form, of individuals as well as populations. The objective of having health records in digital form is to make them accessible across different health care settings. This enables the patients as well as physicians to obtain health information from their relevant health care facility by simply requesting it to be sent over from the electronic health records that were held at the previous health care facility where the patient had been checked up. The health care facilities today are connected through a variety of network-connected enterprise-wide information systems. These can easily transfer information regarding any patient from one health care facility to another, given that they are connected via the network.

Electronic health records consist of not only technology…… [Read More]

In the United States of America, as a ruling in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the implementation of electronic health records in clinical settings was made compulsory with around $27 billion were allocated to the cause. This was a part of new health care reforms whose aim was that by 2015, there would be "meaningful use" of the technology made available to improve the quality of patient care available. The federal incentives being offered to hospitals and clinics in order to update to the electronic health record structures have all the physicians and nurses on their toes.

Nurses, as a result, are closely monitoring the effects and consequences of the use of the electronic health record structure systems on their ability to improve patient care. There have been admittedly some benefits. The availability of extensive up-to-date information on the patient and his medical condition and history, allows for measureable improvements from the treatment and care given to patients with chronic diseases as well as those patients which are on preventative medicine. It has been proved via a study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania that nurses that work in hospitals and other clinical set-ups with the electronic health care structures in place tend to report a greater deal of improvement in their patients than the nurses working in hospitals that are devoid of such technology. However, there is the task of the nurses learning to use and manage the electronic health record structures. Unless the nurses have had training or been provided transition time from the implementation of the electronic health record structure, they cannot get any meaningful use out of it. For the electronic health record structure to be effective, the user of the technology should be aware of how to mine for the data, the treatment plan to be followed and how to retrieve the meaningful data from the abundance of information available on the individual. Currently, there are also problems with the present infrastructure at hospitals for the proper implementation of the electronic health record structure.

In the future, if the administrators as well as the implementers of the health reforms seek to extract meaningful use from the electronic health record structures technology, they need to gear up and tackle a few issues beforehand. Step must be taken to ensure that the structure works according to the purpose it is meant for. The clinical integration across clinic-settings and hospitals should be made tighter and stronger. The nursing administration must prepare their staff for the upcoming implementation of electronic health record structures in terms of training, and also be prepared for the resistance that would come from the nursing staff during the implementation of new technology. There should also be preparation for the slowing down of the productivity when the system is first implemented. The main goal here is to measure the impact on the patient care and whether improvements in the quality of patient care is present or not.
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System Implementation the Implementation Stage of the

Words: 1423 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45602844

System Implementation

The implementation stage of the iordan project may prove to be the most challenging yet, but one that is worth all the effort. It would take a team of experts in various fields to successfully see this stage successfully through to completion, it cannot be a one-man show. Several departments within the organization have to be given priority when it comes to rolling out the new human resource management system. Since this system is automated and rests on an Information Technology platform, the first two departments to consider would be the human resource management and Information Technology departments. All the teams of professionals within these departments would have to be part and parcel of the entire system design and development process. The other departments to consider would be those of finance and operations management as they too are a fundamental part of the organization's decision making framework.

Coding…… [Read More]


[1] George, F.J., Valacich, B.J.S., & Hoffer, J.A. (2003). Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

[2] Satzinger, J.W., Jackson, R.B., & Burd, S.D. (2008). Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World. London, UK: Cengage Learning EMEA.

[3] Marciniak, J.J. (2002). Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
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System Thinking

Words: 698 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19148977

System Issues & Chikfila

Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).

Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…… [Read More]

Works Cited and Consulted

Chick Fil -- a Controversy. (2013). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/chick-fil-a-controversy

Chick-Fil-a. (2013). Press Releases. Retrieved from:  http://www.chick-fil-a.com /Pressroom/Press-Releases#?release=LGBT-statement

Chick-Fil-a. (2010). Corporate Message. Retrieved from:
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Learning - Learning Has Been

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1053829

Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.

My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.

Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage

nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:


Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…… [Read More]

And More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:


Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational, but are rationalizing. For instance, the trauma of 9/11, even for those not directly affected, caused a number of people to commit suicide. Moreover, if someone is the victim of beatings as a child, they tend to repress those memories, internalize some of the actions, and possibly have problems forming attachments. This, according to Dr. Burton, is the mind's way of defending and coping with stress. It becomes part of the unconscious, but often resurfaces in odd forms. The healthy individual can get on a path to deal with these issues; talk through them, analyze, and find coping mechanisms.
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Learning Kazanjian Emphasizes the Role

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4072603

Using the example of the Hispanic population in the United States, Jeria claims that adult education has created invisible groups of students. Like Kazanjian as well as Atleo & James, Jeria emphasizes diversity awareness as a key to improving pedagogy.

However, Jeria takes diversity further by incorporating issues related to social class and access to cultural capital. Cultural imperialism has clouded the perspectives of any students not considered part of the dominant culture. Even though Hispanic students comprise a large portion of the student bodies on many campuses in the United States, Hispanic students continue to remain invisible, marginalized, and ignored. They are excluded from the historical narratives of American identity. Hispanics are also marginalized in adult education, their needs obscured by overemphasizing their cultural and linguistic deficits.

Like Kazanjian, Jeria notes the deficits implicit in an exclusionary education system, one that neglects to acknowledge diversity. Instead of focusing on…… [Read More]

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Learning Organization Why Is it

Words: 1025 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62390222

The organization must define what competencies will be necessary in the future, and continually build upon existing employee skills to avoid obsolescence. "If employees do not possess the competence to handle a new strategy, a company should provide training to enhance the skills of its managers and employees. Without adequate training and support, the relationships between employees and managers will suffer and the organization will lack flexibility" (ichards-Gustafson 2013). This requires continual strategic reassessment of future needs. Training programs must be regularly assessed to see if they are meeting their desired benchmarks. Just as the company keeps track of financial data in terms of sales, it must also document the degree to which learning-based organizational initiatives have increased employee productivity, satisfaction, and enhanced retention.

A learning organization must be willing to learn from its employees, as well as strive to inculcate them in its values and ideas. When an organization…… [Read More]


Camps, Mark. (2011). How Kaiser Permanente became a continuous learning organization.

Kaiser Permanente. Retrieved: http://xnet.kp.org/newscenter/pressreleases/nat/2011/111711tjccontinuouslearning.html

Chapter 1: Context for training and development, 1-52.

Fostering a learning organization. (2009). OPM.gov. Retrieved:
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Learning Separates Children From Their

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22758360

The child will undoubtedly feel a heady rush after attaining the long-desired goals of individuality and independence, but this newfound joy in freedom may come across as arrogance to their parents. This appraisal is not always entirely undeserved. Children might feel that they are superior to their parents because of their advanced degrees and knowledge, not to mention their salaries. They might even feel a little ashamed of their parents because they 'wasted their life,' so to speak, or they might feel frustration with their parents' lack of desire to improve their own situations. This arrogance is usually only temporary, but it can last long enough to drive another wedge in between the relationship shared by the parent and child.

Finally, adult children who have graduated with advanced degrees often have difficulty relating to or even spending time with their parents because of the vast differences between their lifestyles. For…… [Read More]

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System Analysis and Design Is the Process

Words: 1552 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51330698

System analysis and design is the process of planning, analyze, design and implement the information systems for the business needs. "Systems analysis is a process of collecting factual data, understand the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions for improving the system functioning." (Open Schooling (2010.P 5). On the other hand, system design is the process of converting the business requirements into physical system design. To design a system designer makes use of the designing tools such as the flow chart, Data flow diagram (DFD), data dictionary and structured English to build the functional information systems. The Broadway Entertainment Company (BEC) case study is a prototype of the system development life cycle where the group gathers relevant data to analyze and design the information systems. Although, the BEC case does not reflect the overall system development life cycle, nevertheless, the case study provides learning experience for the development of…… [Read More]


Broadway Entertainment Company Inc. (nd), Retrieved 30 July 2011, from the attached file of the BEC Case study.

Dennis, A. Wixom, B. H & Roth, R.M. (2008). System analysis and design. John Wiley and Sons. USA.

Espindola, D. (2009). The 7 Traits of Highly Effective Teams. Self-Improvement Magazine.

Open Schooling (2010).Introduction to System Analysis and Design. National Institute of Open Schooling