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Literacies According to Mora 2000
Words: 2391 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89932151
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Activities such as reading the names of street signs and stores and reading the ingredients on packages can help make children aware of the importance of printed words.

One of the most important things parents can do to encourage literacy in their early learner is to talk to their child. In a study conducted by Hart and isley (1995, 1999 as cited by osenkoetter & Barton, 2002), children whose parents talked to them more frequently learned to read faster, had more proficient oral and written vocabularies, better grammatical skills, and performed higher on academic tasks than children whose parents were less verbal. Asking questions and sharing experiences are simple but effective methods of having children retell information and use sequencing skills.

Technology Literacy

Children who have access to computers and learning software have an academic advantage over other students. A study conducted by Zevenbergen & Logan (2008) examined the ways…

References

Campbell, a. (2009, June). Learning with technology for pre-service early childhood teachers. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(2), 11-18. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/learning_with_technology_for_pre_service_early_childhood_teachers.html

Freeman, L. & Bochner, S. (2008, December). Bridging the gap: improving literacy outcomes for indigenous students. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33(4), 9-16. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/bridging_the_gap_improving_literacy_outcomes_for_indigenous_students.html

Fluckiger, B. (2006). Children's cross-cultural literacy experiences in three worlds: enacting agency. School of Cognition Language and Special Education. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20070814.144647/public/01Front.pdf

Gillet, J. et al. (2008). Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction. (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Literacy Instruction ' Additionally This Work
Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32418713
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.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…

References

Tom D. (1994), Teaching method: Best practice for teachers, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://northonline.sccd.ctc.edu/eceprog/bstprac.htm

Saskatoon Public Schools (2004),Balanced Literacy Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/balancedliteracy/index.html

The TELUS Learning Connection, What is balanced literacy? Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.earlyliterature.ecsd.net/balanced%20literacy.htm

Houghton Mifflin Company (1997), Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at  http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/lit_ins4.html

Early Literacy in Preschool Development
Words: 820 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8141559
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Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.

In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:

Physical well-being and motor development

Social and emotional development

Approaches to learning

Language usage and emerging literacy

Cognition and general knowledge

The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…

Understanding Literary Development With Social Media
Words: 2279 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 51989998
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changing because of advances in technology. How we communicate with each other has changed dramatically with the implementation of powerful and popular social media platforms, like Facebook. Today, both teams and adults spend a surprising amount of time on the social media sites. The question here is whether or not such activities can actually be a positive potential in regards to the growth of literacy and language development.

Social media is a trend that is only continuing to grow. It is used by most adolescents and young adults, who are still rolling in terms of their literacy and reading skills. This current dissertation aims to explore how we use and prevalence of social media can actually assist in developing literacy skills. As teenagers and young adults spend so much time on social media sites like Facebook, they are bombarded with visual and textual material. The current research was aiming to…

References

Ronda, Natalia Sinitskaya. (2011). Facing the Facebook challenge: Designing online social networking environments for literacy development. Graduate Programme in Language, Culture, and Teaching. York University.

Early Childhood and Literacy
Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99088721
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Language Development in Young Children

Early Childhood and Literacy

Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.

This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…

Bibliography

Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.

Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf

CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from  http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf 

fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf

Balanced Literacy
Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20845053
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Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade

This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.

ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…

References

Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:

International Reading Association .

Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.

Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs

Functional Literacy Activities What Are Some Examples
Words: 2109 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95972034
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functional literacy activities? What are some examples?

Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.

What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?

One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…

References

Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org:  http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before 

Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com:  https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html 

Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu:  http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf

Language and Literacy
Words: 3722 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60384444
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Language and Literacy

Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.

hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.

Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…

Works Cited

AboutTheAuthor

THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?

The Guilford Press, March 2000

http://www.markpaterson.co.uk/hieducat.htm

Adolescent Literacy Levels Reading and
Words: 1977 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99128126
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Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.

Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.

Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…

References

Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from  http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html 

Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from  http://centeroninstruction.org/ 

Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf

Intersection Between Music and Literacy
Words: 507 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50905816
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Further, the work of Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw and their colleagues of the University of California, Irvine, on what is termed 'The Mozart Effect' reports research that show a causal relationship between aspects of intelligence and music.

APPLICATION

Practical application of the principles related by Fisher and McDonald in the classroom that this researcher finds most relevant in early literacy instruction combined with music instruction is the technique related by which the teacher asks the students after they have learned the song the questions of: (1) who; (2) what; (3) when; (4) where which provides an excellent method for instructing students in terms of sentence structure and in terms of vocabulary "within meaningful, active, and expressive contents." (Fisher and McDonald, nd) an example of this method of literacy instruction using music is to make PowerPoint slides of songs to use when teaching the songs to students with the 'who', 'what',…

Assist Students With Literacy Difficulties The Studies
Words: 1289 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38931585
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assist students with literacy difficulties. The studies all used the academic classroom as the center of education and tested different learning methods.

Factors that influence the book selection process of students with special needs" is a study to learn how students with special needs react to choosing their own reading material. The results show that these children use a similar process as that of other students. The students with special needs do use more factors then typical children but it is clear that they want to read the same stories as typical children.

Many studies have concluded that choice is a necessary motivator to children and has a positive impact on their education. The most natural forum for self-selection is learning to read. Every child has different interests, unique needs and backgrounds and therefore tends to choose different books to read. There are different factors that affect children's book selection.…

Bibliography

Factors That Influence The Book Selection Process of Students With Special Needs" by Swartz and Hendricks.

Journal of Adolescents Adult Literacy 43:7 April 2000 pages 608-617

Writing Instruction For Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Gradual Release Model" by Fisher and Frey.

Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 46:5 February 2003 pages 396-404

Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would
Words: 1809 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72399275
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Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would You Take Into Consideration

Environment

The environment is one of the factors that enhance the learning process and offering solutions among learners. The environment refers to any physical and psychological presence, which constitutes a surrounding during the time of learning. In every learning endeavor, it is often important to consider the effects that the environment has on the learning that is taking place, the achievement of the learning objectives, and the nature of the solutions derived from the learning process. The environment influences the learner at the process of learning and deriving solutions to problems at hand. The influence of the environment could be either positive or negative. This factor should be considered since it is intrinsic at the point of learning. The environment also includes the physical and natural existence at the process of learning. As such, the learning environment should be…

Bibliography

Armstrong, S., & Fukami, C. V, 2009, The SAGE handbook of management learning, education and development. London, SAGE.

Park, C. C, 2007, Asian-American education: acculturation, literacy development, and learning. Charlotte, N.C., IAP.

Different Methods of Literacy Learning for Students
Words: 1478 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 33733716
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program READ 180 is designed for children in elementary school through high school whose achievement of reading is not above the level of proficiency. The main objective of this program is to address the gap in the skills of the students by using direct instruction, literature and computer program in the reading skills. The goal of the software is to adapt and track the progress of every student. Apart from that, the program also includes audio books with CDs for modeling reading, paperback books for independent reading and workbooks for addressing the comprehension skills of the students (WWC, 2009).

Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI): Decision Making Process

Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) is a test of reading comprehension that assesses the reading skills of the students. The scores that come from this test help the teachers to place the students on the correct path and help the teachers to adjust their style…

Bibliography

Betebenner, D.W. (2011). A Technical Overview of the Student Growth Percentile Methodology: Student Growth Percentiles and Percentile Growth Projections/Trajectories. New Hampshire: The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment Dover.

Bonds, M., Blewett, P., Sain, M., Spence, J., Woodward, A., Miller, L., . . . Falk, T. (2011). District Report Card. Milwaukee Board of School Directors.

Data Interpretation Guide. (n.d.). SPI.

Flynn, J.E., Bieler, D., Kim, H., Dow, R.R., Wong, C., & Worden, L. (n.d.). Recruiting and Retaining Students from Underrepresented Groups in University of Delaware Teacher Preparation Programs. Collaborative to Diversify Teacher Education at the University of Delaware.

An indepth analysis of Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Words: 2925 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Journal Professional Paper #: 22054732
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Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action

Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…

References

ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.

Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.

Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.

Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).

Australian Early Childhood Literacy
Words: 2098 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29105209
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Curriculum Early Childhood Education

Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).

The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…

References

Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from  http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale 

Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from  http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179 

Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf

Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.

Early Literacy in Preschool and Kindergarten
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 90883332
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Teaching writing to young children

Learning how to write is an important tool in encouraging young children to get excited about reading. A 2010 experimental study in the Journal of Educational esearch (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010) compared two common techniques used in kindergarten classrooms to help young readers learn to write: interactive writing and the writing workshop method. "As children write, they analyze thought and meaning, experiment with words and form, and learn concepts of directionality, sequencing, and spacing" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). Previous studies indicated that even the very youngest readers could benefit from writing instruction, given the way that writing can help them analyze words letter by letter and that "letter-sound correspondence cannot be learned outside the written system" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). The benefits of writing instructions at the kindergarten level exist "even after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and IQ effects" (Jones, eutzel…

References

Berson, M.J., Ouzts, D.T., & Walsh, L.S. (1999). Connecting literature with K-8 national geography standards. The Social Studies, 90(2), 85-92.

Bishop, A.G., & League, M.B. (2006). Identifying a multivariate screening model to predict reading difficulties at the onset of kindergarten: A longitudinal analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29(4), 235-252. Retrieved: doi: 10.2307/30035552

Diane, C.N., & Monson, D.L. (1996). Effects of literacy environment on literacy development of kindergarten children. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(5), 259-259.

Jones, Cindy D'On; Reutzel, D Ray; & Fargo, Jamison D. (2010). Comparing two methods of writing instruction: Effects on kindergarten students' reading skills. The Journal of Educational Research, 103 (5): 327-341. Retrieved:

Language and Literacy Lesion Plan
Words: 2798 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41760761
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Progression and Foundation of Language

Concept/topic

Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).

Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…

Bibliography

(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from:  http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf 

(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf 

(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from:  http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf 

Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .

Classroom Literacy
Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30885848
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Allington's sixth chapter

In the sixth chapter of his text, hat Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs, literacy expert Richard Allington gives important tips to teachers as to how they can effectively improve instruction for struggling readers in their classrooms. This is often one of the most difficult tasks for any teacher, regardless of the grade he or she teachers.

In fact, one of Allington's first areas of critique is teacher-focused. To help teacher improve classroom instruction for such challenged readers, Allington stresses the need to provide additional support for teachers' professional growth. Since this field of how to approach struggling readers is undergoing continual professional debate, teachers need to keep in touch with new pedagogical developments, as well as receive support from their fellow professionals. Regular classroom teachers must strive to become expert educators, as well as have adequate access to resource room staff.

Enhancing Access to…

Work Cited

Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.

Child Development and Children With Special Needs
Words: 1183 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65310305
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Lesson objectives enhance teacher-student and teacher-teacher communications. Pupils must understand exactly what they're supposed to do, which will lead them to commit time to the activities that facilitate attainment of objectives. Their ability to differentiate and prioritize important course-based learning tasks will increase, and thus, they will not waste precious time over irrelevant details. Also, students need to make guesses with regards to what the teacher deems important, as well as what is expected in the form of evaluation matter (UNESCO, n.d.).

Journal

Evaluating the developmental progress of children is a never-ending process; it offers an understanding of children's fortes, inclinations, interests, and requirements, which can be utilized for planning suitable, meaningful activities for promoting learning and development of children, individually (CCHP, 2006).

Inclusion denotes growth and learning of all children together irrespective of individual abilities. Inclusion in practice resembles inclusion in standard early childhood courses, since, in case of…

Bibliography

(2010, September). Retrieved from www.theinclusiveclass.com:  http://www.theinclusiveclass.com/2011/07/supports-modifications-and.html 

CCHP. (2006). Children with Disabilities and other Special Needs. San Francisco: California Child Healthcare Program.

Dowell, H. H. (2008). The Ausbelian Preschool Program: Balancing Child-Directed and Teacher-Directed Approaches. Retrieved from www.earlychildhoodnews.com:  http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=114 

EdTech. (n.d.). ESL Students with Assistive Technology. Retrieved from  http://www.edtechpolicy.org/CourseInfo/educ477/Fall2005/yan_finalpaper.pdf

Literacy Responsibility
Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90750092
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Community esearch

By placing the demands of literacy education on the community as a whole, a shared responsibility is created and therefore a substantial interest is gained in the process. Literacy is indeed a problem of not just students and teacher, but for the entire population. The purpose of this essay is to review literature pertaining to this argument in order to defend my position and create an opportunity for knowledge and learning. This essay will discuss and reveal some expert opinions about the subject at large and adds context and ideas to the already heavily discussed topic of literacy programs and ways to successfully implement large scale educational changes within an already existing format.

Literature eview

eese & Goldenberg (2008) found explicit data that literacy resources within immigrant Latino families are seriously lacking. They wrote " findings from a study of 35 communities show that communities with greater concentrations…

References

Epstein, J. & Salinas, K. (2004). Partnering with Families and Communities. Educational Leadership, 61,8. May 2004, 12-18. Retrieved from  http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/num08/Partnering-with-Families-and-Communities.aspx 

Reese, L. & Goldenberg, C. (2008). Community Literacy Resources and Home Literacy Practices Among Latino Families. Marriage & Family Review, 43 (1/2) 2008. Retrieved from  https://people.stanford.edu/claudeg/sites/default/files/Parental-Involvement.pdf 

Sheldon, S.B., & Epstein, J.L. (2002). Improving student behavior and school discipline with family and community involvement. Education and Urban Society, 35(1), 4-26.

Development Theory Brought Forth by
Words: 4380 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5101601
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For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).

Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…

References

Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.

Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.

Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.

Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Literacy Rates among Females in Developing Countries
Words: 2972 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18684128
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Introduction

An often-forgotten component of advancing a nation’s economy is its literacy rate. As the world grows increasingly globalized as well as sophisticated in terms of the technology demanded to function at an optimal level, a literate population is critical for developing the necessary technological infrastructure needed for the state to operate within that global framework. However, not every nation has allowed female literacy to be a focus within its developmental strategy. In the Central African Republic, Iran and Myanmar, for example, female literacy rates are lower compared to male literacy rates—though there are differences that emerge when these rates are compared among one another. High levels of female literacy have been found to have a particularly dramatic impact upon a nation’s social and economic development, given the link between female literacy and lower birth rates, lower poverty rates (as a result of smaller family sizes), and improved health outcomes.[footnoteRef:2]…

Development in Early Childhood Play Years
Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19394624
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Early Childhood: Play Years

Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.

Biology and Language

Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…

References

Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.

Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175

Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.

Assessments of Literacy Learning in Ireland
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Literacy in Secondary School in Ireland

The literacy curriculum in secondary school in Ireland is based on a strategy of language-related lesson modifications, identified by Peregoy and Boyle as good methods of ensuring that differentiation occurs in the classroom. This strategy allows for the use of "visuals, concrete objects, direct experience, and other nonverbal means to convey lesson content" alongside the main lesson taught by the teacher in the classroom (Peregoy, Boyle 86). In my area, this is consistent with what we experienced in school, and differentiation is a huge part of the cycle -- as much of what is centered on literacy is done so with direct relation to experiential learning, the use of visual aids, and the expression of ideas identified in readings via nonverbal means, such as drawings, videos or performance in the classroom. At the same time, there is a notable urgency among literacy leaders and…

Works Cited

Department of Education and Skills Press Release. Education.ie, 2011. Web. 1 June

2016.

Gottlieb, M. Assessing English Language Learners. CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Print.

Peregoy, S., Boyle, O. Reading, Writing and Learning. MA: Pearson, 2013.

Importance of Literacy
Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24104281
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literacy before ENG115

The way I understood literacy before the literacy class was majorly in three major sections, the ability to write correctly, ability to think before I spoke and ability to comprehend.

Writing correctly; was perceived as the ability to put down the content on paper in the correct grammar.

Ability to think before speaking; I considered this the capacity to contemplate the consequences of the words that I would speak before speaking them out.

Ability to read and comprehend; this was considered the capacity to take up material, read it and know exactly what it is talking about. These were the three perceptions that shaped my understanding of literacy before the ENG 115 class.

Newly developed definition of literacy (how/why it has changed)

After attending the full course class of literacy, there are changes that I had in perception of literacy and these included.

Using correct grammar was…

References

Brands R., (2014). 8 Step Process Perfects New Product Development. Retrieved March 1, 2014  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-f-brands/8-step-new-product-development_b_4556363.html 

Education Development Center Inc., (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from  http://www.edc.org/newsroom/articles/what_literacy 

Jamea Paul G. (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from  http://www.ed.psu.edu/englishpds/Articles/CriticalLiteracy/What%20is%20Literacy.htm

Family-Centered Approach in Child Development Family Centered
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Family-Centered Approach in Child Development

Family centered

Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement

Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…

References

Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.

Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.

Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.

Children's Development Early Childhood Language
Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89179616
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esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…

References

Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at  http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html 

This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.

Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html

This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.

Vygotsky Freud's Theories of Development Have Been
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46596661
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Vygotsky

Freud's theories of development have been profoundly influential upon literature and popular culture. Freud's theory of the Oedipal and Electra complexes suggests that all children form a sexual connection with their mother as their first, primary emotional impulse. Gradually, culture comes to channel children's emotions into more appropriate ways, so that after the repressive phase of childhood, adolescents form sexual attachments to people outside the family. Freud's influence upon educational theory is somewhat limited, given his focus upon the 'family romance.' B.F. Skinner, in contrast, took a diametrically opposed view to Freud and instead emphasized the ability of outside, deliberate forces to 'condition' a subject to engage in behaviors, through a series of rewards and punishments.

While to some degree, Skinner's methods are evident in the behavioral management of children in the classroom, Lev Vygotsky is probably the most influential of the major theorists of childhood development on education…

References

Blake, Barbara & Pope, Tambra. (2008). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1 (1) 59 -- 67. Retrieved:  http://jcpe.wmwikis.net/file/view/blake.pdf 

Bruno Bettelheim Attacks. (2008). YouTube. Retrieved:

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQY2oB3Rqdg 

The refrigerator mother. (2010). Neuroskeptic. Retrieved:

Visual Literacy in Higher Education
Words: 3931 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64501564
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..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).

This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227

Adams, D., & Hamm, M. (2000, Winter). Literacy, Learning and Media. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 22. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227 

Bleed R. (2005) Visual Literacy in Higher Education. Retrieved August 6, 2007, at  http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI4001.pdf  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928

Brumberger, E.R. (2005). Visual Rhetoric in the Curriculum: Pedagogy for a Multimodal Workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 318+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729

Bustle, L.S. (2004). The Role of Visual Representation in the Assessment of Learning. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(5), 416+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011600259

Adult Literacy in African-American Communities
Words: 4045 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 69580662
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This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.

The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…

Bibliography

Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf

Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1 

Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.

Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban

Cultural Literacy - Issues &
Words: 2434 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57845496
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scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?

Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…

Bibliography

Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.

In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."

Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."

Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural

Balanced Literacy Is an Approach
Words: 1771 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 10801671
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It is important that children know how to use the resources in the room to get the words they do not know (alanced Literacy -- Helping Your & #8230;).

The alanced Concept Summary

This concept incorporates all reading approaches, realizing students will need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers. Technology can also be integrated into a balanced approach for teaching literacy. Research indicates that student learning can be improved through the use of computers. Gains in self-confidence and motivation can be seen in those students who are using computers to enhance literacy instruction. The definition of literacy now includes a new literacy, where students need to read and write print text and also need to navigate and use the computer in their everyday lives (Cooperman and Cunningham).

ibliography

alanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area…

Bibliography

Balanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area School District: http://www.oe.k12.mi.us/balanced_literacy/index.htm

Cooperman, N., & Cunningham, a. (2003, May). Balanced Literacy and Technology. Retrieved Mar 28, 2009, from Teaching Matters, Inc.: http://backend.teachingmatters.org/files/whitepaper.pdf

Definition of Balanced Literacy. (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Phillipsburg k12: http://www.pburg.k12.nj.us/CURRICULUM/Definition%20of%20Balanced%20Lit.pdf

Frey, B., Lee, S., Pass, L., & Tollefson, N. (n.d.). Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District. Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from School of Education University of Kansas: http://web.ku.edu/~spear/Documents/Balanced_Literacy_in_an_Urban_School_District.pdf

Integrating Technology With Literacy Instruction
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63147998
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Integrate Technology With Literacy Instruction

Researchers have investigated aspects of integrating technology with literacy instruction. In my strategy, I would focus on the use of a word processor on written expressions. While some studies have found either no significant outcomes or mixed outcomes with regard to the effect of the word processor on the development of literacy, most analyses have demonstrated word processor to be beneficial. This technology mitigates the complications young kids often experience with the fine-motor control necessary for letter development and help in revisions.

Further, complications met by disabled learners in expressing themselves through writing will be reduced using transcription software, word processor, spell checkers, multimedia applications, speech synthesizers and semantic organizers. Other researchers have shown that word processor improves cooperation and active participation among learners besides strengthening children's focus on the material they write. In addition, compared with paper-and-pencil arrangements, it improves sentence density, cohesion, revisions…

Teacher Instructional Technology With New Literacy Instruction
Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4005931
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teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?

The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.

The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.

The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.

The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…

Sources

Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.

Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:

Sociology Press.

Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.

Multicultural Newsletter What Is Multicultural Literacy Approaching
Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31511095
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Multicultural Newsletter

hat is Multicultural Literacy?

Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.

hat Stevens…

Works Cited

Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.

Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:

Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.

Critical Literacy the Discourse of
Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48385549
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Changes in and to children's literature mirror, as well as construct, changes in social norms. For example, the 1908 book by Kenneth Grahame, Wind in the Willows, is a frolicking fantasy tale starring a cast of anthropomorphic animals. Themes of camaraderie, friendship, and adventure do not serve as vehicles for political discourse. When Jan Needle published Wild Wood nearly a century later in 1981, the author imbued the basic structure of Grahame's story with political awareness. Issues like social justice are explored in Wild Wood, issues that were not touched upon in Wind in the Willows. A similar vehicle of storytelling was used for a different literary function. Both 1908 and 1981 were times ripe for the exploration of labor issues and class-consciousness, and it is in many ways ironic that Needle would have been more overtly political than his forebear.

There seems to have been a deliberate awakening of…

References

"Children's Book of the Year Awards." Retrieved online:  http://cbca.org.au/awards.htm 

DAWCL. Website retrieved:  http://www.dawcl.com/introduction.html 

Leland, C., Harste, J., Ociepka, A., Lewison, M. & Vasquez, V. (1999). Exploring critical literacy: You can hear a pin drop. Language Arts, v77 n1 p70-77 Sep 1999.

Shor, I. (1997). What is critical literacy? Journal for Pedagogy, Pluralism, and Practice. Retrieved online:  http://www.lesley.edu/journals/jppp/4/shor.html

Jamie A Literacy Story the
Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48466945
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She came up with an idea of a reading discussion group where the purpose of the group would be to communicate and exchange meaning, not focus on someone else's questions. The teacher let the students choose what books to discuss, and encouraged them to respond to pictures as well as words, and to return to the story as often as possible to simplify and clarify their ideas. Through these discussion groups the children shared their interpretations and connections. Instead of "directing" the discussions, the teacher facilitated them, and let the children talk more. These groups were a success in the classroom, and the groups met and discussed books on the regular basis throughout the story.

Another turning point in the story is when Jamie becomes too sick to attend school for extended periods of time, because her body becomes very weakened. At the end of the story she dies, peacefully,…

Global Human Development
Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85012049
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UNDP Report Study

Human Development Report 2011:

A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations

Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…

From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.

This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.

Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.

Professional Development the Objective of
Words: 1731 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 32458220
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Differentiated instruction offers the possibility for all students to meet their own personal and optimal potential in the learning environment of the classroom.

ILIOGRAPHY

ellai, Mariann (2008) Professional Development Plan. Schenectady City Schools. Online available at: http://www.schenectady.k12.ny.us/ProfessionalDevelopment/ProfDevPlan08.pdf

Corley, Mary Ann (2005) Differentiated Instruction: Adjusting to the Needs of All Learners. Focus on asics Vol. 7 Issue C. March, 2005. National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.

Differentiated Instruction (2007) Council for Exceptional Children. News & Issues. Arlington, Virginia. Online available at http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Differentiated_Instruction&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=24&ContentID=4695

Empowering Students to Succeed (2007) Title II Professional Development Plan. Dekalb County School System 2006-2007. Online available at: http://www.dekalbk12.org/TitleIIplan.doc

Heacox, D. (2002). Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: How to reach and teach all learners, grades 3-12. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.

Moore, etty (2008) Using Assistive Technology, Differentiated Instruction and Professional Learning Teams. CODE Chronicles, Issue No. 1, 2006 November.

Tomlinson, C. (1999). The…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bellai, Mariann (2008) Professional Development Plan. Schenectady City Schools. Online available at: http://www.schenectady.k12.ny.us/ProfessionalDevelopment/ProfDevPlan08.pdf

Corley, Mary Ann (2005) Differentiated Instruction: Adjusting to the Needs of All Learners. Focus on Basics Vol. 7 Issue C. March, 2005. National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.

Differentiated Instruction (2007) Council for Exceptional Children. News & Issues. Arlington, Virginia. Online available at  http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Differentiated_Instruction&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=24&ContentID=4695 

Empowering Students to Succeed (2007) Title II Professional Development Plan. Dekalb County School System 2006-2007. Online available at:  http://www.dekalbk12.org/TitleIIplan.doc

African Development Structural Adjustment Policies
Words: 3022 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61466213
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(Shah, 2010)

F. Impact of Structural Adjustment Policy Preconditions

According to Shah the preconditions impact poorer countries in a devastating manner and it is reported that the following factors result in "further misery for the developing nations" and ultimately keep these countries dependent on nations that are developed: (1) Poor countries must export more in order to raise enough money to pay off their debts in a timely manner; (2) ecause there are so many nations being asked or forced into the global market place -- before they are economically and socially stable and ready -- and told to concentrate on similar cash crops and commodities as others, the situation resembles a large-scale price war; (3) Then, the resources from the poorer regions become even cheaper, which favors consumers in the West; (4) Governments then need to increase exports just to keep their currencies stable (which may not be sustainable,…

Bibliography

Poulizouh, Thierry (2007) Chief of Staff Ministry of Economy, Planning and International Cooperation Central African Republic: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper -- Preparation Status Report. International Monetary Fund, Feb 2007, IMF Country Report No. 07-58. Central African Republic Ministry Of Economy, Planning And International Cooperation Office Of The Minister Steering Committee On The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Permanent Technical Secretariat Of The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper No. 3325/2006/MEPCI/DIRCAB/CP-CSLP/STP-CSLP Bangui, November 17, 2006.

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (1999) The World Bank, Projects and Operations. Online available at: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/0,,contentMDK:20120705~menuPK:51557~pagePK:41367~piPK:51533~theSitePK:40941,00.html

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers -- Operational Issues (1999) Staffs of IMF and the World Bank. 10 Dec 1000. International Monetary Fund. Online available at:  http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/prsp/poverty1.htm#II 

Shah, Anup (2010) Structural Adjustment -- a Major Cause of Poverty. Global Issues. Online available at:  http://www.globalissues.org/article/3/structural-adjustment-a-major-cause-of-poverty

Human Resources HRD Development Program
Words: 2751 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95937911
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In addition to supplying training so that workers can obtain and maintain entry-level jobs, training must be given that is based on national skills principles, assessments, and qualifications that will improve a participant's ability to compete successfully in the current global economy. This component will be the focus around which the other four HD training components will revolve. This training component will be broken down into five different categories: Job Training, Job-Looking Skills, Job-etention Skills, Lifetime Learning, and Life Abilities.

Job Looking Skills

Job etention Skills

1. Job Search 1. Personal esponsibilities 5. Job performance

2. Application/esume 2. Time Management 6. Interpersonal Skills

3. Interviewing 3. Economic Literacy 7. Learning Skills

4. Job Selection Process 4. Work Attitudes 8. Math Skills

Lifetime Learning Life Abilities

1. eflection 1. Consumer Buying 3. Preventative Health Care

2. Change Management 2. Parenting Skills 4. Community esources

Communication Skills

1. Communication Styles 4. Observation…

References

Human Resources Development Program Evaluation Guide. (2010). Retrieved May 18, 2010,

from Web site:

http://cpolrhp.belvoir.army.mil/scr/FunctionalAreas/CHRA/hrd/Guidance/SCHRD_PRO

GRAM_EVAL.pdf

Chinese and European Development Programs
Words: 3684 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8396070
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The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.

In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…

Bibliography

Boafo-Arthur, K & Essuman-Johnson, a 1993, Ghana, Some Foreign Aid issues, Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 2010. Ghana. CIDA. viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/Eng/JUD-124141510-QL7

Chachage, C.S.L., 1987, Towards a critique of development theories in Africa. Vol. l9 No J / 987.

Crawford, G 2004. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana" POLIS Working Paper Number 10 viewed on 18 January 2011  http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/research/working-papers/wp10crawford.pdf

Economic Developments in America From
Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63328180
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More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.

By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…

References

Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.

Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.

Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.

Economic Development in Honduras A Banana War
Words: 2008 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90285447
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Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy

An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present

In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical emphasis that has been placed on agriculture as a money industry for export purposes has resulted in the term, "banana republic" (Nash & Jeffrey 1994). Following their independence, most Latin American countries continued to depend on the export of raw materials for their revenue, rather than investing in an economic infrastructure that would provide value-added services, which only further contributed to this pattern of dependence on foreign states. This is largely what has taken place in the Republic of Honduras as well, and the country continues to suffer from sporadic and inequitable foreign investment, much of which has illegally diverted into private hands rather than infrastructure development. This paper provides an overview of the Republic of Honduras, an assessment of the…

Works Cited

Bates, Stephen. (January 8, 1999). Good friends slip on a banana skin. New Statesman,

128(4418):23.

Befus, David R., Debbie L. Mescon, Timothy S. Mescon and George S. Vozikis. (1988).

International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3):40.

Gap Early Childhood Intervention and the Development
Words: 6336 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82658447
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Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child

Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.

There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…

Works Cited

Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.

Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.

Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.

Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.

Democracy or not for economic development
Words: 2986 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58218821
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South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011, but has been embroiled in civil conflict ever since. This instability has hampered the ability of the country to lay the groundwork for developing its economy. The evidence shows that there is a pathway to economic development, even for the least-developed country, and this paper will elaborate on what those steps might be.

South Sudan is a landlocked country of 12.5 million people that split off from the Sudan in 2011. South Sudan is a multiethnic society, with different tribal groups living in the basin of the White Nile, which flows from Lake Victoria until it meets with the Blue Nile. The split of Sudan came after years of civil war. The north of Sudan was Muslim, the south Christian, and that is largely the fault line along which the border between Sudan and South Sudan is presently split. The country is…

Competency Development Plan First a Little Bit
Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Resume Paper #: 65910357
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Competency Development Plan

First, a little bit about myself. I am a qualified electrical mechanic and I am currently working as an Electrical Maintainer for J&P Richardson Industries in Wacol, Qld. I have been in this capacity for the past eight years. I have come to the conclusion that it is time to take the next step in my career development. For me, that includes seeking out progressive positions, but it also entails upgrading my education. I am seeking a Certificate IV in Instrumentation in order to facilitate my personal growth.

I began my career in Germany, where I apprenticed at a large commercial and industrial services company called Elektro Technik Niesky GmbH, in the town of Niesky in the far East of the country. I stayed there for seven years, finally leaving in 2001 to pursue more advanced opportunities in Australia. I first began work with Stevan Advanced Electrical…

Boy Literacy Closing the Gender
Words: 1031 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29251987
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2010).

What Needs to Be Done

The research quite clearly suggests that something needs to be done about the gender gap in literacy rates and the lower comprehension and skill levels of male students. What is somewhat less clear is exactly what needs to be done or how to go about implementing the necessary changes. This is not to say that certain strategies and methods have not been suggested, many of which have even been studied and demonstrated to have a positive impact, but developing a full teaching strategy that addresses this gap in many ways requires an overhaul of general teaching practices that is complex and difficult to concretely define let alone implement. Certain entrenched policies and practices also increase the difficulty of implementing the necessary adjustments to curricula and methodologies.

Education has tended towards greater freedom for independent exploration and less rigid instruction, and while this can lead…

What Is Development
Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29428979
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Developmental Processes Across the Life Span With Diverse Sociocultural Contexts

The objective of this study is to identify development processes across the life span with diverse sociocultural contexts and to demonstrate theoretical comprehension and application in psychotherapy in order to identify theoretical strengths and weaknesses based on the setting and/or client population specific to child behavior. Finally, this work will demonstrate basic knowledge of the range of normal an abnormal behaviors and child developmental processes. The work of Havighurst (1971) entitled 'Characteristics of Development Task' reports that living is a process beginning with birth and ending with death, which is, comprised of people "working their way through from stage of development to another, by solving their problems in each stage.") When the individual does not complete a task, which results in unhappiness as well as "disapproval by society and problems in later tasks." (1971, p.1) Six primary stages of the…

Bibliography

Havighurst, R.J., (1971) Developmental Tasks and Education, Third Edition. New York. Longman.

Lam, WSE (nd) Re-envisioning Language, Literacy and the Immigrant Subject in New Mediascapes. Northwestern University / Evanston, IL.

Castel, AD, et al. (2011) The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering Across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity. Developmental Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association. 2011, Vol. 47, No. 6, 1553 -- 1564.

Waszak, F. et al. (2010) The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Life Span Sample. Developmental Psychology © 2010 American Psychological Association 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2, 337 -- 349

financial planning and digital literacy for'students
Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99578556
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Identify two new pieces of financial information that you learned about this week that will help you make informed financial decisions about your future and eventual retirement.

Personal financial management and financial planning can be daunting. It helps to learn more about the tools people can use to plan their savings and budget for the future. One of the things I learned this week that will help me make informed financial decisions is how to be a responsible borrower. For one, I never considered credit cards as being a form of lending. Essentially, people who forget that credit cards entail borrowing money from a bank can get into a lot of trouble with debt accumulation. Next, taking out loans can be tricky. Student loans tend to have reasonable interest rates, but any amount of interest is still going to add up over time. The less the loan principal, the less…

Curricular Development and Design for
Words: 2404 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13643440
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The National Curriculum publication entitled: "The Secondary Curriculum" relates the national challenge in creation of the secondary curriculum to include the challenges as follows:

1) Raise achievement in all subjects and most particularly in mathematics and English; (2) to equip learner with skills (personal, learning, and thinking) needed to succeed in education as well as in life and capacity for employment;

3) Motivate and engage learners;

4) enable a smooth progression from primary, through secondary school and onward;

5) encourage young individuals to pursue higher education;

6) Provide the flexibility needed by schools to tailor instruction to individual and local needs;

7) Ensure that assessment supports effective instruction and learning; and 8) Provide more opportunities for focused support and challenge. (National Curriculum, 2008)

In order that curriculum be designed effectively to meet the individualized and personalized needs of learners in the secondary school it will be absolutely necessary that all…

Works Cited

Motivans, a.; Bruneforth, M. And Kennedy, a. (2005) Global perspectives on growth in secondary education IIEP Newsletter Volume 23 Number 2, June 2005.

Tennant, Jessica (2005)Transition from primary to secondary schooling: valuing alternative literacies as a strategy for fostering academic success" Practically Primary Volume 10 Number 2, June 2005; Pages 39-40

Hernes, Gudmund (2001) Mind Over Matter. International Institute for Educational Planning - IIEP Oct-Dec 2001. Vol. XIX, No. 4 Online available at  http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/newsletter/2001/octe01.pdf?class=IIEP_PDF_pubs&page=Newsocte01&estat_url=http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/newsletter/2001/octe01.pdf 

Alchemists of the Mind - Excerpt from the Director's address to the participants in IIEP's 35th Annual Training Programme in Educational Planning, and Management at the end of their training, Paris, 23 May, 2000. Online available at  http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/newsletter/2000/jule00.pdf?class=IIEP_PDF_pubs&page=Newsjule00&estat_url=http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/newsletter/2000/jule00.pdf

Ocean and Coastal Literacy Understanding
Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17719350
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A three: 63% of Americans in a recent study believe that "regulations and laws" that are intended to protect our oceans are not strict enough, while 16% say laws are ok;

c) the knowledge most people have about the science related to the ocean and coast is not high.

A one: citizens are unaware of threats to the oceans, though the threats are immediate two: 50% of people recognize that factories are a pollution source, but only 24% recognize that "runoff" is what causes the pollution from factories and oil refineries three: 75% of people in one survey believed trees and forests give off more oxygen than oceans; and 60% of respondents didn't know that there are more plant and animal species on oceans than on land.

A four: about 45% of those polled between that between 11 and 20% of U.S. coastal regions are now in federally protected zones;…

Works Cited

Coyle, Kevin J. "Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy: How Public Opinion and Knowledge Research Helps Inform Ocean and Coastal Science Education Programming at NOAA." National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. 2005.

Minimum literacy'skills in the 21st century
Words: 1906 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40010074
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21st Century Knowledge

There was probably a point in time in the not-so-recent past when it could be asserted that many to most people in the modern world did not need to possess scientific knowledge, skills and understanding. However, as the society and technology of the world, the West in particular, becomes more advanced and demanding, this is becoming less and less true and some would say that entirely too many people in today's society are woefully unprepared when it comes to possessing skills that are needed for a modern context and society. To be sure, the assertion being made does not mean that everyone is destined to work in hi-tech fields and thus will need advanced degrees and training. However, the proverbial bar that signifies what is needed for the "average" person has certainly gone up. While advance training and degrees are not necessary for the average person, everyone…