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Jefferson Township, a part of Morris Country, NJ has experienced a surging problem with a higher number of Lyme disease reported cases each year. Approximately 30,000 cases have been reported by the CDC. These growing number of cases has created worry as afflicted patients are looking to doctors and nurses to help with this potentially chronic and debilitating illness. With Lyme disease quickly becoming the most common vector-borne illness within the northern hemisphere, especially in towns like Jefferson, public health concerns have led to a desire to take steps to prevent and diagnose the disease.
Lyme disease is transmitted to humans via a bite from an infected blacklegged tick. The infection is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which then infects the human. Symptoms range from fatigue, a characteristic rash named erythema migrans, fever, and headache (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2015). Early diagnosis of Lyme disease can lead to prompt treatment…
Davis, R. & Papachrisanthou, M. (2015). Influencing Factors and Decision-making Regarding a Painful Summer Rash. The Journal For Nurse Practitioners, 11(8), 836-838. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.04.015
Healthypeople,. (2016). Immunization and Infectious Diseases -- Healthy People 2020.Healthypeople.gov. Retrieved 28 June 2016, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/immunization-and-infectious-diseases
Kaaijk, P. & Luytjes, W. (2015). Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 12(3), 757-762. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2015.1087628
Pearson, S. (2014). Recognising and understanding Lyme disease. Nursing Standard, 29(1), 37-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ns.29.1.37.e9073
Mr. Robinson is a 46-year-old man presenting with a four-day history of right ear pain. He described the pain as a constant, dull, burning pain radiating to the neck and face, associated with a feeling of congestion. The patient also stated that the right side of his face had felt numb for about one day.
Three days earlier, Mr. Robinson was seen by PCP, who told him that his ear looked normal and free of infection. The day before his current presentation, however, he noticed what he described as an "acne-like" rash on his ear lobe. Shortly before coming to the ED, the patient also developed numbness over his right upper lip, which he likened to the effects of procaine during a dental visit. He reported drooling from the right side of his mouth while drinking water and difficulty blinking his right eye.
He denied any tinnitus, fever, headache, or…
Blahd, W. (2015, May 27). Chronic Sinusitis. Retrieved from WebMD Symptom Checker: http://symptoms.webmd.com/default.htm?condition=091e9c5e808e7cca&bpid%5b0%5d=4&sid%5b0%5d=347&bpid%5b1%5d=10&sid%5b1%5d=92&bpid%5b2%5d=2&sid%5b2%5d=115&bpid%5b3%5d=10&sid%5b3%5d=1#conditionView
CDC. (2015, March 4). Lyme Disease. Retrieved from Center for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov /lyme/
Kucherov, V. (2016). Ear Pimple. Retrieved from Heal Cure: http://www.healcure.org/ear/ear-pimple/pimple-in-ear-inside-ear-canal-behind-ear-cause-how-to-get-rid-pop-ear-pimple/
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014, January 2). Ramsay Hunt Syndrome. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ramsay-hunt-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20029560
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief report about Lyme disease and some of the facts and issues surrounding the disease. First off, the author will research and discuss what has happened to the prospects of a Lyme disease vaccine. Second, the author will discuss why laboratory testing for Lyme disease is not yet definitive. Finally, the author will discuss what is generally done for the chronic and other effects of Lyme disease that lead patients to suffer. While there are options for dealing with Lyme disease, the disease has proved to be very vexing and troublesome.
As for what has happened with the Lyme disease vaccine, there actually was on in production but it was removed from the market in 2002. The vaccine was apparently at least somewhat effective but it was taken off the market in large part because there was…
CDC. (2015). Lyme disease vaccine -- Lyme Disease -- CDC. CDC.gov. Retrieved 27 September 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov /lyme/prev/vaccine.html
CDC. (2015). Two-step Laboratory Testing Process -- Lyme Disease -- CDC. CDC.gov. Retrieved 28 September 2015, from
Chronic Lyme Disease
Lyme disease is a contentious illness, and the reality of chronic Lyme disease induced by unrelenting infection with the Lyme spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) is the topic of continued debate (Hogan 16). The objective of this paper is to analyze critically the claims of existence of the illness. The paper would also offer a discussion on why insurance companies should provide cover for patients suffering from the Lyme disease.
Chronic Lyme disease does exist. A greater part of the patients does not exhibit the initial symptoms of the Lyme infection. However, some patients show chronic symptoms, which persist long after the antibiotics are over. A tiny tick forms the foundation of the question as to whether the Lyme disease exists. The disease got its name in 1975 after its first diagnosis in Old Lyme. A well renowned infection transmitted through the bite of a deer tick the disease…
Hogan, Mary. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: The Facts. New york: Oxforfd University press.
Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: the State of the Science; National Academies Press . Critical needs and gaps in understanding
, amelioration, and resolution of lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes: workshop report. New york: national Academies press, 2007. Print
What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America
Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics.
There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…
Ehrlichiosis is a disease that originates from ticks. In the United States, there are two types of this life-threatening bacteria that were found to affect the human body. These are the Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME) and the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE) that attack the white blood cells of the human body.
Ehrlichiosis is a disease that can resolve even without any treatment. However, for those who are badly infected specially those who have immune system problems, the disease can be fatal if not immediately diagnosed and treated. Ehrlichiosis is among the type of tick diseases. Deer ticks, which primarily can be found in the northern states such as the New Jersey and Texas, transmit bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis. When bitten by an infected tick, a person can acquire the ehrlichiosis disease within 3 to 16 days (astdhpphe online). Astdhpphe Online lists the following symptoms caused by the disease.
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available
The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.
Causes of Fibromyalgia
While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.
Occurrence of Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…
Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Fibromyalgia - Fibromyositis; Fibrositis (2012) Summary of Cochrane Review. PubMed Health. Retrieved from:
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
Although relatively rare, California encephalitis (CE) can be a highly lethal disease that is caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris ameba. In fact, of the 10 cases of CE reported to the California Encephalitis Project during the period from 1999 through 2007, all but one patient died. Today, though, the majority of victims of CE survive the condition, but a significant percentage (about 20%) experience long-term complications as a result. To determine the facts about this potentially deadly human pathogen, this paper reviews the literature to provide the history of CE including its first outbreak, how the disease is transmitted, and the epidemiology of CE. In addition, a discussion concerning the search for a vaccine for CE is followed by description of the treatments and public health considerations of CE. Finally, an examination of the concern CE has for public health is followed by a summary of the research…
Anderson, J. R. & Schneider, J. R. (2005, April). Quantitative genetics of vector competence for la Crosse virus and body size in Ochlerotatus Hendersoni and Ochlerotatus Triseriatus interspecific hybrids. Genetics, 169(4), 1529-1532.
Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis -- California, 1999 -- 2007. (2015). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5728a2.htm.
California encephalitis. (2015). Right Diagnosis. Retrieved from http://www.right diagnosis.com/c/california_encephalitis/intro.htm.
California serogroup - pathogen safety data sheet. (2015). Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/msds27e-eng.php .
The brain while expanding pushes the skull outward in the same perpendicular to the closed structure. This will be marked by the occurrence of 'papilledema' 'pseudoproptosis' as also 'optic atrophy.' (39) This results in the orbital socket being smaller and the eyes getting 'protoposed'. The intercranial pressure is bound to be high. The symptoms in such cases will be optic atrophy, head ache and papilledema. Or in the case of 'Crouzon's disease' where occurs a marked hooked nose and a frontal lobe which makes the disease also called the parrot head disease. Surgery in both these types of situations become mandatory as the result of the cranial pressure could result in death. (39)
egarding the facial surgery discussions always centre on perfecting features and cosmetic changes. The debate must rather be on the goals of the surgery and the overall benefits that can accrue to the patient in terms of…
1. Buncke HJ. Facial Paralysis - Reanimation. California Pacific Medical Center. [online]. 2007 [cited 2008 Feb 16]. Available from: URL:
2. Sataloff J, ThayerSataloff R. Occupational Hearing Loss. CRC Press. 2006.
Kim JYS, Bienstock a, Ketch L. Facial Nerve Paralysis, Dynamic Reconstruction. [online]. 2007 [cited 2008 Feb 16]. Available from: URL:
Food should be banned from the New York City subway system. There are a few reasons why the food ban should be enacted, chief among them are the health concerns cited by state senators. Proponents of eating food on the subway system generally have weak arguments based around their own personal desire to eat food on the subway, rather than any coherent responses to the central sanitation and public nuisance argument.
According to the text of the bill (S6312), the purpose of the bill is to "mitigate the growing rat infestation in the NYC subway system." The bill would establish fines and other punishments for eating food on the subway system. There are a number of problems with the rat issue in the subway system. In general, people experience a sense of revulsion at the sight of rats, in particular the large, greasy variety found in the subway…
AP. (2012). MTA chief says he opposes subway food ban. ABC News. Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://abclocal.go.com/wabc/story?section=resources/traffic&id=8543501
Prendergast, D. & Buiso, G. (2012). Pol push to ban eating in the subway. New York Post. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/pol_push_to_ban_eating_in_the_subway_ZvKq3qRxecSkAMTWoE6wmJ
S6312-2011: Prohibits the consumption of food in New York City subways. New York Senate.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from http://open.nysenate.gov/legislation/bill/S6312-2011
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…
Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;
Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease
Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org .
Federal Government Funding
Federal funding has been at the heart of many breakthroughs in medical research in the 20th century (Angela & Chris, 2000). The NIH takes credit for leading the research campaign for many years. The achievements by NIH are many. They include (Angela & Chris, 2000):
educed time frames for the discovery and development of new cures
Lowered the incidence of disease rates among the sick
educed disability levels
Better quality of life through pain reduction and suffering.
Sustaining University research, education and future leading scientists through support
The federal government, through NIH, funds 36% of all the biomedical research in the U.S. The Non-Profit Organizations contribute 7% while the private sector funds 57% (Angela & Chris, 2000).
Although the federal government funds both basic and applied research, it has focused most of the resources on basic research. Basic research is essential in the discovery of…
Angela Ritzert & Chris Edwards. (2000). the Benefits of Medical Research and the Role of the NIH
Wendy H. Schacht. (2011). Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship
IAMAW Views on Safety
The response of the American people to the terrorists attacks of 9/11 was felt one of compassion and resolve. Almost all Americans were associated in one or other manner in assisting the Nation come out of the dangerous impacts and become strengthened. It was curious to witness the way some hurried into the burning building and saving lives of their fellow workers, friends and strangers. While many measures have been undertaken to safeguard the security of Americans and continuance of the way of life, the workers confront stringent security policies on the job and sometimes loss of civil rights. (Worksite Security: IAM Headquarters)
The International Association for Machinists and Aerospace Workers -- IAM& AW as well as other institutions are watchful of the legislation and presidential orders against possible violation of bargaining and civil rights. They found the workplace security to be more embarrassing to the…
"Contact Lens Use in a Chemical Environment" (11 July, 2005) Retrieved from http://www.iamaw.org/content.cfm?cID=4866 Accessed 16 September, 2005
'Ergonomic, OSHA and EPA Update" (April/May, 2003) Trade Winds. Vol: 51; No: 2.
Retrieved from http://www.iamll1781.org/pdf/tradewinds/aprilmay03.pdf
Accessed 17 September, 2005
Breaking obert's ules (B), Susskind emphasizes the value that a good facilitator can add in helping a group reach the best possible outcomes using the consensus-based approach. Looking back at the Bullard or Harborco negotiation, how might a neutral facilitator have added value?
A neutral facilitator would have better able to ascertain the desires of both sides of the argument. The consensus based approach is most prominent when both sides can discuss grievances without a bias methodology from the facilitator. The facilitator using a consensus based approach must encourage careful thought and collaboration amongst all parties involved. Biases could negatively impact the consensus based approach as one party may feel alienated or defensive. The other party meanwhile will believe themselves to have a negotiation advantage and attempt more benefits. These aspects would ultimately hinder the negotiation as both sides will be unable to arrive at a legitimate consensus regarding their…
1) Graham, John (2010), "The Problem-Solving Approach to Negotiations in Industrial Marketing," Journal of Business Research, 14, 549-566.
g., teachers of young children, day-care employees, and residents and staff in institutional settings).
Persons who live or work in environments in which varicella transmission can occur (e.g., college students, inmates and staff of correctional institutions, and military personnel).
Nonpregnant women of childbearing age. Vaccination of women who are not pregnant -- but who may become pregnant in the future -- will reduce the risk for VZV transmission to the fetus.
Interpretation of elative History:
18-month female with fever, diffuse rash
Prime demographic for varicella infection)
Child is irritable but alert
Good sign, since toxicity would be an issue with this child. A good level of consciousness is useful in assessing the level of illness but can change quickly in the pediatric population)
Her heart rate is 180 beats per minute
She is tachycardic, but most likely due to the fever and irritability. The child is not described as tachypneic)…
Hamment, JM. (1999) Respiratory viral infection predisposing for bacterial disease: a concise review. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology [FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.]; 26, 189-195. 1 Dec 1999.
Haiduven-Griffiths D, Fecko H. Varicella in hospital personnel: a challenge for the infection control practitioner. Am J. Infect Control 1987; 15:207-11.
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136