Eventually, when the rest of Europe became a solid, cultural entity at the end of the Middle Ages, it was no surprise that the Byzantine Empire did not survive since it had failed to hold true to its core values and, eventually, the Empire officially ended upon conquest by the Ottomans. During this time, mercantile interests sponsored the construction of beautiful cathedrals which influenced artistic innovation throughout Europe. The Gothic style is characterized by a pointed arch called a lancet.
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also called the Islamic Renaissance and its generally thought of as ranging from the 8th century to the 13th century (Kraemer). During this period, Muslim engineers, scholars, traders, philosophers, poets, artists, laborers, scientists, and princes created a culture that thrived and grew in many areas and would have an influence upon future societies around the globe (Turner). It is no wonder then that the people were greatly committed to the pursuit of knowledge. Additionally, Islamic scholars gathered information from all over the world and translated it. In fact, many Muslim philosophers sought humanistic, rational, and scientific discourses in their quest for knowledge; and, it is therefore not surprising that medieval Islam was open to humanistic notions of individualism, liberalism, religious freedom, and cross-cultural exchange. At the same time that knowledge expanded within the Empire so did agriculture. Moreover, the first market economy in the form of merchant capitalism was formed alongside with innovations which helped to enhance the innovation and growth of the time. For example, Muslim engineers demonstrated their innovation by coming up with industrial uses of hydropower as well as the first industrial uses of tidal power, wind power, steam power and fossil fuels (Hassan).
Despite the forward-thinking leadership and the innovative work that occurred during this age, the Islamic civilization eventually fell. While there is no consensus as to the precise reason for its fall, there are many individuals whom believe that it may have been one or more of the following disruptions in overall management and organization of the empire itself: (1) political mismanagement, (2) movement in thought toward imitation as opposed to continuing to demonstrate innovation, (3) reduction in tolerance of different ideas, (4) foreign invasion and attack, (4) inability to rebuild institutions destroyed in war, (5) increased illiteracy rates (Saliba).
The Crusades marked a time in History during wherein a mandate by a religious leader turned into years of bitter violence. In 1095, Pope Urban II announced the First Crusade in order to regain control of the Holy Land. For years to come, many lives would be lost in the name of religion. In fact, there were seven major crusades between the eleventh century and the end of the thirteenth century. As a result of the Pope's initial declaration of war, over time, respect for the papacy declined and, unfortunately, the policy of attack against Muslims took hold around the world in areas such as Spain and Eastern Europe (History World).
12th Century Renaissance
The Twelfth Century Renaissance was an internationalist movement characterized by such things as wandering scholars travelling from country to country developing their own genre of poetry (Sommerville). This Renaissance included social, political and economic transformations as well as an intellectual revitalization of Western Europe. Some believe that this Renaissance was a precursor which paved the way for the later European Renaissance of the 15th Century. Indeed from this Renaissance, Europe benefitted in the form of new insititutions of ...
The Fifteenth Century European Renaissance was a cultural movement from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth century that begun in Florence, Italy and then spread amongst Europe. On a cultural level, it signaled a rebirth of learning as well as gradual educational reform throughout Europe. During this time period, people turned toward their past and tried to understand classical works as well as Christianity itself. There was a rise in realism amongst artists who used light and perspective in a more natural vein; likewise, philosophers sought to portray political life as it really was and to actually understand it on a rational level. The change in mindset affected the political structure and management of the European people. For instance, Italy did not exist as one large entity; instead, it was broken into small city-states and its cities stood alongside ancient buildings. Italy seemed to have freed itself from Feudalism and had based its society upon merchants and commerce while others let go of monarchial orientation (Skinner).
17th Century Scientific Revolution
During the Scientific Revolution of the Seventeenth Century two fundamental ideas influenced how individuals viewed the world. First, they adhered to the notion that the universe and everything within the universe works according to the laws of nature which are set by the Divine Being. The Divine Being does not work at random, instead the Being holds to the "management theory" that it is his job to make things work in an orderly and regular fashion.
Furthermore, the law of nature may be discovered through reason. Thus, if we care to understand how the world actually works we must observe it with a lens of reason. As a result of the foregoing conclusion, in these regions, it was thought that everyone had the ability to make choices, obey laws, and adhere to moral standards (Scientific).
The Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th Centuries brought about change in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and power. In England, changes were being made to move from manual labor and draft-animal labor to machine-based manufacturing. Trade routes provided for expansion of exchange. In capitalist economies, the Industrial Revolution began an era where per-capital income rose. In analyzing why the revolution occurred, some believe that the British made advancements because there was an entrepreneurial class and this class believed in progress, technology and hard work; or, in other words, they possessed the Protestant work ethic. Information also was exchanged rather rapidly due to the network of informal philosophical societies. Furthermore, magazines and periodicals describing technology began in the early 1800's. Additionally, the middle class of industrialists and businessmen triumphed over the land owning nobles. While many effects were positive, it must be noted that there is a downside to this seemingly positive model of growth and…
During this time, mercantile interests sponsored the construction of beautiful cathedrals which influenced artistic innovation throughout Europe. The Gothic style is characterized by a pointed arch called a lancet.
Management Theories Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial Revolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385). The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to
Management Principles Management Leadership Model Paper: Management Principles Research suggests that everyone is a manager in their own way. For instance, everyone manages his finances, time, careers and relationships. These examples of managing are simple and straightforward. However, when concepts of management apply in organizations, management becomes complex. At such a point, it calls for extensive studying in order to understand the theoretical basis of management. The application of management and the enunciation
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The
It is not that managers do not see the benefit in conflict that they eschew it; it is that conflict is high-risk and can have significant negative externalities, some of which linger with the organization for a long time. Managers are less enthusiastic about conflict because they are taking into account a longer time frame and the totality of externalities, which makes their views a reflection of better information
EDSE 600: History and Philosophy of Education / / 3.0 credits The class entitled, History and Philosophy of Education, focused on the origin of education and the "philosophical influences of modern educational theory and practice. Study of: philosophical developments in the Renaissance, Reformation, and revolutionary periods; social, cultural and ideological forces which have shaped educational policies in the United States; current debates on meeting the wide range of educational and social-emotional