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Today there is more respect for the indigenous values of the natives and their languages. There were hard lessons learned in approach and strategy from the failures, such as in Canada, where native Aboriginal Indian children were torn, screaming from the arms of their parents to be placed in State-approved parochial schools, where they were forced to wear uniforms and stand in lines, forget their language and customs and conform to the strict behavioral guidelines of the nuns and priests, often being abused and starved in the process. The mental health issues and anger that were the result of this forced indoctrination, not to speak of the legal repercussions of that have ensued to this day (Miller 219).
Interviews with Biblical Scholars/Pastors/Reverends/Elders/Deacons / Church members as to why missionaries need to be sent?
Interviews with anthropologists regarding cultural imperialism.
Mission targets: the people who have been affected by missionaries might…… [Read More]
Unreached People Group Project (Iraq)
A Survey of Mission Work
History of Mission Work
Current Status of the Church
Number of Known Believers
Unreached People Group Project (Iraq)
The history of Iraq parallels the antiquity of mankind; therefore, a more recent examination of Iraq's history will be more suitable for evaluating the needs of unreached people in this country. The country used to be part of the Ottoman Empire but Britain occupied Iraq during World War I.
In this regard, Dawisha reports that, "Iraq was patched up together into a monarchy by the British in 1921 from three disparate provinces of the defunct Ottoman Empire. Divisions were so deep that when it came to choosing a ruler for the new state, the British realized that no local candidate would command the support of the whole population."
The country was designated a League…… [Read More]
The Reformed Church in America is a contemporary missionary organization that does not offer a clear organizational history. However, the RCA Global Mission page on the organization’s website claims 233 years of missionary work (“RCA Global Mission,” 2018). The RCA and its missionary work can also be viewed within the overall historical context of colonialism and the evolution of post-colonial missionary work. One of the letters refers to the Beebout’s visit to a former slave trade port in Benin, as the authors reflect on the inhumanity of slavery without mentioning the complicity of Christians with the institution of slavery in the United States.
A collection of videos and letters offer primary source data about the nature of Jeremy and Susan Beebout’s missions within the RCA. The most recently touted mission is the partnership with the Evangelical Church of the Republic of Niger (EERN). An analysis of the…… [Read More]
Missionary Conquest: A critical analysis
It is often said that there is nothing so dangerous as a convert or a missionary. Although many take this idea as a kind of "tongue in cheek" characterization of the excesses of those "blinded by faith," there remains a sinister truth in the statement. George Tinker's book, Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide, clearly illustrates the dark side of missionary work, and the damage that can, and has been done to Native American cultures and peoples as a result of the inherent coupling of colonialism/ethnocentrism and religion -- what he calls, "religion in the service of evil." However, although Tinker does a wonderful job in pointing out the unfortunate "Anglo-centrism" of the missionaries he discusses, as well as the horrible price Native Americans would pay as a result of their efforts, he does not acknowledge the difficulty his position as a…… [Read More]
Paul's First Missionary Journey
The conversion of Paul from Saul on his way to Damascus marked the beginning of his evangelical work.
Paul and arnabas were believers in the newly established church in Antioch of Syria.
They received the calling from God while in church praying alongside leaders of the church.
Paul was dogmatic, without proper strategy and planning for his missionary journey.
The first missionary journey of Paul
Paul's first missionary journey began at Antioch of Syria
He sailed with arnabas, and john Mark as their helper.
John Mark made his decision and left them as they arrived at Pisidia
Paul travelled through the following places, preaching the Good News and making disciples; the island of Cyprus, Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra and Derbie
Through his missionary work, he received mixed reception, some places acceptance and others wild rejection, to the point of being stoned.
Paul's strategy in his…… [Read More]
acculturative stress of African Catholic Missionary Nuns (ACMN) serving in the United States. This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part explains the meaning of acculturation and adaptation experiences specific to missionaries. This part emphasizes (1) different perspectives from social and behavioral scientists examining the phenomenon of acculturation (2) different theoretical models describing the stages of acculturation (3) dissimilarities between immigrants and missionary immigrants and what makes the two unique. The second part of this chapter examines the emotional and psychological distress missionaries experience as a result of acculturative stress. The third part focuses on coping strategies and resilience of missionaries. The fourth part introduces the existing literature in the area of acculturative stress of missionaries, emphasizing on limited empirical research in this subject and the necessity for further research in this area of study.
Part One: Background and Overview
Different Social and Behavioral Scientific Perspectives Concerning Acculturation.…… [Read More]
Pastoral Theology: The Modern ole of Mission Work in the Church
Historically, mission work played a critical role in the establishment of the Christian Church. Christians were called to spread Christianity beyond their initial groups of worshippers and the concept of the mission to spread religion gradually developed over time. Over the course of history, these missions have taken varying forms, though mission work has frequently combined the provision of some type of help with introductions to the basic tenets of Christianity. Modern mission work continues to combine these two elements, but in varying ways. Christians are no less called to spread the Gospel than they were in the early days, when Christianity was a new religion and unknown to many of the people of the world. Spreading the Gospel is about more than giving people information about Christianity; for mission workers, spreading the Gospel is about letting people know…… [Read More]
Christian Church acknowledges its missionary function as truly the core of Christianity, the heart of the Church. Through Christ's teachings, mission is the foreground of His legacy to the Church, the instrument for redemption. The guiding principles at the basis of the Church's mission exist as transparently related by the ible which in itself transcends all worldly knowledge and phenomena. God, as the Holy Trinity, reveals Himself through the biblical record in order to communicate with man candidly and openly, sends His only son into the world in order to claim Him back to the offspring of wholeness, and puts forth a missionary pattern for His followers: "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:34, 15:17 King James ible) "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the…… [Read More]
Jesuit elations: Natives and Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America edited by Allan Greer. Specifically it will consider the role the Jesuit missionaries played in the history of New France circa 1633-1665. This book is an important historical document because it preserves many of the practices and parts of the Northeast Native American culture that are now long gone. eading this book is an excellent introduction to Native American culture and values in the early seventeenth-century, and it is valuable for research into the culture, beliefs, and values at the time.
The Jesuits were not in Canada and the Northeast to alter their way of thinking. Their main goals were to colonize and covert the areas to French Christianity. As the editor notes in the Introduction, "And of course, the Jesuits themselves were determined to reshape native thinking and behavior in conformity with Christian principles" (Greer 11). At the time when…… [Read More]
A further development in American Baptism was the evolution of its missionary organization. The rapid growth of missionary zeal, partly as a result of the many accounts by missionaries such as the Judsons, soon resulted in more than one societal ministry supported by the convention.
Meanwhile, Dr. Carey informed Adoniram Judson that he might as well abandon Burma as a missionary destination. He related the experiences of his son William, who had been in the country for four years and was all but ready to give up
. Unable to remain in India any longer, the Judsons then abandoned the Burmese idea in favor of Java or Penang. However, this was not to be. The East India Company continued hounding them to leave the country; the time-sensitive nature of their departure then led the couple to take the only ship available from Madras, which was bound for angoon in Burma.…… [Read More]
" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)
Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:
(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;
(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…… [Read More]
William Carey -- Father of Modern Missions
William Carey, a Baptist preacher, is considered to be the Father of Modern Mission. Carey believed absolutely that the Word of God was to be taken to all nations, devoted his own life to this endeavor, and challenged other believers to engage in this sacred work. In terms of sheer numbers of converts, Carey's accomplishments would be considered small, particularly when measured against the standards in place today. William Carey demonstrated that one man's vision be the catalyst for a movement that will serve God and others in s manner that adheres to the great commission. When Carey first made his ideas about carrying the Word to people around the world, he was told by his ministering peers to sit down and give up the unrealistic and non-mandated idea. But Carey's vision stood fast on the…… [Read More]
"he final third are an estimated 10,000 "people group," or 2.1 billion humans, who for reasons of language or geography have never heard about the Christ of Christmas. And reaching them, missionaries say, involves crossing physical, political, and linguistic barriers." hose barriers will not always be gracious, not always be welcoming, but it goes without saying that devoted Christians do, and will continue, to overcome those barriers to touch the lives of other who have yet to experience the inspiration of the Word of God.
Not a Competition
here is not a competition for souls in Christian missionary work. Missionary work does not use people as human pawns on the chessboard of world politics.
Sometimes, it may be difficult for people, and missionaries alike, to understand that. Christians missionaries serve vital roles in places around the world where each day people lose the battle against the natural forces of nature,…… [Read More]
PASTORAL THEOLOGY (MISSION): A Review and Assessment of Book Chapters on Mission
The key ideas in these chapters are that the idea of mission is rooted in the Bible and in the actions of the early Church, as the missionaries spread throughout the world taking with them the ord of God and giving it to those individuals and groups of people/communities who embraced it and wanted to live their lives according to this ord. The ord was the Mission Statement, so to speak, of the early Church, and the Bible makes this very clear. From the beginning, God's chosen had an affinity with the non-chosen, that is, the Gentiles, of whom Our Lord counted Himself as one. Thus, the perspective of the early missionaries was this: they were not going out to preach to people they did not know but rather to people who were indeed their brothers in sisters…… [Read More]
Paul's Early Life (birth, Upbringing, And Early Education)
Paul's early life can be dated back from 1-33 A.D. His upbringing comprised of being born in Tarsus of Cilicia, where he was raised under another name, Saul. He was raised in a Jewish, strict household. Because Paul was Jewish, he received abbinic training in Jerusalem from abbi Gamaliel. As he received his training, he also learned the traditions of the Pharisees. Later on in this period, Paul worked with the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem as well as adopting the Sanhedrin policies. The Sanhedrin were in opposition of the church and so was Paul. Including Jewish culture, Paul received immersion into Hellenistic culture of the era, which meant he went to the gymnasium, attended Greek dramas at the Amphitheatre, and was knowledge on the various schools of Greek Philosophy. Gamaliel taught Paul the Scriptures including the traditional lessons of the Pharisees. This meant…… [Read More]
rebeuf writes at length concerning the Huron thoughts about their origins, superstitions, belief in dreams, feasts, dances, sorcerers, style of government, council procedures, and burial ceremonies. He devotes the final chapter to the Huron Feast of the Dead.
III. In DEFENSE of LE JEUNE
The work of Charles Principe (1990) entitled "A Moral Portrait of the Indian of the St. Lawrence in One Relation of New France, Written by Paul Le Jeune' states a response to what is viewed as a revisionist history that criticizes Le Jeune unfairly for his "depictions of the Montagnais in the Jesuit Relations." (Principe, 1990) the argument of Principe is that even while scholars contend that Le Jeune was particularly harsh in criticizing the tribe that there was actually great admiration of the tribe on the part of Le Jeune and that he viewed them has having the potential to develop into 'very noble Christians'.…… [Read More]
44). She affiliated with the African Methodist Church (AME), preaching from New York State to Ohio and down South as well. She published her autobiography in 1849 and received "strong resistance and biting criticism," according to Frances Smith Foster (1993). "Lee used her alleged inferiority to emphasize the power of her message and in so doing, she…implies an authority superior to those whom she addresses" (Foster, p. 57). Indeed, Lee used the New Testament assertion that "the last shall be first" and in her autobiography she said she was an example of God's "ability to use even 'a poor coloured female instrument' to convert sinners…" (Foster, p. 57).
Another worthy source utilized for this paper is Dr. Edward R. Crowther, Professor of History at Adams State College in Colorado. Crowther published an article in the Journal of Negro History explaining how African-Americans got away from the white man's church after…… [Read More]
All of these are examples of the more dangerous and insidious effects of subtle, hidden persuasion. Yes, the Brown approach is to merely offer his product, but the product has many hidden side effects, such as the need to give up one's native gods. These effects are not immediately obvious to the unwitting consumer. At least Smith is honest about the lack of respect shown by Christian society to native faiths.
This poses a question of my own: are missionaries ever ethical, if they require a society to give up its native gods? Is missionary behavior unethical only when it is used as a tool of colonialism? Should persuasive advertising or missionary behavior in a free market or free society always be…… [Read More]
The Bible implores young people to be leaders in their spiritual communities, for youth can be the pallbearers of faith. "Don't let anyone look down on you because you are young, but set an example for the believers in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith and in purity," (1 Timothy 4:12). For a church to remain relevant for today's youth, it must actively communicate with young people using the symbols, language, and activities that the current generation appreciates and understands. The challenge is to retain core church values while still packaging traditional Biblical truths in new ways. In other words, churches need to be careful not to sacrifice core values, but to always help young people see how faith and service are important parts of spiritual growth, social functioning, and overall health and happiness.
The church I currently attend does a good job of keeping young people active…… [Read More]
Okonkwo seems full of passionate intensity to preserve things as they are, and to preserve his sense of masculine, patriarchal authority. But although this sense of passion seems to have its origin sense of nostalgia for traditional forms of control, it is also too tied up the man's ego to be called a conviction. A true conviction about justice is not self-interested. It is also worth remembering that Okonkwo's father did not embody such authority within his own family structure, thus Okonkwo partly wishes to defy his own family's tradition. And Okonkwo's sense of wishing to preserve the positive aspects of his personal authority does not mean that he is not willing to kill his adopted son, for fear of looking weak, even though this hurts the tribe's future. Thus Okonkwo lacks convictions that transcend the self, and denies such positive self-sacrificing values as feminine.… [Read More]
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…… [Read More]
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
The…… [Read More]
Religion / Theology
Reaching out to communities and cultures that have not embraced Christianity is what God wants Christians to do. On this page references that describe the people and history of the country of Tunisian -- with its Arab community described and evaluated in terms of political and cultural history -- will be presented as a preface to a plan on page 2. Thesis: Scripture calls for all Christian believers to "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation" (Mark 16:15); hence it is our duty to take the ord of Christ to Tunisia, bringing Saving Grace to Tunisia.
Bilgin, Feridun. 2012. The Ottoman-Spanis Struggle for Sovereignty Over Tunisia (16th
Century). Electronic Journal of Social Sciences. 12 (inter): 181-201.
Bishku, Michael B. 2013. "Is It An Arab Spring or Business as Usual? Recent Changes in the Arab orld in Historical Context." Journal of Third orld…… [Read More]
working through R. Paul Stevens' book, a reader is struck by how different this approach is to the ministry and the laity. In fact some of the ideas and passages are radically different from what one might expect in a book like this. The fact that Stevens places such enormous emphasis on laity is in fact refreshing to the reader; maybe it is special to me because my father was a minister and put tremendous faith in the lay "pastors" in our church. Those laypersons carried out many functions in the church that otherwise fall into the responsible hands of my father. But, in the bigger picture, all believers can be ministering to the world about the good news of Christianity. This is the overriding point in Stevens' work. It shouldn't be left up to the clergy alone to minister to the congregation and the community; in fact laypeople are…… [Read More]
grew up in an underdeveloped urban city where the poverty and social conditions hindered me from getting an appropriate education.
Like Rafe Esquith, I believe that this has given me a special empathy to people from societies similar to mine. I understand them. Take just a few days ago, for instance. I was stopped by robbers at gunpoint who forced me to continue to drive. Many others, I suppose, would have been afraid. I can't say I wasn't, but more than that. I was them. I was with them. I understood why they were doing this. I pitied for their childhood, and I wished to help them.
TEP's two-year graduate program offers specialized urban teacher preparation in the form of a two-year intensive Master of Education (M.Ed.) program in teaching for social justice in urban communities. Yes! This calls to me. But far more resonant with me is your objective:…… [Read More]
Her faith is something that she holds dear to her heart, as I do. Faith is something that holds people together through the good times and the bad, so it is something I consider to be very important in a mate. I was raised in a Christian family and my faith is important to me. I like to spend a lot of time with my family and my close friends, and of course that special someone. She has a kind and generous soul, emotionally supportive of my constant efforts to better myself.
Conversation is important. I am a listener, so it is always good to have a bit of a talker around, somebody who can help me break out of my shell. I can be a bit of a techie egghead sometimes, so my perfect mate is someone who pushes me to be more sociable than I usually am, not…… [Read More]
Even in my current extracurricular activities, such as on my Varsity football team, sacrificing my need to be a 'star' and instead serve the common good is a necessity. Teaching the novice debaters is an integral part of my duties on my school's Lincoln-Douglas Debate team. I must help them see the world from competing perspectives, and to see issues in terms of grey, rather than stark black and white.
I am so thankful for the people in my life who have taught me this spirit of community: the people I met over the summer in Texas taught me what it means to be a good neighbor, the children and senior citizens I have befriended who have shown me that friendship knows no age or socioeconomic status. I have, despite the shortness of my life, tried to craft an open soul with few fences, with no barbed wire around my…… [Read More]
4. I did not obtain my current mortgage under any materially false pretenses.
As part of the Hope for Homeowners program, I would be able to attain a new affordable mortgage based on a current appraisal value. I would retain 10% equity in the property, and would be sharing the equity and future appreciation with the Federal government, which would prohibit me from taking out any additional loans against the property except for direct repairs and/or maintenance. There are also up front insurance premiums for this type of loan, which I am aware of.
If you would please consider one of these two options, I believe we can come up with a mutually satisfying solution to help avoid foreclosure on my home. I am writing this hardship letter to plead with your company to review my loan information, take into account my current financial situation, my excellent payment history prior…… [Read More]
In the first one to three years, Make a Change plans to step up its budget or marketing and advertising expenses as a way to drive up business and profits. After the first year, we also plan to bring in other charities on board to share in some of the donations we will be producing through our gross profits.
The main cornerstone of the business will rely upon t-shirt sales. On our site, we will offer a variety of different colors and styles, which vary in price to the customer. These shirts range in cost to us depending on the style chosen. Like all other products, 10% of our gross profits from t-shirt sales will go to our chosen charity. All tees are 100% cotton, with several sizes, fits, and colors available to the consumer.
Make a Change Brand. Blank cotton tees total to $1.75 a piece,…… [Read More]
Jean Francoise De La Perouse
'Life in a California Mission" by Francois de Laperouse
In the document "Life in a California Mission," navigator and explorer Jean Francois de Laperouse provided a European's insight into the lives of Native Americans during the 18th century. This period marked the influx of explorations in various regions and continents of the world by European explorers/colonizers. Known as the "Age of Discovery," 18th century was a period of discovering the unknown cultures, societies, and peoples that dominate the unexplored territories of the world. In "Life," Laperouse provided an account of his observations and judgment about the Native Americans, as his party set out to create a new colony in the northern territory which would be known as the "New World."
Laperouse's narrative offered an interesting viewpoint about the lives of the Natives of the Americas. Far from depicting the Natives as savages and devoid of…… [Read More]
Although Carey's journal reportedly ends prematurely, he continued to write letters for the next thirty years.
Carey understood the value in/of education, medicine, and other works. He continually encouraged missionaries to travel to the hinterland "and build an indigenous Christianity with vernacular Bibles and other writings and native-led churches."
For his mission to succeed, hile it simultaneously retained its core, Carey purported, it had to not only fill the eternal needs of people missionaries shared the gospel with, but also their day-to-day needs.
During his day-to-day life, Carey was also a husband and father. The following relates details regarding his three marriages.
Dorothy Plackett Carey (1755?-1807): Married illiam Carey in 1781. She was 25 and he was 19. Their marriage was a contrast in ability and interests. She was reluctant to leave England and go to India. Only after much perusasion and on the condition that her sister, Kitty,…… [Read More]
Taiping ebellion vs. Boxer ebellion
The last two centuries are considered as the golden age of millenarianism in the sense that they brought about a change in the existing system, by means of overthrow of the system which existed. And the new system which evolved was considered as better than the old system which existed and was brought about by overthrowing the powerful. The reason is simple. As the sociologists and historians of the millenarianism say, one does not become sensitive to such ideas simply being oppressed or miserable. But instead, these ideas develop from those of whose expected and traditional lives have been destroyed and disrupted, uprooted and rendered rootless, even if they were having an unpromising and unpleasant life earlier.
As a result of the industrial revolution, many such people came to North America and Europe, but the nations which Europe was trying to bring under its control…… [Read More]
The Baby Boomer Revival assumed shapes and forms different than the former ones with programs Charismatic movement, the East Timor Indonesian Revivals, the 'Jesus People', the Asbury College Revival; and the Saskatoon Revival representing the spirits of the times in order to woo people to the mission movement and get them interested in the Church. At oen time, the church would have prohibited these charismatic programs and many, indeed, were controversial when they first appeared and still are today. Nonetheless, their impression and effects have been enduring and in a time when traditional programs were falling flat with the church losing members per day, innovative programs were the only ones that succeeded.
What I have learned
Sometimes, dramatic changes -- a shift in perspective and a change of habits -- are necessary for end-goals and objective to be reached.
The Pre-Reformation Revival, 1300-1500
Corruption of the church lowered…… [Read More]
Saint Boniface's birth to be 675 AD. Born as either ynfriyh, infrid, or ynfrith in the kingdom of essex in what is known as Anglo-Saxon England, Boniface became a leading figure during the 8th century in the Anglo-Saxon mission that led to mass conversion in the German areas of Frankish Territory. Regarded as the first archbishop of Mainz and the patron saint of Germania, he was able to establish the first organized Christianity throughout Germania. Killed in 754 in Frisia, his remains were sent back to Fulda where they quickly became a location of pilgrimage. Since he is a well-known saint, much of his life and death, including his work is widely available. His letters provide not only access to his thoughts and events in his life, but also the thoughts and events of others, in particular women.
Being an apostle of Germania, Saint Boniface assisted in shaping estern Christianity…… [Read More]
There was so much instability in Japan at this time, according to Nelson, that it was not difficult for the Christians to simply move around and find places (like in Nobunaga's realm) where they could spread the word of Christianity. "Japan…is always revolving like a wheel; for he who today is a great lord, may be a penniless nobody tomorrow" (Boxer 1951: 74; Nelson 98). Nelson (99) points out that Nobunaga like the anti-Buddhist attitude of the missionaries; however, he also notes that the historian George Sansom argued that Nobunaga did not hate Buddhism, he simply did not like the way that it managed to interfere in political matters. Some Buddhists sects came to be wary of Christians because of Nobunaga's liking for them; it was the fact that Nobunaga thought that the Christians knew their place and the Buddhist monks did not that was the main difference for Nobunaga's…… [Read More]
Confucianism in Pre-Modern China
Confucianism comes from the Chinese philosopher Confucius, after whom the philosophy takes its name. Confucius lived from the middle of the 6th century BC to the first part of the 5th century BC and was a teacher of the values of those who lived in the days of Chinese antiquity. For Confucius, the greatest years of the Zhou dynasty had come in the three centuries prior to his birth. The dynasty itself lasted for centuries following Confucius' life, though in a much different form from what came before. Confucius viewed the lessons of the early Zhou dynasty as containing valuable nuggets of wisdom. Confucius' teachings carried on well after his day as did many other schools of thought in China, where philosophy and wisdom were highly prized and sought after by many Chinese leaders from Confucius' own time till the end of the 3rd century BC.…… [Read More]
The Jesuits also were targeting the elite class as opposed to the Franciscans working with the poorer classes. The problem was that the ruling people, because of the drama and tension between Christian sects, saw Christianity as a threat to their own power.
In the book The Japanese and the Jesuits: Alessandro Valignano in Sixteenth Century Japan, Moran and Moran (1992: iii) that in promoting Christianity, the Jesuits -- one of them being Valignano, a prominent figure among the Jesuits in Asias -- looked to the ruling class for support of their religion. Valignano was a different type of missionary as he impressed the importance of learning Japanese upon the missionaries. However, after Valignano's death, Christianity was proscribed and missionaries were banished from Japan (iii). hat was interesting about Valignano is that he understood that foreign missionaries were not capable of converting the Japanese to Christianity, and one of his…… [Read More]
Silence, Endo uses the background of persecution to contemplate these knotty questions. ("Silence")
Endo seeks to show within Silence, then, how the missionaries themselves misunderstood which aspects of Christianity to emphasize to Japanese would-be converts, just as he himself had misunderstood the universal appeal that Christianity could potentially have in areas outside the western world, including Japan, until he had visited Palestine. As a missionary religion, as Endo also implies, Christianity must rely on persuasive power in order to truly capture the hearts and minds of people anywhere that it seeks to convert. Japanese feudalism and European trade, on the other hand, rely only on force, coercion, and violence - no match for Christian missionaries in an area like Japan, especially if those missionaries' Christianity is not accepted in Japan in the first place. Religious zeal, then, in order to have any real hope of vanquishing competing economic forces, must…… [Read More]
Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe is one of the most influential and powerful writers of today, and he is also one of the most widely published writers today. Chinua Achebe has in fact written more than twenty-one novels, and short stories, and books of poetry as well, and his very first landmark work was "Things Fall apart," which was published in the year 1958, when the author was just twenty-eight years old. This work has proved to be popular not only in Nigeria, but also in the whole of Africa, as well as in the rest of the world. Chinua Achebe was born in the year 1930 in Nigeria, as the son of a Christian Churchman and his wife. He attended the Government College in Umuahia, and then went on to University College in Ibadan, after which he went on to the London University, where he received his BA. Chinua…… [Read More]
Many claim Islam increases their sense of worth. Islam particularly appeals to disaffected young men. Solomon, 23-years-old, participated in a television interview. "It's not a part of our religion to stand there and get stepped on," Solomon said. "That's why Islam is so good for the Aboriginal people." (Australian Aborigines...)
Europeans prefer the name "Koori" for Aborigine, even though they named the native Australians "Aborigine." Aborigine, however, means "from the beginning." Aborigines "taught their children dances, songs, and stories for both sacred and non-sacred rituals that taught them traditions and history of the past, present and future." (Australian Aborigines...) Along with plants, animals, other natural objects, man categorized himself with his totem. Aborigines focused on and blamed the supernatural for every scenario. Some individuals believed a victim of a spell would usually sicken and die, because they believed it would happen. At one time in the Aborigines' religion, the "medicine…… [Read More]
Things Fall Apart and the Issue of Culture
From a cultural analysis perspective, the two main cultures represented in Achebe's Things Fall Apart, stem from opposing religious/social positions and both react to and against one another in different ways, as illustrated by the actions of the main character Okonkwo, a native Igbo and leader of his community (violently committed to defending his tribe's ways and culture against other tribes and against the incoming foreign invasion of the Christian missionaries and British soldiers), and by Nwoye, Okonkwo's son who rejects the culture and beliefs of the Ibo tribe and converts to Christianity. The split between father and son represents the split at the heart of the novel between two cultures and two worldviews; neither is without its flaws and both speak to different matters of the heart and head. However, the irreconcilable differences that arise between the meeting of the two…… [Read More]
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…… [Read More]
God's taking sides can be pushed to saying that the rich cannot be saved, or that God does not love everyone.
The Holy Spirit and iberation Theology
As Boff and Boff ( 1987) state: "Every true theology springs from a spirituality -- that is, from a true meeting with God in history. iberation theology was born when faith confronted the injustice done to the poor."
In this sense the Spirit is essentially perceived in terms of the interconnection between humanity and God. Put less blatantly, the Holy Spirit is the conduit of the absolute or divine to the domain of human existential experience. This view of the Spirit resonates with the focus on experiential suffering in the world. In other words, the Holy Spirit is not abstract but is rather perceived as a spiritual source of intervention in the world, which coincides with the focus of liberation theology.
The issue…… [Read More]
Colonial Resistance in Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe was born in Ogidi, Nigeria, and his father was a teacher in a missionary school. His parents were devout evangelical Protestants and christened him Albert after Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, although they installed in him many of the values of their traditional Igbo culture. He attended University College in Ibadan, where he studied English, history and theology. At the university Achebe rejected his ritish name and took his indigenous name Chinua. In 1953 he graduated with a A, and later studied broadcasting at the C where, in 1961, he became the first Director of External roadcasting at the Nigerian roadcasting Corporation. In 1944 Achebe attended Government College in Umuahia. He was also educated at the University College of Ibadan, like other major Nigerian writers including John Okigbo, Wole Soyinka, John Pepper Clark, Elechi Amadi, and Cole Omotso. There he studied…… [Read More]
Bartoleme De Las Casas
An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas
Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…… [Read More]
Beowulf and the Anglo-Saxons
Part 1: Introduction
Although the epic Old English poem Beowulf has all the characteristics of myth and legend that pertain to fiction, as a historical document it is useful in teaching about the past—the values and culture of the medieval Anglo-Saxon society and how Christian culture intersected with the pagan world at a time when Christian conversion was spreading. Not only does Beowulf refer to real kings of the time, thus grounding the story in a specific historical reality, but it also describes a culture of co-existence—an old world people and place situated neatly between paganism and Christianity. As an epic poem Beowulf describes the heroic journey of the titular character as he accepts the challenge of Hrothgar to defend his Hall against the monster Grendel. Beowulf defeats the monster and then must face the wrath of Grendel’s mother. Many decades after his victory over Grendel’s…… [Read More]
Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."
With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…… [Read More]
Our Lord Himself stressed the importance of fewness...Our Lord used the whip only once in His life -- to drive the crowd away from the Church."(Achebe, 169)
On the other hand, Mr. Brown seems to have an overall positive contribution to the African community. Nevertheless, the author ironically implies that there is indeed only a difference in method between the two missionaries, and the decline of the Igbo culture already began under the more lenient government of Mr. Brown. For example, the school he builds can be seen as another way to indoctrinate the clan. This school is in fact the cause of other conflicts inside the Igbo community, since by attending this school an Igbo could become a 'court messenger', that is someone that would report and give out information from inside the clan to the white governors: "Mr. Brown's school produced quick results. A few months in it…… [Read More]
Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680
What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?
In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…… [Read More]
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…… [Read More]
In both Silence and the Mission, violence breaks out among two types of European foreigners: those who would favor religious priorities over economic ones (the priests), and those who would favor economic priorities over religious ones (the European tradesmen in Silence and the Portuguese and Spanish bounty hunters in the Mission. Moreover, according to Pena, like the Jesuits in the Mission, who are alone, isolated, at odds with their church, and sometimes even each other, "Rodrigues' trials are exacerbated by his physical and cultural isolation... Culturally, he must confront being in a nation whose language and customs are mostly alien and threatening to him."
In the Mission, the story begins when a bounty-hunting Spaniard, Rodrigo, kills his younger brother Felipe over a woman they both love, but who loves only Felipe. Languishing in prison afterward, Rodrigo is certain that all is lost until he is visited in his prison cell…… [Read More]
Moon is an outsider and stranger from a strange American place who has found a home in a formerly colonized non-white area, like Denoon. The missionary family of the Quarriers and the anonymous narrator of Mating provide, by virtue of their recent entry into such societies, an outsider's view of such insider figures as Denoon and Moon.
In at Play in the Fields of the Lord, evangelical missionaries are attempting to spread their religion to the Indians, much as Denoon wished to spread the gospel of self-empowerment and chastity to the abused women of Tsau. But like Denoon's anthropological community, the missionary work and zeal of the missionaries proves be a mistaken example of artificial cultural tampering, and is destructive to both the missionaries and the Peru Indians' ways of life, just as Denoon's chaste utopia, however attractive to the narrator, is not really workable in reality.
Denoon's tampering is…… [Read More]
Father Eusebio Kino
This report is about Father Eusebio Kino who was possibly one of the greatest Spanish missionaries of all time. Over the course of his life, Father Kino influenced a great many individuals in the estern portion of the United States long before there was a Declaration of Independence. This report will attempt to present some of his greater accomplishments as well as an account of his interesting life. Over the course of thirty years, Father Kino worked untiringly as a pastor, explorer, teacher, rancher, farmer, ethnographer, diplomat and cartographer.
He is known for having founded over twenty five missions and maybe more importantly helping create extremely accurate maps of Arizona and the surrounding areas. Ironically, the Father was not even Spanish and he also did not even wish to be on the American continent. But his accomplishments were so astounding that he has been called the greatest…… [Read More]
Samuel Escobar is a well-known theologian within the Latin American community and viewed as one of the main participants in the International Congress on World Evangelism at Lausanne, Switzerland in 1974 over the years. He is also the president of the United Bible societies and of the International Fellowship of Evangelic Students and contributed immensely to the subject of global mission both in theory and practically. The contemporary Christian missions are compelled to comply with the global trends and the forces of globalization in order to remain relevant as opposed to the trends that were predominant in the third millennium of the Christian era. Escobar makes significant contribution and consequently influence on the aspect of contemporary global mission by exploring the new realities and forces of a globalized world as well as critically assessing the context of a vastly dynamic mission which hold to the earlier pedagogical teachings…… [Read More]
It is their way of participating in the mission itself without having to be there.
Prayer gives Paul strength. He asks others to pray for him to have strength when he was on a mission. Being on a mission can turn into a very lonely experience. He wanted prayer that he would be strong and lack timidity when it came to spreading the ord in a strange land. In Thessalonians, he writes, "Finally, brothers, pray for us that the message of the Lord may spread rapidly and be honored, just as it was with you" (II Thessalonians 3:1). Here we see Paul's needs in prayer. He needs protection, comfort and the knowing that he is looked after by those above and below the heavens. There is no doubt that Paul is understood the power of prayer. He knew that he would need it when he was serving in the mission…… [Read More]
With all the resources of normal use for Indians in missionary control, Indians began to attack the missions and military forces to steal animal and take revenge of sexual assaults on Indian women. Continuous demand of laborers for the missions impacted the Indian tribes greatly and finally in 1836, the Mexican Republic who officially took over from Spain in 1823, took away the missions powers of obtaining forced labor from Indian and the missions collapsed.
One third of the California Indian population, over 100,000 Indians perished to deaths attributable to missions of California. The 1824 constitution of Mexican Republic promised Indians voting rights as citizens but they continued to be treated as slaves.
The discovery of Gold in California in 1848 subjected the Indians to the most horrible period of their history. California was seized by U.S. military from Mexico in 1846 and sufferings of the Indians multiplied by the…… [Read More]
While some people may be reluctant, Piper argues that there is no sacrifice that God is not worthy of. In other words, those that truly love and worship God should not refuse missionary work just because there may be some suffering involved. Anyone that is getting ready for missionary work, or even thinking about the idea of missionary work, would want to read this book and see what Piper has to say about the issue and why it is so important to reach out to all nations. There are others that would also benefit from this book, however, as the main point is about the supremacy of God and how the work that someone is doing can be seen as being important where God is concerned. While missionaries are the primary focus, those that work as pastors, campus ministers, and youth counselors could also benefit from the information that Piper…… [Read More]
Native Societies and Disease
Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…… [Read More]
2013 Max Points: 180 Write essay (1,250-1,500 words) analyzes Escobar's thesis compares contrasts theological contribution theologians discussed earlier . Your paper explore components builds thesis, critique idea Christian theology contextual engaging theological schools American / global setting.
Samuel Escobar is known to be a leader within the Latin American Theology. He chaired the International Fellowship of Evangelical Students and is currently president of the United Bible Societies. He continues to live and teach in Spain.
In 1970, upon a meeting between several evangelicals who sought to free themselves from a fundamentalist American perspective, the Latin American Theological Fraternity was born. Its members, Samuel Escobar, G. ene Padilla, Orlando E. Costas, and Andrew Kirk wanted to reclaim a personal identity within a fraternity that was not bound to any church associations nor institutions. Instead, they sought to speak for an international and nondenominational environment. The Fraternity discussed theological issues in relation…… [Read More]
According to Michael McNally in his chapter "The Uses of Ojibwa Hymn-Singing at White Earth: Toward a History of Practice," hymn-singing serves a deeper function than merely paying lip service to the dominant culture's religion. Ironically one of the few remaining cultural vestiges of pre-reservation days, Christian hymns are sung by the Ojibwa in their native tongue, which has all but fallen into disuse. The hymns, though their content expresses a Christian worldview and Christian values, nevertheless also imparts Ojibwa philosophy. Moreover, the hymn represents a creative synthesis of indigenous with colonial culture. An artistic, spiritual, and social manifestation, hymnody embodies the willingness to adapt, survive, and maintain unique cultural identity. Therefore, hymnody for the Ojibwa connotes consensus, community, and unity. However, McNally also points out that at White Earth, hymnody appears closely connected to death and dying. Perhaps most often sung at funeral wakes, Ojibwa hymns link…… [Read More]