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It is seldom possible to draw a sharp line of distinction between what's wrong and what's right. Everybody has their own distinctive view with regard to the major moral challenges linked to internet privacy, right from social media privacy to governmental surveillance. However, all stories have two sides, and this necessitates a closer examination of a few existing moral issues associated with internet privacy. Firstly, one needs to examine the chief element of guidance provided by the law on the matter of internet privacy. Possibly the most straightforward moral problem under the 'internet privacy breach' umbrella is malicious software (e.g., spyware) utilization for perpetrating cybercrime and stealing private data. A number of cybercrimes are made illegal by the governments of nations like the United States, European nations, etc., thus echoing unanimity with the fact that it is wrong to steal. In America, in specific, federal governmental regulations against cybercrime encompass:…… [Read More]
Ethical and Moral Issues in Business
A situation or problem requires an organization or a person to choose between some alternatives. These are evaluated as ethical (right) or unethical (wrong). Involvement of a difference of belief is a moral issue. A slight difference between moral issues and ethical issues is about "preference." Such issues play an important role in business dealings. This essay discusses various ethical and moral issues in business. Also difference between personal ethics and business ethics is discussed.
Ethical and Moral Issues in Business
Ethical and moral issues play an important role in the field of business. In areas such as pricing, contracts, personal selling, suppliers and advertising, several examples of business ethical dilemmas and decisions can be found. There is a clear difference between ethical issues and moral issues; they are discussed in the following paragraph.
Considering the area of "suppliers"; if unethical practices of the…… [Read More]
ethical and moral issues presented in Henrik Ibsen's "Enemy of the People," from the ethical considerations surrounding the use of power to alter the truth to the moral considerations regarding the treatment of children due to crimes or perceived injustices committed by their parents. Perhaps, however, the most important issue is that of the disregard for human health in an effort to turn a profit, or to preserve wealth.
In "Enemy of the People," the townsfolk are prepared to do all they can to behave in a moral fashion by alerting the public to the health hazards presented by the corruption of the groundwater, which supplies the water to the Bath system, designed to promote health for the invalid and ill (Ibsen, 2000). At first, when Dr. Stockman alerts Aslaksen, Hovstad and Billing of the problems with the water supply, each has their own reasons for supporting Dr. Stockman's alert…… [Read More]
Contemporary moral issues-Utilitarianism
An immediate challenge of living that is linked not only to the quality of life but also to the nature of our experiences is decision making. Everyday individuals have decisions to make and many of these decisions are of a multidimensional nature. The complexity of decision making often paralyzes some individuals because of indecision. They are afraid of the consequences because the consequences are unclear and the path to clarity obscure. Philosophical positions attempt to assist in clarifying decision making through multiple approaches. In this paper I will demonstrate that the most useful philosophical approach to decision making for the individual is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is superior to Kantianism and Virtue Theory because of its simplicity and the clarity it brings to the decision making process.
There are multiple utilitarian positions and these will be considered briefly at this point in the debate. The two most dominant…… [Read More]
Insider: Morality and ethics
The film The Insider tells the tale of Jeffrey igand, a former employee of a tobacco company, who agreed to be interviewed by the television news show 60 Minutes, during which igand revealed on-camera the lies and deception used by Big Tobacco to 'hook' the American public on cigarettes. Although the deadly properties of cigarettes had long been known, igand openly talked about the specific techniques used by tobacco companies to make cigarettes even more physically addictive than they already were, including adding known carcinogens to the mixture.
The title of the film is apt given that as 'an insider' igand was aware of things only an employee of a tobacco company could know. However, his willingness to be forthcoming also raised serious ethical considerations. From the point-of-view of some business theorists, as an employee, igand should have honored the confidentiality agreements that were part of…… [Read More]
Abortion is certainly the most heatedly discussed issue in the social and political circles. Every politically regime is critically examined and judged by its stand on this major issue facing the country. The reason being simple, while this may be the oldest controversial topic, it has not been and probably cannot be effectively resolved. Every year, thousand would take to streets protesting against abortion and as a counterattack many pro-abortion would stage a rally delivering arguments in favor of the subject. But little has been achieved by both quarters as each side has valid set of arguments regarding their stand on the issue and therefore it is up to each individual to decide which quarter he or she would support. (oman, 88)
To study this issue objectively, one needs to examine stand of both quarters closely. The arguments in favor of or against abortion must be studied without prejudice and…… [Read More]
divorce inherently immoral? Does its morality depend on the presence of children in a marriage? Views vary on the ethical issue of divorce, for some believe marriage to be a scared institution sanctioned and governed by religious bodies, while others view it as purely a secular matter. If one or both of the married partners are unhappy, should divorce be an option? Or should the institution of marriage be preserved no matter what obstacles are in its path?
Laurence Houlgate quotes Rebecca West in the opening of his article: "divorce is nearly always an unspeakable calamity." Studies show that children do suffer dearly from the consequences of divorce. On several accounts, children bear the largest burden of the parents' faults. Despite arguments to the contrary, Houlgate cites ample evidence supporting the theory that children experience psychological and behavioral problems following a divorce. Many of these effects last for years. Long-term…… [Read More]
The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…… [Read More]
Like Midgley, Bailey would expect the company to conduct its opeations and make the same decisions that would be equied in its native society. Moe impotantly, Bailey would likely also ague that the company has a moal duty to espond to the situation even if it wee the case that its native society ecognized no such moal obligation.
Both Bailey and Midgley would pobably equie the company to conside the natue of the hams caused by its poduct and to take easonable measues to pevent those hams completely iespective of any obligation o expectation in that egad by any society. Thei view would be that moality is a matte of objective pinciple and not subjective values and that allowing the types of hams descibed as a esult of pofit-making entepises is always immoal and always imposes a moal obligation, by objective pinciple, on the manufactue to take appopiate measues to…… [Read More]
Seeing how the Prime Directive should no longer apply, Picard was free to do whatever was necessary in order to save his crewman. However, the advanced technology employed by the aliens forced Picard to argue for the life of Wesley Crusher. His argument centers around the idea that this conflict is over whether or not moral universalism, or moral relativism would apply in the case of Wesley Crusher. Picard argues that the Federation does not interfere with other cultures because they believe that all cultures have equally value and the capacity for development. However, they are dealing with an alien race that is violating that principle. The aliens have decided that their moral universalism is correct for the Edo, and by extension, anyone who visits their planet. But Picard argues, correctly, that each culture must respect the rights of other cultures to develop in their own way. And the Prime…… [Read More]
Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia can be described as a perfectly competent patient's appeal and request to be aided in the process of dying. This act is completely voluntary and by the choice of the patient himself due to the medical condition that he or she might be facing. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life. There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance. This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person…… [Read More]
Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).
hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).
hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…… [Read More]
Any objective set of moral criteria must include: (1) the obligation not to cause pain unnecessarily to another; (2) the consideration of fetal survivability; and (3) recognition that a fetus undoubtedly becomes a living person at some point prior to full-term birth. On the other hand, even with the benefit of modern medical technology, there may be no way of identifying precisely at what point of gestation those moral concerns first materialize. For that reason alone, definitions of the relevant stages of development (and their corresponding fetal capabilities) must err on the safe side so that any inaccuracy unnecessarily protects the moral rights of the fetus prematurely, rather than protecting the moral rights of the fetus too late.
A comprehensive analytical system designed to respect every conceivable moral concern arising in connection with abortion must also incorporate the autonomous rights of the mother, the comparative consequences to the fetus…… [Read More]
Furthermore, while the upreme Court has recently been proactive about protecting groups that have historically been especially vulnerable to the death penalty, such as the mentally retarded and the mentally ill, there is no reason to believe that the Court has any interest in outlawing the death penalty. Even the 1970s moratorium on the death penalty spoke to how it was implemented and never questioned the basic constitutional soundness of capital punishment. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that, absent a constitutional amendment banning the death penalty, the Court will ever completely outlaw the death penalty.
The arguments in opposition to the death penalty touch on a variety of moral issues. First, capital punishment costs much more than life imprisonment, and the necessary appeals clog the court system. This means that fewer financial resources are available for other areas of need, and it also reduces the right of others to access…… [Read More]
One relativistic belief that I find that some people hold is regarding abortion. Some people say, “Well, I would never have one,” implying that there is something immoral or unjustified about the action (at least in their case), and then they will follow that up with a statement like, “But I don’t think other people should be denied the right to have one,” suggesting that there is in fact nothing immoral or unjustifiable about it. This appears to me to be a case of, “What’s not good for me is not necessarily bad for you.” While some philosophers, like Kant, might argue that relativism is part of understanding how morality must be viewed in individual cases, other philosophers will suggest that just as there is a subjective side to judgment there is also an objective side to judgment and that some actions can be judged objectively as immoral, even if…… [Read More]
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…… [Read More]
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…… [Read More]
The term moral hazard arises out of a contractual agreement. hen the terms of the contract serve as motivation for one of the parties to behave in a manner that is "contrary to the principles laid out in the agreement" (Investopedia, 2013). An example that is commonly used is when a salesperson is paid entirely on salary. The salesperson in that case has little direct incentive to perform according to the spirit of the contract, save for the threat of dismissal. The deal assumes that both parties will act according to the spirit of the contract, but the way the contract is structured this is not necessarily the case.
The concept of moral hazard is often applied to the financial industry. Most contracts are designed to prohibit moral hazard, but multiple hazards have been identified. For example, homeowners who found themselves in arrears or their homes under water…… [Read More]
Moral choices are endemic to the human condition, but morality must begin with critical, cool, assessment of the world around us.
Thus, teaching morality in an open-ended fashion is key. Students must learn to be effective ethical decision makers. By engaging questions of whether something is right or wrong in a particular scenario, students learn to flex their moral muscles. The teacher need not weigh in as to what answer is correct. In fact, the point of teaching morality is not to teach any correct answers at all, but to force students to ask the right questions. A person who can see two sides of the issue will lay his or her own decisions open to greater moral scrutiny, just as he or she is more apt to question the decisions of others, in a fair and balanced manner.… [Read More]
Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics
How is virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?
The other theories of ethics argue that morality results from an act, thus they tend to focus on the impact. This implies that a moral act will bring the highest level of happiness for the highest number of people. In contrast, virtue ethics considers morality as the result of character or identity of a person and not a reflection of the act. It means that some characteristics are virtues. Individuals with these virtues are moral and their actions only reflect their inner morality (MacKinnon, 2012).
According to Aristotle, what is the difference between intellectual and moral virtues?
Intellectual is the first principle governing human acts. Other laws only exist to obey intellectual in various ways. Those who obey intellectual without any contradiction are body limbs because they are…… [Read More]
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…… [Read More]
Similarly, when a member of society becomes too feeble to contribute, leaving them in the snow is deemed the proper solution. Both practices are deemed proper, as they increase the survival chances of the tribe as a whole. Thus, while another society may cringe at the idea of infanticide and leaving the elderly to die, Eskimo societies see the survival of the tribe as the paramount concern.
There are many examples throughout history illustrating the difficulty of judging other cultures by one's own ethical yardstick. Thus, instead of being preoccupied with questions of whose society is superior, moral relativists believe that all actions should be judged within their cultural context. An action such as infanticide, no matter how abhorrent it may seem, may then be an ethical action in a society that values collective survival over the rights of one individual.… [Read More]
Moral Criticisms of the Market
Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal
Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis
It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…… [Read More]
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…… [Read More]
Moral Messages in Children's Literature
I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.
Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…… [Read More]
Taps is a movie about a private military high school, where the school is facing closure. To prevent this the adolescents attending the campus take over the school; in terms of adolescent moral reasoning, the boys involved impulsively react instead of thinking things through. They arm themselves, feeling like they are taking initiative and working together as a team to accomplish a common goal. They react just as they are taught, to be a team and to foster group dependence and unity.
The conflict involves actor Timothy Hutton, a sort of commandant of the cadets, who wanted to barricade the school long enough to talk to their leader to stop them from closing to school. He wanted to wait until his leader could tell them or order them to stand down. Tom Cruises character was an aggressor, and opened fire on the national guard and ended up being…… [Read More]
This term was coined by Abraham Zeleznik and refers to the misplaced focus on the leadership process instead of the people, ideas and emotions. Further, Sergiovanni argues that it is because of this managerial mystique that schools have been unable to capture, and build learning communities from, true leadership. Instead, schools have been obsessed with "doing things right at the expense of doing the right things." For example, school improvement plans became substitutes for improving outcomes. Teacher appraisal systems become substitutes for good teaching. in-service takes the place of changes in practice, congeniality substitutes for collegiality, cooperation moves in over commitment and compliance takes over for actual results. The result is that schools become trained in incapacity, or doing only ones job in isolation as opposed to working as a team and the loss of goals, which therefore leads to a standard of mediocrity.
According to Sergiovanni, the solution…… [Read More]
At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.
In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.
As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…… [Read More]
Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.
It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.
Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…… [Read More]
CEO's values influence on mission, vision, and members of an organization
Effective leadership relies on the ethics and morals of the leader. The values expressed by the leader are transposed by his or her actions and are reflected in the organization's results. The mission of the organization is constructed by the leader based on his or her values. Leaders can only run organizations whose mission is to satisfy the leader's values. In other words, the organization's values must be aligned with leaders' values. Otherwise, leaders will not have a sense of fulfillment, and they are likely to consider that the organization does not serve its best and most ethical purposes.
The vision of the organization is also strongly influenced by the leader's values. This is because the vision reflects how the organization's mission will be fulfilled. It is important that the leader constructs an organizational vision that relies…… [Read More]
Moral Lessons in Childhood
You are known by the company you keep
Childhood is clouded by a myriad of activities and episodes that stick to peoples' minds even long after the childhood is over into adulthood and even into the elderly times. Each person has several instances that they can recall and look back and feel embarrassed or a bit jilted at the thought that they actually underwent that.
One of the most significant lessons that I learnt in my childhood days was that I will, more often than not be judged according to the company that I keep. I grew up in the rural Texas farms and pretty much and my early childhood life was based in the farm like the other boys and attending the local schools within the neighborhood.
There was a group of boys in our kindergarten class who had formed a habit of sneaking out…… [Read More]
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]
This moral sense is often bigger and more powerful than us. Some people could call it psychological effect, others might term it differently but the fact remains that if we are doing something wrong, this moral sense would keep nagging us to the point that we would no longer be able to enjoy what we are doing and might eventually starting harming ourselves.
In order to protect ourselves from such negative consequences, its best to make a decision that is free of guilt. In this way, we can enjoy the fruits of our success and live a more happy life in general. This is really what is in our best interest though we might fail to see it at first.
It also pays to study the offer from an objective viewpoint. If someone else were offered this job: what would you suggest? Would you allow the person to take the…… [Read More]
Moral Criticism of the Market
I disagree with the author's major premise and conclusion. He contradicts himself by suggesting that the basis of his support for a free market is that it depends on offering something of value to others and that the problem with the dynamics of commercial advertising lies primarily with the individual. The reality of the advertising industry is hardly that it merely increases public "awareness" of available products. In fact, the main effort of commercial advertising is precisely to create the perception of need, even (or specifically) where it is illusory. To use the author's example, by the time someone covets a Mercedes that he sees driving past him on the street, he has already been inundated by years of explicit and implicit messages that the Mercedes symbolizes respect and achievement.
The fashion industry provides an even better example because it no longer exists to fill…… [Read More]
In this order of ideas, based on the legislative opportunity to offer farming contracts, the manufacturer offered deals to family farms that would raise the hogs. This basically meant that the capital invested would belong to the farmer, and therefore the company was subjected to few risks. "Why invest your own capital when you can get a farmer to take the risk? Why own the farm when you can own the farmer?" (Hosmer, 2004)
However this particular strategic approach was rather useful for the corporations, the industry was facing a quite serious problem. As such, industry analysts were concerned with the huge freedom and capabilities of the large companies. To better explain, since they took no risks, but only purchased the hogs from the farmers, organizations had the possibility to change the contractual terms and impose drastic conditions upon the farmers. They could easily request lower prices, and the farmers…… [Read More]
S. has a greater crime problem than other nations would, if it were sufficiently bad, also justify torture by the author's criteria. o my mind, the relevant issue is that many countries impose much more barbaric sanctions, such as cutting off limbs, stoning, and other brutal forms of cruel capital punishment. I would regard humane capital punishment as morally preferable, particularly in conjunction with the U.S. constitutional protections.
I would strongly disagree with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer (especially in 1985) routinely imposed in error, as well as with the author's position that the death penalty is no longer imposed in a discriminatory manner. Specifically, since this essay was written, the field of DNA science has demonstrated time and again that there is a definite risk of wrongful imposition and that is, perhaps, the strongest of all possible objections, especially given the profound importance of…… [Read More]
Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Fichte's Philosophy of ight and Ethics
Why does Fichte separate right from morality and is it a good thing? Should they be separated?
Moral and political anxieties animate Fichte's entire philosophy and his perceptions to these issues that are innovative and at times tied together. His responses to Kant's vital philosophy in 1790 was a retaliation to the Kantian moral perception and its outset of human self-esteem as embedded in freedom and the moral outlook of human beings as normal agents. Fichte's perception on Wissenschaftslehre principle was a far from the conceptions developed in 1974 by the philosophers of Foundations of the entire Wissenschaftslehre. Fichte's major works in the principle of right and morality are extensively covered in these two areas; Fichte's Foundation of Natural ight (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) And the…… [Read More]
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…… [Read More]
Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:
The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether
permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).
Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…… [Read More]
The Enron scandal illustrated a distinct lack of wisdom among leaders, further intensifying the absence of moral character (Petrick & Scherer, 2003). Moral character must be established in order for organizational ethics issues to be resolved effectively.
Yet another main component to process integrity and ethical issue resolution is noral conduct (Petrick & Scherer, 2003). This involves the individual and collective execution of right action on basis that'd sustained. Moral conduct is necessary for Executives to develop and dependable reputation and the alignment of morality with reality (Petrick & Scherer, 2003). The Enron scandal demonstrated hypocrisy and a distinct lack of moral conduct.
Throughout the inquiries initially put forth regarding the accounting practices of Enron, executives continually claimed innocence, blamed others, lied, and were deceitful on several levels. These blatant objections to ethical practice were addressed by the authorities, and top Enron executives faced several charges including fines…… [Read More]
Business, Personal, Moral Ethics
When we know something is right or wrong, good or bad, because of certain facts (not just preferences), we're confronting moral issues. Hurting people is wrong. Wanting vanilla ice cream is probably not, no matter that it may seem offensive to some of us sometimes. Social or cultural institutions that govern our personal principals are imposing moral standards that we can aim to achieve.
Business ethics, however, are different. They are operational guidelines and process expectations; and in many instances it is what one does to conform to this expectation that determines whether they are considered appropriate or not. The goodness or badness is business ethics is a much different issue, since even good business people can do bad things on purpose in search of bottom line profits and that is not necessarily seen as offensive.
When one basically blends these approaches and seeks to use…… [Read More]
According to Hoskins (2010), the legal foundation of punishment is morally challenging as it usually involves harsh treatment, sometimes morally unacceptable, to the offender. What makes it acceptable to subject an offender to such kind of punishment is a big moral question.
Customarily, the rationale behind punishment is either retributivist or consequentialist. Consquensialists argue that punishment is necessary towards achieving a noteworthy purpose, an example of which is crime reduction. Retributivists, on the other hand, argue that punishment is a basic or natural response for doing something wrong. However, abolitionists argue that punishment is morally unacceptable and thus both defenses are not valid. The question now is: how should the society respond to wrongdoings?
The Philosophical Theories That Justify Punishment
According to Hobbes (2010), the justification for punishment is based on the following theories of philosophy: incapacitation, rehabilitation, retribution, restoration and/or deterrence.
Oleson and Mackinnon (2015) believe that retribution punishes…… [Read More]
Ethical Issues at Apple
Apple Inc. is one of the leading global companies, but in spite of its success, it is also faced with some legal and ethical issues, such as the employment of under-aged workers in ten of its plants in China. The company is striving to address these issues as apart of a wider commitment to transparency and sustainability, but more dramatic measures might be necessary.
Apple Inc. is one of the largest companies of the globe, having in fact the largest capitalization of al companies -- 563 billion (Y Charts, 2012) -- and also being the largest company in the IT field, generating more revenues that Microsoft and Google combined (Goldman, 2012). Apple is mostly popular due to the high level of technologic innovation it has made fun and easily available to the larger market. But aside from its success, the company has also been blamed for…… [Read More]
Discuss the legal and ethical issues involved in Roe v. Wade
With the advent of 70's and particularly, aftermath of the decision of the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade during 1973, abortion policy has become a controversial issue in the merican politics. (Levine; Staiger; Kane; Zimmerman, 1996) The decision in Roe v. Wade reinforced the right of women to privacy with regard to her own body, incorporating the termination of pregnancy. (Pozga, 2010) Roe v. Wade delineated more specifically the rights of fetus as well as the mother on the basis of the magnitude of viability. (Killion; Dempski, 2000)
The decision in Roe v. Wade which accorded constitutional protection to abortion, which voided the state laws which banned it, was a decision which had several legal and ethical concerns. This verdict in Roe v. Wade damaged the cornerstone of the ethical principles against the issue of killing. The…… [Read More]
On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish
Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be
perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential
dialogic follow-up to right's
Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which
Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is,
indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a
deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of
virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual. The
result of this vantage is a set of essays that reaches accord with right's
conception of the socially devastating impact of segregation on the psyche,
conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the
brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the black
man in America.…… [Read More]
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]
Business Organization Be Made Moral?
Ethical and Moral Issues
This work will operate under the assumption of being a staff member under one of Enron's Senior Vice Presidents during 1997, a year characterized by the first major accounting misrepresentation and/or financial manipulation uncovered. The misrepresentation and/or manipulation was the use of "market-to-market" accounting with the objective being the adjustment of the value recorded in company purchases for the purpose of covering up a shortfall in the expected earning of the energy trading division of the colossal amount of $180 billion, quiet a shortfall as compared to the earliest mis-accounting. This makes a further assumption that the senior vice president or the higher-up one is under supervision of had perchance heard something of this transaction and its accompanying facade and then stated quiet clearly in a staff meeting called for the express purpose of addressing the fact that if:
"This sort…… [Read More]
Organizational esponsibility and Current Health Care Issues
Ethics is the assessment and research of the human habits in regard to moral concepts, particularly those in a certain team, occupation, or specific organization (The Free Dictionary, 2012). People deal with lots of ethical/moral problems everyday and how they react might result in significant and legal ethical/moral ramifications. In the healthcare market, having approaches for making ethical/moral choices is a necessary part of the task. This paper will provide a circumstance that happens in a medical workplace and if the choice of the medical assistant will have an effect on the decision-making procedure, which can bring about legal and honest complexities.
The situation provides a skillfully experienced medical assistant and Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) working in a clinic or medical workplace as a workplace assistant. Alone in the workplace and in charge of the phone calls throughout lunch, the assistant gets…… [Read More]
The desire to legislate morality is well established in American history. Our forefather's passed legislation to prohibit acts that they felt might induce people to behave in a socially unacceptable manner. The impetus to legislate morality comes from the tension created between an individual's personal liberty and the concern that this liberty may create a licentious quality that would be terrible.
Some laws are necessary for protecting the physical well-being of individuals and their property and the ordinary function of society, however, legislating morality often has unintended consequences. For example the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919 outlawed the possession and sale of alcohol. Nevertheless, the demand for liquor continued resulting in the criminalization of producers, suppliers and consumers. Police, courts and prisons were overwhelmed with new cases, organized crime increased in power, and corruption among law enforcement officials was extended. The amendment was repealed…… [Read More]
Changing Attitudes Regarding Same-Sex Marriages
Even in today's modern, permissive society, many people are still jolted by the idea of same-sex marriage. However, throughout history, regardless of whether or not society encouraged it, gay and lesbian couples have been living with one another for centuries. The only difference today is that gays and lesbians are now demanding the same rights as heterosexuals, including the government's recognition of their relationships.
With official recognition, gay and lesbian couples would have the right to all economic and family-oriented privileges as heterosexual couples have. For example, surviving gay partners would have the right to obtain pension and Social Security payments. And gays and lesbians would be able to include their partners in their health insurance packages.
However, many state and national agencies still have old-fashioned attitudes toward same-sex marriages. For example, the New Jersey Family Policy Council believes that the institution of marriage would…… [Read More]
LC1: Contribution Margin and Break-Even Point
The contribution margin is the difference between a company's sales and its variable costs (Peavler, 2014). It measures a company's ability to maintain its variable costs at low levels. In other words, it shows the amount of money a company has to pay off its fixed expenses after all variable expenses have been settled. It also measures the amount of sales revenue that, after fixed costs have been deducted, contributes to the net operating loss or profit of the company. Thus:
Contribution margin = sales revenue -- variable costs
The per-unit contribution margin is calculated as;
Per-unit contribution margin = per-unit sales revenue -- variable costs per unit
The business' net operating profit or loss = contribution margin -- fixed costs
The break-even point is the amount of sales at which the sales revenue equals the total fixed and variable expenses, such that…… [Read More]
Contemporary Biotechnology has produced considerable contribution to the global farming and health sector. Advancement of several medicines, numerous pharmaceuticals, vaccines making use of recombinant DNA technology has made biotechnology a multibillion dollar global industry. Additionally, PCR centered diagnostics has additionally materialized as a crucial element of the health industry. Because vast majority of the Islamic nations have their economies centered on farming, biotechnology has therefore enormous potential to improve efficiency. The need of meals in Islamic nations over the last 2 decades is predicted to improve by nearly half. That boost is going to have to come via changes in agricultural efficiency in marginal, fertile, salt affected as well as rainfed areas. There will probably be much less workforce, arable land and water offered to the agriculture sector. This particular scenario is actually a consequence of reduced rural populace, poor management of water reserves and supplies, environmental degradation…… [Read More]
just war seems to be an issue of discussion that people are very passionate about. The excuses given for the starting of a war as well as the reasons for why a war continues to go on is something that can vary. The reason why a war begins may not persist a given amount of time later, nor may it be the same reason why it comes to an end. According to the Just War Theory (Christopher 2003), there are four tenets that should be considered most important.
First of all, a war must only be started after all other attempts of resolving an issue have failed (Christopher 2003). Discussions by the two opposing parties must be had in order for a war to even be thought of. This means that if a declaration of war is to be made, it is because it is literally the last resort to…… [Read More]
Ethics and Specialized Knowledge
Enron's case summary
Enron is an interstate pipeline company that was founded in 1985 as a supplier of power utilities. In the 20th century, Enron had grown quickly, and due to increased competition in the global market, the company decided to diversify and use international investments that would help in keeping their market position. Enron's rapid expansion exceeded their funding abilities, and this resulted in the creation of a complex web of off-balance-sheet financing (Silverstein, 2013). It is clear that they ignored the dangers associated with their activities in bringing serious losses. Moreover, in 2001 is when the company overstated on its revenues and its liabilities became hidden from the public.
Additionally, their driving culture became reinforced by incentive schemes that promised and delivered rewards that were huge concerning their compensation packages (Silverstein, 2013). As such, their outstanding performance required them to portray the company as…… [Read More]
The issues of child abuse in the larger society are often unnoticed until it is too late. Unfortunately, public perceptions of the precursors to abuse are limited, and the unfortunate reality of 'out of sight, out of mind' is prevalent in a society which moves as quickly as ours, and in which individuals are completely engaged in their own lives, expressing little ability to watch out for, or concern for the well being of others. The following studies look into the well-being of children, the impact of foster care on the well being of children, and the community's overall involvement in the problem of child abuse.
In order to construct a viable policy regarding what to do about the problem of child abuse, researchers must first accurately perceive the problems which exist in the larger society, and make sure that they have accurately measured the important factors. Since…… [Read More]
There are several issues with respect to the Kennecott Eagle Mine proposal. The first is the rights of the Ojibway people of the area. These rights have been granted to the people in law -- the Native Americans Freedom of eligion Act of 1979, and in a treaty made between the Ojibway and the federal government in the 1840s. So there is a legal issue at play, as well as a moral issue. There is the appearance that the state's elected officials are ignoring the native claims because they are "in bed" with in the mining company, which raises the specter of corruption.
A second issue with the Kennecott Eagle Mine, there is a key environmental issue. The land has been very useful and productive land with animals and plants. Thus, environmentalists, anglers and hunters alike are in opposition to the mine. The type of mining as well is…… [Read More]
sex, power, alcohol and money on moral and ethical acts
Ethics, Sex, and Morality
Sex is still a subject that is a victim of human irrational treatment of an otherwise clear functional human phenomenon. Such incidents as homicide, and insanity gold and gems have also been subjected to such irrational treatment but, luckily, the mysteries around these have been dispelled over time. Sex has not been so lucky though as there is still a cloud of mystery and deliberate misrepresentation, perception and near-superstitious handling of the phenomenon. Sex is the most emotionally involving aspect of human existence. It is not a wonder then, that there is so much confusion directed at it. Lately, though, it seems that the wind of change is sweeping fast to affect people's view of sex. Some forces in operation around the subject of sex are clearly defined now. It is increasingly impossible to have a…… [Read More]
Brannigan's Moral Reasoning Applied to a Specific Case Study
Using Brannigan's six steps to moral reasoning, the situation involving the business man, his wife, and her lover can be broken down and analyzed from a moral perspective in order to arrive at an agreed upon moral option. The first step in using Brannigan's Moral Reasoning logic is to identify the fact. Since the case went to court, the article used to relate the case to the public is adequate for identifying these facts. Here are the facts as stated by the article:
The wife was a teacher at the secondary school where the 16-year-old student attended when the affair began, the husband filed for divorce 20 years after the affair began, the divorce was filed in August, 2009, the couple had not had sex for over 10 years due to the husbands impotence and related health problems, the wife was…… [Read More]
Sharks Are Dangerous to People:
Finally, with respect to the argument that sharks constitute a genuine danger because they often attack and eat human beings, that point is both inaccurate and simplistic. Sharks actually avoid human beings except where drawn to us, either by the scent of blood in the water or perceptible signs of physical stress, both of which they evolved over many millions of years to detect (Perrine 1995). The evidence actually suggests that many fatal attacks on humans are the result of sharks' mistaking us for their usual prey; that accounts for the relative frequency with which sharks initiate only one test bite without pursuing the attack further (Stevens 1999). In fact, the vast majority of shark attacks on human are attributable to the ridiculous practice of feeding sharks in the open ocean, such as in conjunction with tourist cruises and diving expeditions. These practices condition sharks…… [Read More]