Morality Essays (Examples)

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Theism and the Moral Argument

Words: 3193 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32872904

The moral argument consists of four components—moral facts, moral knowledge, moral transformation and moral rationality. As Baggett and Walls point out, the most pertinent moral facts are concerned with moral duties and values, particularly what is known as intrinsic human value.[footnoteRef:2] The question raised, of course, is where does intrinsic human value come from if not from God? Nature itself seems incapable of instilling in the human shell this universal sense of value. This is a particular fact that has to be dealt with in order to understand why the moral argument is necessarily a theistic argument, which is what this paper will argue. Moral knowledge, transformation and rationality all support the argument as well. Moral knowledge itself is a sense of the universality of morality—the the absolute validity of the platitudes of Practical Reason, as Baggett and Walls define it.[footnoteRef:3] Moral transformation refers to what Evans identifies as…… [Read More]

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Intelligence Oversight Ethics

Words: 3311 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23829007

This literature review first looks at the history if intelligence oversight (IO) and then explains the current problem it faces in terms of ethics and the arrival of the Digital Age, which has complicated the matter. It next synthesizes the literature on what the various ethical theories are and how this further complicates the issue of IO. Finally, it discusses research on the fundamentals of ethics and gives recommendations for future research.
History of IO
The history of IO begins with the purpose for which it was established, which was to safeguard the privacy and rights of U.S. persons while enabling the Department of Defense to carry out its intelligence functions most effectively (Ford 2006, 721). The question that has always been at the forefront of IO, however, is the question of ethics. As Goldman (2013) notes, as far back as 1929 this question of ethics and its role in…… [Read More]

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The Foundations and Philosophy of Ethics

Words: 353 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27131263

Personal journal entries: The Foundations and Philosophy of Ethics.
Philosophy has been one of the most interesting subjects to me since it helps stretch the imagination as well as the creativity of the reader to see the various perspectives to a subject. I set out to understand the arguments made in this article and it came out that Lawrence Kohlberg emphasizes on the importance of moral reasoning in decision making process. He bases his argument of moral reasoning on an earlier philosopher called Piaget who was a pioneer of moral reasoning. Lawrence indicates that there are three levels of moral reasoning; the pre-conventional morality which is common among children and bases the morality of an action on the consequences. The other is conventional Morality which is based on the social rules and norms. The last is the Post-conventional morality which bases morality on the intrinsic values of an individual.…… [Read More]

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Of Morals and Ethics

Words: 1055 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25996180

The most immediate of the relevant issues raised by the case “SHHH, Don’t Tell!”, is the number of injuries suffered by the patient Lowell Baxter. Baxter actually incurred multiple injuries in this case study, each of which exerted considerable sway over his ability to live a healthy, productive life. The first was an injury which occurred at work. This injury resulted in Baxter’s inability to work at what was termed a “physically demanding job” (Wolfe et al, 2000). The second injury occurred while the patient was coaching a girls’ soccer game. Although the way the injury on his job happened is not described in the case study, this latter injury occurred when he fell on wet grass. These injuries are noteworthy because they are indicative of the efficacy of the treatment Baxter received once they happened.
Another relevant issue raised by this case is the amount of disclosure of the…… [Read More]

American College of Healthcare Executives. (2017). About ACHE. Retrieved from 
Rubens, A.J., Wiberley, E.T. (2004). Contrasting the American College of Healthcvare Executives code of ethics with undergraduate health administration students’ values and ethical decision choices. 82(3), 10-17.
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Moral Theology in Today's Economically

Words: 3061 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4543742

The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…… [Read More]


Bretzke, James T. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Theology.

Curran, Charles. The Catholic Church, Morality and Politics.

Curran, Charles. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today. Center for Economic and Social Justice.

Elliott, Hanna. "Stereotypes of Religious Voters Don't Fit." Associated Baptist Press, 03 Nov. 2006.
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Moral Hazard the Term Moral Hazard Arises

Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13974611

Moral Hazard

The term moral hazard arises out of a contractual agreement. hen the terms of the contract serve as motivation for one of the parties to behave in a manner that is "contrary to the principles laid out in the agreement" (Investopedia, 2013). An example that is commonly used is when a salesperson is paid entirely on salary. The salesperson in that case has little direct incentive to perform according to the spirit of the contract, save for the threat of dismissal. The deal assumes that both parties will act according to the spirit of the contract, but the way the contract is structured this is not necessarily the case.

The concept of moral hazard is often applied to the financial industry. Most contracts are designed to prohibit moral hazard, but multiple hazards have been identified. For example, homeowners who found themselves in arrears or their homes under water…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Dowd, K. (2012). Moral hazard and the financial crisis. Cato Institute. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from 

Investopedia. (2013). Definition of moral hazard. Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from 

Pritchard, J. (2013). Moral hazard -- how moral hazard works. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from
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Moral Arguments and Ethical Issues in Relationships

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68308689

Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics

How is virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?

The other theories of ethics argue that morality results from an act, thus they tend to focus on the impact. This implies that a moral act will bring the highest level of happiness for the highest number of people. In contrast, virtue ethics considers morality as the result of character or identity of a person and not a reflection of the act. It means that some characteristics are virtues. Individuals with these virtues are moral and their actions only reflect their inner morality (MacKinnon, 2012).

According to Aristotle, what is the difference between intellectual and moral virtues?

Intellectual is the first principle governing human acts. Other laws only exist to obey intellectual in various ways. Those who obey intellectual without any contradiction are body limbs because they are…… [Read More]


MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues, concise edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning

Vaughn, L. (2013). Contemporary moral arguments: Readings in ethical issues. New York: Oxford University Press
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Moral Environment

Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36357339

Moral Environment

Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies speaks about the value of selfishness or self-interest. Although "selfishness" might seem negative at first, Rand's explanation makes quite a bit of sense. Rand speaks about selfishness as a rational process in which a person sets his/her hierarchy of values and lives according to those values in order to achieve the moral purpose of life: one's own happiness.

Summary of The Ethics of Emergencies

According to Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies, the moral purpose of life is to achieve one's own happiness. Describing her belief in Objectivism in 1962, Rand stated, "Man -- every man -- is an end in himself, not the means to the ends of others. He must exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself. The pursuit of his own rational self-interest and of his own happiness is the highest…… [Read More]

Works Cited LLC. (2012). Altruism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from Web site: 

Peikoff, L. (2012). Malevolent universe premise. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from Web site: 

Rand, A. (1964). The Ethics of Emergencies. In A. Rand, & N. Branden, The Virtue of Selfishness (pp. 49-56). New York, NY: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA), Inc.

Rand, A. (2012). Introducing Objectivism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from Web site:
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Moral Relativism - Imposing Universal

Words: 306 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69424978

Similarly, when a member of society becomes too feeble to contribute, leaving them in the snow is deemed the proper solution. Both practices are deemed proper, as they increase the survival chances of the tribe as a whole. Thus, while another society may cringe at the idea of infanticide and leaving the elderly to die, Eskimo societies see the survival of the tribe as the paramount concern.

There are many examples throughout history illustrating the difficulty of judging other cultures by one's own ethical yardstick. Thus, instead of being preoccupied with questions of whose society is superior, moral relativists believe that all actions should be judged within their cultural context. An action such as infanticide, no matter how abhorrent it may seem, may then be an ethical action in a society that values collective survival over the rights of one individual.… [Read More]

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Moral Criticisms of the Market Moral Criticisms

Words: 891 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5865326

Moral Criticisms of the Market

Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal

Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis

It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…… [Read More]


Ewert, Kenneth. (1989). Moral criticisms of the market. FEE. Retrieved:
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Moral Legal Political and Practical

Words: 9721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27501741

The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "

As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.

International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.

Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood

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Moral and Character Development According

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38579292

As Kohlberg proposed, children undergo "a sequence of qualitative changes in the way an individual thinks," (Nucci 2002). As children encounter new environmental stimuli including new peers, new social group situations, and new challenges to the developing ego, moral character begins to emerge. While it would be impossible to assess the ising Star Montessori academy based on the Web copy on their site, it is safe to say that the school does not overtly claim to contribute to their students' moral and character development. Learning and interacting with the environment at the child's own pace are emphasized, and social interactions may be left to the individual teachers at the school.

Kohlberg proposed three stages of moral reasoning that impact character development: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Pre-conventional moral reasoning is based on an egocentric outlook and reciprocal actions. Social norms are of little worth to a child at the pre-conventional stage…… [Read More]


Nucci, L. (2002). Moral development and moral education. Retrieved May 12, 2008 at 

Rising Star Montessori School. Web site retrieved May 12, 2008 at
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Moral Foundations of Leadership What

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75090700

They will lose experienced people, putting additional pressure on the rest of the staff, and they will find their staff accomplishes less and is more dissatisfied with their situation. These are very negative traits inside any organization that can help lead to discontent and eventual failure. A bad attitude can spread like wildfire, and the moral leader knows this and treats everyone fairly, no matter where they are in the organizational structure. It is the moral thing to do, but it also makes for a much healthier and happier organization.

Studies indicate that trust and respect play a major role in the function of organizations. Another writer notes, "The results indicated that the combined levels of trust and respect accounted for about three-fourths, yes 75%, of the variance in the amount of learning in a relationship" (Clawson). Thus, trust and respect play a major role in how leaders teach and…… [Read More]


Clawson, James G., "The Moral Foundation of Extra-Ordinary Leadership." SSRN. 2008. 9 April 2008. 

Thompson, L.J. "Moral Leadership in a Postmodern World." Ohio State University. 2008. 9 April 2008.
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Moral and Emotional Responses to the Challenge

Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3639146

Moral and Emotional Responses to the Challenge of Thrasymachus

Might makes right. So suggests the character of Thrasymachus in Plato's "Republic." In other words, justice and morality is merely defined by who is stronger. The proper role of morality in both reason and the emotions is dependant simply upon what one wants to do, at that point in time, and how one can best achieve one's objective. In politics, the strongest person defines what is just and moral, because the strongest person will always rule according to the real world laws of the political jungle. Socrates, of course, offers the opposing view, that only the wisest should rule, the philosopher kings of the ideal state, who put subjective emotion aside and rule purely by objective reason. While Thrasymachus suggests that 'the world,' that is the material existence around us (including our emotions) should be the ultimate proving-ground of any moral…… [Read More]

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Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98051350

Moral Skepticism and Knowledge

Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge

Morality is a much debated philosophical idea, wherein the arguments range from ethical egoism being the perfect sample of moral ethics to altruism being the perfect -- and otherwise opposite -- viewpoint. Both ideas have strong followings, and ethical egoism along is broadened to even more branches within philosophical studies. There is still much reconciliation to be done between the various problems of philosophical thought and ethical egoism or lack thereof.

Ethical Egoism

Ethical egoism is a particular form of egoism where one who is moral "ought" to do what is in one's self-interest. The morality behind egoism generally points toward the idea of self-interest; that a moral being's moral path is by focusing on one's self. This type of egoism should not be mistaken for psychological egoism, however. Psychological egoism makes a claim that beings act only in their self-interest.…… [Read More]


Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature,. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911. Print.

Jefferson, Thomas. "Letter from Jefferson to Thomas Law." The Founding Faith Archive. 13 June 1814. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. .

Rand, Ayn, and Leonard Peikoff. Atlas Shrugged. New York, NY: Signet, 2007. Print.
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Moral Dimensions of Punishment Is

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99783115

Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…… [Read More]


Primorac, I. (nd). Is Retributivism Analytic? The Royal Institute of Philosophy. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at

Stern, S. (2003). Discussing the morality of capital punishment. Christian Science Monitor. 12 Nov 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at 

Townsend, C. (2005). The morality of punishment. Cambridge Papers. 31 May 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at
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Moral Law

Words: 803 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71307161

Moral Law

Sun Tzu understood that if a country or a culture is to go to war against an enemy, then the leader of that country or culture must have the total support of his people and particularly of his warriors. He describes this phenomenon as the "Moral Law" which he asserts it the first of five "constant factors" in the art of going to war.

Do morality, ethics, or the moral law cause people to be enthusiastically supportive of their leader? First, the answer is yes to the question. Secondly, as to why this is a true statement, when the topic of "moral law" is raised -- in the sense that citizens (and soldiers) are in "complete accord with their ruler…undismayed by any danger" -- it should also be understood that there is another concept very similar to moral law. It is called "nationalism," and according to iconic author…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dumm, Thomas L. (2006). George W. Bush and the F-Word. South Atlantic Quarterly, 105(1),


Lyon, Grant. (2011). Patriotism vs. Nationalism in a Post 9/11 World. HuffPost. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from .

SourceWatch. (2008). Treating Dissent as Treason. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from .
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Moral Message in Children's Literature

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29035951

Moral Messages in Children's Literature

I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.

Charlotte's web

Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…… [Read More]

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Moral Reasoning Taps Is a Movie About

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7680289

Moral Reasoning

Taps is a movie about a private military high school, where the school is facing closure. To prevent this the adolescents attending the campus take over the school; in terms of adolescent moral reasoning, the boys involved impulsively react instead of thinking things through. They arm themselves, feeling like they are taking initiative and working together as a team to accomplish a common goal. They react just as they are taught, to be a team and to foster group dependence and unity.

The conflict involves actor Timothy Hutton, a sort of commandant of the cadets, who wanted to barricade the school long enough to talk to their leader to stop them from closing to school. He wanted to wait until his leader could tell them or order them to stand down. Tom Cruises character was an aggressor, and opened fire on the national guard and ended up being…… [Read More]


Diver-Stamnes.; Thomas, M. "What Wrongdoers Deserve: The Moral Reasoning behind Responses to Misconduct." Greenwood Press: Westport, 1993

Diver-Stamnes, A.; Thomas, M. "Prevent, Repent, Reform, Revenge: Study in Adolescent Moral Development." Greenwood Press, Westport: 1995.

Marcia, James; Skoe, Eva E. "Care-Oriented Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior: A Question of Gender of Sex Role Orientation." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Vol. 31, 1994

Matsuba, Kyle; Walker, Lawrence. "Moral Reasoning in the Context of Ego Functioning." Merril-Palmer Quarterly, Vol. 44, 1998
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Moral Dilemma Anyone Who Know

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17561576

Seeing how the Prime Directive should no longer apply, Picard was free to do whatever was necessary in order to save his crewman. However, the advanced technology employed by the aliens forced Picard to argue for the life of Wesley Crusher. His argument centers around the idea that this conflict is over whether or not moral universalism, or moral relativism would apply in the case of Wesley Crusher. Picard argues that the Federation does not interfere with other cultures because they believe that all cultures have equally value and the capacity for development. However, they are dealing with an alien race that is violating that principle. The aliens have decided that their moral universalism is correct for the Edo, and by extension, anyone who visits their planet. But Picard argues, correctly, that each culture must respect the rights of other cultures to develop in their own way. And the Prime…… [Read More]

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Moral Leadership in His Book

Words: 1070 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13408496


This term was coined by Abraham Zeleznik and refers to the misplaced focus on the leadership process instead of the people, ideas and emotions. Further, Sergiovanni argues that it is because of this managerial mystique that schools have been unable to capture, and build learning communities from, true leadership. Instead, schools have been obsessed with "doing things right at the expense of doing the right things." For example, school improvement plans became substitutes for improving outcomes. Teacher appraisal systems become substitutes for good teaching. in-service takes the place of changes in practice, congeniality substitutes for collegiality, cooperation moves in over commitment and compliance takes over for actual results. The result is that schools become trained in incapacity, or doing only ones job in isolation as opposed to working as a team and the loss of goals, which therefore leads to a standard of mediocrity.

According to Sergiovanni, the solution…… [Read More]


Sergiovanni, Thomas J. Moral Leadership: Getting to the Heart of School Improvement. New York: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated, 1996.
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Moral Disengagement Within the Society Today There

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27059585

Moral Disengagement

Within the society today there are different people with their own different behaviors. Some might turn out to be meaningful people but others end up being a bother to the society. This paper will look out moral disengagement in the will explain using behavioral theories why a person is more likely to drop out of the society to become a terrorist as opposed to dropping out to become a hermit or will also focus on Albert Bandura's model of moral disengagement and explain some techniques that might be used to justify the use of violence by individuals.

Behavioral theories

Observing the society today more people are getting involved in terrorist behavior as opposed to becoming monks or hermits. The likely hood of an individual becoming a terrorist is high compared to the same individual becoming a monk or hermit. This can be explained using behavioral theories.…… [Read More]


Kathiemm, N. (2010).Moral disengagement -- introduction. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from 

Cherry, K. (2012).Introduction to operant conditioning. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from
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Moral Impermissibility of Abortion Albert

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45377802

The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?

This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007. 

Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.
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Moral and Ethical Dilemma in

Words: 3625 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38553526

At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.

In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.


As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…… [Read More]


Bevir, M. (2002). SidneyWebb: Utilitarianism, Positivism, and Social Democracy. Journal of Modern History, No. 74. Retrieved from 

Bevir, M. And O'Brien, D. (2003, Jan 1). From Idealism to Communitarianism: The Inheritance and Legacy of John Macmurray. History of Political Thought, No. 24. Retrieved from 

Carroll, M.J. (2007, Dec). Physical Therapists' Perception of Risk of Violating Laws and Rules Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy and/or Their Personal Moral and Ethical Values when Failing to Provide Treatment for an Uninsured or Underinsured Patient. Graduate College of Bowling Green. Retrieved from 

De Sousa e Brito, J. (2008, Aug 8). From Utilitarianism To Kantism: Bentham's Proof of Utilitarianism, Mill and Kant. ISUS X, Tenth Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies. Retrieved from
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Moral Dilemma

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84436712

Moral and Medical Dilemma

As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a…… [Read More]


Petersen, J. (2003, June 19). "Designer baby born to uk couple." Retrieved from
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Moral Dilemma Harvey's Wife Suffers

Words: 318 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53199414

He is not depriving the pharmacist of his livelihood. He is not depriving another sick individual from having access to the same medication. Harvey only risks getting caught stealing and even if he were caught would be unlikely to spend any time in jail given the extenuating circumstances. Therefore, Harvey should steal the medication from a utilitarian perspective.

Although a duty-based system of ethics would propose that the immorality of stealing can never be justified, it is impossible to prove why Harvey should let his wife die instead. If Harvey did let his wife die, he would have committed a far more insipid act than if he stole.

Knowing that the medication will save his wife's life, Harvey commits a petty crime only. The act of stealing is clearly immoral. However, under the circumstances only an inhumane individual could censure him. Given the tremendous good that would come from Harvey's…… [Read More]

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Moral Panic Over Asylum Seekers

Words: 1967 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21109509

Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.


It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.

Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…… [Read More]


Australian National Audit Office. (2001). Management Framework for Preventing Unlawful Entry into Australian Territory. Report No. 57.

Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. (2001). Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia's response.

Jewkes, Y and Letherby G. (2002). Criminology: A Reader. SAGE Publications Ltd.McMaster, Don (2002). "Asylum Seekers: Australia's Response to Refugees." Melbourne; Melbourne University Press, pp 60

Picketing, Sharon. (2001). "Common Sense and Original Deviancy: News Discourses and Asylum Seekers in Australia," Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2): 169-86.
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Moral Consciousness in The Yellow

Words: 399 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56009547

All of this shows how society looked at women at the time. They were "fragile" and emotionally irrational. They had no power or choice in a relationship, and they were seen as weak and unable to deal with the real world. This narrator may have mental problems, but it seems they came from the way she was treated by her husband and society. It was as if women did not exist. They could not work, many did not even care for their own children, and they had little to live for or strive for. Gilman wrote this story to raise the moral consciousness of readers, and to show the plight of women in Victorian times. The reader has to feel sorry for this narrator - not because she goes mad, but because she was driven to madness by the social and moral beliefs at the time. There is little social…… [Read More]

Moral Consciousness in "The Yellow Wallpaper"

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is a disturbing look into the moral and social position of women at the time the author wrote it in 1899. The narrator slowly goes mad as the story progresses, and it is easy to see why. She is stuck away in the country while her husband is gone all day, and she has nothing to do and no interests to keep her occupied. A nanny is even raising her baby. She cannot visit others and her husband keeps her nearly a recluse because of her "delicate condition." In reality, she is a strong and vital woman who begins hallucinating because her life is so empty and she is so lonely. He has even convinced her she is sick, and then says he does not really believe it.

The female author wrote this story to show how women were treated in Victorian times. This woman wants to work and participate in her life, but the men around her convince her she is better off doing nothing. Her husband is so controlling that he even makes the decision where they will sleep, even after his wife tells him she does not like the yellow wallpaper in the room he chooses. All of this shows how society looked at women at the time. They were "fragile" and emotionally irrational. They had no power or choice in a relationship, and they were seen as weak and unable to deal with the real world. This narrator may have mental problems, but it seems they came from the way she was treated by her husband and society. It was as if women did not exist. They could not work, many did not even care for their own children, and they had little to live for or strive for. Gilman wrote this story to raise the moral consciousness of readers, and to show the plight of women in Victorian times. The reader has to feel sorry for this narrator - not because she goes mad, but because she was driven to madness by the social and moral beliefs at the time. There is little social justice here, because the husband will just believe he was right, and his wife was crazy. He will not see his own participation in the situation, or how he could rectify it by treating his wife as an equal.
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Moral Leadership CEO's Values Influence on Mission

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24403782

Moral Leadership

CEO's values influence on mission, vision, and members of an organization

Effective leadership relies on the ethics and morals of the leader. The values expressed by the leader are transposed by his or her actions and are reflected in the organization's results. The mission of the organization is constructed by the leader based on his or her values. Leaders can only run organizations whose mission is to satisfy the leader's values. In other words, the organization's values must be aligned with leaders' values. Otherwise, leaders will not have a sense of fulfillment, and they are likely to consider that the organization does not serve its best and most ethical purposes.

The vision of the organization is also strongly influenced by the leader's values. This is because the vision reflects how the organization's mission will be fulfilled. It is important that the leader constructs an organizational vision that relies…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Women Still Underrepresented on Corporate Boards. Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved December 10, 2013 from .
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Moral Dilemma Jane Thinks of

Words: 464 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61422484

She paid good money for tuition and didn't take advantage of her opportunities to learn. She also lost out on increasing her self-esteem in a natural way by rising to meet challenges and doing her best. Instead of feeling proud, she felt guilty. If she confesses to her school, she will probably be kicked out and it will be on her record forever. She is not likely to do that. However, because she is going to be a teacher, herself, she can talk to her students about her experience honestly and have meaningful discussions in her classrooms. She can tell her students that if they get sick, they can call her, and she will make arrangements to postpone the deadline. Jane wishes now that she had got caught the first time she did it -- then, she never would have done it again. So, she can purchase TurnItIn, software designed…… [Read More]

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Moral Consciousness in A Doll's

Words: 398 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24757978

She is striking out on her own in an attempt to make a statement about the way Torvald has treated her, but the reader has to wonder if she will actually have the strength to stay away and not return. The door closes behind her, but the situation is never actually resolved, and it seems Nora may find the outside world too harsh for her to survive, although the play makes it clear she is not afraid to work hard to survive.

The theme of social justice is not as pronounced in this play. Both Nora and Torvald seem like decent people, and so does Mrs. Linde, who wants the family to be honest with each other. Krogstad seems like a shadowy figure that uses his power over Nora to get what he wants, but he reforms in the end. Thus, his consciousness is decent by the end of the…… [Read More]

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Moral Meanings of Caring for the Dying

Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65881748

Moral Meanings of Caring for the Dying

When it comes to taking care of the dying, there is so much to consider. Nurses who care for dying patients are often forced to start seeing the world differently, mostly because they become very close to the people they care for. The article Moral Meanings of Caring for the Dying, by Bouchal, addresses some of that from the personal standpoint and insights of nurses who work in end-of-life care situations. Some of them work with the elderly, but many of the patients are middle-aged and younger people, including children. It can be very hard to care for a dying person, especially if that person is still young, and nurses who do so shed many tears, often crying with the patient and/or the family (Cook, et al., 2012). This is a release for the nurses and the stress they must deal with when…… [Read More]


Cook, K.A., Mott, S., Lawrence, P., Jablonski, J., Grady, M.R., Norton, D., Liner, K.P., Cioffi, J., Hickey, P., Reidy, S., & Connor, J.A. (2012). Coping while caring for the dying child: Nurses' experiences in an acute care setting. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27(4): e11-e21.

Peterson, J., Johnson, M., Halvorsen, B., Apmann, L., Chang, P-C., Kershek, S., Scherr, C., Ogi, M., & Pincon, D. (2010). What is it so stressful about caring for a dying patient? A qualitative study of nurses' experiences. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 16(4): 181-187.
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Moral Lessons in Childhood You Are Known

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59587463

Moral Lessons in Childhood

You are known by the company you keep

Childhood is clouded by a myriad of activities and episodes that stick to peoples' minds even long after the childhood is over into adulthood and even into the elderly times. Each person has several instances that they can recall and look back and feel embarrassed or a bit jilted at the thought that they actually underwent that.

One of the most significant lessons that I learnt in my childhood days was that I will, more often than not be judged according to the company that I keep. I grew up in the rural Texas farms and pretty much and my early childhood life was based in the farm like the other boys and attending the local schools within the neighborhood.

There was a group of boys in our kindergarten class who had formed a habit of sneaking out…… [Read More]

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Moral Analysis the Food and

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73000088

I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.

There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Van Arnum, P. (2010). Healthcare reform draws mixed reviews from pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from
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Moral Theory - Bartenders the

Words: 2274 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31208977

Criminal laws absolutely prohibit furnishing alcohol to minors, even formally requiring bartenders to check the identification of any patron who appears even slightly older than the legal age for alcohol consumption (Schmalleger 1997). Conceivably, the same absolute standard could easily be applied to drinking in conjunction with driving. Furthermore, when it comes to protecting their own financial interests, bartenders often enforce standards beyond what it required by law: they may prohibit certain forms of attire associated with violent criminal gangs, and they often serve drinks in plastic cups, precisely because they are fully aware of the degree to which alcohol impairs good judgment and that glass bottles and glassware are capable of inflicting much more damage in situations where intoxicated patrons provoke physical altercations.

In fact, bartenders know or should know that the social culture of alcohol consumption, particularly among certain demographic groups, makes it the norm rather than the…… [Read More]


Friedman, L.M. (2005) the History of American Law (3rd Edition).

New York: Touchstone.

Geeting, J. (2003) the Badge: Thoughts from a State Trooper.

Indian Wells, CA: McKenna Publishing Group.
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Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Words: 1596 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93496749


Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Moral Development

Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).

Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development

Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]


Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from 

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: 

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: 

Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
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Moral Theory Case Study --

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66505612

Like Midgley, Bailey would expect the company to conduct its opeations and make the same decisions that would be equied in its native society. Moe impotantly, Bailey would likely also ague that the company has a moal duty to espond to the situation even if it wee the case that its native society ecognized no such moal obligation.

Both Bailey and Midgley would pobably equie the company to conside the natue of the hams caused by its poduct and to take easonable measues to pevent those hams completely iespective of any obligation o expectation in that egad by any society. Thei view would be that moality is a matte of objective pinciple and not subjective values and that allowing the types of hams descibed as a esult of pofit-making entepises is always immoal and always imposes a moal obligation, by objective pinciple, on the manufactue to take appopiate measues to…… [Read More]

references to standards of health and well-being (p. 261) to apply the UN principles to this case.

Application of Berlin's Moral Perspective

Berlin offers a perspective that is decidedly unhelpful to the prospect of recognizing objective moral principles. He suggests that wherever two individuals espouse diametrically opposite positions on an issue, it does not necessarily follow that the truth of one view means that the other is untrue (p. 266). Berlin seems to offer a complex justification for moral relativism, largely by focusing on the types of cases where (admittedly) a perfect solution is most difficult. However, he seems not to recognize that these can be regarded as exceptions to general principles that provide the morally preferable (if not necessarily perfect) solution. Therefore, Berlin might argue that nobody likes the idea of street children being harmed by their misuse of the company's product but that virtually any solution to that dilemma would impose harmful consequences on the company, such as by limiting its rights to conduct business manufacturing a legal product.


I would applaud the UN Declaration for its intention, disregard Benedict's, Bailey's, and Berlin's positions, and apply the arguments of Midgley. Certainly, the "perfect" solution may often be impossible, as it might very well be in this case, as pointed out by Berlin. However, it is possible (as demonstrated by the UN Declaration) to recognize and uphold objective moral principles that transcend the facts of any specific case considered in isolation. I would apply the same conceptual approach of the UN Declaration with respect to fundamental rights and freedoms and apply it to two other moral issues: First, that entities may not pursue or perpetuate activities in foreign societies that are expressly prohibited (or that trigger moral obligations reflected in law) in their nations. Second, that entities causing unnecessary harm to any human beings be held morally accountable for those harms and responsible for mitigating them, compensating victims, or, where appropriate, ceasing those activities altogether in light of the magnitude of the harms with which they are associated.
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Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia Voluntary Active Euthanasia

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9146001

Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia

Voluntary Active Euthanasia

Voluntary Active Euthanasia can be described as a perfectly competent patient's appeal and request to be aided in the process of dying. This act is completely voluntary and by the choice of the patient himself due to the medical condition that he or she might be facing. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life. There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance. This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person…… [Read More]


Baird, R.M. (1989). Euthanasia: The Moral Issues. Prometheus Books.

Dowbiggin, I. (2003). A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America. Oxford Univeristy Press.

Gorsuch, N.M. (2006). The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Princeton University Press.

Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, Ethics, and Public Policy: An Argument against Legalisation. Cambridge University Press.
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Moral Situation

Words: 355 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75125792

Moral Situation

Both Tom and Joe contributed to the deaths of their wives. However, Tom's actions are more severe than Joe's are. In fact, Joe did not actually take any action at all. Tom actually, purposefully, and maliciously administered the poison, whereas in Joe's case, his wife accidentally took the poison herself. Her death can be considered an accidental suicide, whereas Tom's wife's death was an out-and-out murder. Tom's actions were premeditated: he planned the event and executed it in cold blood. Joe's inactivity was incidental. Although he desired to kill his wife, he made no overt plans to do so. He did not actually feed his wife poison, unless he had deliberately switched the container of cream for poison or unless he had placed the poison in the cream. However, if he did not do so, Joe cannot be considered as morally repugnant as Tom. After all, Tom directly…… [Read More]