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Morality in America
Morals are defined as a set of principles of right action and behavior for the individual. The traditional morals of any given society are the set of moral principles by which the majority of its members have lived over a long time, a consensus which that society has reached on what is considered correct and decent behavior. It is the way one's society expectsone to behave, even if civil law-does not require it (Luce p. 1).
Many believe there is a universal morality that knows no race, no geographical boundaries, no time, and no particular religion. John uskin, the English social reformer, wrote, "There are many religions, but there is only one morality." Immanuel Kant, the greatest of German philosophers, called it the Moral Law, which, he said, governs all mankind. Kant compared this Moral Law to the Sublime Law that rules the movement of the stars…
Luce, C.B.. Is the new morality destroying America?
Human Life Review,
Michael, H. (2007). Morality in America. Progressive U. Retrieved February 9, 2007 at http://www.progressiveu.org/142041-morality-in-america .
Morality to human sentiment is a unique kind of feeling. It comes about through a kind of perspective-taking that we encounter, via a practice of sympathetic imagination, sentiments belonging to individuals that have been affected by a given action or other evaluation objects.
There are two main claims in which Hume's account of moral sentiments rest upon. Firstly, it holds that the source of our normative standards should be found within obvious human concerns. Morality has been described as a practical fact, social coordination mechanism that is to make our lives improve, and the surrounding rules with it reflect what matters to us. Secondly, the account claim that human identifies common concerns; hence conclude it to moral norms, using reflective feeling exercise that develops on the sympathetic communication of sentiments, (David Fate, 1990). However, the whole concept does not carry normative weight. Strictly personal feelings remaining is…
David Fate "Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy" (1990). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/cavalier/80130/part1/sect4/texts/Norton.html
Frank DeVita "Hume's Theory of Moral Sentiments as a Phenomenological Account of Morality" (2012). Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://frankdevita.wordpress.com/2012/08/06/humes-theory-of-moral-sentiments/
Krause, Sharon, "Moral Sentiment and the Politics of Human Rights," The Art of Theory, Jason Swadley (ed.), October 2010, Retrieved April 25, 2013. http://www.artoftheory.com/moral-sentiment-and-the-politics-of-human-rights-sharon-krause
Moral ratings of each picture in the pair were given on a seven point Likert scale, and the five highest and five lowest rated photos were retained and paired with control photos for the second phase of the study. The second population of 111 subjects (35 males and 76 females) in this second phase were asked which person in each paid of pictures they would prefer to share a toothbrush with, with a simple recording of preference making up the raw data. These two data sets were then compared and analyzed using basic statistical techniques (t-tests) to determine the level of correlation, if any, that existed between the results of the two independent populations.
The mean moral rating for the top five rated pictures was 5.7780 with a standard deviation of .83237, and for those lowest rated was 3.9101, standard deviation .92796. With a t-score of 18.15, there is…
Curtis, V., Aunger, R. & Rable, T. (2004). Evidence that disgust evolved to protect from risk of disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biology.
Fessler, D. & Navarette, C. (2003). Domain specific variation in disgust sensitivity across the menstrual cycle: evidence in favour of an evolutionary account of sexual disgust. Human Behavioral Evolution 24: 406-17.
Lee, S. & Schwartz, N. (2011). Wiping the Slate Clean Psychological Consequences of Physical Cleansing. Current Directions in Psychological Science 20(5): 307-11.
Zhong, C. & Liljenquist, K. (2006). Washing Away Your Sins: Threatened Morality and Physical Cleansing. Science 313(5792): 1451-2.
"I felt this immaleability, this refusal to cohere, was essentially Greek. That is, I finally assumed my Greekness… I saw that I was the only person left in that square who had the freedom left to choose…"
The very importance that Conchis attaches to this type of morality and freedom of choice, even to the detriment of his own life, is in itself subjective and reactionary. After being forced to witness the full horror of what the German morality was capable of, Conchis found himself driven to ultimately resist it, regardless of its consequences. It is a type of ethics that refuses to accept as true anything beyond its own reason and paradigms. This is also true of the decision-making process at the basis of Colonel Wimmel's moral actions, questionable though they may be.
Colonel Wimmel subscribes to the collective ethical subjectivism of the Nazi German paradigm. This is…
A college educated doctor, for example, needs to understand his or her obligation to the patient to do no harm, to be honest about conditions and medications, not to put any outside interests over patient health, to keep confidentiality, to treat fairly with co-workers, not to steal drugs from his workplace, and all other such ethical constraints. Regardless of whether or not it may be "moral" to spare someone from suffering, for example, a college-educated doctor should know that it is not ethical to euthanize someone without their consent. Likewise researchers should know about the ethics of research where it concerns honesty, good treatment of test subjects, and other such issues. Even those studying business or other fields without such strict ethical codes should be trained in ethics for their field -- a corrupt accountant, for example, may not feel personally that they are being immoral (perhaps they consider that…
Morality, Justice, Feminism
Equating morality with justice presents some problems, not least of which is the relativity inherent in morality; morals change from generation to generation. Justice is more constant, although more difficult to achieve. Still, when an action is truly just, it is difficult to dissect it; morality, on the other hand, can be dissected relatively easily. A case in point: Is the current war in Iraq immoral? The answer, to a humanist, is yes. To a conservative on the religious right, it is moral; we are, after all, attempting to show the Iraqis a better way, and is that not a moral imperative? The humanist would argue that leaving the Iraqis alone is the only moral thing to do: How can we know what is right for them (and lord knows having their villages, schools and entire way of life reduced to rubble hardly appears right) when we…
Brown, Alan D. "Beyond Prostitution: Justice, Feminism, and Social Change." Canadian Woman Studies 19.1-2 (1999): 163-9. Questia. 6 May 2005 .
Ellis, Rebecca. "Second Thoughts about a Third Wave." Canadian Woman Studies 20.4 (2001): 24+. Questia. 6 May 2005 .
"Works by Marabel Morgan." Answers.com. 6 May 2005 .
This is the perfect way to end this poem. The ending is in fact effective and consistent. The entire time, the duke speaks about how it was to have his wife besides him and how much he did not agree with her behavior. He then makes an insinuation that it was him in fact that had her killed. The ending leaves the reader in a sort of shock. The lines, "...Notice Neptune, though, / Taming a seahorse, thought a rarity, / Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me!" are so effective in clarifying that the Duchess did not die of natural causes and it was in fact the Duke that wanted her to act in a certain way, and he did: by having her killed. And the only thing left of her is the portrait, which he praises for capturing her, after he managed to "tame" her.
If this is true that by the same standard, a person who can keep money can also steal it. Thus a moral person would be at the same time a thief. How can a thief then be moral? After much debate, Socrates states that: "So the claim that it's right and moral to give back to people what they are owed -- if this is taken to mean that a moral person owes harm to his enemies and help to his friends -- turns out to be a claim no clever person would make. I mean, it's false: we've found that it is never right to harm anyone.' (p. 15)
Socrates' own view of morality is lost among heap of discussion and arguments. It appeared that his main purpose was to contradict the views presented by others and was even called a "bully" by Thrasymachus. (p. 21) Thrasymachus was the…
Plato. Republic. (1994). Translated by Robin Waterfield; Oxford University Press. Oxford
I believe that one of the strengths of this plan is that it is far different from the moral values that most conservative Christians want to teach, and I think that this is where teaching morality in school has gotten its bad name. Shafersman (1991) discusses a religious right that wants to teach women to be subservient to men and that certain political forms are more godly than others. I believe this is going to far. What our children need is simply someone to show them how to make the right decisions. This is what I learned at Azuza Pacific -- I learned to use the Bible to make right decisions and to converse with my peers about those decisions to confirm their correctness. The principals of Christianity mandate certain fruits of the spirit, certain moral actions, and faith. I believe these are what should be modeled to the students.…
Garlikov, R. (2001). Moral and Spiritual Values and (Public) Schools. Retrieved June 23,
2009, from Garlikov.com. Web Site: http://www.garlikov.com/teaching/spiritual.html
"Morality in Education." N.d. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from the University of Michigan
Psychology Department. Web Site: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.dworin/parochial_vs._public_schools
Abraham acts like a man who has been chosen; he acts with the assurance that he is superior to others and that he has Yahweh's favor. In fact, he boldly intercedes when Yahweh informs him that He plans to destroy Sodom, and Sodom is briefly spared as a result of Abraham's righteousness. What Abraham's story makes clear is that Old Testament righteousness cannot be defined or explained by modern definitions of morality. On the contrary, Old Testament morality came down to a single major issue: whether one would submit to the will of Yahweh. If so, then one was considered moral. As a result, even when the authors do not show overt approval of the patriarchs' actions, they do not show any type of condemnation of those actions. In fact, even when the authors do not justify the patriarchs' actions, they at least pass along the justifications that the patriarchs…
"It turns out that some mothers and fathers don't view certain genetic conditions as disabilities but as a way to enter into a rich, shared culture" (Sanghavi, p. 1). Based on the data that Sanghavi researched, genetic testing for dwarfism has "an extra ethical wrinkle"; when both parents are dwarves, their embryos have "a 25% chance of normal height, a 50% change of dwarfism, and a 25% chance of…a double dominant mutation," usually fatal soon after birth (Sanghavi, p. 3). And so, given the fear that their child might die a few days after its birth, parents that are dwarfs and who want a dwarf baby, have a perfectly ethical right to go to a PGD clinic and proceed to prepare for a dwarf baby.
The Case Against Deliberately Implanting a Defective Gene
Dr. Yury Verlinsky of the Reproductive Genetics Institute in Chicago, refuses to grant requests from dwarf…
Adelson, Betty M. The Lives of Dwarfs: Their Journey from Public Curiosity Toward Social
Liberation. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.
Bandman, Bertram. Children's Right to Freedom, Care, and Enlightenment. London, UK:
Psychology Press, 1999.
Morality in Literature
Journey as pursuit for 'true' morality: Literary analysis of works from William Shakespeare, Jonathan Swift, Moliere, Dante, and Samuel Coleridge
More than depicting the nature of humanity, literature has also seen the preponderance of artistic works that delve into the morality of humans. Society has been exposed to the dichotomy and conflict between goodness and evil, or, more concretely, between what is considered as right or wrong. The standard of morality prevalent in the society was distinctly distinguished between right or wrong; ultimately, humanity should only commit, behave, and think 'rightly' -- that is, actions must benefit the greater good.
Indeed, contemplation on humanity's continuous pursuit for committing moral actions and behaving and thinking morally has been interpreted in famous works of literature. While other works centered on the 'rightness' of what society considers as moral acts and behavior, other literary works have focused on providing a…
Morality in Sacred Texts:
A study in similarities
Although many site the concepts of faith and belief to be of paramount importance in the study of any major religion, especially with regard to study originating within any particular religion, there remains a striking aspect of similarity between most major religions when the concept of morality is introduced. Indeed, although the theological basis of the four major world religions -- Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are often cited as divisive (again, especially in the collective imaginations of the members of each faith), the similarities of the moral precepts contained within the defining texts of each religion seem to underscore a fundamental unity.
The concept of "morality" is generally defined as that which constitutes virtuous conduct, or right behavior. Of course, given the vast cultural, economic, and societal differences between the majority populations practicing the aforementioned religious traditions, one might expect the…
BBT A.C.Bhaktivedan Swami Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prahupada. Bhagavad-Gita as It Is. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, Los Angeles. 1998.
KJV. World Bible Publishers (staff). The Holy Bible. King James Version. World Publishing, New York. 1988
NIV. Zondervan Publishing House (staff). The Bible: New International Version. Zondervan, New York. 2002.
Swami Prabhavananda, Christopher Isherwood. Bhagavad-Gita: The Song of God. Signet Classics, New York. 2002. p. 3.
Mark Constanzo discussed the argument of deterrence as well, by stating that "Fear of the execution chamber will restrain potential murderers" (Constanzo, 95). However, the author acknowledges that the reality is different in that murder rates have not decreased but instead they increased. Constanzo is against death penalty, and believes that people are perfectible and may change. He used the argument of discrimination against capital punishment by stating that wealth, social status, race etc. play an important role in convictions. Moreover Constanzo used moral and religious arguments against death penalty. For instance he considers the practices related and the methods applied to kill murderers (lethal injection, hanging, burning, poisoning etc.) as dehumanizing and sinful for the individual and society.
In conclusion, law professor Ernest van den Haag supports death penalty, and puts forth arguments related to deterrence, retribution and justice. On the other hand, psychologist Mark Costanzo denies that the…
Constanzo, Mark. (1997) Just Revenge. Costs and Consequences of the Death Penalty. St. Martin's Press: New York.
Ernest van den Haag (1986) the Ultimate Punishment: A Defense Retrieved at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/angel/procon/haagarticle.html
Morality, Suicide and Euthanasia
There are always important questions to be asked -- and answered -- when a child is very ill and healthcare decisions have to be made by the family. In the case of 11-year-old Jimmy, who suffers from an incurable neurological disease in addition to the deadly cancer known as lymphoma, this paper uses helpful, scholarly information from the literature to point out how the parents should respond to Jimmy's health problems and to his decision not to have the chemotherapy. Jimmy is very religious and says he wants to "go to God" but he is not in a position to make that decision independent of his parents.
Should minors be permitted to participate in decisions of the magnitude that Jimmy and his family are faced with? The answer is yes, of course in this case Jimmy should be involved and have his say. His parents will…
Devettere, Raymond J. (2009). Practical Decision Making in Health Care Ethics: Cases and Concepts. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Diekema, Douglas S. (1998). Ethics in Medicine: Parental Decision Making. University of Washington / Department of Bioethics and Humanities. Retrieved July 10, 2012, from http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/parent.html .
McPherson, Amy. (2010). "Involving Children: Why it Matters," in Listening to Children and Young People in Healthcare Consultations, S. Redsell and A. Hastings, Eds. London, UK:
Morality in the Ancient Mesopotamian Saga of Gilgamesh as Translated by David Ferry)
"ho is the mortal that can live forever? The Life of man is short. Only the gods can live forever. Therefore put on new clothes, a clean robe and a cloak tied with a sash, and wash the filth of the Journey from your body. Eat and Drink your fill of the food and drink, men, eat and drink. Let there be pleasure and dancing."
Everyone dies. Everyone is mortal. These are not profound and new philosophical revelations. This truth about human understanding as well as human biology is evidenced by the existence of the above quotation from the ancient, heroic saga of "Gilgamesh." Life is short, thus enjoy the bodily pleasures, it suggests. Yet despite this fact regarding the transience of human existence, human beings must still face the world and deal with its finitude, emotionally…
Ferry, David. Gilgamesh: A New Rendering in English Verse. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1993)
Nations like Communist Russia and the still practicing Chinese for of Communism show that even when this ideology is perpetuated for the masses in terms of real economic implementation, many individuals within the regime fall into desperate conditions. ithout any sort of financial stability, one may never be able to fully support his or her family.
So what is one to do when the society one lives requires a certain level of devotion and acceptance of working for the common good? Jean-Jacques Rousseau spoke of the idea of a "social contract" between an individual and his or her government, stating that as long as the government is uphold it's side of the contractual agreement, i.e. laws ensuring the benefit of the individual, the individual should give up certain things in order to hold up their end of the contract, i.e. obeying those laws. However, based on the judgment of the…
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Hackett Publishing, 1992. p. 28.
Moral Good and Moral Value
Determining moral "good" is a fundamental philosophical study. Only the lazy philosopher would revert to codes of ethics. Ethical standards come from somewhere, and generally those standards can be grouped into three main categories of analysis: consequentialism, deontological ethics, and virtue or character ethics. While these three modes of thinking about the moral good can sometimes interact with one another to create more complex moral analyses, moral values tend to fall within one of these main categories.
Consequentialism and utilitarianism are ways of thinking about moral value that focus primarily on the consequences of actions. The motivations for an action and the spirit in which an action are carried out are less important than the outcomes. Therefore, a boy who steals a loaf of bread to feed his starving brother would be doing "good," even though he committed a "bad" act. Utilitarian ethics suggest that…
Caputo, J.D. (n.d). Against principles.
Palmquist, S. (n.d.). Freedom and the boundary of morals. Retrieved online: http://staffweb.hkbu.edu.hk/ppp/tp4/top08.html
Regan, T. (n.d.). The case for animal rights.
Many of these individualists will do anything the government allows, even if it is not morally acceptable or ethical. It seems as if society is likely losing its sensibilities and is being led by a nose-ring further and further down an ever more spiraling chute to hell. No longer do many individuals do what is morally correct, instead they choose to do, as society allows them to, whatever makes them feel good personally. This is leads to a state of affairs that allows for a debate on whether someone who does act ethically should be fined for doing so.
I don't believe that the individual should be cited or fined for assisting another individual in need of food, drink, medical attention or shelter. These are basic human needs and should not be regulated by any laws stating otherwise. Morally, human beings are required to come to the aid of their…
Bandura, Albert., (2002) Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency, Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 31, Issue 2, pp. 101-119
Goldberg, Carl., (2002) the Mortal Storm: Righteousness and Compassion in Moral Conflict, International Journal of Psychotherapy, Vol. 7, Issue 3, pp. 265-278
The moral argument consists of four components—moral facts, moral knowledge, moral transformation and moral rationality. As Baggett and Walls point out, the most pertinent moral facts are concerned with moral duties and values, particularly what is known as intrinsic human value.[footnoteRef:2] The question raised, of course, is where does intrinsic human value come from if not from God? Nature itself seems incapable of instilling in the human shell this universal sense of value. This is a particular fact that has to be dealt with in order to understand why the moral argument is necessarily a theistic argument, which is what this paper will argue. Moral knowledge, transformation and rationality all support the argument as well. Moral knowledge itself is a sense of the universality of morality—the the absolute validity of the platitudes of Practical Reason, as Baggett and Walls define it.[footnoteRef:3] Moral transformation refers to what Evans identifies as…
This literature review first looks at the history if intelligence oversight (IO) and then explains the current problem it faces in terms of ethics and the arrival of the Digital Age, which has complicated the matter. It next synthesizes the literature on what the various ethical theories are and how this further complicates the issue of IO. Finally, it discusses research on the fundamentals of ethics and gives recommendations for future research.
History of IO
The history of IO begins with the purpose for which it was established, which was to safeguard the privacy and rights of U.S. persons while enabling the Department of Defense to carry out its intelligence functions most effectively (Ford 2006, 721). The question that has always been at the forefront of IO, however, is the question of ethics. As Goldman (2013) notes, as far back as 1929 this question of ethics and its role in…
Personal journal entries: The Foundations and Philosophy of Ethics.
Philosophy has been one of the most interesting subjects to me since it helps stretch the imagination as well as the creativity of the reader to see the various perspectives to a subject. I set out to understand the arguments made in this article and it came out that Lawrence Kohlberg emphasizes on the importance of moral reasoning in decision making process. He bases his argument of moral reasoning on an earlier philosopher called Piaget who was a pioneer of moral reasoning. Lawrence indicates that there are three levels of moral reasoning; the pre-conventional morality which is common among children and bases the morality of an action on the consequences. The other is conventional Morality which is based on the social rules and norms. The last is the Post-conventional morality which bases morality on the intrinsic values of an individual.…
The most immediate of the relevant issues raised by the case “SHHH, Don’t Tell!”, is the number of injuries suffered by the patient Lowell Baxter. Baxter actually incurred multiple injuries in this case study, each of which exerted considerable sway over his ability to live a healthy, productive life. The first was an injury which occurred at work. This injury resulted in Baxter’s inability to work at what was termed a “physically demanding job” (Wolfe et al, 2000). The second injury occurred while the patient was coaching a girls’ soccer game. Although the way the injury on his job happened is not described in the case study, this latter injury occurred when he fell on wet grass. These injuries are noteworthy because they are indicative of the efficacy of the treatment Baxter received once they happened.
Another relevant issue raised by this case is the amount of disclosure of the…
American College of Healthcare Executives. (2017). About ACHE. www.ache.org Retrieved from https://www.ache.org/abt_ache/committee_function.cfm
Rubens, A.J., Wiberley, E.T. (2004). Contrasting the American College of Healthcvare Executives code of ethics with undergraduate health administration students’ values and ethical decision choices. 82(3), 10-17.
The principle of harmony's job is to take corrective actions when needed in order to create the balance of economic justice between the principles. For example, when the other two principles are violated by such things as unjust social barriers to either participation or distribution, the principle of harmony works to eradicate these barriers and thus restore economic harmony, or justice.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, economic harmonies is defined as "laws of social adjustment under which the self-interest of one man or group of men, if given free play, will produce results offering the maximum advantage to other men and the community as a whole." In other words, whereas the other two principles are controlled by the free market, the principle of economic harmony is controlled by the government through laws and regulations aimed at controlling the negative effects of the free market. Examples of such controls are…
Bretzke, James T. A Morally Complex World: Engaging Contemporary Theology.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Church, Morality and Politics. www.networklobby.org/resources/index.html.
Curran, Charles. The Catholic Moral Tradition Today. Center for Economic and Social Justice. www.cesj.org/thirdway/economicjustice-defined.htm
Elliott, Hanna. "Stereotypes of Religious Voters Don't Fit." Associated Baptist Press, 03 Nov. 2006.
The term moral hazard arises out of a contractual agreement. hen the terms of the contract serve as motivation for one of the parties to behave in a manner that is "contrary to the principles laid out in the agreement" (Investopedia, 2013). An example that is commonly used is when a salesperson is paid entirely on salary. The salesperson in that case has little direct incentive to perform according to the spirit of the contract, save for the threat of dismissal. The deal assumes that both parties will act according to the spirit of the contract, but the way the contract is structured this is not necessarily the case.
The concept of moral hazard is often applied to the financial industry. Most contracts are designed to prohibit moral hazard, but multiple hazards have been identified. For example, homeowners who found themselves in arrears or their homes under water…
Dowd, K. (2012). Moral hazard and the financial crisis. Cato Institute. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/2009/1/cj29n1-12.pdf
Investopedia. (2013). Definition of moral hazard. Investopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/moralhazard.asp#axzz2MnoRW6v9
Pritchard, J. (2013). Moral hazard -- how moral hazard works. About.com. Retrieved March 6, 2013 from http://banking.about.com/od/loans/a/MoralHazard.htm
Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics
How is virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?
The other theories of ethics argue that morality results from an act, thus they tend to focus on the impact. This implies that a moral act will bring the highest level of happiness for the highest number of people. In contrast, virtue ethics considers morality as the result of character or identity of a person and not a reflection of the act. It means that some characteristics are virtues. Individuals with these virtues are moral and their actions only reflect their inner morality (MacKinnon, 2012).
According to Aristotle, what is the difference between intellectual and moral virtues?
Intellectual is the first principle governing human acts. Other laws only exist to obey intellectual in various ways. Those who obey intellectual without any contradiction are body limbs because they are…
MacKinnon, B. (2012). Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues, concise edition. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning
Vaughn, L. (2013). Contemporary moral arguments: Readings in ethical issues. New York: Oxford University Press
Moral choices are endemic to the human condition, but morality must begin with critical, cool, assessment of the world around us.
Thus, teaching morality in an open-ended fashion is key. Students must learn to be effective ethical decision makers. By engaging questions of whether something is right or wrong in a particular scenario, students learn to flex their moral muscles. The teacher need not weigh in as to what answer is correct. In fact, the point of teaching morality is not to teach any correct answers at all, but to force students to ask the right questions. A person who can see two sides of the issue will lay his or her own decisions open to greater moral scrutiny, just as he or she is more apt to question the decisions of others, in a fair and balanced manner.
Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies speaks about the value of selfishness or self-interest. Although "selfishness" might seem negative at first, Rand's explanation makes quite a bit of sense. Rand speaks about selfishness as a rational process in which a person sets his/her hierarchy of values and lives according to those values in order to achieve the moral purpose of life: one's own happiness.
Summary of The Ethics of Emergencies
According to Ayn Rand's The Ethics of Emergencies, the moral purpose of life is to achieve one's own happiness. Describing her belief in Objectivism in 1962, Rand stated, "Man -- every man -- is an end in himself, not the means to the ends of others. He must exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself. The pursuit of his own rational self-interest and of his own happiness is the highest…
Dictionary.com LLC. (2012). Altruism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from thesaurus.com Web site: http://thesaurus.com/browse/altruism?s=t
Peikoff, L. (2012). Malevolent universe premise. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site: http://aynrandlexicon.com/lexicon/malevolent_universe_premise.html
Rand, A. (1964). The Ethics of Emergencies. In A. Rand, & N. Branden, The Virtue of Selfishness (pp. 49-56). New York, NY: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA), Inc.
Rand, A. (2012). Introducing Objectivism. Retrieved on June 10, 2012 from aynrandlexicon.com Web site: http://aynrandlexicon.com/ayn-rand-ideas/introducing-objectivism.html
Similarly, when a member of society becomes too feeble to contribute, leaving them in the snow is deemed the proper solution. Both practices are deemed proper, as they increase the survival chances of the tribe as a whole. Thus, while another society may cringe at the idea of infanticide and leaving the elderly to die, Eskimo societies see the survival of the tribe as the paramount concern.
There are many examples throughout history illustrating the difficulty of judging other cultures by one's own ethical yardstick. Thus, instead of being preoccupied with questions of whose society is superior, moral relativists believe that all actions should be judged within their cultural context. An action such as infanticide, no matter how abhorrent it may seem, may then be an ethical action in a society that values collective survival over the rights of one individual.
Moral Criticisms of the Market
Moral Criticisms Market This assignment requires read article Ken S. Ewert (found eading & Study folder). Note article, Ewert defending free market "Christian Socialists." He states position a rebuttal
Moral criticisms of the market: A critique of Ewert's analysis
It is interesting to read Ken S. Ewert's 1989 criticisms of 'Christian socialists' in light of current debates on other types of economic policies today. Ewert portrays Christian, leftist defenders of socialism as impervious to logic, in contrast to other former critics of capitalism, who grew more acclimated to capitalist principles in light of the failure of the Soviet Union Similar criticisms are made of 21st century religious fundamentalists, who stress the need for private enterprise to address societal problems 'on principle,' even when public regulation might be helpful and who try to define science, including science education, in religious terms rather than in terms of…
Ewert, Kenneth. (1989). Moral criticisms of the market. FEE. Retrieved:
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
They will lose experienced people, putting additional pressure on the rest of the staff, and they will find their staff accomplishes less and is more dissatisfied with their situation. These are very negative traits inside any organization that can help lead to discontent and eventual failure. A bad attitude can spread like wildfire, and the moral leader knows this and treats everyone fairly, no matter where they are in the organizational structure. It is the moral thing to do, but it also makes for a much healthier and happier organization.
Studies indicate that trust and respect play a major role in the function of organizations. Another writer notes, "The results indicated that the combined levels of trust and respect accounted for about three-fourths, yes 75%, of the variance in the amount of learning in a relationship" (Clawson). Thus, trust and respect play a major role in how leaders teach and…
Clawson, James G., "The Moral Foundation of Extra-Ordinary Leadership." SSRN. 2008. 9 April 2008. http://ssrn.com/abstract=910790
Thompson, L.J. "Moral Leadership in a Postmodern World." Ohio State University. 2008. 9 April 2008. http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/Publications/L_Discoveries/LD_2006/Moral%20Leadership%20in%20a%20Postmodern%20World.doc
Moral and Emotional Responses to the Challenge of Thrasymachus
Might makes right. So suggests the character of Thrasymachus in Plato's "Republic." In other words, justice and morality is merely defined by who is stronger. The proper role of morality in both reason and the emotions is dependant simply upon what one wants to do, at that point in time, and how one can best achieve one's objective. In politics, the strongest person defines what is just and moral, because the strongest person will always rule according to the real world laws of the political jungle. Socrates, of course, offers the opposing view, that only the wisest should rule, the philosopher kings of the ideal state, who put subjective emotion aside and rule purely by objective reason. While Thrasymachus suggests that 'the world,' that is the material existence around us (including our emotions) should be the ultimate proving-ground of any moral…
Moral Skepticism and Knowledge
Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge
Morality is a much debated philosophical idea, wherein the arguments range from ethical egoism being the perfect sample of moral ethics to altruism being the perfect -- and otherwise opposite -- viewpoint. Both ideas have strong followings, and ethical egoism along is broadened to even more branches within philosophical studies. There is still much reconciliation to be done between the various problems of philosophical thought and ethical egoism or lack thereof.
Ethical egoism is a particular form of egoism where one who is moral "ought" to do what is in one's self-interest. The morality behind egoism generally points toward the idea of self-interest; that a moral being's moral path is by focusing on one's self. This type of egoism should not be mistaken for psychological egoism, however. Psychological egoism makes a claim that beings act only in their self-interest.…
Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature,. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911. Print.
Jefferson, Thomas. "Letter from Jefferson to Thomas Law." The Founding Faith Archive. 13 June 1814. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. .
Rand, Ayn, and Leonard Peikoff. Atlas Shrugged. New York, NY: Signet, 2007. Print.
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…
Primorac, I. (nd). Is Retributivism Analytic? The Royal Institute of Philosophy. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.royalinstitutephilosophy.org/articles/article.php?id=20
Stern, S. (2003). Discussing the morality of capital punishment. Christian Science Monitor. 12 Nov 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1112/p16s01-usju.html
Townsend, C. (2005). The morality of punishment. Cambridge Papers. 31 May 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/moralityofpunishment.html
Sun Tzu understood that if a country or a culture is to go to war against an enemy, then the leader of that country or culture must have the total support of his people and particularly of his warriors. He describes this phenomenon as the "Moral Law" which he asserts it the first of five "constant factors" in the art of going to war.
Do morality, ethics, or the moral law cause people to be enthusiastically supportive of their leader? First, the answer is yes to the question. Secondly, as to why this is a true statement, when the topic of "moral law" is raised -- in the sense that citizens (and soldiers) are in "complete accord with their ruler…undismayed by any danger" -- it should also be understood that there is another concept very similar to moral law. It is called "nationalism," and according to iconic author…
Dumm, Thomas L. (2006). George W. Bush and the F-Word. South Atlantic Quarterly, 105(1),
Lyon, Grant. (2011). Patriotism vs. Nationalism in a Post 9/11 World. HuffPost. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
SourceWatch. (2008). Treating Dissent as Treason. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.sourcewatch.org .
Moral Messages in Children's Literature
I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.
Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…
Seeing how the Prime Directive should no longer apply, Picard was free to do whatever was necessary in order to save his crewman. However, the advanced technology employed by the aliens forced Picard to argue for the life of Wesley Crusher. His argument centers around the idea that this conflict is over whether or not moral universalism, or moral relativism would apply in the case of Wesley Crusher. Picard argues that the Federation does not interfere with other cultures because they believe that all cultures have equally value and the capacity for development. However, they are dealing with an alien race that is violating that principle. The aliens have decided that their moral universalism is correct for the Edo, and by extension, anyone who visits their planet. But Picard argues, correctly, that each culture must respect the rights of other cultures to develop in their own way. And the Prime…
This term was coined by Abraham Zeleznik and refers to the misplaced focus on the leadership process instead of the people, ideas and emotions. Further, Sergiovanni argues that it is because of this managerial mystique that schools have been unable to capture, and build learning communities from, true leadership. Instead, schools have been obsessed with "doing things right at the expense of doing the right things." For example, school improvement plans became substitutes for improving outcomes. Teacher appraisal systems become substitutes for good teaching. in-service takes the place of changes in practice, congeniality substitutes for collegiality, cooperation moves in over commitment and compliance takes over for actual results. The result is that schools become trained in incapacity, or doing only ones job in isolation as opposed to working as a team and the loss of goals, which therefore leads to a standard of mediocrity.
According to Sergiovanni, the solution…
Sergiovanni, Thomas J. Moral Leadership: Getting to the Heart of School Improvement. New York: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated, 1996.
Within the society today there are different people with their own different behaviors. Some might turn out to be meaningful people but others end up being a bother to the society. This paper will look out moral disengagement in the society.it will explain using behavioral theories why a person is more likely to drop out of the society to become a terrorist as opposed to dropping out to become a hermit or monk.it will also focus on Albert Bandura's model of moral disengagement and explain some techniques that might be used to justify the use of violence by individuals.
Observing the society today more people are getting involved in terrorist behavior as opposed to becoming monks or hermits. The likely hood of an individual becoming a terrorist is high compared to the same individual becoming a monk or hermit. This can be explained using behavioral theories.…
Kathiemm, N. (2010).Moral disengagement -- introduction. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from http://engagingpeace.com/?p=31
Cherry, K. (2012).Introduction to operant conditioning. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…
Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion
Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.
At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.
In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.
As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…
Bevir, M. (2002). SidneyWebb: Utilitarianism, Positivism, and Social Democracy. Journal of Modern History, No. 74. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vm01529.pdf
Bevir, M. And O'Brien, D. (2003, Jan 1). From Idealism to Communitarianism: The Inheritance and Legacy of John Macmurray. History of Political Thought, No. 24. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/95m6q13r.pdf
Carroll, M.J. (2007, Dec). Physical Therapists' Perception of Risk of Violating Laws and Rules Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy and/or Their Personal Moral and Ethical Values when Failing to Provide Treatment for an Uninsured or Underinsured Patient. Graduate College of Bowling Green. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Carroll%20Mark%20J.pdf-acc_num=bgsu1193091796
De Sousa e Brito, J. (2008, Aug 8). From Utilitarianism To Kantism: Bentham's Proof of Utilitarianism, Mill and Kant. ISUS X, Tenth Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4zn812s7.pdf
Moral and Medical Dilemma
As the progression of medical technology has expanded humanity's ability to heal one another directly -- through the process of organ transplants, blood transfusions, and bone marrow exchanges -- several ethical dilemmas have surfaced which impact physicians, patients, and politicians alike. An individual's voluntary decision to donate his or her organs in the event of an unexpected death, and the government's methods for devising an equitable system of distribution for blood and organ transplants are just a few of the increasingly rancorous debates to become associated with cutting-edge medical techniques. Today, with the concept of stem-cell research offering a vast array of seemingly miraculous medical advances, the moral discussion has shifted to cases like that experienced by the Whitaker family, which has been forced to confront an agonizing choice involving their seriously ill son Charlie. In the end, although the Whitakers were able to develop a…
Petersen, J. (2003, June 19). "Designer baby born to uk couple." Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3002610.stm
He is not depriving the pharmacist of his livelihood. He is not depriving another sick individual from having access to the same medication. Harvey only risks getting caught stealing and even if he were caught would be unlikely to spend any time in jail given the extenuating circumstances. Therefore, Harvey should steal the medication from a utilitarian perspective.
Although a duty-based system of ethics would propose that the immorality of stealing can never be justified, it is impossible to prove why Harvey should let his wife die instead. If Harvey did let his wife die, he would have committed a far more insipid act than if he stole.
Knowing that the medication will save his wife's life, Harvey commits a petty crime only. The act of stealing is clearly immoral. However, under the circumstances only an inhumane individual could censure him. Given the tremendous good that would come from Harvey's…
Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.
It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.
Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…
Australian National Audit Office. (2001). Management Framework for Preventing Unlawful Entry into Australian Territory. Report No. 57.
Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. (2001). Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia's response.
Jewkes, Y and Letherby G. (2002). Criminology: A Reader. SAGE Publications Ltd.McMaster, Don (2002). "Asylum Seekers: Australia's Response to Refugees." Melbourne; Melbourne University Press, pp 60
Picketing, Sharon. (2001). "Common Sense and Original Deviancy: News Discourses and Asylum Seekers in Australia," Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2): 169-86.
All of this shows how society looked at women at the time. They were "fragile" and emotionally irrational. They had no power or choice in a relationship, and they were seen as weak and unable to deal with the real world. This narrator may have mental problems, but it seems they came from the way she was treated by her husband and society. It was as if women did not exist. They could not work, many did not even care for their own children, and they had little to live for or strive for. Gilman wrote this story to raise the moral consciousness of readers, and to show the plight of women in Victorian times. The reader has to feel sorry for this narrator - not because she goes mad, but because she was driven to madness by the social and moral beliefs at the time. There is little social…
Moral Consciousness in "The Yellow Wallpaper"
Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is a disturbing look into the moral and social position of women at the time the author wrote it in 1899. The narrator slowly goes mad as the story progresses, and it is easy to see why. She is stuck away in the country while her husband is gone all day, and she has nothing to do and no interests to keep her occupied. A nanny is even raising her baby. She cannot visit others and her husband keeps her nearly a recluse because of her "delicate condition." In reality, she is a strong and vital woman who begins hallucinating because her life is so empty and she is so lonely. He has even convinced her she is sick, and then says he does not really believe it.
The female author wrote this story to show how women were treated in Victorian times. This woman wants to work and participate in her life, but the men around her convince her she is better off doing nothing. Her husband is so controlling that he even makes the decision where they will sleep, even after his wife tells him she does not like the yellow wallpaper in the room he chooses. All of this shows how society looked at women at the time. They were "fragile" and emotionally irrational. They had no power or choice in a relationship, and they were seen as weak and unable to deal with the real world. This narrator may have mental problems, but it seems they came from the way she was treated by her husband and society. It was as if women did not exist. They could not work, many did not even care for their own children, and they had little to live for or strive for. Gilman wrote this story to raise the moral consciousness of readers, and to show the plight of women in Victorian times. The reader has to feel sorry for this narrator - not because she goes mad, but because she was driven to madness by the social and moral beliefs at the time. There is little social justice here, because the husband will just believe he was right, and his wife was crazy. He will not see his own participation in the situation, or how he could rectify it by treating his wife as an equal.
CEO's values influence on mission, vision, and members of an organization
Effective leadership relies on the ethics and morals of the leader. The values expressed by the leader are transposed by his or her actions and are reflected in the organization's results. The mission of the organization is constructed by the leader based on his or her values. Leaders can only run organizations whose mission is to satisfy the leader's values. In other words, the organization's values must be aligned with leaders' values. Otherwise, leaders will not have a sense of fulfillment, and they are likely to consider that the organization does not serve its best and most ethical purposes.
The vision of the organization is also strongly influenced by the leader's values. This is because the vision reflects how the organization's mission will be fulfilled. It is important that the leader constructs an organizational vision that relies…
1. Women Still Underrepresented on Corporate Boards. Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved December 10, 2013 from http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/headlines/rhode_women_2011.html .
She paid good money for tuition and didn't take advantage of her opportunities to learn. She also lost out on increasing her self-esteem in a natural way by rising to meet challenges and doing her best. Instead of feeling proud, she felt guilty. If she confesses to her school, she will probably be kicked out and it will be on her record forever. She is not likely to do that. However, because she is going to be a teacher, herself, she can talk to her students about her experience honestly and have meaningful discussions in her classrooms. She can tell her students that if they get sick, they can call her, and she will make arrangements to postpone the deadline. Jane wishes now that she had got caught the first time she did it -- then, she never would have done it again. So, she can purchase TurnItIn, software designed…
She is striking out on her own in an attempt to make a statement about the way Torvald has treated her, but the reader has to wonder if she will actually have the strength to stay away and not return. The door closes behind her, but the situation is never actually resolved, and it seems Nora may find the outside world too harsh for her to survive, although the play makes it clear she is not afraid to work hard to survive.
The theme of social justice is not as pronounced in this play. Both Nora and Torvald seem like decent people, and so does Mrs. Linde, who wants the family to be honest with each other. Krogstad seems like a shadowy figure that uses his power over Nora to get what he wants, but he reforms in the end. Thus, his consciousness is decent by the end of the…
Moral Meanings of Caring for the Dying
When it comes to taking care of the dying, there is so much to consider. Nurses who care for dying patients are often forced to start seeing the world differently, mostly because they become very close to the people they care for. The article Moral Meanings of Caring for the Dying, by Bouchal, addresses some of that from the personal standpoint and insights of nurses who work in end-of-life care situations. Some of them work with the elderly, but many of the patients are middle-aged and younger people, including children. It can be very hard to care for a dying person, especially if that person is still young, and nurses who do so shed many tears, often crying with the patient and/or the family (Cook, et al., 2012). This is a release for the nurses and the stress they must deal with when…
Cook, K.A., Mott, S., Lawrence, P., Jablonski, J., Grady, M.R., Norton, D., Liner, K.P., Cioffi, J., Hickey, P., Reidy, S., & Connor, J.A. (2012). Coping while caring for the dying child: Nurses' experiences in an acute care setting. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27(4): e11-e21.
Peterson, J., Johnson, M., Halvorsen, B., Apmann, L., Chang, P-C., Kershek, S., Scherr, C., Ogi, M., & Pincon, D. (2010). What is it so stressful about caring for a dying patient? A qualitative study of nurses' experiences. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 16(4): 181-187.
Moral Lessons in Childhood
You are known by the company you keep
Childhood is clouded by a myriad of activities and episodes that stick to peoples' minds even long after the childhood is over into adulthood and even into the elderly times. Each person has several instances that they can recall and look back and feel embarrassed or a bit jilted at the thought that they actually underwent that.
One of the most significant lessons that I learnt in my childhood days was that I will, more often than not be judged according to the company that I keep. I grew up in the rural Texas farms and pretty much and my early childhood life was based in the farm like the other boys and attending the local schools within the neighborhood.
There was a group of boys in our kindergarten class who had formed a habit of sneaking out…
I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.
There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…
Van Arnum, P. (2010). Healthcare reform draws mixed reviews from pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. PharmTech.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Regulation/Healthcare-Reform-Draws-Mixed-Reviews-from-Pharmac/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/662434?contextCategoryId=48563
Criminal laws absolutely prohibit furnishing alcohol to minors, even formally requiring bartenders to check the identification of any patron who appears even slightly older than the legal age for alcohol consumption (Schmalleger 1997). Conceivably, the same absolute standard could easily be applied to drinking in conjunction with driving. Furthermore, when it comes to protecting their own financial interests, bartenders often enforce standards beyond what it required by law: they may prohibit certain forms of attire associated with violent criminal gangs, and they often serve drinks in plastic cups, precisely because they are fully aware of the degree to which alcohol impairs good judgment and that glass bottles and glassware are capable of inflicting much more damage in situations where intoxicated patrons provoke physical altercations.
In fact, bartenders know or should know that the social culture of alcohol consumption, particularly among certain demographic groups, makes it the norm rather than the…
Friedman, L.M. (2005) the History of American Law (3rd Edition).
New York: Touchstone.
Geeting, J. (2003) the Badge: Thoughts from a State Trooper.
Indian Wells, CA: McKenna Publishing Group.
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
Like Midgley, Bailey would expect the company to conduct its opeations and make the same decisions that would be equied in its native society. Moe impotantly, Bailey would likely also ague that the company has a moal duty to espond to the situation even if it wee the case that its native society ecognized no such moal obligation.
Both Bailey and Midgley would pobably equie the company to conside the natue of the hams caused by its poduct and to take easonable measues to pevent those hams completely iespective of any obligation o expectation in that egad by any society. Thei view would be that moality is a matte of objective pinciple and not subjective values and that allowing the types of hams descibed as a esult of pofit-making entepises is always immoal and always imposes a moal obligation, by objective pinciple, on the manufactue to take appopiate measues to…
references to standards of health and well-being (p. 261) to apply the UN principles to this case.
Application of Berlin's Moral Perspective
Berlin offers a perspective that is decidedly unhelpful to the prospect of recognizing objective moral principles. He suggests that wherever two individuals espouse diametrically opposite positions on an issue, it does not necessarily follow that the truth of one view means that the other is untrue (p. 266). Berlin seems to offer a complex justification for moral relativism, largely by focusing on the types of cases where (admittedly) a perfect solution is most difficult. However, he seems not to recognize that these can be regarded as exceptions to general principles that provide the morally preferable (if not necessarily perfect) solution. Therefore, Berlin might argue that nobody likes the idea of street children being harmed by their misuse of the company's product but that virtually any solution to that dilemma would impose harmful consequences on the company, such as by limiting its rights to conduct business manufacturing a legal product.
I would applaud the UN Declaration for its intention, disregard Benedict's, Bailey's, and Berlin's positions, and apply the arguments of Midgley. Certainly, the "perfect" solution may often be impossible, as it might very well be in this case, as pointed out by Berlin. However, it is possible (as demonstrated by the UN Declaration) to recognize and uphold objective moral principles that transcend the facts of any specific case considered in isolation. I would apply the same conceptual approach of the UN Declaration with respect to fundamental rights and freedoms and apply it to two other moral issues: First, that entities may not pursue or perpetuate activities in foreign societies that are expressly prohibited (or that trigger moral obligations reflected in law) in their nations. Second, that entities causing unnecessary harm to any human beings be held morally accountable for those harms and responsible for mitigating them, compensating victims, or, where appropriate, ceasing those activities altogether in light of the magnitude of the harms with which they are associated.
Moral Permissibility of Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia can be described as a perfectly competent patient's appeal and request to be aided in the process of dying. This act is completely voluntary and by the choice of the patient himself due to the medical condition that he or she might be facing. It is a simplistic appeal on part of the patient to be provided with the necessary ways or assistance in putting an end to their own life. There are various methods to go ahead with this process, which may involve giving the patient a certain form of drug, putting a halt to some kind of treatment that the patient was undergoing or any other means of assistance. This form of providing an access to the person to commit suicide is referred to as assisted suicide where the doctor, physician or person in charge aids the person…
Baird, R.M. (1989). Euthanasia: The Moral Issues. Prometheus Books.
Dowbiggin, I. (2003). A Merciful End: The Euthanasia Movement in Modern America. Oxford Univeristy Press.
Gorsuch, N.M. (2006). The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Princeton University Press.
Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, Ethics, and Public Policy: An Argument against Legalisation. Cambridge University Press.
Both Tom and Joe contributed to the deaths of their wives. However, Tom's actions are more severe than Joe's are. In fact, Joe did not actually take any action at all. Tom actually, purposefully, and maliciously administered the poison, whereas in Joe's case, his wife accidentally took the poison herself. Her death can be considered an accidental suicide, whereas Tom's wife's death was an out-and-out murder. Tom's actions were premeditated: he planned the event and executed it in cold blood. Joe's inactivity was incidental. Although he desired to kill his wife, he made no overt plans to do so. He did not actually feed his wife poison, unless he had deliberately switched the container of cream for poison or unless he had placed the poison in the cream. However, if he did not do so, Joe cannot be considered as morally repugnant as Tom. After all, Tom directly…
This moral sense is often bigger and more powerful than us. Some people could call it psychological effect, others might term it differently but the fact remains that if we are doing something wrong, this moral sense would keep nagging us to the point that we would no longer be able to enjoy what we are doing and might eventually starting harming ourselves.
In order to protect ourselves from such negative consequences, its best to make a decision that is free of guilt. In this way, we can enjoy the fruits of our success and live a more happy life in general. This is really what is in our best interest though we might fail to see it at first.
It also pays to study the offer from an objective viewpoint. If someone else were offered this job: what would you suggest? Would you allow the person to take the…
Richard Garrett, the GOLDEN RULE. Presented to the Starr King School for the Ministry, University of California at Berkeley April 12, 2002
Mill, John Stuart. Excerpts from "Utilitarianism" in Philosophical Problems, an annotated anthology by Laurence BonJour and Ann Baker, editors, Pearson education (2005)
Mill, p. 590
Moral Criticism of the Market
I disagree with the author's major premise and conclusion. He contradicts himself by suggesting that the basis of his support for a free market is that it depends on offering something of value to others and that the problem with the dynamics of commercial advertising lies primarily with the individual. The reality of the advertising industry is hardly that it merely increases public "awareness" of available products. In fact, the main effort of commercial advertising is precisely to create the perception of need, even (or specifically) where it is illusory. To use the author's example, by the time someone covets a Mercedes that he sees driving past him on the street, he has already been inundated by years of explicit and implicit messages that the Mercedes symbolizes respect and achievement.
The fashion industry provides an even better example because it no longer exists to fill…
Moral Leadership Chapters
Ultimately, the major message of this chapter is that power needs to be tamed. Unrestricted power is dangerous because it opens up the potential for corruption and abuse. Thus, power, at any level, must have some restrictions in order to tame it so that it reaches a balance that provides positive progressions in the work environment and elsewhere. Winters brings in a historical perspective to show what can happen when power is unchecked, as well as to show the importance for finding a balance of power so that one's leadership leaves a positive message with future generations. Using a historical perspective and consciousness, leaders can restrain power because they have an idea of what has worked and not worked in the past. It is crucial to find a tame balance of power so that it inspires and controls but does not abuse.
There are a number of…