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NASA Budgetary Analysis
As with any massive bureaucratic entity in which thousands of employees work collaboratively on hundreds of individual projects, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) devotes a healthy percentage of its annual budget to maintaining its permanent and temporary workforce. With an annual operating budget of approximately $17.8 billion for fiscal year 2013, calculating the exact amount paid as compensation to employees is a difficult prospect, but using conservative estimates which take into account budget items like Space Operations ($4 billion) and Cross-Agency Support ($2.8 billion), it is likely that NASA spends well in excess of $12 billion per year on salaries, pensions, and other employee-generated costs. This figure aligns with previous estimates made by NASA in fiscal year 2006, when the agency stated in its annual NASA Office of the Inspector General budget request that
"82.7% of the proposed budget is dedicated to personnel…
Calmes, J. (2010). "National aeronautics and space administration: FY 2013 president's budget request summary." Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/659660main_NASA_FY13_Budget_Estimates-508-rev.pdf
U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (2012). Priorities, plans, and progress of the nation's space program (Senate Hearing 112-576). Retrieved from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG - 112shrg76351/html/CHRG-112shrg76351.htm
" (Wong, Desai, Madsen, Ciavarelli, 2005) The notion regarding NASA from outside observers was that the culture within NASA was not reflective of the aforementioned, underlying fabric that governs relationships and unites a workforce toward achieving a common goal.
The practice of change leadership is important to the overall contiguous development and success of programs within NASA. As leadership within successful programs are able to transition to new programs within NASA, new methodologies and a more comprehensive framework that governs and directs the operations of a particular operation become inherent to the operations and administrative fabric of the organization. Management than only needs to ensure that those requiring further training are able to receive training and that process management techniques are adhered to and findings from the results are implemented.
Ostensibly, the human resources deficiency and the design failures that have led to the problems associated with events of disaster…
Backes-Gellner, U. (2004). Personnel economics: An economic approach to human resource management.Germany, Mering: Rainer Hampp Verlag. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/201559236?accountid=13044
BROAD, W.J. (1990, Sep 09). Staff problems threaten NASA's goals, critics say. New York Times, pp. A.1-A.1. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/427805807?accountid=13044
Levine, A.L., Shafritz, J.M., McCurdy, H.E., Lambright, W.H., & Logsdon, J.M. (1992). The future of the U.S. space program: A public administration critique. Public Administration Review, 52(2), 183-183. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/197162435?accountid=13044
Maier, M. (2002). Ten years after A major malfunction...: Reflections on "the challenger syndrome." Journal of Management Inquiry, 11(3), 282-282-292. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203308134?accountid=13044
NASA and the U.S. Space Program
hy did we go through all of the trouble of landing on the moon in the first place?
Going to the moon was more about the culture and events that were occurring during the 1960s than anything else. hen Kennedy announced in 1961 that the U.S. would put a man on the moon, it was more about the Cold ar and showing up the Soviets than merely for scientific discovery. "So we decided to engage in this major scientific and technological endeavor and prove to the world that we were second to none," Roger Launius, the curator of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum stated (Lamb, 2012). Most of the top scientist in the United States were not at all concern with the moon mission and had other priorities that they felt were more important.
Besides the purely political motivations, it could be…
Lamb, R. (2012, October 6). Why Did We Go To the Moon? Retrieved from Discovery News: http://news.discovery.com/space/private-spaceflight/why-did-we-go-to-the-moon.htm
S. In closing consider that our ability to navigate out of one of the world recessions in 0 years is a result of the cash management and global funding concepts attained during space program development (Maitner Jr., Otero, 58, 59). For America to forfeit this lead and allow for the industrialization of space by another nation (Williamson, 406, 407) is to allow these many strengths of our nation to lapse. The bottom line is that for America to retain its leadership in the world and also learn how to manage its increasing complexity from an economic standpoint, the many lessons learned from investing in space exploration and programs are well worth it.
S Arepalli, H Fireman, C Huffman, P Moloney, and et al. "Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Technologies for Spaceflight Applications. " JOM 57.12 (2005): 26-31.
Bielski, L.. "Telepresence: costly, but very cool. " American Bankers Association. ABA Banking…
S Arepalli, H Fireman, C Huffman, P Moloney, and et al. "Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Technologies for Spaceflight Applications. " JOM 57.12 (2005): 26-31.
Bielski, L.. "Telepresence: costly, but very cool. " American Bankers Association. ABA Banking Journal 100.4 (2008): 50-52.
Fischetti, Mark a., and Herbert, Evan. "The Space-Age Materials Challenge/the Art and Science of Ergonomics/Superproject Management" IEEE Spectrum 20.9 (1983): 65-69.
Henry R. Hertzfeld. "Measuring the Economic Returns from Successful NASA Life Sciences Technology Transfers. " Journal of Technology Transfer
NASA Value Chain Analysis
Public / Fundraising
Human Resources Management
NASA Operations Procurement
NASA From an Outsourcing Consultant's Perspective
From an outsourcing consultant's perspective, NASA is absolutely rife for opportunities that could both grow the off-site provider and increase NASA's core competencies and successes.
NASA's vision is "to improve life here, extend life to there, and to find life beyond." Its mission is "to understand and protect our home planet; to explore the Universe and search for life; and to inspire the next generation of explorers." (www.nasa.gov)
Some commentators and critics such as Mark Wade observe that NASA has really reeled from a 'stop-start' approach to its human spaceflight programs. For instance, the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn family of launch vehicles were dumped in 1970 after billions of dollars had been expended on their development. Then in 2004 the…
Reich, R.B. (2005). Plenty of knowledge work to go around. Harvard Business
Debating NASA's Budget and Importance
As the increasingly impotent federal government lurches towards the edge of a self-imposed fiscal cliff, the public and politicians alike have largely accepted the inevitability of deep cuts to the nation's massively inflated budget. hile there is still rancorous debate over exactly how the proverbial belt should be tightened, with conservatives demanding reductions in so-called entitlement programs and liberals countering with decreased military spending, a consensus seems to have emerged regarding the budgetary necessity of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Considered by many symbol of bureaucratic waste, with billions of dollars being devoted to implausible missions and esoteric experiments, NASA has been universally targeted as an expendable asset during economic turmoil. Indeed, the most recent federal budget request for 2013 made by President Barack Obama "cuts NASA's planetary science funding from $1.5 billion to $1.2 billion, with further reductions expected in coming years"…
Calmes, Jackie. "$100 Billion Increase in Deficit Is Forecast." New York Times 01 Feb 2010, A9. Print. .
Foust, Jeff. "Gingrich: NASA sits around and thinks space." Space Politics. 13, 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. .
NPR Staff. "Among The Costs Of War: Billions A Year In A.C. ." National Public Radio. Jun 25, 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2012. .
Rogers, Simon. "Nasa budgets: U.S. spending on space travel since 1958." Guardian [London] 01 Feb 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. .
This report is a review of the article in Scientific America, "A Taste of Weightlessness." As a young child I always wanted to do what the author had the opportunity to do - be an astronaut. Once in space, my visions associated with astronauts has them always smiling as they are sending back pictures of themselves to the world. They are always brushing their teeth in these shots while all the while hovering in mid -- well, is it right to say 'air.'
After a space walk, a successful return trip to earth and a landing somewhere in a Utah salt plain, my vision of a true astronaut has him sitting in the back of a convertible waving to his adoring fans during a nationally televised tickertape parade. Of course, the idea of being an astronaut also entails a congratulations visit to the White House to meet the…
Satleite Today (1999). ESA SEEKS VOLUNTEERS FOR WEIGHTLESSNESS EXPERIMENT. Phillips Publishing, Inc.,.
Wright, Jerry. (n.d.). Astronaut Biographies. Retrieved April 28, 2004, at http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/
Zorpetta, Glenn (1999). A Taste of Weightlessness. Scientific America, 281(5), 26. November 20, 1999.
Throughout history, the idea of modern space travel has captured the human imagination. This began when early astronomers first started looking up at the sky and wondered about the universe. By the 1950s, these ideas became more realistic with development of rockets. This set the stage for a space race between the United States and the Soviet Union. At the heart of these objectives, was to see which nation would be the first to walk on the moon. The Gemini project was critical in helping America to reach these goals. This is despite the short-term costs increases from $161 million to $242.70 million. What was learned during this process set the stage for the U.S. To go to the moon and beyond. Moreover, many of the breakthroughs helped to advance scientific understanding of the universe and the world. These ideas are still being utilized as a foundation for various…
Gemini I. (2000). NASA. Retrieved from: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-1/gemini-1.html
Gemini 2. (2000). NASA. Retrieved from: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-2/gemini-2.html
Gemini 3. (2000). NASA. Retrieved from: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-3/gemini-3.html
Gemini 4. (2000). NASA. Retrieved from: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-iv/gemini-iv.html
NASA and Integrated Financial Management Project
Like most government organizations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) passed through several stages of development and bureaucracy. Upon its creation in 1958, the agency was run with a combination of research freedom and tight management. This combination helped foster a strong, integrated organizational culture within NASA.
Since then, however, NASA has grown into ten separate research agencies situated around the country. Each agency was run as an autonomous unit, with its own vision, research tasks, staff and organizational culture.
The last few years have seen another shift in NASA's organizational culture, as the organization implements "ONE NASA," a plan to move towards a more implemented space organization.
This first part of this paper examines the current structure of NASA, and the problems that are spawned by its fragmented structure. The paper then looks at the goals, obstacles and potential benefits of the…
Bell, Mary F. (2002). NASA's Organization: Introducing NASA Personnel, Programs, and Facilities. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters Department of Public Affairs.
Bromberg, Joan Lisa (1999). NASA and the Space Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Integrated Financial Management Program (2003). IFMP Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 10 February 2003 at http://ifmp.nasa.gov/faq/faq.html.
McCurdy, Howard E. (1993). Inside NASA: High Technology and Organizational Change in the U.S. Space Program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Apollo 13 analysis and diagnosis using the 1995 film "Apollo 13" starring tom hanks
Apollo 13 analysis and diagnosis
The exploration of the space brought a lot of excitement. The super power countries, each has sought to establish its dominance and security by exploring the space. NASA is the United States agency for exploring the space. This report has evaluated the Apollo 13 incident in view of the film that was released of the same. The discussion centers on the two groups that is the ground and space teams.
The exploration of the space began in the late 1950s. It started after the Second World War ended. It was as a result of the United States and the Soviet Union having a cold war (McCray 2013). The space exploration hence provided the arena for this competition. Hence, this was the basis for the need for an organization that…
Gorn, M.H., & Aldrin, B. (2005). NASA: The complete illustrated history. Norwalk, CT: Easton
Goodloe, A.E., Person, S., & International Symposium on Nasa Formal Methods, NFM. (2012).
Nasa formal methods: Third international symposium, NFM 2011, Pasadena, CA, USA,
Summary of work completed
To help ensure that affected personnel had an opportunity to communicate their needs for the solution, a telephonic interview with a work coordinator at Ames Central Travel Office was conducted recently; in addition, this telephonic interview was followed by a personal visit to the Ames esearch Center in order gain a clearer understanding of the current workflow process. The end users of the solution provided very insightful suggestion as to what features they would like incorporated in the system. This meeting was highly productive and helped illuminate the numerous steps that were involved in travel request processing and administration that were unclear or unknown prior to the visit.
Because the software development team for this project is currently working on other initiatives, a meeting has been scheduled with them to discuss the scope and duration of the entire project. Preparatory to this meeting, hard copies of…
Ames fact sheet. (2010). NASA. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/pdf/
Center overview. (2010). NASA. Retrieved from
Challenger Launch Decision
JOE KILMINSTE'S ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CHALLENGE DISASTE
On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, was launched off at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida but exploded 72 seconds after liftoff. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc., an aerospace company, that manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for big clients, including the NASA, and per NASA's urging despite the objection of Morton Thiokol's engineers that the 30-degree F. temperature was inclement to the shuttle's boosters. The launch was a publicized event as NASA's 25th mission and had a selected teacher, Christa McAulifee and six astronauts on board. All these passengers perished (Jennings 1996).
The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. ring assembly in the…
Benner, L. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision by Diane Vaughan. Book Review, International Society of Air Safety Investigators: ISASI Forum. http://www.ipri.org/Reviews/Vaughan.html
Jennings, MM. (1996). Summary of the "Challenger" Episode. Case Studies in Business Ethics, second edition. West Publishing. http://www.calbaptist.edu/dskubik/nasa.htm
Stubley, G. (1998). Engineers and Integrity. The Objectivist Center. http://www.ios.org/tex/gstubley_engineers-integrity.asp
Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA.. Paperback. University of Chicago Press.
Perhaps the Puffin project could be incorporated into the Spaceship 2 project in the future by allowing the six passenger Spaceship 2 craft the unique ability to give individual passengers the option of individual exploration of space or the air.
Technologically speaking, the Spaceship 2 project represents a hybrid of humans' best technologies. Since the ship itself would be carried to high altitudes by the White Knight, it does not have to incorporate any fuel weight into the flight vehicle itself. Considerations like these allow for greater scope of development of the passenger vehicle itself, as well as a roomier, more comfortable experience. The Puffin vehicle, while environmentally friendly, would be difficult to use in space without large fuel sources or solar panels. The technologies that are being developed and tested by NASA and the Ames esearch Center are more forward-looking.
These future technologies include ion engines, which would…
Ames Research Center (2011). "Advanced Propulsion." White paper found online July
22, 2011 at:
NASA (2011). "NASA Issues Announcement For Solar Electric Propulsion Studies."
In addition, the Rogers Commission made specific recommendations related to these issues. They suggested that NASA restructure its management system, including bringing astronauts into management positions, which will increase attention to flight safety issues. They suggested a full examination of all critical systems before conducting any more shuttle launches. They were instructed to establish an Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality control. These suggestions bring safety back to prominence in decision-making, and should downplay the effect of pressure to meet deadlines (Harwood, 1986).
The Rogers Commission also criticized NASA's communications and instructed them to devise ways that information flows from bottom to top as well as from top to bottom. In addition they expressed concern about a tendency for management to be somewhat isolated from others, further interfering with communication (Harwood, 1986). If middle management had been able to communicate effectively with upper levels in 1986, the GDSS would have…
Eberhart, Jonathan. 1986. "Challenger disaster muddles NASA's future." Science News, March 15.
Editorial. 2003. "Bad News Rising." Air Safety Week, Feb. 17. (Editorial, 2003)
Forrest, Jeff. 1995. "The Challenger Shuttle Disaster," in Aviation & Aerospace. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/05. http://frontpage.hypermall.com/jforrest/challenger/challenger_sts.htm
Harwood, William. Voyage Into History. CBS, 1986. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/04. http://www.cbsnews.com/network/news/space/51Lintro.html
This lead was accomplished through a partnership nearly a half-century old among government, industry and academia. I member of that partnership was the National Science Foundation (NSF). As Strawn noted, early on, scientists and engineers at American universities began to join the young APANet, as they worked on basic research funded primarily by the NSF. Acknowledging this, the NSF began supporting national supercomputing centers, in the mid-1980s, as a means of giving American scientists, engineers, and students greater access to high-performance computing that was state of the art, and developed Computer Science Network (CSNET).
Creation of these national supercomputer centers by NSF was critical to the development of the Internet. To further enhance U.S. scientists' access to these centers, NSF established the NSFNET national backbone network that connected the NSF supercomputing centers to U.S. universities. NSF also promoted the creation of regional networks to connect colleges and universities to the…
Bellis, M. Inventors of the Modern Computer. 2007. About.com. November 7, 2007 http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa091598.htm .
Brief History of the Internet. 10 Dec 2003. Internet Society. November 7, 2007 http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml .
Cold War. 2003. National Park Service. November 7, 2007 http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/cold-war.htm .
DARPA Over the Years. 27 Oct 2003. DARPA. November 7, 2007 http://www.darpa.mil/body/overtheyears.html .
Aviation Project - SpaceX
The current aerospace technologies being built and flown by the private commercial company known as SpaceX (from California) have a remarkable record of success thus far. The "Dragon," which is the cargo capsule built by SpaceX, put into orbit by the Falcon 9 launch rocket, delivered its second load of supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on Sunday, March 3 (Segal, 2013). The SpaceX contract with NASA is for a total of twelve cargo missions to the ISS over the coming years; the first Dragon cargo ship was launched and delivered supplies to the International Space Station in October, 2012. The un-manned Dragon is designed to carry supplies to and from the ISS, and it is the first privately built commercial spacecraft to handle those chores -- or conduct any space-related activities per se. NASA contracted with SpaceX in 2008 after NASA had retired its…
Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.
Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.sen.com .
Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC
News. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com .
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…
Hurricanes and NASA Problems
Finding the Distance to Stars Using the Parallax Angle
Given the above equation and information provided, about how far away is HT Cas?
Your answer was calculated in parsecs. Given that 1 parsec = 3.2616 light years, about what is the distance to HT Cas in light years? (Your answer in parsecs X 3.2616 light years = The Distance to HT Cas in light years).
217 light years
434 light years
219 light years
Based on your answer, do you think this is a star that we might be able to send a space probe to? Why or why not? Support your answer.
1,287,418,956,726,420 After reviewing some information about probes, I do not think this star is one that we might be able to send a probe to. Voyager 1 is the probe that has gone the furthest in…
Barnes, G. (2009). Hurricanes and the equator. www.soest.hawaii.edu / Retrieved from https://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/hurricanes.html
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.
Warmer temperatures mean more energy in the climate system
1. Warmer oceans and air current mean more violent and frequent hurricanes
2. More frequent and harsher rainstorms may cause flooding
B. Overall changes to weather patterns could be devastating
1. Ocean and air temperatures and current create weather
2. Disrupting these temperatures/currents would lead to major weather changes in many regions of the world, destroying ecosystems
VII. Effects of Global Warming: Melting Ice and ising Oceans
A. In addition to warming, ocean levels will rise
1. Melting ice sheets will cause higher oceans and flooding on continents
2. ising oceans destroy many coastal lands
B. ising oceans and water levels will have severe regional effects on weather
VIII. Effects of global Warming: Animals
A. Many animals are already changing the regions they inhabit
1. As temperatures change, so do ecosystems, and shifting animal populations reflect this
2. Global warming trends…
Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html
Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html
JunkScience (2007). "The real 'inconvenient truth'." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/
NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
Too often, important issues are overlooked because people fail to realize that there are deeper concerns that are not being considered. When managers address problems, they have to frame them the right way, so anyone they communicate with sees the value of what they are trying to say and the goals they are attempting to reach (Bazerman & Moore, 2008). This was something that can and should have been done with the Challenger disaster, but that was not done. A significant number of lives were lost because of that, and that could have really been avoided with proper communication and framing techniques on the part of both NASA and the engineers at Morton-Thiokol. What happened with the shuttle that day was tragic, and many argued that it was unavoidable.
However, it was actually an avoidable issue that appeared to be brought on simply by improperly framed communication. Framing has to…
Bazerman, M.H. & Moore, D.A. (2008). Judgment in managerial decision making. NY: Wiley.
Pinkus, R.L. (1997). Engineering ethics: Balancing cost, schedule, and risk. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Objects in Space
Many objects move around in space that proves to be a threat to the planet earth and its components. There is a chance of collision in relation to the number of objects in the space thus the need to adopt and implement preventive or tracking measures towards minimization of the effects. One of the effects of the collision of the numerous objects moving in the space is death of the humanities in extreme circumstances. Luckily, for the development of human beings, space is empty. It is also essential to note there is critical information or knowledge on the locations of the large objects in the space. This makes the chances of DS1 hitting any object accidentally to be very slim. Despite this essence, there are small objects in the space that eludes the knowledge the humanity in relation to the exact location. This makes DS1 to be…
"Asteroid Detectives." New Scientist 217.2906 (2013): 5. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8
Simonov A., et al. "Asteroid Hazard, Real Problems and Practical Actions." Solar System
Research 45.7 (2011): 577-583.
Curious Case of Gary McKinnon
There is much controversy with regard to information in the digital age and Gary Mckinnon's case is especially intriguing when considering this discussion. The Scottish hacker is charged of having hacked into a U.S. database containing information stored on around one hundred computers owned by the U.S. military and by NASA. Mckinnon committed these activities between 2001 and 2002 and faced over ten years of judicial battles against extradition until 2013. In addition to the problematic implications of his crime, the case was even more difficult to address because of the U.K.'s reluctance to extradite the hacker.
hen discussing this case, it is essential to consider the gravity of the situation, taking into account that McKinnon willingly acted against the U.S. military and NASA at the time when he accessed and stole files from the two institutions. Such an act is a direct affront to…
Bassiouni, M.C. (2014). "International Extradition: United States Law and Practice." Oxford University Press.
Curtis, G. (2011). "The Law of Cybercrimes and Their Investigations." CRC Press.
Slack, J., & Semark, M. "Spotlight falls on Starmer: Will Director of Public Prosecutions now order Gary McKinnon to face UK court on hacking charge?." Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2218872/Gary-McKinnon-extradition-U.S.-outrage-hacker-wont-American-authorities.html
Wall, D. (2007). "Cybercrime: The Transformation of Crime in the Information Age." Polity.
hile hard facts, such as Venus' circumference, diameter, and distance from the sun are relatively easy to determine, historical and future implications of the planet and its study are not as simple to calculate. Two of the most important facts that we don't yet know about the planet Venus are the significance of its historical positioning and its implications for earth's atmospheric problems.
According to Ev Cochrane's study into the ancient solar system, the regularity with which the system now moves around the sun is a "recent development." In the ancient world, instead, Cochrane suggests that observers noted a different type of solar system. The discrepancies between the two solar systems has largely to do with the planet Venus. According to Cochrane, Venus' movement into its current orbit was recent, and this movement created solar side effects that may be important to the current development of the solar system. hile…
Cochrane, Ev. "The Many Faces of Venus: The Planet Venus in Ancient Myth and Religion." n.d. Aeon Journal. 12 August 2008. Aeon Journal. http://www.aeonjournal.com/venus.htm .
Japan Plans 2007 Mission to Venus." 2 May 2001. NASA. 12 August 2008. NASA. http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/news/expandnews.cfm?id=805.
Missions to Venus." 2008. The Planetary Society. 12 August 2008. The Planetary
Society. http://www.planetary.org/explore/topics/venus/missions.html .
Technology & Logistics
The author of this report has been asked to answer a fairly general but intriguing question. That question asks the author of this report to define how technology can improve the management of global logistics. Of course, technology can be used to improve logistics in any number of ways. However, the author of this report will center on a few in particular. Indeed, the use of barcodes, networking technology, wireless technology and voice recognition technology are just a few ways and manner in which technology can be used and leveraged to achieve more efficient and error-free logistical performance. While this technology can be daunting and complex, the results garnered from using them effectively is obvious and easy to see.
One example of how technology can aid logistics is through "hidden" barcodes. Most everyone is familiar with the UPC codes used in retail stores to tie an…
Albright, B. (2002). New technology reads 'hidden' bar codes. Frontline Solutions,
Cross, C.S., (2007). Everything but the kitchen. Industrial Engineer, Norcross, 39(4),
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…
Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html
Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? www.SPACE.com. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/10677-challenger-tragedy-overview.html
Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/critical/roy.htm
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
Ideas worth Spreading
Nina Jablonski breaks the illusion of skin color (TED2009, 2009)
Nina Joblonski opens by commenting on Darwin's pigmentation and his upbringing. She further speaks of his voyage on the Beagle and his interest in the pigmentation of humans. Darwin did not believe that there was any correlation to skin pigmentation and climate. However, Joblonski points out that if Darwin had access to NASA satellites that he may have come to a different conclusion. One of NASA's satellites has capabilities to monitor the Earth's radiation close to the surface. As a result, researchers today have been able to study skin pigmentation and the exposure to solar radiation and find that there is a perfect gradient and strong correlation between the two.
Therefore, skin color is a product of evolutionary forces as human adapted to their environments and their skin adapt to the levels of radiation that…
This image is of the galactic center, which is the center of the Milky Way. The photograph is taken using infrared light, which changes the appearance of dust particles so that they do not obscure the image. As Wright (2003) points out, the universe is filled with dust, which tends to block the light being emitted from light-giving objects like stars. The composition of most galactic dust includes carbon, silicon, and oxygen (Wright, 2003). The dust can grow in molecular clouds, and are created in the atmosphere of red-giant stars that are cooling off (Nemiroff & Bonnell, 2006).
Infrared allows the exposure of rays that are beyond what the naked eye can see. These rays are beyond or below the red part of the color spectrum, which is why the technology is called "infrared." Below infrared rays are microwave and radio waves. Although not visible to the human…
Cain, F. (2014). What's at the center of our galaxy? Universe Today. Retrieved online: http://www.universetoday.com/109015/whats-at-the-center-of-our-galaxy/
"Discovery of Infrared," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/ir_tutorial/discovery.html
Nemiroff, R. & Bonnell, J. (2006). The galactic center in infrared. Retrieved online: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060716.html
Wright, E.L. (2003). Astronomy picture of the day. Retrieved online: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030706.html
However, unlike other spiral galaxies found scattered throughout the universe, the black hole which is assumed to exist in the center of the Milky Way galaxy is dormant and is not "actively feeding," meaning that it is not currently swallowing up material for some unknown reason. Almost from the beginning of astronomical observations of galactic bodies in the universe, it has always been thought that "the more massive the bulge, the more massive the black hole" which has led scientists and astronomers to reason that "somehow the formation and growth of galaxy bulges and their central black holes are intimately connected." ut in 2003 when the Spitzer Space Telescope began to be utilized to collect infrared data from a number of different types of galaxies, scientists discovered that thin or slender galaxies which lack prominent central bulges did indeed contain supermassive black holes.
During a recent study with the Spitzer…
Even Thin Galaxies Can Grow Fat Black Holes." Science Daily. Internet. January 16, 2008. Retrieved at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080114083851.htm .
', the prime Apollo 1 command and service modules contractor. A task force review was conducted and headed up by Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director. Phillips conducted an extensive investigation of the management of the contractor on programs and recommended remedial action for North American Aviation, Inc.
J. Budget Impacts at NASA
It is reported that NASA did not feel effects from the accident budget-wise of the 1967 fiscal year however the Apollo 204 accident "therefore, will appear in future years as is evidenced bit the increase in the total runout cost estimate for the Apollo program." (eport of Apollo 204 eview Board-- NASA Historical eference Collection) Findings of the Apollo eview Board of the Apollo accident reported having "…determined that the test conditions at the time of the accident were 'extremely hazardous by either NASA of the contractor prior to the accident." (eport of Apollo 204 eview Board--…
Hill, William C. (2000) Final Report: Inspection of Apollo 1/204 Hardware. September 2000. Retrieved from: http://www.xmission.com/~jwindley/bibhill.html
Report of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences United States Senate with Additional View. 30 Jan 1968 Apollo 204 Accident. 90th Congress 2d Session. Report No. 956. Retrieved from: http://klabs.org/richcontent/Reports/Failure_Reports/as-204/senate_956/index.htm
Hill, William C. (2000) Final Report: Inspection of Apollo 1/204 Hardware. September 2000. Retrieved from:
There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)
onald eagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is…
Administrator Goldin issues statement on Tenth Anniversary of Challenger Observance.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 16, 1996. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/administrator.html
Baura, Gail D. Engineering ethics, an industrial perspective.
Academic Press. 2006.
" he spectacular effect achieved by the Russians therefore had a significant effect upon the minds of citizens around the globe (Dick, March 24).
he financial and political implications of the Apollo program became significant once the president made the decision to commit the United States to a Lunar landing. It was important to the president to set a goal that his country had a good chance of achieving before the Soviet Union. After a definite decision for the launch of the project was made, further important issues of politics and financing became deciding factors in the growth and development of the program.
he decision proved to be sound if the reaction of the nation could be used as a measure of effectiveness. he American imagination was captured, and they lent overwhelming support for Kennedy's decision to sponsor the moon landing. In the eyes of the nation, difficulty, expense and…
Transcript of Presidential Meeting in the Cabinet Room of the White House. Topic: Supplemental appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 21 November 1962.
Webb, James E. Letter to President Kennedy. October 29, 1962. NASA History
An ongoing concern at the NASA Ames esearch Center pertains to the human factors in the safety of aviation, which was considered to a great extent during the development of the ASS. The data analysts, who are principally experts in air traffic control and aircraft operations, give insight relating to the nature of human errors and other fundamental factors regarding the incidents. Even though the reports are encoded in detail, the entire narrative text of all the reports is preserved, in case they are needed for evaluation at a later stage. (Office of Technology Assessment, United States Government Printing Office, 1988)
The effectiveness with which the data is collected and stored by a program like ASS is just one part of the reporting side of the incident. More important is the potency of the feedback loop, of the reporting system, to the industry and the reporters to whom its serves.…
N.A. (n. d.) "ASRS: The Case for Confidential Incident Reporting Systems"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/docs/rs/60_Case_for_Confidential_Incident_Reporting.pdf
N.A. (n. d.) "Aviation Safety Reporting System: Program Briefing"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
Human interaction with Glass Cockpit & computerized flight systems
Human interaction with computerized flight systems is viewed by many as the "Achilles heel" in modern commercial flight. hile pilots as the ultimate end-users must bear the responsibility for the systems under their control, it is the designers who must shoulder the burden for taking into account the human factors likely to cause confusion. How information is displayed has a tremendous impact on how it is interpreted. Indeed, graphical displays and glass cockpits are here to stay -- but so too are human pilots."(Krell)
The purpose of this paper is to explore an emerging technology known as the glass cockpit and to seek to explain the human factors that influence the implementation of this technology. This discourse will describe the theoretical issues of the glass cockpit technology and the human factors associated with the invention and subsequent implementation of the technology.…
Future Video Aircraft Recorder. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:WAx8zvYMdJcC:www.ntsb.gov/events/symp_rec/proceedings/authors/horne.pdf+benefits+of+the+glass+cockpits&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Incident and Accident Review. http://www.nlr.nl/public/hosted-sites/ecottris/incacc.htm
Perils of the Glass Cockpit. http://www.npl.com/~tkrell/writings/aviation/glass-cockpit.html
computers in space science. Specifically, it will look at the roles computers have in current space technology and how they have effected the lives of everyone in the world. Without computer technology, space science would be confined to the ground, and man's imagination. efore large-scale computing was developed, the technologies necessary to design, build, and maintain a space program simply did not exist. Computers have made it possible to explore the moon, stars, and beyond.
Computers in Space Science
Computers play an integral role in the science of space, and without them most of modern space exploration would not be possible. As the NASA report, "Computers at NASA" states, "Since the 1950's, the computer has been the main tool that has enabled scientists and engineers to visualize the next frontier and then make it a reality" (NASA). NASA employs literally thousands of computers throughout the world to monitor, design, and…
Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/news/factsheets/computers.pdf
Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop." Bright Magazine. 2001. 29 Oct. 2003. http://journalism.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/magazine/bright/brightlite/peer4.html.
Dubinski, John. "Cosmology." Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. 26 June 1997. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/webpages/CITA/annrep96/node20.html
Editors. "Hubble's Computers and Automation." HubbleSite. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003. http://hubble.stsci.edu/sci.d.tech/nuts_.and._bolts/spacecraft_systems/#comp
Apollo Program on Technology
Some people do not understand the space program. They consider it an indulgence with little to add to the practical world. What they fail to consider is that the space program has facilitated much of the science that is responsible for today's technological advances. In fact, putting aside anything that the space program has contributed to the knowledge of the universe as a greater system, it is still clear that the space program has made significant contributions to modern technology. In order to explore the relationship between the space program and technological innovation, this paper will examine the impact of the Apollo Program on modern technology. Discoveries made as part of the Apollo Program have led to advances and changes across a wide swath of modern technology; literally changing the face of modern America. Furthermore, these changes would not have been likely with the information garnered…
Bravo Technical Resources, Inc. (2010). Tales from IT history: The Apollo missions and tech innovation. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from Bravo Tech website: http://www.bravotech.com/news-amp-events/industry-news/tales-from-it-history-how-the-apollo-missions-helped-change-the-world/
Gaudin, S. (2009, July 20). NASA's Apollo technology has changed history. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from Computerworld website: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9135690/NASA_s_Apollo_technology_has_changed_history
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2007). Benefits from Apollo: Giant leaps in technology. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from NASA website: http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/466723main_NasaFacts_508c.pdf .
Sadeh, E. (Unk.). Societal impacts of the Apollo program. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from Astrosociology.com website: http://www.astrosociology.com/Library/PDF/Impacts_Sadeh.pdf
Ample scientific evidence exists to demonstrate that global warming is an authentic and unequivocal threat to the globe, to nations around the world, and to society in developed countries. Climatologists have found evidence of seven cycles of glacial retreat and advance over the past 650,000 years ("NASA," 2012). Notably, the beginning of the era of the climate we experience today is estimated to have occurred 7,000 years ago when the last ice age ended ("NASA," 2012). Scientists assert that these earlier climate changes were caused by changes in the solar energy that Earth receives as a result of its orbit ("NASA," 2012). However, the current global warming is not a natural event since it has been induced and worsened by human activity ("NASA," 2012). Moreover the rate of global warming in unprecedented over the past 1,300 years as substantiated by scientifically validated geological and climatological records, and by…
____. (2012). Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved http://climate.nasa.gov /evidence/
____. (2012). Stop Global Warming. Greenpeace. Retreived http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/global-warming-and-energy/
The report identifies NASA as "working with an unrealistic set of flights" (Cases Study. N.D.); timelines "which were retained and increased pressure to meet schedules by senior NASA managers" (Case Study. N.D.). The Challenger disaster was marked by the reality that
"NASA had found evidence that O-rings had allowed hot exhaust to burn through a primary seal. Since 1982 the O-rings had been designated a "Criticality 1" issue. Indeed, a January shuttle launch in cold weather just a year earlier had shown significant burn through of the O-rings. The day before the Challenger launch, engineers at orton Thiokol, a NASA contractor, raised concerns that the frigid temperatures at Cape Canaveral would cause the shuttle's rocket booster "O-rings" to fail -- which would mean catastrophe for the shuttle. Just hours before liftoff, Thiokol engineers were recommending that the launch be delayed. After hours of discussion, NASA pressed forward with the launch…
Much like the Challenger incident the CAIB report finds "NASA management practices to be as much a cause of the accident as the foam that struck the left wing 81 sec into flight. These practices included: allowing the shuttle to fly with known flaws, blocking the flow of critical information up the hierarchy, and inadequate safety monitoring" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010). As with the O-ring on Challenger, a seemingly minor technical issue was the problem. "Foam had been falling off the tank since the very first shuttle flight, and NASA had long been trying to fix it. But in each case, NASA decided it was okay to keep flying. Over time, this led to a significant understating or a collective ignoring of an actual risk" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010).
Clearly, there were systemic organizational issues which confronted NASA over the course of several decades which led to the two disasters however, what specifically went wrong and more importantly how could these areas have been addressed?
At the core of both of these incidents was an organizational inertia "reflecting missed opportunities, blocked or ineffective communication channels, flawed analysis, and ineffective leadership" (Case Study. N.D.). After the Challenger flight the Rogers report's "recommendations included that NASA restructure its management to tighten control, and set a group dedicated to finding and tracking hazards in regard to shuttle safety" (Case Study. N.D.). Yet, after the Columbia disaster, the CAIB report found that "though NASA underwent many management reforms in the wake of the Challenger accident…the agency's powerful human space flight culture remained intact, as did many practices…such as inadequate concern over
Gemini Space Program
The Gemini mission had as one of its goals a spacewalk by the astronauts and this was an important goal because this was a time known as the 'Cold War' and the Soviet Union, the second greatest power in the world had already had astronauts perform a spacewalk. The United States was running behind it seemed at the time. . Due to the brief nature of this study there are contributions that the Gemini space program made that have not been reviewed and it is therefore suggested that in order to better understand the contributions of the Gemini space program that a more in-depth study be conducted.
Gemini Space Program
The Gemini mission had as one of its goals a spacewalk by the astronauts and this was an important goal because this was a time known as the 'Cold War' and the Soviet Union, the second greatest…
Gemini Program (nd) Think Quest Library. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/29033 / voyages/gemini.htm
Space Rendezvous Apparatus and Method. 3,262,654. United States Patent Office. Charles E. Kaempen 3202 Larkstone Drive, orange, California. Filed August 30, 1963 Ser, No. 305, 630. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT3262654&id=A-1xAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=Gemini+Space+Program:+rocket+booster&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false
Mack, P.B., Lucuance, P.A., Vose, G.P. And Vogt, F.B. (1967) BONE DEMINERALIZATION OF FOOT AND HAND OF GEMINI-TITAN IV, V AND VII ASTRONATUS DURING ORBITAL FLIGHT. American Journal of Roentgenology. Vol. 100, 503-511. Retrieved from: http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/3/503
Adcock, George (2010) Gemini Space Program -- Development and Decisions. RC Davison. 10 Jan 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.brighthub.com/science/space/articles/17994.aspx
NASA was operating as an authoritarian and hierarchical organization.
Owen Garriot was an exception to the rule of regimentation in the sense that he brought a lighthearted attitude to the workplace environment. Garriot's "excitement," "enthusiasm" and "zealousness" made him a sort of unintentional leader for the Skylab 3 crew (p. 6). Thus, the astronauts were only able to create a circle network because of their extreme isolation -- from planet earth.
Unlike the second Skylab, the third was comprised of a team of rookies. Moreover, "none of the third crew shared any close personal connections with the first two crews," (p. 7). The problems in communication and lack of teamwork led the third crew to "play down the adverse effects of space travel to protect NASA's funding for future space programs," (p. 7). A lack of camaraderie solidified the wheel-chain combination strategy that NASA had come to rely upon as…
Hubble Space Telescope
As the world's first Earth-orbiting reflecting telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) represents the culmination of the dreams of many astronomers and the fulfillment of a hope that began in the 1950's when the United States launched instruments into space in order to study the Earth's atmosphere. Our planetary speck in space, namely the Earth, is only one of hundreds of billions of planets that surely orbit other star systems; our Milky Way galaxy, composed of billions of stars and other astronomical bodies, is but one out of billions of other galaxies. Thus, in order to increase our knowledge of the universe, the Hubble Space Telescope serves a vital function, for since its launch in 1990, despite several crucial problems, it has revealed a universe full of mysterious bodies, nebula, star systems and galaxies and has expanded the possibilities that humankind is not alone in the universe.…
"Eye on the Universe: The Hubble Space Telescope." Internet. HST Update: October 29, 1997. Accessed April 18, 2005. http://www.thetech.org/exhibits/online/hubble .
"Hubble Space Telescope." Internet. Encyclopedia.com. 2005. Accessed April 18, 2005.
Nemiroff, Robert. "Astronomy Picture of the Day." Internet. Accessed April 18, 2005.
Global warming is one of the most contentious political issues of our times. It was famously dramatized in Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth, and remains a hot-button topic of debate. The majority of unbiased, legitimate scientific research supports the existence of human-generated global warming, although the question of what to do to slow the rate of escalating temperatures remains far from settled in the arena of politics. According to one recent review of major scientific publications, 97-98% of "the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field & #8230; supported the basic tenets of ACC (manmade global warming) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" (Blakemore 2012).
The earth's climate and temperature has always been unstable, and there have been periods when overall temperatures have increased or decreased in the earth's history, before modern industrialization. But climate changes after the Industrial Revolution, particularly those since the 1980s, have been…
"2012 Chevy Volt." Official website. [23 Apr 2012] http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/
Blakemore, Bill. "Global warming denialism just foolishness." ABC News. [23 Apr 2012]
"Causes." NASA. [23 Apr 2012] http://climate.nasa.gov /causes/
Search for Extraterrestrial Life: The Existence of Non-Human Intelligent Beings in Our Galaxy
The possibility of extraterrestrial life has always intrigued philosophers, scientists, theologians and even lay people for centuries. The fascinating question of whether there are other intelligent creatures in space, however, remains unsolved despite technological advancements in science particularly because thus far, there still lacks conclusive evidence. Motivations for the search for non-human life range from scientific and philosophical levels, technical and practical levels, to even the need to eliminate the loneliness of the human race in time and space. Scientists and astronomers remain committed to the search because the answer to this question has profound consequences: it will explain the nature and destiny of intelligent life on the universe, the culmination of evolution in different galaxies and provide more insight on the role of human beings on the universe, as well as what they are capable of…
Aczel, A. D (1998). Probability 1. Florida: Harcount, Inc.
Drake, F. (1988). The Search for Extraterrestrial Life. Los Alamos Science Fellows Colloquium. Retrieved 3 June 2015 from http://permalink.lanl.gov/object/tr?what=info:lanl-repo/lareport/LA-UR-88-1000-04
Hawkin, S. (n.d). Life in the Universe. Retrieved 3 June from http://www.hawking.org.uk/life-in-the-universe.html
Kelly, M. (2012). Expectation of Extraterrestrial Life Built More on Optimism than Evidence, Study Finds. Princeton University Library. Retrieved 3 June 2015 from http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S33/52/89I01/
They could do it time and time again with success. The first electric car was used on the moon during the Apollo 14 (Endeavor and Falcon) mission (Kennedy Space Center).
Meanwhile in Russia
hile the space program in the United States was busy becoming a popular culture icon, the Russian space program took on a different personality. They still launched missions for "national prestige" (ade). However, the majority of Soviet missions were for military purposes. The Soviet economy played a major role in space efforts. The soviet economy was planned in five-year increments, with long-range military plans being made for the next ten years (ade). This significantly affected the pace of space program development. The Russian space plan was slow to react to American successes.
First generation Soviet launchers had poor reliability. The ten-year plan for the second generation was not approved until 1976 (ade). Third generation plans were approved…
Aerospace. A Brief History: Space Exploration. Last Modified: January 21, 2005. http://www.aero.org/education/primers/space/history.html . (Accessed October 30, 2008).
Angleo, J. Space Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2003.
CNN.com. India launches first moon mission. October 22, 2008. CNN.com/Technology. http://www.cnn.com /2008/TECH/space/10/22/india.space/index.html (Accessed October 29, 2008).
Grayzeck, E. Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM). NSSDC ID: 1970-029A. National Space center Data Center. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1970-029A (Accessed October 29, 2008).
There are few Carl Sagans in the world today. Sagan was a dynamic scientist whose discussions about the universe were conveyed an excitement about the unknown and the opportunities for exploration that was contagious. There is a weighty apathy that permeates the American collective that needs to be reinvigorated with the excitement, hope, pride and enthusiasm of yesterday. It is perhaps time to move beyond the shuttle and space station programs, and time for more in depth exploration and colonization of the moon with an eye towards that as a jumping off point for a manned mission to Mars. It is time for NASA to be innovative, and to think of tomorrow by encouraging and attracting the youth of today - perhaps with video games that incorporate the science of space exploration and development. One never knows what untapped young genius might become the next great space explorer.
Apollo 11 Remembered." The Washington Times 20 July 1999: 20. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001794564 .
Ruffo, C. Christine. "Before This Decade Is out.": Personal Reflections on the Apollo Program." The Oral History Review 28.2 (2001): 149+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001045457 .
NASA (2003), Voyager the Intestellar Mission, found online at http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/goldenrec.html , retrieved 2 December 2007.
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).
Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).
Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.
Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1323649
Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005091320344.html
EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/Access_to_Data/index.htm?l=en
Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…
Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html
Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ
O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html
Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing…
Ashford, D.M. (1984). Space tourism: Key to the universe? Journal of Spaceflight, 26(4), 123-
Bono, P. (1973). The reusable booster paradox: Aircraft technology or operations? Journal of Space Flight, 9(3), 379-387.
Broz, T.A. (1985). NASA administrator rules out shuttle for space tourism. Commerce on Space Tourism, 9(8), 68-77.
Gerard, M. & Jefferson, P. (1998). International cooperation in space: New government and industry relationships. Journal of Space Exploration, 9(5), 27-39.
To succeed in a highly dynamic and competitive environment, business organizations must effectively execute their planning activities. They must judiciously formulate their long- and short-term goals and objectives. This ensures better anticipation of the ever uncertain future (Hill & Jones, 2013). Effective planning also ensures better utilization of organizational resources (Wittman & Reuter, 2008). With reference to Galaxy Toys, an American toy manufacturing company, this paper explores the planning process. In the first part, a SWOT analysis of the company is provided, along with a choice and justification of the best long-term planning decision for the company. In the second part, the paper differentiates between goals and objectives based on a formulated list of goals and objectives.
Part One: SWOT Analysis and Long-Term Planning
Founded in 1956 by George Jepson and his wife, Galaxy is involved in designing, manufacturing, and selling space-themed children's toys primarily in the U.S. The company…
The pool of qualified candidates immediately dropped from a little over five hundred to less than seventy. Of this number, many were eliminated because they could not endure the various physical and mental tests and the medical exams required. The number finally dwindled down and seven astronauts who are today known as the Mercury Seven were chosen. The Mercury Seven consisted of Alan Shepard Jr., Virgil Grissom, John Glenn Jr., Malcolm Carpenter, alter Schirra Jr., Leroy Cooper Jr., and Donald Slayton.
e are familiar with cause and effect and causal arguments. This being the case, it is undeniable that the mercury astronauts possessed special qualities that caused them to be chosen for the Mercury Project. NASA only needed a few qualified men for this project and had they stayed with the original criteria, it is possible that they might have chosen men that met some or most of the guidelines,…
Wolfe, Tom. The Right Stuff. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979.
hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…
Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm
History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2
Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
it's a combination of efforts from NASA and Disney Imagineering that make it so popular for kids and adults (Houston Space Center).
With the behind-the-scenes journey through NASA's Johnson Space Center, you may visit the Historic Mission Control Center, the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, Training Facilities, or the current Mission Control Center. You may even get to see astronauts training for upcoming missions.
The Level Nine Tour, for die-hard space fans, takes you behind the scenes to see the real world of NASA up close and personal. On this four-hour tour you will see things that only the astronauts see. You even get to eat what and where they do (Greene).
Greene, Nick. "Space Center Houston - Visiting Johnson Space Center." n.d. about.com. 3 Apr 2009 .
"Houston Space Center." 2008. Destination 360. 3 Apr 2009 .
Thackston, David. "The history of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas…
Greene, Nick. "Space Center Houston - Visiting Johnson Space Center." n.d. about.com. 3 Apr 2009 .
"Houston Space Center." 2008. Destination 360. 3 Apr 2009 .
Thackston, David. "The history of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas ." n.d. Helium. 3 Apr 2009 .
The next step to conduct research and develop a plan (NASA, 2008). Next, one must build a working model. The model must then be tested. After the model is developed and tested, one is ready to proceed with marketing and production of the invention (NASA, 2008). The only difference between inventors of today and inventors of yesterday is that the process has been formally divided into definite stages.
The process of invention requires that the inventor, financier, and adopter of the invention break away from traditional thinking and norms (Greenhalgh, obert, & Macfarlane, et al., 2005). All parties must be willing to break tradition in order to adopt the new invention. The invention process has changed since the days of early inventors. Now the product and the end consumer's preferences are taken into consideration in the invention and design process. For instance, the invention will be specifically designed to target…
AltE (2008). How to Size Wiring and Cabling for Your System. AltE University. AltEnergy Store. Retrieved September 19, 2008 at http://howto.altenergystore.com/How-to-Size-Wiring-and-Cabling-for-Your-System/a62/
AZoM (2008). Gutta Percha - a Natural Form of Rubber. AZoMaterials. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from ttp:/ / www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1456.
Clarke, R. (2001). A Primer in Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Australian National University. Retrieved September from: a meta-narrative approach to systematic review. Soc Sci Med. 61 (2): 417-430. http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/SOS/InnDiff.html
Elliott, H. (1950, (2007 online)). A Successful Paper Merchant. The Paper Maker. 19 (1). Retrieved September 19, 2008 at http://www.atlantic-cable.com/Field/papermerchant.htm
Scientists accept that Jupiter is mainly composed of large quantities of hydrogen and helium. There is some consideration as to whether there is the presence of a solid rocky core that contains elements that are much heavier. The quick rotation of Jupiter pulls the planet into an oblate spheroid. This means that there is a bulging appearance about the planets equator. The outer atmosphere is divided into multiple bands at variant latitudes. Due to the movement of the planet and the location of these bands storms are produced where the bands converge with each other. As the boundaries of one band intersect with the boundaries of another closer band, the resulting interaction produces a hostile climate. The energy produced by the interaction is translated into storm like conditions. The most visible of these storms is the Great ed Spot. This storm was identified as early as the 17th century by…
Jupiter (2011). Retrieved from http://www.solstation.com/stars/jupiter.htm
Jupiter largest planet in the solar system. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.space.com/7-jupiter-largest-planet-solar-system.html
Jupiter's new Red Spot (2011) Retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2006/02mar_redjr/
Global Warming is real and happening
When it comes to the environment, one of the major topics for concern revolves around the issue of global warming. While there has been much debate on global warming, the fact of the matter stands, that numerous items if scientific research demonstrate the global warming is in fact real and happening. Those who oppose the idea that global warming is real and happening, do so often seeking refuge in the assertion that the climate of planet earth has changed continually through time, and that the climate changes that some attribute to global warming are actually just changes that are typical to the fluctuations of the earth. At this day and age, scientists have high technological tools such as satellites which orbit above the earth and which are able to show scientists snapshots of the "bigger picture" of this issue and preventing any further denial…
Nasa.gov. (2013). Climate change: How do we know?. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov /evidence
Markman, A. (2013, May 21). Who rejects evidence of global climate change?. Retrieved
Matthews, D. (2012, November 8). Cbo: Letting upper-income tax cuts expire would barely hurt economy. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/11/08/cbo-letting-upper-income-tax-cuts-expire-would-barely-hurt-economy/
Climate Change -- Cause and Mitigation
There are several ways to look at climate change because there are natural causes and there are also human-influenced causes for the global climate to change. This paper defines anthropogenic climate change and it defines natural climate change and the historic record of the earth's changing climate over the millennia. This paper also provides strategies for mitigating global climate change and speculates as to the possible stabilization of climate change vis-a-vis the business and economic fields.
hat is Anthropogenic Climate Change?
The Merriam-ebster Dictionary defines anthropogenic as "…relating to, or resulting from, the influence of human beings on nature"; the first use of this team was in 1923.
Meanwhile, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research lists three ways in which the evidence points toward humans having influence over the rising temperatures on earth. The "…concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is rising," which is…
Institute of Physics. (2013). Study reveals scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change.
Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.iop.org .
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Working Group I:
The Physical Science Basis. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.ipcc.ch .
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. Retrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
The study made a comparison of the performance of the crew in two types of equipment.CM failures were note to lead to a general increase in the number of mishaps (56% due to CM failure).
The development of Crew esource Management came as response to the new revelations on the causes of aircraft accidents that followed the introduction of flight and cockpit voice recorders into the modern aircraft jets. Information received from these devices suggests that most aircraft accidents are as a result of inability of crews to respond appropriately to the situations they find themselves in. this is contrary to general beliefs that these accidents are caused by technical malfunction of the aircraft systems, failure of aircraft handling skills or lack of technical knowhow by the crew. For instance, lack of good communications channels between the crew members and other parties. This can in turn lead to loss…
Barker JM, Clothier CC, Woody JR, McKinney EH, Jr., Brown JL (1996). Crew resource management: a simulator study comparing fixed vs. formed aircrews. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996;67:3-7
Billings CE, Reynard WD (1984).Human factors in aircraft incidents: results of a 7-year study. Aviat Space Environ Med;55:960-5.
Cooper GE, White MD, Lauber JK. Resource management on the flightdeck: proceedings of a NASA / Industry Workshop. Moffett Field, Calif: NASA - Ames Research Center; 1980. NASA Conference Publication No. CP-2120.
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(1), 19-32.
IT ervices of BuildingDNA®
I am an IT consultant with the objectives of providing recommendations for BuildingDNA Inc. To assist the company increasing its output and the productivity in the competitive business environment. I am also to provide recommendations for the BuildingDNA on the strategy to employ in implementing IT infrastructure design to achieve a leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). The design packages are to assist the company to achieve a leading position in IT infrastructures that include: oftware Engineering, ystems Engineering, IT Management and Information Assurance.
More importantly, the goal of the project is to use the IT infrastructures to assist the BuildingDNA, Inc. To fuel very rapid growth by delivering 10-20 maps monthly and reach between 3,000 and 7,000 per month within 3 years. The project also identifies scalable, systematic process and procedure that BuildingDNA will employ in organizing, planning, tracking as well as evaluating the production of…
Butcher, D. And Rowley, J. (1998). The 7 R's of information management. Managing Information.5(3): 34 -- 36.
Crnkovic, I. Peter, M. & Larsson, H.(2002). Building Reliable Component-Based Software Systems. Texas. Artech House computing library.
Hawaii Government (2014). Information Assurance and Cyber Security Strategic Plan. USA.
McLaughlin, B., Pollice, G., and West, D. (2007). Head First: Object-oriented analysis & Design. Beijing, Cambridge, Koln, Sebastopol, Tokyo: O'Reilly.
The reason that the watch reminds me of my father's humility is the way he avoids wearing it in any company who might perceive it as a purposeful display of wealth or status.
My father has never worn it where the circumstances would amount to rubbing his (apparent) wealth in the face of others. In my family it has always been a good-natured joke that my father's watch is worth more than everything else he owns combined, except for his car. In fact, if my father keeps both his car and his watch for much longer, it may be worth more than everything else he owns including his car. He has always bought his clothes at places like Target and he said many times that if he ever lost his watch he might have a hard time justifying paying for a new one and that he might not be able…