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Russia's National Security Strategy
According to Isabelle Falcon, in Russia's view, it was necessary to update its national security strategy following the events that unfolded in Ukraine and the crisis that followed in Moscow. Russia adopted a new military doctrine on 25th Dec 2014, was signed by the president a year later and Russia adopted the new foreign policy concept on 30 of November 2016[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Isabelle Facon, "Russia's national security strategy and military doctrine and their implications for the EU," European Parliament, 2017, doi: 10.2861/635490.]
The updated documents highlight several key issues that reflect the traditional view that Russia holds about the world and its vision. They underscore the country's status as world powerhouse; and that its sovereignty must be respected. They also point out that Russia's foreign policy must be independent of the outside world. The general message that the documents send is that the outside world is…
Facon, Isabelle. "Russia's national security strategy and military doctrine and their implications for the EU," European Parliament, 2017, doi: 10.2861/635490.
Giles, Keir. "Russia's National Security Strategy to 2020," ETH Zurich, June 2009, https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/154909/RusNatSecStrategyto2020.pdf .
Graham, Allison, Blackwill, D. Robert, Simes, K. Dimitri, and Saunders, J. Paul. "Russia and U.S. National Interests: Why Should Americans Care?" Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard, October 2011, https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/20057953/Russia-and-US-NI_final-web.pdf ?
Selhorst, A.J.C. "Russia's Perception Warfare," Militaire Spectator 185, no. 4 (2016): 148-164, http://www.militairespectator.nl/thema/strategie-operaties/artikel/russias-perception-warfare .
National Defense Strategy (NDS)
The United States operates its defense methods and actions based upon our overall beliefs about what is meant by the Constitution's expectation that our government shall "provide for the common good." It is the Department of Defenses' "capstone" document, which lays the foundation for the grand ideals it expects to carry out as part of the larger presidential directives on using our forces at home and abroad.
National Military Strategy (NMS)
This directive exists as a result of Congressional and coordination directives. It seeks to identify and monitor operational readiness of the military forces and partners as they conduct their activities. An overview of these two documents can be found in the 2004 unclassified release of The National Military Strategy of the U.S.: A Strategy for Today; A vision for Tomorrow, which can be found at http://www.defense.gov/news/mar2005/d20050318nms.pdf.
Each of the two documents and…
Collecting National Security Intelligence
Intelligence gathering is one of the most important activities in law enforcement and plays a crucial role in the development of national security strategies. The significance of intelligence in law enforcement and national security strategies is attributed to the fact that it helps in lessening ambiguity intrinsic in observation of external initiatives and activities. National security intelligence is usually collected through a cycle which determines how information is obtained, created, and shared with users. This cycle has five major steps i.e. planning and direction, collection, processing, producing, and dissemination ("Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines," n.d.).
Generally, the responsibility of collecting national security intelligence is given to intelligence collection organizations at the national level. These organizations are mandated with the task of gathering, processing, and disseminating security information that is in turn used to develop suitable law enforcement and national security strategies and initiatives. The intelligence collection…
"Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines." (n.d.). Operations Security -- Intelligence Threat Handbook. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://fas.org/irp/nsa/ioss/threat96/part02.htm
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency website: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
Strategies to improve collaboration and cooperation between the Homeland Security agencies
The department of homeland security (DHS) controls the territorial, local, state, tribal, and federal government resources (DHS, 2018). The DHS coordinates various programs and agencies into one single and unified effort that is given to protecting the American homeland and the people. The first QHSR (Quadrennial Homeland Security Review) was completed in the year 2010 with an objective of establishing an incorporated strategy for the goals and missions of homeland security (Homeland Security, 2005). Following this, DHS carried out a BUR (Bottom up Review). The objective was to synchronize organizational structure and programmatic activities in order to effectively achieve the goals and missions of homeland security.
The primary duty of homeland security is to protect the U.S. from any terrorism. The counterterrorism duties of the DHS are concentrated on these three goals i.e. First goal is protecting and resisting…
National Interest as a key determinant in Foreign Policy
National Interest and Foreign Policy
National Interest Defined:
The national interest is, very simply, the objectives of a country ranging from the macro goals i.e. economy, military to the micro goals like social use cyber space. National interest is an integral part of international relations as it is a concept based out of the realist school of though. This will be discussed in more detail in the paper.
Foreign Policy Defined:
Foreign policy, very simply, is the strategy that guides all international dealings and associations of a country
When dealing with national interest, one has to wonder about the degree to which domestic politics is vital for the comprehension of that country's foreign policy. Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. The systemic vigour of the global…
Bond, J.R., and R. Fleisher. 1990. The President in the legislative arena. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clarke, K.A. 2001. Testing nonnested models of international relations: Reevaluating realism. American Journal of Political Science 45(3): 724 -- 744.
Clarke, K.A. 2003. Nonparametric model discrimination in international relations. Journal of Conict Resolution 47(1): 72 -- 93.
Fearon, J.D. 1998. Domestic politics, foreign policy, and theories of international relations. Annual Review of Political Science 1: 289 -- 313.
In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…
Alfawaz, S. M. (2011). Information security management: a case study of an information security culture (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Ashenden, D. (2008). Information Security management: A human challenge? Information security technical report, 13(4), 195-201.
Briggs, R. (2005). Joining Forces From national security to networked security. DEMOS.
Chang, S. E., Ho, C. B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106 (3): 345-361.
The U.S. Supreme Court then granted a writ of certiorari to determine the meaning of the language "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008).
What argument did the security dealer make in seeking to have the civil complaint dismissed?
andford's defense in this matter was particularly interesting as he does not deny his involvement in the "simple theft of cash or securities in an investment account" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008). For andford the issue is not that he sold the securities which he contends "were perfectly lawful," rather that the fraudulent activity of "misappropriation of the proceeds is desultory from the actual sale of the securities. If andford's argument is believable then the sales of securities would have been aligned with the investment strategy designed to secure principal and generate income.…
Zandford's defense in this matter was particularly interesting as he does not deny his involvement in the "simple theft of cash or securities in an investment account" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008). For Zandford the issue is not that he sold the securities which he contends "were perfectly lawful," rather that the fraudulent activity of "misappropriation of the proceeds is desultory from the actual sale of the securities. If Zandford's argument is believable then the sales of securities would have been aligned with the investment strategy designed to secure principal and generate income. Zandford's contention falls squarely on the premise that the securities transactions were legitimate sales and not concomitant with intent to defraud.
What does the Supreme Court Conclude with respect to the language "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security?
The question of "in connection with the purchase or sale of any security" invariably falls to the Court's interpretation of the circumstance surrounding the Zandford transactions. The Court rejects Zandford's argument that the sales and the transfers of funds from Wood's account to Zandford's were separate and disconnected. Zandford's argument falls apart because the sales "throughout the two-year period" (Reed, O. Shedd, P. Morehead, J. & Pagnattaro, M. 2008) reflect a deliberate and concerted effort to "convert the proceeds of the sales of the Woods securities to his
National Economic Effects of Government's Immigration Policies In Canada
A geographically big nation that has a comparatively little population, Canada has traditionally been able to observe immigration as an important tool of population and economic development. Over its history, nevertheless, immigration significances and approaches have changed meaningfully, from an open border tactic in Canada's initial history, to strategy that could be branded as openly discriminatory, to an economically absorbed style. This essay gives an outline to immigration policy in Canada and looks into immigration in the context of economic effects of Government's immigration policies in Canada with detailed focus on its history, key legislation and agencies in this area, and current debates/issues.
History of Canadian Immigration Policy
After the Confederation in 1867, immigration policy at that time was a top priority of the new federal government. This policy which was able to bring in a large influx of immigrants was…
Abu-Laban, Y. Keeping 'em Out: Gender, Race, and Class Biases in Canadian Immigration Policy" in Painting the Maple: Essays on Race, Gender, and the Construction of Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press,, 2008. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0003961.
-- . "Welcome/stay out: The contradiction of canadian integration and immigration policies at the millennium." Canadian Ethnic Studies 45.3 (2008): 190-211.
Citizenship Act (R.S., 1985, c. C-29)" Department of Justice Canada. 7 May 2009.
Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems
The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.
By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…
Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.
Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.
Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.
Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Bush doctrine AND THE EMERGING NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY
The 'Bush doctrine' has diverse meanings especially in the enhancement U.S.' security. Nonetheless, the Bush doctrine is simply a defensive strategy that was created by the 43rd U.S. president, George Bush. The plan was designed and directed towards actions that should be done amidst the instantaneous danger to U.S. security. The Bush doctrine contained a number of safety principles that were termed as prongs, three of which are practical, while one is mostly impractical. The doctrine's first point held the notion that terrorists and the countries supporting them were not different and had to be treated equally. This was designed to manage countries that would pose some threat to the U.S. The second prong urged the U.S. government to take the first step of attacking the terrorists' breeding grounds before they make the first step of attacking America. This prong was supposed…
U.S. National Strategy
What three United States national interests do you think will be at great risk over the next five years? Describe those interests and identify which instruments of national power can be leveraged to protect or advance those national interests and how those instruments can be used.
As President Obama stated in his addresses to Congress in February 2009, the most important problem that the country faced was the economy, which was in the worst recession since the 1930s. This affected both domestic and foreign policy, since the country would probably have to reduce military spending and its commitments overseas as it did during the Great Depression, so for the Obama administration economic recovery was the primary goal. He did promise that "the weight of this crisis will not determine the destiny of this nation" (Obama Address, 2009, p. 1). He promised that the government would deal with…
Address to Joint Session of Congress. Remarks of President Barack Obama, As Prepared for Delivery, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Tuesday, February 24th, 2009.
Comprehensive Regional Strategy on Somalia: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement Report to Congress, February 2007.
JP 3-0 Chapter I.
JP 3 Extract Chapter 2.
limitations and capabilities of intelligence for corroborating homeland security efforts?
Sharing of intelligence and extensive threat analysis
There are quite many intelligent agencies working round the clock analyzing the data yet no single agency is working on analyzing the incoming data regarding terrorism in United States of America. No agency is presently working to gather intelligence and look for trends (DHS, 2002). Under the United States' president, a new department was formed which analyzed the data taken from government reserves such as DOE, DEA, INS, FBI, NSA, CIA and DOT along with public records. The department has the task of looking for trends keeping the big picture in mind. It is ready all-the-time to counter any probable terrorist activity underway (DHS, 2002).
An Example: Distribution of important pharmaceuticals
Potassium Iodide (KI) is quite a drug assisting in countering thyroid cancer when exposed to radiation. The drug needs to be taken…
Department of Homeland Security (2002). The Department of Homeland Security as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
Kate Martin. (2004). Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties. SAIS Review 24, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 8.
Logan, K. (2010). Homeland Security and Intelligence. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International.
National Security Strategy (2010). National Security Strategy as approved by the President of the United States. Defense Homeland Security.
Homeland Security isk Management
isk Management in Homeland Security
This paper provides a brief examination of the role of risk management within the homeland security operations. The discussion first addresses issues related to risk assessment, which is a necessary, prudent step for publicly funded activities, and particularly so given the national scope and the potential consumption of resources. The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) serves as a vehicle to link policy -- the Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD 8) and the National Preparedness System. The core capabilities of the National Preparedness Goal are mapped to the hazards and threats identified in the SNA (SNA 2011). This tactic enables additional core capabilities to be identified, and provides a resource to inform the establishment of priorities needed for making decisions about future investing in capabilities (SNA 2011).
As with any major projects of risk management, the initial stage is focused on assessment.…
The White House. National Security Strategy. (2010, May). Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. Retrieved National_Security_Strategy.pdf
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Secure Boarders, Safe Travel, Legal Trade. U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection Fiscal Year 2009-2014 Strategic Plan. Retrieved CBP_Strategic_Plan.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan. Fiscal Years 2012 -- 2016. (2012, February). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved DHS_Strategic_Plan-2012-2016.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. DHS Risk Lexicon. Risk Steering Committee. (2010, September). Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-risk-lexicon-2010.pdf
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov .
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
National strategy is the art and science of development and usage of informational, diplomatic and economic powers of a country in union with its armed forces for purposes of securing national objectives during war and peace times. National strategies are a key delivery mechanism for several new and existing nations. It was first introduced in the year 1998 with the aim of assisting in developing educational settings to improve the standards and life expectancy of children. Troops in the Air Force have today become experienced exceptional at applying space, air and cyber powers to achieve operational and tactical objectives (Bush, 2002). The Air Force plays a big role in national security. Some of the critical capabilities that determines what the Air Force is able to provide for a nation include: action freedom in air, space and cyberspace; power projection; air diplomacy; global situational awareness; and military support to civil…
At the time of its composition, Laird's proposal would be contextualized by the ongoing SALT conferences between the U.S. And Soviet Union designed to reduce each side's proclivity toward nuclear armament in a highly contentious setting. The result would be the re-assertion in Laird's strategy of American prioritization of its nuclear armament. As Laird would note, "we should make it clear to the Soviet Union that regardless of the outcome of SALT, our approach to strategic forces is designed to preserve our deterrent without question." (Laird, p. 10) This 'deterrent' would be the continued research, development and maintenance of its nuclear stockpile in the interests of demonstrating the latent power to respond to any Soviet nuclear action. As Laird reports, even under the terms of the uncomfortable negotiation with the Soviets over an Anti-Ballistics Missile treaty, it was the intention of the United States to remain girded by this stockpile.…
Feickert, Andrew. Does the Army Need a Full-Spectrum Force or Specialized Units? Background and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, 18 January 2008, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL34333.pdf
Laird, Melvin. "Strategy for Peace: National Security Strategy of Realistic Deterrence." Department of Defense. 6 November 1970.
Metternich, Ronald. "Security Force Assistance: Organization for the Long War." U.S. Army War College, 30 March 2010. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA520009
Nagl, John a. "Institutionalizing Adaptation." Center for a New American Security, June 2007.
S. National Interests in the area of the bailout of the global economy and yet, in terms of his strategic objectives for the U.S. In Afghanistan it does appear that the President has followed the requirements of strategy as set out in the work of Yarger and Barber in the "U.S. Army War College Strategy Model" although the President does seem to have failed in terms of global economy bailout strategy.
Abbreviation: USG (U.S. Government)
H. Richard Yarger and George F. Barber, The U.S. Army War College Methodology for Determining Interests and Levels of Intensity, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1997. Adapted from Department of National Security and Strategy, Directive Course 2: "War, National Policy & Strategy" (Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1997) 118-125.
H. Richard Yarger and George F. Barber, The U.S. Army War College Methodology for Determining Interests and Levels of Intensity,…
Next, firewalls capable of blocking IP addresses need to be installed and used (Becker, Clement, 2006). The focus on these efforts is just the first phase; there needs to be a monthly audit of IP addresses in the departments where P2P file sharing has occurred to make sure it isn't happening again. This an be accomplished using a series of constraint-based configuration tools that will trap on P2P known client footprints or digital signatures and immediately block them (Hosein, Tsiavos, Whitley, 2003). This technology will also work to isolate any inside IP addresses which attempt to reach P2P client-based download sites and immediately log and block all IP activity for the address. This will make a given IP address inoperable and immediately delete it, which will make any subsequent hacking attempts of the system useless. This is precisely the strategy the U.S. Government is using today to ensure a very…
Bailes, J.E., & Templeton, G.F. (2004). Managing P2P security. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 47(9), 95-98.
Becker, J.U., & Clement, M. (2006). Dynamics of illegal participation in peer-to-peer networks -- why do people illegally share media files? Journal of Media Economics, 19(1), 7-32.
Hosein, I., Tsiavos, P., & Whitley, E.A. (2003). Regulating architecture and architectures of regulation: Contributions from information systems. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 17(1), 85-85.
Controlling IM risks. (2003). Risk Management, 50(7), 6-6.
strategy that is being developed to control the incidents of workplace accidents in the organizations. In addition to that, it also highlights the steps for the implementation of the proposed strategy. This paper also puts lights on the statement, 'Unions do not happen, they are caused by management' and discusses the role of management in the creation of unions.
Group Assignment 2: Case Analysis
Occupational health and safety is regarded as an important issue by all the employers, workers and organizations in any economy. A working environment that consists of good occupational health and safety conditions not only enhances the productivity of the workers but also boosts their morale. If the businesses employ good organizational health and safety policies and practices then they face less workplace accidents, increased rate of employee retention and an elevation in their good will and corporate image. This enables them to benefit from reduced costs…
Industry & Investment NSW, The Division of Resources and Energy. (2009). Health Management Plan. Retrieved from Industry & Investment NSW website: http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/303063/Guide-to-the-development-and-implementation-of-a-Health-Management-Plan.pdf
Safe Work Australia, (2012). National OHS Strategy. Retrieved from Safe Work Australia website: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/230/NationalOHSStrategy_2002-2012.pdf
Shmoop Editorial Team. (November 11, 2008).History of Labor Unions. Retrieved July 20, 2013, from http://www.shmoop.com/history-labor-unions/
Wright, E.O. (2009). Labor unions. Retrieved from University of Wisconsin - Madison website: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/ContemporaryAmericanSociety/Chapter 21 -- unions -- Norton August.pdf
(Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
"Disaggregation" could provide a new strategy for the counterinsurgency model for its war against terrorism. Disaggregation would involve prohibiting links between theaters, preventing global or regional insurgents to associate with or exploit potential local terrorists, disrupting the flow of information, propaganda and materials within and between jihad hotspots, abolishing sanctuary areas, identifying and isolating radical elements from the local populace and interrupting inputs from Islamist sources emanating from the greater Middle East. This new approach must address the problem at three levels -- local, regional and global levels. (Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
Lessons Learnt by the U.S. Marines and the U.S. Army
The lessons learnt by the U.S. Army and the Marine Corps in Vietnam were profound but were soon forgotten, but the recent…
Amstutz, Mark R. 2005. International ethics: concepts, theories, and cases in global politics. Rowman & Littlefield.
Boot, Max. 2009. A New Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/a-new-counterinsurgency-in-afghanistan-15116 [accessed 28 April 2008]
Cassidy, Robert M. 2006. Counterinsurgency and the global war on terror: military culture and irregular war. Greenwood Publishing Group.
S.-USS confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.
Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To…
Borawski, J. 1995. Partnership for Peace and beyond. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 71, No. 2. pp. 233-246
Boulden, J. NATO and the United Nations during UNPROFOR. N.d.
Calvocoressi, P. 1987. World politics since 1945. Longman, New York.
Cornish, P. 2004. NATO: the practice and politics of transformation. International Affairs 80.
Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Security and Control: A White Paper
Protecting Health-Care Data
The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure. Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession. Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. (IO Press)
This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…
A WWW implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health
Accessed 21 September, 2005
IO Press. Retrieved from http://www.iospress.nl/loadtop/load.php?isbn=9051992661
"Government representatives are responsive to and reliant upon feedback and suggestions from their constituents" and "the most direct way of impacting a legislator is through a letter-writing campaign. The more letters a legislator receives, the more important the issue becomes" (Keene State College Advocates, 2011).
One of the emerging threats that is now a more commonplace threat is that of cyber security. With technology advancing at a rapid rate, it seems that security is sometimes overlooked. Our society is well-versed in how hackers can hack into e-mail, social networking sites and bank accounts but it is absolutely something that the public needs to be more cautious of. A way to combat cyber threats would be to make sure that the computer is completely secure and use common sense when it comes to certain online transactions. People should band together and use one place to reveal the scams that they may…
Garcia, Mary Lynn. (1997). Emerging threats. Retrieved from http://engr.nmsu.edu/~etti/fall97/security/mlgarcia.html
Keene State College Advocates. (2011, March 09). Write to your legislator. Retrieved from http://kscadvocates.org/write-to-your-legislator/
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…
Aclu.org. (2003, August 25). The Five Problems With CAPPS II. Retrieved from Aclu.org: https://www.aclu.org/national-security/five-problems-capps-ii
Alpha.org. (2011, Fall). Aviation Security. Retrieved from alpa.org: http://www.alpa.org/portals/alpa/pressroom/inthecockpit/ALPAIssueAnalysis_10YearsAfter9-11Attacks.pdf
Browne, D. (2009). Flying without Fear: Effective Strategies to Get You Where You Need to Go. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Elias, B. (2009). Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global. New York: CRC Press.
National Intelligence Strategy
The Five Mission Objectives
Under the leadership of the Director of National Intelligence, John Negroponte, in 2005, the National Intelligence Strategy was developed. The strategy had a clear description of how the United States of America intelligence community was going to overhaul its function in intelligence in and out of America. It had five Mission Objectives in the effort of predicting, penetrating, and preempting the possible threats that face the security of the United States of America. The five objectives were (National Intelligence, 2005):
The National Intelligence was out to ensure that all the efforts posed by terrorists in the fulfillment of their terrorism activities against the U.S.A. were defeated. They intended to do this through destabilization of their systems of support, leadership and the entire network. The strategy went further to state whose responsibility it was to carry this objective by naming the National…
Catino, M.S. Strategic Intelligence: The Soviet Union and Strategic Intelligence in the Early Cold War, 1945-1953. Henley Putnam University.
National Intelligence. (2005). Transformation through Integration and Innovation. . The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America .
Powell, J.H., & Bradford, J.P. (2000). Targeting intelligence gathering in a dynamic competitive environment. International Journal of Information Management. 20, 181- 195.
Rolington, A. (2013). Strategic Intelligence for the 21st Century: The Mosaic Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1. While some people may be better leaders than others, all people can lead and all people can learn to lead better. Discuss some ideas of how leadership skills may be improved.
Development and education
Leaders need to develop in their position. Owing to managerial tasks’ knowledge-based nature, the word “development” has been used to describe the continuous growth in skills and cognition of executives and managers. Managerial development is promoted via education that they may acquire in various settings (Fernandez et al., 2015). Attending and taking part in programs offered by certain general management and security-related institutions may help cater to their developmental requirements.
Training and practice
A leader is required to engage in constant training and practice of leadership skills needed for improving their output, including integrity, delegation and patience, until the time they have acquired mastery over those skills.
The mentoring process entails transfer…
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…
Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html
Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). eply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure esearch, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/.
Gerstein, D.M. (2005). Securing America's future: National strategy in the information age. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Hepner, . (2001, July 6). A surge in growth for county. The Washington Times, 8.
Michman, .D. & Greco, a.J. (1995). etailing triumphs and blunders: Victims of competition in the new age of marketing management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Mueller, G. (1998, December 2). it's easy to find the right gift - Just read on. The Washington Times, 5.
Privacy and security statement. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.basspro.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/PageDisplayView?langId=-1&storeId=10151 & cataloged=x§ion=MyAccount&pagename=PrivacyPolicySummaryDisplay.
Schlosser, E. (1998). The bomb squad: A visit…
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). Reply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PRAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/ .
S. Department of Energy).
Q3. Discuss the internet of things and its likely consequences for developing an enforceable information assurance (IA) policy and implementing robust security architecture.
The internet of things refers to the inevitable connectedness of all things in all regions of the world through the internet. "The fact that there will be a global system of interconnected computer networks, sensors, actuators, and devices all using the internet protocol holds so much potential to change our lives that it is often referred to as the internet's next generation" (Ferber 2013). Although the internet feels ubiquitous today, the internet of things refers to an even more complete merger of the virtual and the real world. "In many and diverse sectors of the global economy, new web-based business models being hatched for the internet of things are bringing together market players who previously had no business dealings with each other. Through…
Ferber, Stephen. (2013). How the internet of things changes everything. HBR Blog. Retrieved:
Heath, Nick. (2012). What the internet of things means for you. Tech Republic. Retrieved:
Describe the Impact of the FAA's National Airspace System Plan (NASP)
The impact of the FAA's National Airspace System Plan is that it is creating a standard procedure that can be used to: provide guidance and support for the air traffic control system in a specific region. This is important, because this plan serves as the basic foundation for: establishing the proper operating procedures and how to adjust to changes that are taking place in the industry (such as how to implement new technology / regulations in the plan). Where, the strategy will identify specific areas that need to be addressed (at a host of different airports around the country) including: systems planning, trends, the different problems facing capacity / delays, the effective use of technology, funding, forecasting / trends and policy considerations. These different elements are important, because they are establishing a strategy that can be used by airports…
Airport System Development. (1984). FAS. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/8403.pdf
IFR Operations. (n.d.). FAA. Retrieved from: http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/instrument_procedures_handbook/media/CH%2001a.pdf
The ultimate House vote was two hundred and twenty to two hundred and seven. The senate vote was fifty three to forty three. The republicans were collectively opposed in both chambers (3 June 2010, 3).
The Future of the Health Care ill
Subsequent to disagreements as political enemies for more than a year, the Obama administration and the health insurance industry realized that they require one another.
oth have huge stakes in the success of the new health care law (14 May 2010, 1)
The political destiny of President Obama and Congressional Democrats rely on their capability to interpret it's assurance into realism for voters. This can be attained by restraining health expenses and making insurance accessible to everybody at reasonable price. Similarly, the fiscal future, in fact the continued existence, of the health insurance industry relies on the government. That is on set of laws being written by federal…
1. "Critics Question Study Cited in Health Debate, " New York Times, 2 June 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
2. "Health Reforms," New York Times, 26 March 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
3. "Two Health Care Adversaries Find a Need to Collaborate, " New York Times, 3 June 2010, sec. B, p.3.
4. "Companies Try to Shape Rules, " New York Times, 15 May 2010, sec. a, p.22
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
CMU. 2003. Risk Management. Carnegie Mellon University: Software Engineering Institute. Online at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/index.html
Comptroller of the Current, Administrator of National Banks (CoC). (2005). Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Online at .
Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian Consumers: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(7), 324-334.
Stoneburner, G; Goguen, a. & Feringa, a. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST 800-30.
National Association of egional Councils: History And Evolution
NAC's History and Purpose: furthering the cause of regionalism
The National Association of egional Councils (NAC) has been an independent entity for over thirty-five years. "The National Association of egional Councils (NAC) is the preeminent alliance for fostering regional cooperation and building regional communities.
We advocate for regional approaches with federal and state governments; provide training and technical assistance on the latest regional developments; and conduct research on timely regional topics." (NAC, 2003, (http://www.narc.org/)the National Association of egional Councils is an integral part of the growth and development of countless communities, be they interstate or otherwise..
In 1998 Beverly a. Cigler wrote an article entitled "Emerging Trends in State-Local elations" and though it is questionable that regionalism be defined as emerging it is clear that the academic and governmental organizations that entitle change are sitting up and taking notice of organizations like…
1935). Regional Factors in National Planning and Development: National Resources
Committee. December, 1935. Washington: [Washington, U.S. Govt. print. off., 1935].
Adams, DH, & Savitch, H.V. (1997). Chapter 12 Central Cities and Suburbs. In Handbook of Research on Urban Politics and Policy in the United States, Vogel, R.K. (Ed.) (pp. 170-
181). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.
"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.
One of the causes of the failure of the United…
Casteel, Philip. (2011, Feb. 24). "Mayor Reacts to Terrorist Arrest in Lubbock." KCBD
Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.kcbd.com/story/14136417/mayor-reactas-to-terrorist-arest-in-lubbock?redirected=true
"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University
"Lubbock Police Department swears in 13 New Officers." (2011, Sept. 9). Lubbock
(White House, 2003)
II. The NATIONAL STRATEGY for SECURE CYERSPACE
The National Strategy for Secure Cyberspace strategic plan states that its strategic objectives are "consistent with the National Strategy for Homeland Security' and that those objectives include: (1) prevention of cyber attacks against America's critical infrastructure; (2) reduction of national vulnerability to cyber attacks and; (3) minimization of damage and recovery time from cyber attacks that do occur. (White House, 2003) This report additionally relates that the sector best equipped and structured in providing a response to cyber threats which are constantly evolving is the private sector. Specifically stated in the report is "Public-private engagement is a key component of our Strategy to secure cyberspace. Public-private partnerships can usefully confront coordination problems. They can significantly enhance information exchange and cooperation." (White House, 2003) Under this strategy to secure cyberspace it is stated that engagement between the pubic and private sectors…
DHS Intelligence Enterprise Strategic Plan (2006) U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Washington, DC. January 2006.
National Infrastructure Protection Plan (2006) U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington DC.
The National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets (2003) the White House, Washington, DC. February 2003.
In the future, though, the influence the U.S. must wield over nations such as Pakistan that are Muslim yet strive to be part of the international community, is likely to be contingent upon the U.S.' recapitulation perceived moral authority as well as its ability to use economic and military carrots and sticks. American influence is also dependant upon the international population's own perceptions of the U.S. As well as these nation's national leaders' rhetorical compliance with U.S. demands for the curtailment and monitoring of terrorist activities. Thus to generate loyalty in the hearts of the people in nations such Pakistan, the U.S. must use soft, rather than hard power. And use this soft power more effectively and seem more morally upstanding a more judicious rather than aggressive use of national force seems essential.
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human elfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.…
Hess, Charles. "American Foreign Policy," Human Rights and Human Welfare. Durham: Duke
University Press, 2004.
Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power, the Means to Success in World Politics. London: PublicAffairs, Ltd.,
Nye, Joseph, "Soft Power and American Foreign Policy," Political Science Quarterly. 19. 2
From the first generations of this technology to its current iteration, latent semantic indexing is proving valuable for tying together seemingly unrelated events through the use of linguistic modeling and probability theory. Determining the scope, relative urgency or lack thereof, and the potential threat internationally all can be ascertained through the parsing of unstructured content obtained from surveillance. Using this technology it is going to be possible to outsmart terrorists before they strike, replicating their knowledge network to an extent they themselves are not even aware of. In this respect, knowledge becomes a major deterrent by being able to understand how terrorists make decisions and thwart their actions before they can ever begin. Speed and closure of security strategies based on this level of knowledge is nearly impossible for an adversary to respond to, hence its potency for battling terrorism globally. Determining context and its role in defining linguistic modeling…
Michael Cooney "Prototype software sniffs out insider threats." Network World, February 25, 2008, 46. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed April 28, 2008).
Chris H.Q. Ding "A probabilistic model for Latent Semantic Indexing." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56, no. 6 (April 1, 2005): 597-608.
Operation of the Homeland Security Council
Creates the Homeland Security Council and sets down is functions.
This directive creates the Homeland Security Council (HSC) and lists its functions. The purpose of the HSC is to synchronize homeland security-related efforts across executive departments and agencies of all levels all through the country, and to put into practice the Department's policies by way of eleven Policy Coordination Committees.
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3: Homeland Security Advisory System
Creates a Homeland Security Advisory Board to issue security threat levels. There are five threat levels, each identified by a description and corresponding color. From lowest to highest, the levels and colors are: Low = Green; Guarded = Blue; Elevated = Yellow; High = Orange; Severe = ed. The higher the threat level is, the greater the risk of a terrorist attack. isk includes both the likelihood of an attack taking place and its potential…
Homeland Security Presidential Directives. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/editorial_0607.shtm
National security cards also have the ability to provide useful information and insight to policymakers on which areas of a given country will most likely be the least secure and which pose potential security threats (Ortmeier, 2009). This will also force nations to into strategic identity management systems and taxonomies of how they classify threats to their populations. The use of analytics and big data or exceptionally large and complex data sets, will become commonplace in five years or less as a result of the adoption of national security cards across more nations in the world (Ortmeier, 2009). National security cards will also be increasingly used for managing healthcare, human services and social programs, as the United Kingdom has successfully done for example. The broader implications to the future of security from the use of national identity cards are evident in how advanced forms of security authentication continue to flourish…
Krull, a.R. (1995). Controls in the next millennium: Anticipating the it-enabled future. Computers & Security, 14(6), 491-491.
Ortmeier, P.J. (2009). Introduction to security: Operations and management. (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education Inc.
SP's Special. (2012, India's slybird MAV maturing fast. SP's Aviation,
Sproule, C.M. (2002). The effect of the U.S.A. patriot act on workplace privacy. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 65-73.
Chief Security Officer:
As the Chief Security Officer for a local University, my main role is establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program that helps to ensure all data and information assets are not compromised. This process involves developing a plan to conduct a security program that prevent computer crimes, establishes a procedure for investigation, and outlines laws that are applicable for potential offenders. To develop an effective plan, the process would involve identifying recent computer attacks or other offenses that have been carried out against higher educational institutions and processes established by these institutions to prevent the recurrence of the crimes. In addition, procedures, methodologies, and technologies that could be bought to lessen computer crime threats and effective laws for convicting offenders will also be examined. The other parts of the process include identifying computer crime fighting government programs and the types and costs of computer forensics…
"Data Security Breach at Ferris State University." (2013, August 16). Local. CBS Local Media.
Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://detroit.cbslocal.com/2013/08/16/data-security-breach-at-ferris-state-university/
Easttom, C. & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and the law (1st ed.). Stamford,
CT: Cengage Learning.
With the advantage of Afghanistan, the U.S. And Allies will be geographically positioned against Iran, Pakistan, and negative forces in the Southwest Asia and in the Middle East.
U.S. And Allied Objectives in Afghanistan
he first objective for U.S. And allied forces in Afghanistan is to eradicate outside and hostile threats to the country's infrastructure. he threats which currently exist are:
Al Qaeda and aliban terrorists located mainly on the porous border between Afghanistan and Pakistan
Iranian military readiness and proliferation of nuclear armament
hese threats might at first be considered minimal in comparison to those threats that exist in Iraq, since Iraq borders with Syria, Iran, and is generally a South Asia-Middle East corridor. Afghanistan, however, bordering Iran and Pakistan, while its threats from Iran, Pakistan, and internal radical insurgent forces cannot be minimized and must be considered seriously, and our objectives for Afghanistan reflect an aggressive and proactive…
The United States and the Allied forces will help bring about an environment of safety and security that will allow the Afghani people to begin to experience a normal way of life. That, in and of itself, will at first be difficult, because it has been decades since they have been able to do that. But it is also something that they will very quickly adapt to, and I know that they will work hard to maintain what has been won for them.
By the spring of 2010, municipal projects will begin being undertaken. Housing is high on the list of the many things that must be accomplished. We will help them in this too, and our U.S Corp of Army Engineers will be working closely with Afghanistan's own artisans and tradesmen on these building projects.
We expect to see great progress in the next year in rebuilding the infrastructure, and in eliminating the threat from outside forces that would see this country remain in dire economic and social straits. We hope that by this time next year, we can begin to share and discuss with you the many accomplishments that have been made in Afghanistan during the year 2010.
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
The United States Department of Homeland Security was formed in response to the growing threat of international terrorism. Since its official inception in 2002, the Department's mandate has expanded to encompass immigration law enforcement and bolstered response to natural disasters affecting the United States. The DHS represented a significant restructuring of several American federal government agencies.
The stated mission of the Department of Homeland Security, indicated on the Department's Web site, includes five core areas: the prevention of terrorism, the security of national borders, the enforcement of immigration law, the safeguarding of cyberspace, and the ensured resilience to natural disasters (DHS 2011 "Department of Homeland Security Missions and esponsibilities").
The Department of Homeland Security operates as a coordination body, which "leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their…
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department of Homeland Security Missions and Responsibilities. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/responsibilities.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department Six-Point Agenda. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/editorial_0646.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). History.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Mature and Strengthen the Homeland Security Enterprise. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240838201772.shtm
The most appropriate use of state and local law enforcement counter-terrorism resources (beyond soft target protection and small-scale tactical response) is in a role far less glamorous than preventing the large scale unconventional attacks that present the greatest danger domestically. ather than focusing on prevention, local and state agencies must develop effective implementation plans for orderly evacuation of those unharmed by the initial attack but still located within close enough proximity to suffer from its immediate aftermath. One of their most valuable contributions would be, very simply, emergency management preparation to distribute federally supplied "push packs" each containing approximately seventeen large truckloads of emergency supplies and medications designed to be provided immediately to any area attacked on a large scale by terrorists because antibiotics and the other vital materials in the packs are not any help if they are left sitting on airport tarmacs where federal responsibility for their deployment…
Larsen, R. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy. Grand Central Publishing: New York.
GPO. (2004) the 9/11 Commission Report. Accessed September 20, 2007, at www.gpoaccess.gov/911/.
Linux Security Technologies
The continued popularity and rapid growth of open source software in general and the Linux operating system specifically are having a disruptive impact on proprietary software. The disruptive impacts of open source software are so pervasive that they are completely re-ordering the enterprise system strategies in many corporations globally today (ooney, 2004). With this proliferation of open source software and the foundation being laid by the Linux operating system, there continues to be an urgent and escalating need for new security tools and applications and tools as well. Of the many security applications and tools available for the Linux operating system, the three that will be analyzed and assessed in this paper include chroot jail, iptables and SELinux. The analysis will include which organizations are sponsoring the development of each of these technologies, an explanation of how each of these technologies change the Linux operating system to…
Forristal, J. (2001). Fireproofing against DoS attacks. Network Computing, 12(25), 65-74.
Greenemeier, L. (2005). More-secure Linux still needs to win users. InformationWeek, (1029), 28-28.
MacVittie, L. (2005). Linux models a few new hats. Network Computing, 16(3), 28-30.
Rooney, P. (2004). Migrating to LINUX. CRN, (1092), 28-28.
Traffic Analysis/Homeland Security
One of the biggest challenges currently faced by the Department of Homeland Security is guaranteeing cybersecurity. Each and every day some type of cyber crime occurs. Such crimes have the potential to affect the country's national security. This paper investigates the significance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security. It will look at the importance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security as well as encrypted traffic and its implications to cyber-security. The manner in which the U.S. has handled cybersecurity over the past twenty years and the methods that the government has used in this time period will be discussed. Encrypted mobile messaging applications will also be discussed. At the end of the discussions, solutions are recommended and a conclusion given.
In the recent past, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) and the DoD (Department of Defense) signed an agreement to enhance the…
Bobby, M. (2010, November 10). Harvard National Security Journal. Harvard National Security Journal -- DoD-DHS Memorandum of Understanding Aims to Improve Cybersecurity Collaboration. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://harvardnsj.org/2010/11/dod-dhs-memorandum-of-understanding-aims-to-improve-cybersecurity-collaboration/
(2012). DHS Can Strengthen Its International Cybersecurity Programs. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIGr_12-112_Aug12.pdf
(2015, May 10). Fox News - Breaking News Updates -- Latest News Headlines -- Photos & News Videos. 'Terrorism has gone viral': U.S. officials, lawmakers warn of growing jihad-inspired attacks -- Fox News. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2015/05/10/mccaul-terrorism-has-gone-viral.html
Harknett, R., & Stever, J. (2015). The Cybersecurity Triad: Government, Private Sector Partners, and the Engaged Cybersecurity Citizen. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 6(1).
The CBP (Customs and Border Protection) is a unit in the homeland security department and is the agency responsible for regulating, monitoring and facilitating flow of products at the points of entry. CBP policy formulation is done is such a way as to ensure that there is smooth movement of cargo through the border line. CBP enforces the customs and trade rules which are put in place with a view of protecting businesses and customers in the U.S. and collect revenue. CBP also enforces security laws for imports formulated with an objective of preventing illegal drugs, mass destruction weapons and contraband commodities from accessing the U.S.A. The U.S. congress is charged with the duty of defining and authorising the functions of international trade within CBP, allocation of funds for conducting program CBP oversight. The current laws authorising facilitation of trade and enforcing CBP functions are centred on a…
When considering their security needs, businesses will be faced with whether to develop an in-house, proprietary team or to outsource their security to a contractor. There are significant differences between contract security services and proprietary security, as well as costs and benefits associated with each. With proprietary services, the company can control and monitor all their security needs, change security strategies as needed, and conduct all training in-house. Security personnel are also directly reporting to the company, creating a safer and more internally cohesive security strategy. Yet few companies can afford to develop a security staff from scratch, maintain that staff through ongoing and important skills upgrades, and monitor security internally. Contract security services have become popular among businesses of all sizes for good reason, offering substantial cost savings. Moreover, security contract services can be highly effective and reliable when they ascribe to international standards for professional development in their…
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…
Accardo, J., & Chaudhry, M. A. (2014). Radiation exposure and privacy concerns surrounding full-body scanners in airports. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 198-200.
Alberto, V., & Bogatz, D. (2015, November 10). Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening
System ("Capps Ii"): National Security V. Civil Liberties. Retrieved from maxwell.syr.edu: ww.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/campbell/events/AlbertoBogatz.pdf
Bajoria, J. (2010, December 28). The Debate Over Airport Security. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/border-and-port-security/debate-over-airport-security/p23673
COUNTE-TEOISM AND THE DEPATMENT OF HOMELAND SECUITY
Counter-terrorism is popular as antiterrorism and incorporates techniques, practices, strategies, and tactics that militaries, governments, corporations and police departments adopt in attacking terrorist threats and acts either real or imputed. Both governments and insurgents use terror tactics. It is clear that some insurgents do not terror as tactics while others opt not to apply as other tactics have better outcomes for their particular contexts. Individuals may engage in acts of terror, as it was the case with Oklahoma City bombing (Katherine, Darmer & osenbaum, 2004). Where the terrorism acts are part of broader insurgencies, counter-terrorism forms an integral element of security doctrines. However, economic, political, and other measures focus on insurgencies as compared to specific terror acts. The United States uses foreign internal defense doctrine in its military programs to support other nations while attempting to suppress lawlessness, insurgency, or subversion and…
Katherine, M.B., Darmer, R.M., & Rosenbaum, S.E. (2004). Civil Liberties vs. National Security in a Post9/11 World. Amherst NY: Prometheus Books.
Nacos, B.L. (2012). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. New York: Longman/Pearson.
Some writers have also reverberated the dread that human security could become a philosophical tool.
Does Respectable Conception it work? Altering Facets OF Human Safety.
Founded on this apparently un fluctuating contrast of opinions produced by procedural insufficiencies and possible incoherency, there is other approaches that can be proposed. In an appreciation, to some it seems to have come full circle: there are important resemblances concerning the impression of human security as stated from the expansion reports / UN angle, on the one hand, and on the other, Galtung's theory of structural violence and human psychosomatic potential (Roberts). Certainly, Sabine Alkire describes the goal of human security as "being to defend the vigorous center of all human lives in methods that progress individual liberties and human contentment," a description that replicates Galtungian measurements of human growth. ut in spite of the likelihood of uncertainty and haziness natural in such a…
Roberts, D. (2005). Empowering the Human Security Debate: Making it Coherent and Meaningful. International Journal of WorldPiece, 3.
Snedeker, Laura. (2010) "Wolf Blitzer: "Is Human Rights More Important than American National Security?" 16 November, 2007. 18 April, 2010. .
Suhrke, A. (1999). Human Security and the interests of States. Sage Publications, 265-276.
Kumar, C. Raj. (2005). "Human rights implications of national security laws in India: combating terrorism while preserving civil liberties." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 22 March, 2005. 18 April, 2010. .
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…
Andreas, Peter. "The escalation of U.S. immigration control in the post-Nafta era." Political Science Quarterly v113, n4 (Winter 1998):591
Art, Robert and Jervis, Robert. International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Bush, George H.W. "Address to the Nation Announcing the Deployment of United States Armed Forces to Saudi Arabia," The White House, Washington, D.C., August 8, 1990 and George H.W. Bush "Remarks and an Exchange With Reporters on the Persian Gulf Crisis," Kennebunkport, Maine, August 11, 1990 http:bushlibrary.tamu.eduWeb accessed on 10 April 2003.
Global Warming Information." Global Warming. 2004. http://www.globalwarming.org
Principal Directorates of Department of Homeland Security
Border and Transportation Security
The largest component of the Department of Homeland Security is the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security (BTS). This division is responsible for maintaining the security of the nation's borders and transportation systems. BTS employees about 58% of DHS's total employees, has nearly half of its operating budget, and includes what was formerly TSA, Customs, the border security functions of INS, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and FLETC. Just like the other directorates of DHS, it is managed by an undersecretary of homeland security (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2012).
This department brought together several agencies from such departments as the Treasury Department, the Department of Justice, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Agriculture. The mission of this directorate is to secure the borders and transportation systems of the United States and to…
About the Directorate for Management. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0096.shtm
About the Science and Technology Directorate. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0530.shtmUnited States Department of Border and Transportation Security. (2010). Retrieved from http://homelandsecurity.uslegal.com/department-of-homeland-security/components -
Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.gov.com/agency/dhs/
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at http://www.asial.com.au/default.asp?page=/media%20centre/research+and+articles/environmental+scan+of+the+security+industry.Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Home Security Market Goes Hi-tech (2006). On the Internet at: svconline.com/resav/hitech_home_security_06192006. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
The management of large organizations is a very crucial issue, whether they are government-related or not (Argyris, 1993; Argyris & Schon, 1978; Broom, Jackson, Harris, & Vogelsang-Coombs, n.d.; Brown & Brudney, 2003; Hatry, 1999; Haynes, 1999). Often, however, the government does not seem to realize that it must manage itself in the same way that a business would in certain aspects if it is to succeed and therefore it does not market itself to the public.
The spending that has been involved with the Department of Homeland Security is also crucial, because it has changed over time to reflect the needs and the realization of what it takes to make the Department work (Eggen & Mintz, 2003). This spending is important to discuss, because it indicates how much of the government's money - and by extension how much of the tax dollars of Americans - is going toward funding this…
Argyris, C., (1993). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Argyris, C. & Schon, D.A. (1978). Organizational learning, a theory of action perspective. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Broom, C., Jackson, M., Harris, J., & Vogelsang-Coombs, V. (n.d.). Performance measurement: Concepts and techniques (3rd ed.), workbook. Washington, DC: American Society for Public administration.
Brown, M.M., & Brudney, J.L. (2003). Learning organizations in the public sector? A study of police agencies employing information and technology to advance knowledge. Public Administration Review. 63(1), 30-43.
This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.
While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…
Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…
Bowman, M.E. (2007) Law Enforcement Technology Intelligence, and the War on Terror. JFQ. Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9dfc7c9b-537f-44b9-a461-ed45b8fa1a76%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Cowper, TJ and Buerger, ME (nd) Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
Edwards, John B. (2012) Intelligence Led Policing Connecting Urban and Rural Operations. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1afefbff-3d5c-4282-bcda-00e357218031%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=12
Often knowledge transfer faces the most significant threats in globally distributed MNCs, as the core part of their international property is included in the knowledge they are sharing across networks (Caelli, 2002). Knowledge transfer however is critical for being able to compete effectively on a global basis, as customers increasing a re buying expertise, not just products. This requirement is often exacerbated by local governments in foreign nations who often require disclosure of the data being transmitted in and out of their countries, with China being one of the most aggressive on this issue (Cohen, 2000).
The development of effective security strategies for MNCs needs to be predicated on the legacy, 3rd party and enterprise systems' integration requirements of companies as they grow quickly through mergers, acquisitions and global expansion strategies. Being able to unify the entire complex of systems in an MNC and making sure the integration points…
Caelli, W.J. (2002). Trusted...or...trustworthy: The search for a new paradigm for computer and network security. Computers & Security, 21(5), 413-420.
Cohen, E.A. (2000). International relations and security network. Foreign Affairs, 79(3), 167-167.
Doddrell, G.R. (1995). Security environment reviews. Information Management & Computer Security, 3(4), 3-14.
Fyffe, G. (2008). Managing multinational compliance efforts while addressing corporate security needs. Network Security, 2008(4), 16-18.