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Psychological Distress in a Natural Disaster
Among the many problems that humans encounter following a natural disaster is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD can result from natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornados among other frightening natural events that cause damage and result in serious injuries and loss of life. hen humans are exposed to horrific natural disasters they may continue to carry the fearful events in their memories; those realistic recollections can haunt the individual to the point of causing serious psychological disorders. Hence, PTSD can become a very serious emotional problem that requires psychological help from professionals. This paper provides instances of PTSD research following natural disasters -- and studies that delve into the dynamics of PTSD that resulted from natural disasters, including the terrible flooding in Thailand in 2000
Literature Review -- Hat Yi Flood
hen severe rains caused a dangerous flood that killed about…
Agustini, E.N., Asniar, I., and Matsuo, H. (2011). The prevalence of long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents after the tsunami in Aceh. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 18
Assanangkornchai, Sawitri, Tangboonngam, Sa-nguansri, and Edwards, J. Guy. (2004). Stress
And Health, Vol. 20, 81-89.
Bhushan, Braj, and Kumar, J. Sathya. (2007). Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children Surviving the 2004 Tsunami. Journal of Loss and Trauma, Vol. 12, 245-257.
An imagined natural disaster for St. Louis would be a flood of either the Missouri or Mississippi. The mechanics of such a flood are unimportant, but the economic consequences could be dire. A flood would wipe out entire sections of the city, which would need to be abandoned and subsequently rebuilt. All port activities would cease during the duration of the flood and the rebuilding of any port areas that suffered damage. This would disrupt the city's rail activities as well. Many other of the city's major industries would likely recover quickly from a flood scenario, unless specific plants were damaged.
Such a natural disaster would have an impact on both the demand for labor and the supply of labor. On the demand side, there would be an initial reduction in demand. The flood would create a significant disruption to economic activity in the area, in particular if the…
Local Preparation and esponse Aspect to a Potential Terrorist Event or Natural Disaster
The relevance of having in place clearly defined strategies and plans to guarantee the safe and efficient evacuation of people during catastrophic events cannot be overstated. This could be demonstrated by having a close look at the response of Federal, State, and local agencies during past events, i.e. Hurricane Katrina. This text highlights Monroe County's logistical preparation and response aspect with regard to a potential natural disaster of the same scale as Hurricane Katrina. Of key importance in a discussion of this nature is the framework in place to ensure efficient evacuations.
An evacuation, according to the National esponse Plan - NP, "is an organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas" (Federal Highway Administration/U.S. Department of Transportation - FHWA/DOT, 2014). In essence, as the National Incident…
Federal Highway Administration/U.S. Department of Transportation - FHWA/DOT. (2014). Chapter 2: Federal, State, Local, and Transportation Roles in Evacuations. Retrieved from https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/reports/hurricanevacuation/chapter2.htm
North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (2006). Hurricane Katrina After Action Report and Recommendations. Retrieved from http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/_static/resources/1676.pdf
Office of Emergency Management. (2008). Incident Management System: Standard Operating Guidelines -- Monroe County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan. Retrieved from http://www2.monroecounty.gov/files/ps/oem/Incident%20Management%20System%20Plan,%2006-08%20Revision.pdf
damage of the most important natural disaster in the United States in the last hundred years, an article referring to Hurricane Katrina and, most significantly, to the extent of the damage, to the reconstruction possibilities and to the bearing these will carry on the U.S. fiscal policy and the U.S. fiscal deficit, the article Hurricane Katrina upends American fiscal policy is appropriate to explain relationships between governmental spending and overall fiscal policies, as well as the impact on national fiscal policy.
The article refers strictly to the impact on the U.S. economy and U.S. fiscal policy that Hurricane Katrina has brought about. As cynical as this may be, the logical relationship between Katrina, governmental spending, fiscal policy and, in the end, economic growth in the U.S., is quite simple to explain. The hurricane has brought about huge amounts of losses in the U.S. economy, losses that need to be counterbalanced…
Over the years, there has been continuing debate surrounding the best economic system for dealing with a host of issues. In emergency situations, this will play a vital role in ensuring that there is adequate support and resources for meeting the needs of stakeholders. To fully understand which one works the best requires looking at how the socialist ideology is best suited for dealing with these kinds of situations, the way it responds to the Haiti earthquake and the how laws of supply / demand will impact commodities prices. Together, these different elements will show the effects of different economic theories in dealing with a variety of challenges. (Klein, 2010)
Which economic system is best suited for handling a crisis of epic proportions (hurricane, flood, blizzard, forest fire, etc.)? Why?
The best economic system for addressing hurricanes, blizzards, floods and forest fires is socialism. This is because it…
Klein, K. (2010). The Shock Doctrine. New York, NY: Picadore.
War and armed conflicts often create humanitarian crises and strain diplomatic relationships between countries. Diplomatic relations are an important topic to discuss due to the rise in social upheaval throughout the globe. Humanitarian missions give the army a chance to win the hearts and minds of the populace of countries impacted by United States and its various armed conflicts. These missions may also allow less fortunate countries a chance to build up their infrastructure, reducing potential future problems during natural disaster, while allowing American military a chance to employ sound military strategy and logistical might.
Armed conflicts bring out the worst in people and promote negative situations for all sides involved. Therefore, it is important for nations to engage in humanitarian efforts to improve strained diplomatic relationships. These efforts, journalists show through the war on terror and how foreign aid and humanitarian effort serve as key aspects in…
Crawley, V. (2007). Humanitarian missions as important as combat for U.S. military. U.S. Department of State.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2018). The impact of disasters and crises on agriculture and food security, 2017. Author.
Fukushima, A. I., Ginoza, A., Hase, M., Kirk, G., Lee, D., Shefler, T., & Foreign Policy in Focus. (2015, June 29). Disaster Militarism: Rethinking US relief in the Asia-Pacific. Retrieved from https://www.thenation.com/article/disaster-militarism-rethinking-us-relief-asia-pacific/
Margesson, R. (2015). International crises and disasters: U.S. humanitarian assistance response mechanisms (RL33769). Congressional Research Service.
Flooding in the Carolinas after Hurricane Florence in 2018
Since the disaster of Hurricane Katrina and the poor response of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in the aftermath of the flooding in 2005, adequate and effective management of natural disasters has become a central concern for leading emergency management agencies at both local and federal levels. A need for greater interagency collaboration has been established and by the time Hurricane Florence struck the Carolinas in 2018 there had been plenty of discussion about safety. Still, not enough was done to prepare the community for the devastation that occurred. In Horry County, South Carolina, where I live, major flooding occurred as a result of Hurricane Florence. The storm was responsible for approximately 40 deaths across three states and the total estimate of damage caused by flooding was approximately $20 billion. Described by the Weather Service as “one of the…
Bahrampour, T. (2018). North Carolina mother charged in death of son who drowned in hurricane, prompting accusation of racism from NAACP. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/social-issues/north-carolina-mother-charged-in-death-of-son-who-drowned-in-hurricane/2018/10/31/824cd5c8-dc8a-11e8-b732-3c72cbf131f2_story.html?utm_term=.bfe3e163eba8
Campbell, C. (2018). You can’t go back and build over and over.’ But buying out homes won’t be cheap. Retrieved from http://www.govtech.com/em/disaster/-You-Cant-go-Back-and-Build-Over-and-Over-But-Buying-out-Homes-Wont-be-Cheap.html
E-PARCC Collaborative Governance Initiative. (2008). Collaboration Amid Crisis: The Department of Defense During Hurricane Katrina Teaching Note. Retrieved from https://www.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/parcc/eparcc/cases/Moynihan-%20Teaching%20Notes.pdf
FAO. (2018). Organizational theories. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/w7503e/w7503e03.htm
“FEMA and Partners” (2018) Respond to Hurricane Florence.
McCoy, T. (2018). In a Florence flood, she tried to hold on to her baby. But the water ripped him away. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/in-a-florence-flood-she-tried-to-hold-onto-her-baby-but-the-water-ripped-him-away/2018/09/17/fbfb0c02-bab9-11e8-a8aa-860695e7f3fc_story.html?utm_term=.f6223cd46dac
Philipps, D. (2017). Seven hard lessons responders to Harvey learned from Katrina. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/07/us/hurricane-harvey-katrina-federal-responders.html
Samaan, J. L., & Verneuil, L. (2009). Civil–Military Relations in Hurricane Katrina: a case study on crisis management in natural disaster response. Humanitarian Assistance: Improving US-European Cooperation, Center for Transatlantic Relations/Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD/Global Public Policy Institute, Berlin, 413-432.
Natural disasters have the potential to dramatically alter life in local communities. The loss of human life reverberates through the generations, as does the loss of local businesses and the generalized economic and psychosocial strain. Yet there are also larger impacts from localized events, such as changes to public policy and political philosophies resulting from major natural disasters. One of the most impactful natural disasters in recent American history is undoubtedly Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane Katrina showed Americans the many shortcomings of federal disaster relief response programs like the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was restructured after the event (Zimmerman, 2015). In addition to the political ramifications from Katrina, the storm revealed weaknesses in local, state, and federal infrastructure: showing that public spending patterns need to change in order to make American communities more resilient in the future. Another reason why Katrina remains one of the most important and impactful…
Disaster Preparedness Plan:
Georgia has been an area threatened by some of form of natural disaster that has a huge negative impact on the well-being of its residents and the personnel and financial resources of the emergency response agencies. The most common natural disaster that occurs in this area is tornadoes that have terrorized both the rural and urban areas while making everyone in danger of their perils. In the recent years, Georgia experienced deadly tornadoes that caused harm, damages, and deaths in approximately 15 counties within the state. Give the nature of these tragedies, residents of this state need to be prepared and planned on how to respond to such emergencies.
Tornadoes in Georgia:
Tornadoes are regarded as nature's most violent storms since they can generate wind speeds of over 250 mph and appear from nowhere with little warning ("March Marks Start of Active Tornado," n.d.). These natural disasters…
"Defining the Need." (2002). Georgia Amateur Radio Emergency Service. Retrieved January 31,
2012, from http://www.gaares.org/ARESPlan/potential_disasters_in_georgia.html#tornadoes
"Georgia Emergency Operations Plan." (2010, August). GEMA / Homeland Security.
Retrieved from Georgia Emergency Management Agency / Homeland Security website: http://www.gema.ga.gov/content/atts/prepare/Plans%20and%20Maps/Plan%20Library/GEOP2010.pdf
Disaster recovery refers to the IT components of the business that, in times of a disaster, need to be safeguarded so that business can be continued. Disaster recovery is more a preventive plan set in motion prior to the organization and implementation of the business than a series of actions that are followed once the disaster hits the company. Given that most companies are, to a large extent and in many ways, reliant on their IT system, and that collapse of IT system has ramifications beyond the company, disaster recovery has become a significant part of planning to today's organization.
Disasters can be classified into two areas:
Natural disasters -- for example floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes where mitigation measures ahead of time can work towards avoiding or reducing data loss and IT cessation.
Man-made disasters -- such as terrorism where surveillance and avoidance planning can also work towards mitigating and…
Bahan, C. The Disaster Recovery Plan. SANS Reading Room, 2003
Bell, Judy. Why Some Recovery Plans Won't Work. Disaster Recovery
Journal. Spring 2003
In the modern era, it is important that government from the federal to the local level have risk management plans in place for natural disasters, man-made issues and of course, terrorism. Generally speaking, risk management helps identify, prioritize and put plans in place regarding areas of risk that can impact the community. The overall purpose of risk management is so that agencies can be proactive in their identification and implementing plans for disasters and risks since in the modern world these plans involve numerous agencies and complex coordination. Thankfully, standards have been developed that organize risk management by looking at six general paradigms: 1) Identifying risks in the context of the area (e.g. flood planning is less important in Arizona than in Louisiana); 2) Planning a process to mitigate the situation (who is in charge); 3) Mapping the objectives of stakeholders (who will be involved); 4) Developing a…
Colorado Division of Emergency Management. (2013). News, Info and Preparedness.
Retrieved from: http://www.coemergency.com/
Drabek, T., et.al.. (1991). Emergency Management: Principles and Practices for Local Government. International City Management Association.
Frenkel, M., Hommel, U., & Rudolf, M. (Eds.). (2005). Risk Management - Challenge and Opportunity. New York: Springer.
Emergency Planning and Disaster ecovery: Technological and Managerial Solutions
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a body that is entrusted with alerting, evacuation coordination and managing disaster situations. Their website http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas deals with emergency issues and how response to disasters are usually undertaken by the agency. This portal in particular covers the use if technology to advance alert systems to the general public during and impending disaster. The alert system that is used by the agency and several other bodies will be focus of the paper and a detailed look at how successful these alert systems described in the FEMA website are and how they can be improved to ensure a much higher success rate in the future.
The approaching disaster alert system described in the FEMA website is known as the Emergency Alert System (EAS). This is a system that is used by the alerting authorities to…
FEMA, (2012). Emergency Alert System. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas
For example, the company could consider placing the data recovery system in the desert between West Texas and Nevada. In general, these areas are not subject to tornados or hurricanes. You could then choose, to place the location for all backup servers in a facility that will protect it against the weather such as: placing it underground. Once the facility is complete, you want to ensure that there is key staff to monitor and address any kind of issues that arise. Using such a system, will allow you to reduce the overall amounts of lost data that can occur at a particular location (due to weather / terrorist related activity).
Emergency Operations Center
The next issue that is going to be faced by the company / location is: establishing an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). In general, an EOC will serve as a place where the company can effectively coordinate a…
Great Britain Intelligence and Security Committee." Report into London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005." London:
Stationary Office. 2006. Print.
Hoffer, Jim. "Backing Up Business - Industry Trend or Event." Health Management Technology, 12.9, (2001): 79
("About FEMA," 2007)
The method followed by FEMA is to lead the country in cases of a disaster, in a risk-based comprehensive emergency management system that would have as its important tenets preparedness, protection, response and recovery, and finally, mitigation of the losses that the people have suffered. These are some of the plans that FEMA has in place, and for which it recruits trainees: the National esponse Plan, strategic Plan, and Annual Agency Performance Plan. The National esponse Plan encompasses a sort of a complete and all hazards approach to the management of domestic incidents. Some of the protocols that the National esponse Plan have established are: to save lives and also to effectively protect the lives and the health and safety of the public, the responders to the calamity, and to the health care and rescue workers at the scene, while at the same time making sure that…
Auerhahn, Elliot. (2006, Jun) "Broward's new Hurricane Ready Decal
Program Helps Residents Identify Businesses That Will Be Open after a Hurricane" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://bcegov2.broward.org/newsrelease/viewscreen.asp?MessageID=1168
Brunelli, Mark. (2003, Jun) "Data Center Futures: More companies seeking to create internal disaster recovery centers" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchwebservices.techtarget.com/tip/0,289483,sid26_gci905212,00.html
Hickey, Andrew R. (2006, Oct) "Disaster Recovery centre focuses on network management" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid103_gci1222603,00.html
In the wake of a disaster, a business is likely to suffer from a reduction of revenue, until the normal business climate returns. In some cases, the normal business climate may take years to return, and the loss of business will be prolonged. The loss of business can be insured against to some degree, but there are also systemic steps that can be taken to mitigate the damage. Having a low debt level can help a business to survive a post-disaster slowdown, because the business will still be able to meet its financial obligations even with reduced revenue streams. Diversification, in particular geographic diversification, can help as well. A small restaurant operator with three restaurants in Miami is more susceptible to business failure post-hurricane than a restauranteur with three locations spread between Miami, Tampa and Orlando, since any given hurricane will only close one restaurant in the group instead of…
Accenture. (2010). Business continuity and disaster recovery planning. Accenture. Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://www.accenture.com/Global/Technology/Technology_Consulting/Security-Solutions/Services/ContinuityDisasterRecover.htm
Momani, N. (2010). Business continuity planning: Are we prepared for future disasters. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration. Vol. 2 (3) 272-279.
This would likely have resulted in a long delay in raising suitable support to those health care professionals already at the disaster site.
Duties of the DMAT
The initial duties of the DMAT were to assist the nursing team at Charlotte egional Medical Centre as most nurses there had been on duty for around 40 hours. This was due to the problems which relief staff had in getting to the facility and also the problems which had been caused at the hospital due to the power failures and the structural damage that had been inflicted on the hospital (Cohen and Mulvaney). This initial aid that the DMAT provided was invaluable, as if they had not been so well prepared and arrived so early there would have been far greater pressure on the staff at the hospital, which would have greatly reduced the quality of care which the patients received.
Cohen, Sharon S. And Karen Mulvaney. "Field observations: Disaster Medical Assistance Team response for Hurricane Charley, Punta Gorda, Florida, August 2004." Disaster Management and Response 3.1 (2005): 22-27.
Mace, Sharon E., Jaszmine T. Jones and Andrew I. Bern. "An analysis of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) deployments in the United States." Prehospital Emergency Care 11 (2007): 30-35.
McEntire, David a. Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for Resilience. Indianapolis: Wiley, 2007. 156-157.
South Florida Regional DMAT FL 5 / IMSuRT South. 2007. South Florida Regional DMAT FL5. 31 October 2007 http://www.fl5dmat.com/ .
There is a modern emphasis, which has resulted from the experience of the economic impact of disaster, on a more extensive and 'distributed' mode of thinking about disaster recovery. This is an important factor that should be stressed as it has direct implications in terms of the economic aspects of disaster recovery planning in an increasingly networked and technologized contemporary working environment. This aspect is cogently expressed in a White Paper on this issue.
Many organizations have strong business recovery plans for their mainframe and mini-computer systems. but, as more and more critical applications are migrated to distributed systems, companies are becoming concerned about how they can protect these systems in the event of a disaster. Chances of a disaster increase significantly as systems are moved away from traditional central computer facilities that have hardened security and environmental controls.
(Disaster ecovery - a White Paper)
This emphasizes a cardinal issue…
Bielski, L. (2002). Thinking the Unthinkable: Often Dismissed as Mere "Insurance," Disaster Recovery Ought to Be Considered Part of the Lifeblood of Any Business. ABA Banking Journal, 94(1), 44+.
This article focuses on the subject of disaster management in the banking industry. It provides insight into actual situations where disaster recovery plans were effective in preventing large-scale economic loss. It also provides examples of what can occur when there is a poor or recovery plan. This is also a good background study that provides insight into the economic effects and implications of disaster in the it context.
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+.
This was a very useful article in that it provided an extensive and well written overview of issues surrounding disaster recovery and management. The article was particularly focused on the effects and implications in economic terms of the failure of disaster management planning. These aspects were compared to the effect of good and well thought out disaster planning.
Tsunami in Japan
Japan has been having a series of natural disasters of great magnitude from some of which are recorded as early as 1920s with the most common disasters being the earthquakes resulting from seismic actions and storms. The worst of the quakes took place in 1923 with a casualty of 143,000 deaths followed by the March 2011 quake that occasioned a tsunami.
The magnitude of the 2011 earthquake in Japan that triggered the Tsunami from within the Pacific Ocean was 8.9 magnitude, a scale that way higher than the other quakes that have been happening in this region and the surrounding. It is worth noting however that this quake had been expected over many decades by earthquake specialists and geologists. They anticipated a huge earthquake but the magnitude of the quake was way higher than they expected hence the reason for the huge number of people…
The International database, (2012). Country Profile: Japan. Retrieved March 14, 2012 from http://www.emdat.be/result-country-profile
isk Management: Disaster ecovery
In essence, disaster recovery has got to do with protecting an organization against events of a negative nature and their effects/impact. Such events include, but they are not limited to, failure of equipment, serious cyber attacks, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. All these put the operations of the organization at risk. This text concerns itself with practical risk management. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, address the need for disaster recovery and highlight the key components of a disaster recovery plan.
The Need for Disaster isk Management
The relevance of disaster risk management cannot be overstated. This is particularly the case given that disasters put the continued operations of an enterprise at risk. It is important to note that in the past, many businesses have had to contend with huge losses when disasters strike. This is more so the case when…
Doig, J. (1997). Disaster Recovery for Archives, Libraries and Records Management Systems in Australia and New Zealand. Wagga, NSW: Center for Information Studies.
EC-Council. (2010). Disaster Recovery. Clifton Part, NY: Cengage Learning.
Rodriguez, R., Quarantelli, E.L. & Dynes, R. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.
Snedaker, S. (2013). Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning for IT Professionals (2nd ed.). Waltham, MA: Elsevier.
Toms iver Township is a hub of the Jersey Shore. On October 29, 2012, "superstorm" Sandy hit the area, leaving widespread damage to property and infrastructure. A month after the storm hit, most of Toms iver homes are uninhabitable and businesses are far from returning to their "usual" operations. The mayor has been working closely with the state of New Jersey and federal agencies like FEMA, but requires the assistance of an experienced NGO like Acme Disaster Support Services (ADSS).
Goals of recovery include debris removal, restoration of infrastructure, essential services, and core structures, and returning the community to a livable state as soon as possible so that residents and business owners may return. ADSS serves in a support and organizational role, focusing primarily on facilitating communication and coordinating recovery efforts and activities. While ADSS does not supply actual funding or resources, we will help the township understand how to…
Katz, A. (2012). One month after Sandy: Where the storm came ashore. Time. Nov 29, 2012. Retrieved online: http://nation.time.com/2012/11/29/one-month-after-sandy-where-the-storm-came-ashore/
NOAA (n.d.). Toms River, NJ: Community Profile. Retrieved online: http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/read/socialsci/pdf/NJ/toms%20river-nj.pdf
O'Neill, E. (2013). A year after Sandy, Toms River officials say dunes are top priority. New Jersey.com. Retrieved online: http://www.nj.com/ocean/index.ssf/2013/10/toms_river_sandy_one_year_later.html
Spoto, M.A. (2014). Hurricane Sandy recovery is slow but steady in Toms River, mayor says. New Jersey.com. Retrieved online: http://www.nj.com/ocean/index.ssf/2014/10/hurricane_sandy_recovery_is_slow_but_steady_in_toms_river_mayor_says.html
Public Health Preparedness Policies
Accidents and disasters are unpredictable occurrences that may hardly be prevented from occurring. However, their effects can be minimized especially in a public health facility. These challenges are common many public places and many societies. It is the prerogative of all stakeholders to ensure that they have appropriate disaster preparedness mechanisms. Disaster preparedness is a systematic way of averting mishaps before they occur and ensuring that the entire program runs sustainably. It is the role of the management of any public health facility to secure a good place environment for the execution of any necessary precautionary measure that will avert disasters from happening. This is the fundamental rule of safety.
The responsibility of taking care of safety in any public health facility is a departmental head in charge of health safety. This department must be fully equipped with the personnel and the resources necessary for…
Hooke, W. (2010). Public Health Risks of Disasters Communication, Infrastructure, and Preparedness: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Kapur, G. (2011). Emergency Public Health: Preparedness and Response. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Tax Deductions Based on Falling Home Value
In any natural disaster where there were extreme losses to nearby homes, a house's value can fall dramatically. Ultimately, this raises home owner's insurance and sets the stage where the value of the home is lowered because of the potential for future damage. It is important to understand tax structures in order to try to compensate for some of these losses.
Although the house was not damaged itself, it was in an area where there was severe damage. The house next door was completely destroyed. This has severely impacted the value of the home. Not only is the value impacted by the fact that there is potential for future damage, it is also impacted by the damage caused by neighboring properties. The look of damaged property and the future construction that will be needed around the home will ultimately continue to keep a…
IRS. (2014). Topic 515: Casualty, disaster, and theft losses. Tax Topics. Web. http://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc515.html
Perez, William. (2013). Casualty & theft losses. Tax Planning: U.S. Web. http://taxes.about.com/od/deductionscredits/qt/CasualtyTheft.htm
Turbo Tax. (2014). About casualty deduction for Federal Income Tax. Tax Deductions and Credits. Web. https://turbotax.intuit.com/tax-tools/tax-tips/Tax-Deductions-and-Credits/About-Casualty-Deduction-for-Federal-Income-Tax/INF14772.html
ecovery: Disaster and Crisis
Disaster recovery has become an important aspect of a company's strategic plan. The main reason for an increased concern can be attributed to the fact that integration and alliances at an international level have increased so that there are more linkages and higher interdependencies that have increased the exposure of people to international risk. This also means that companies are more prone to be affected by a force majeure impacting a vendor located in another part of the world. Some cases that have recently come to light in the spate of the Japanese Earthquake are the impact on General Motors leave alone Nissan. Moreover, giants such as Sony have been impacted in the wake of natural disasters in Thailand where a Tsunami impacted the Integrated Chip provider, making it difficult for Sony to continue to manufacture its products.
In light of these vulnerabilities it…
Jones, V.A. (2011). How to Avoid Disaster:RIM's Crucial Role in Business Continuity Planning. Information Management Journal .
Keenan, G. (2011). After a year of disasters, Japan's auto sector fights back. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from CTV News: http://www.ctv.ca/generic/generated/static/business/article2284601.html#ixzz1k0x14zsf
Momani, N.M. (2010). Business Continuity Planning: Are We Prepared for Future Disasters . American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 272-279.
Omar, A., Alijani, D., & Mason, R. (2011). Information Technology Disaster Recovery Plan: Case Study. Academy of Strategic Management Journal .
PART 2-Historical Event
A specific historical event which has added to our understanding of certain aspects of the natural world is represented by the Chernobyl disaster. Which occurred in 1986. "The accident caused the largest uncontrolled radioactive release into the environment ever recorded for any civilian operation, and large quantities of radioactive substances were released into the air for about 10 days." (www.world-nuclear.org) in the period in which the accident took place, many countries were undergoing development processes. The international trend included an increased trust in the use of science and technology. Locally, while the importance of the central was understood, the same thing could not be stated about the risks it involved. It is believed that the accident was caused due to the lack of proper preparation of the workers.
The consequences of the explosion included the death of thirty workers and the contamination with thyroid cancer of…
About the Human Genome Project in genomics.energy.ov, Retrieved March24, 201 from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/about.shtml
Chernobyl Accident in World Nuclear Association, Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/chernobyl/inf07.html
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) in Access Excellence, the National Health Museum Resource center, Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Gregor_Mendel.php
James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurtice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin in Chemical Heritage Foundation Library Museum for Scholars, Retrieved March 23, 2011 from http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/chemistry-in-history/themes/biomolecules/dna/watson-crick-wilkins-franklin.aspx
As Nielsen and Lidstone (1998) note,
It is ironic that the public demands safety yet a number of cost-effective and feasible measures to mitigate disasters are not adopted by many... Such a failure of the public to adopt disaster mitigation measures has a long record in Australia
(Nielsen and Lidstone 1998)
This attitude is one of the reasons given for the greater emphasis on public education. In theoretical terms, the view is put forward that an educated public will be able to deal with emergencies and disasters more effectively and that this should form an integral part of emergency and disaster management and planning. This in turn has resulted in a "...renewal of focus, at both a national and global level, upon public education as a means to disaster mitigation" (Nielsen and Lidstone 1998). To this end the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States (FEMA) has collected data…
Asghar S. et al. Dynamic integrated model for decision support systems. I. j. Of simulation 6. (http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/EMA/rwpattach.nsf/viewasattachmentpersonal/(85FE07930A2BB4482E194CD03685A8EB)~Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf/$file/Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf. (Accessed July 15, 2008).
D'Ercole, R. 1994. "Les Vulnerabilites des Societes et des Espaces
Urbanises: Concepts, Typologies, Mode d'Analyse." Revue de
Geographie Alpine 32 (4): 87-96.
Answering the posed question depends on one's understanding of "substantially different." On the one hand, there is the basic commonality of a recognition of the threat that natural hazards and man made activities pose upon environmental safety. Also, there is the common element of intensified efforts made in the direction of attaining environmental sustainability. What differs however is the extent to which researchers, lawmakers, organizations and individuals will go to protect the environment. Additionally, differences are obvious in terms of the emergence of new threats, such as bioterrorism. So yes, even if they refer to environmental threats and protection, the issues throughout this course will be substantially different from those forwarded in 1996.
Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009
Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our esponse, American Journal of Public Health,…
Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009
Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our Response, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 9
Revkin, a.C., January 22, 2009, Environmental Issues Slide in Poll of Public's Concerns, New York Times
2009, Fuel Economy Website, http://www.fueleconomy.gov last accessed on October 2, 2009
Avoid dangerous spots near a window, hanging objects, mirrors, or merchandise fixtures
If you take cover under a piece of furniture, be sure to hold onto it. If the furniture moves be prepared to move and navigate along with it
Hold the position until the aftershock abates and it's safe to proceed further.
A pandemic or other people disaster has struck, and people resources (employees) have been impacted.
Being located in South Florida, heavy rains will undoubtedly occur. These rains coupled with the high prevalence of winds increases the likelihood of a flood. This problem is further compounded as the hurricane season is south Florida is predicated with high winds and rain. Floods can be troublesome for XYZ personnel as merchandise is damaged, the threat of electrical damage is increased, and the water damage to the facility can be substantial (United States Department of Commerce, 2006). In…
1) Amanda Ripley. "Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare. "Time. August 28, 2006.
2) Burgos, Jr., Nestor P. (11/07/2010). "Iloilo power firms asked to explain brownouts." Philippine Daily Inquireir. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/regions/view/20101107-301974/Iloilo-power-firms-asked-to-explain-brownouts. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
3) Dobson et al. Blackout Mitigation Assessment in Power Transmission Systems. System Sciences 2003. July 20, 2011
4) Petroski, Henry (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground. 94. American Scientist. pp. 7 -- 18..
Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis
Disasters in Australia.
Source of data EM-DAT (2012)
The above table is a summary of the disasters that have taken place in Australia over the last thirty years and the damage they have left behind in terms of deaths and property destroyed. It is worth noting that there are other disasters that in smaller scales hence may not have been captured but the above is a general reflection of the actual picture of what happens in Australia. It is also worth noting that some disasters exacerbate other, for instance the storms .often result in storms due to water disposed into the landmass from the oceans, an event that is possible due to earthquakes as well. Extremes temperatures have also been noted to create conditions suitable for the wildfires which are here above categorized…
Australian Journal of Emergency Management, (2001). Economic Costs of Natural Disasters in Australia. Retrieved September 2, 2012 from http://www.em.gov.au/Documents/Economic_costs_of_natural_disasters_in_Australia.pdf
Commonwealth of Australia, (2013). About Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved September 2, 2012 from http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/about/
EM-DAT (2012). Country Profile: Australia. Retrieved September 2, 2012 from http://www.emdat.be/result-country-profile
Presidential Disaster Declaration Process
Preparedness and Mitigation from Disasters in the Twentieth Century
Numerous disasters have always brought intensive destruction to the environment and human lives over the years. The twentieth century, however, has experienced rather greater disasters, which have called for intervention through ensuring mitigation and preparedness. The presidential disaster declaration process is aimed at fulfilling the ambitions of preparing for disasters. These disasters include both the man-made and natural ones, ranging from the outbreak of fires, contagious diseases that need extreme control, earthquakes and hurricanes, the nightmare of global warming, political instability and many others. The essay evaluates analytically, the need for preparedness through the presidential disaster declaration process, which is a strategy to getting assistance. The evolution of the process in the twentieth century to strengthen hazard management is also discussed in the content.
I. What is the presidential disaster declaration (PDD) process?
Bellamy, J.S. (2009) Cleverland's Greatest Disasters!: 16 Tragic True Tales of Death and Destruction: New York: Gray and Company.
Ec-Council (2010) Disaster Recovery: New York, Cengage Learning.
Kapucu, N. & Alpaslan, Z. (2011) Managing Emergencies and Crises: MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing.
Oliver, J. & Aldcroft, H.D. (2007) Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century: New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
role that technology has played in terms of the genocide in wanda, both before and after.
With the scope and depth of technology, there is an ability to make natural disasters seem even worse -- worse in the sense that a degree of sensationalism can develop, making the incident seem more pervasive and more damaging. One of the major ways that technology has impacted the manner in which we consume news is via the fact that it makes the news more immediate and more accessible. As one theorist has argued, "…sensationalism played an important role in journalism and the spread of news. People would shoot the breeze about this guy getting eaten by a bear or that woman being involved in affair. It's human nature to be curious about things that might affect our own survival -- such as death and sex" (Sanders, 2011). Technology has taken the element of…
Binns, T. (2008). Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies. Trenton: Prentice Hall.
Collins, A. (2009). Disaster and Development. New York: Routledge Press.
Goose, S.D. (1994). Arming Genocide in Rwanda: The High Cost of Small Arms Transfers. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50333/stephen-d-goose-and-frank-smyth/arming-genocide-in-rwanda-the-high-cost-of-small-arms-transfers
Hillhorst, D. (2013). Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises: Everyday Politics of Crisis Response. New York: Routledge.
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
hat could not be predicted was that the city's infrastructure would so miserably fail the people of New Orleans.
As images of looting and stranded citizens filled the airways, taken from news helicopters, the city's police force had virtually abandoned their posts, and some were accused of participating in the looting that followed the disaster there was something noticeably missing in the images; there were no police rescues, no Red Cross, no fire department rescue teams and no National Guard. Journalist John McQuaid described it this way:
But Katrina was much more than a natural event; human hands played a role in the damage and in the storm's equally disastrous aftermath. Katrina exposed deep institutional flaws in the nation's emergency response, supposedly upgraded following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. It easily overwhelmed the federal levee system, built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, that protected New Orleans…
Andrews, Joseph L. "In Katrina's Wake: Healthcare Crises in New Orleans Dr. Joseph L. "Joel" Andrews Spent Two Weeks in the New Orleans Area in December 2005 as a Physician Volunteer for the American Red Cross Hurricane Katrina Disaster Relief Programs. Three Months after the Hurricane Had Hit, He Witnessed Firsthand the Storm's Devastating Effects on Residents in the City's Various Communities." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2006: 32+. Questia. 14 Dec. 2007
What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.
Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…
Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.
Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.
Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
International Disasters and Humanitarian Law
Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:
Instant physical relief of victims
eduction of social dislocation
estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure
The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.
International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…
Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'
Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
communication during a disaster is essential to controlling and mitigating the damage of the disaster and reaching victims in a timely manner. hether the disaster is a brush fire, mudslide, or earthquake, disaster authorities must have the ability to communicate at a moment's notice without any interruptions or difficulties. This module will further discuss the need to implement proper communications and offer suggestions as to communication setup.
At the onset of a disaster, there must an alternative communications program set up. hile the program may not actually be utilized until a disaster, it should remain available and be tested regularly as part of emergency drills. There are two key components to a proper emergency alternative communication network. The first is information transfer. Often during an emergency, concerned citizens tie up the internet attempting to contact family. For this reason, a separate governmental internet server should be established to ensure the…
Davidson, Denise. San Diego County's Major Fires. U~T. October 23, 2005. Online at http://www.utsandiego.com/uniontrib/20051023/news_1m23worst.html
Fujiwara T, Iida N, Watanabe T. A hybrid wireless network enhanced with multihopping for emergency communications. Communications, 7:4177-4181.
Geographic Information Systems. USGS. Online at http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/
Staffing and Staff otational Aspects of esponses to Terrorist Event
Staffing and Staff otational Aspects of esponses to a Pentagon Terrorist Event
During the Pentagon September 11 terrorist attack, many Arlington County Fire Department employees were caught off-guard as they were busy with their daily activities. Some were being trained while others were busy preparing for an upcoming conference organized the fire department (Eversburg, 2002).
As seen from the staffing and staff rotation responses as an element of operation tempo, several weaknesses were common among the fire personnel during the Pentagon event. However, two of the weaknesses were the Arlington County Fire Department lacked an emergency recall plan with notification devices and associated systems. Besides, they also lacked effective Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) for recalling and assembling the firefighters who were off duty (Titan Systems Corporation, 2002).
First, the lack of an emergency recall plan with notification devices and associated…
Eversburg, R. (2002, January 11). The Pentagon Attack on 9-11: Arlington County (VA) Fire Department Response. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from Fire Engineering: http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-155/issue-11/features/the-pentagon-attack-on-9-11-arlington-county-va-fire-department-response.html
Titan Systems Corporation. (2002). After-Action Report on the Response to the September 11 Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon. . Arlington County, 16-65.
Session Long Project involve developing a disaster management program a specific country include hazard analysis, prevention, preparedness, response, recovery plans. Epidemiology Disasters espond: 1.
In 2011, Japan was shook by a devastating earthquake which claimed thousands of deaths and led to serious economic casualties. Since then, a number of concerns have been raised in regards to expectations of an even vengeful one in the near future. In fact, Japan has had a history of damaging quakes throughout the years. In 2004, the Ch-etsu Earthquakes, although less serious as to the number of human lives, forced many people to leave homes and injured thousands. It was considered the most vengeful quake since 1995 when thousands were killed in the Great Hanshin Earthquake, hundreds of thousands more were affected one way or another and substantial economical damage was registered. As such, Japanese have become more vigilant in regards to their safety and…
Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (2013, January 2013). Disaster Data: A Balanced Perspective. Issue No. 30. Retrieved from http://cred01.epid.ucl.ac.be/f/CredCrunch30.pdf
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2012). World Disasters Report. Retrieved from http://www.ifrcmedia.org/assets/pages/wdr2012/resources/1216800-WDR-2012-EN-FULL.pdf
Jamil, S., & Kuntjoro I.A. (2009). Managing Double Trouble: Indonesia's earthquakes and the Philippines' typhoons. paper presented at the Third Annual Convention of the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security Studies in Asia, November 3-4, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.rsis-ntsasia.org/activities/conventions/2009-singapore/Sofiah%20Jamil.pdf
Leonard, H.B. (2011). Preliminary observations on the Japanese 3/11 earthquake and tsunami. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (HKS). Retrieved from http://www.ash.harvard.edu/extension/ash/docs/earthquake.pdf
At its simplest and most succinct, the mission of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, 2018a) is “helping people before, during, and after emergencies,” (p. 1). To fulfill this mission, FEMA engages in a variety of related actions including strategic planning, intelligence gathering, communication, and coordination. FEMA conducts risk assessments, helps communities build resilience, and helps to protect or recovery essential services. FEMA (2018b) also outlines its five core mission areas, which include prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. FEMA remains active at each of these stages of emergency management and does not discriminate against any one type of emergency, playing as integral a role in natural disaster management as in technological, cyber, and terrorist-related incidents.
Prevention involves strategic planning, information gathering, intelligence sharing, threat detection, and any other activity that would involve stopping a problem before it manifests. Protection is a phase during which a disaster may be unpreventable,…
Long-Term Effects of Adverse Nature
Long-term Implications of 2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Long-term effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean Disaster
2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Indian Ocean is the third vastest water body in the world wide, casing an average of 68.556 million km2. It is the mass of water body around Africa, Asia, the Southern Ocean and Australia. It has four main accessible waterways, the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab el Mandeb (along Djibouti and Yemen), the Strait of Hormuz (along Iran and Oman), and the Strait of Malacca (Indonesia and Malaysia) among other minor ones. The ocean has been attributed to many economical advantages ranging from providing a means of transportation, food, recreation and for the extraction of valuable mineral resources. However, the ocean has major confluences with terrific and adverse water disasters such as disasters, tsunamis, aftershocks, earthquakes among others.
In 2004, the Indian registered the worst…
Ramalanjaona, G. 2011. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned. Emergency Medicine International. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-3.
Daly, P., Feener, M. R and Reid, A.J.S. From the Ground up: Perspectives on Post-Tsunami and Post -- Conflict Aceh. Chicago: Institute of Southeast Asian.
Coping with a Disaster or Traumatic Event
Disasters are realities and bearing this in mind, there is a requirement to have comprehensive plans to ensure that there are coping systems and mechanisms in place to deal with the physical, mental and emotional problems faced after any fortuitous events
The paper will commence with various facts and statistics regarding how 2011 has been a banner year in terms of the number of tornadoes that hit the United States. Thence, emphasis will be placed on two major tornadoes that wreak the most havoc -- the one in Alabama that occurred in April 2011 and the month thereafter, the Joplin, Missouri tornado.
The succeeding paragraph will introduce the thesis statement especially not only the death and destruction brought about by tornadoes but the physical, mental and emotional turmoil cause by these extraordinary events.
Physical Problems After Disaster or Traumatic Events
The section will…
5. Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). The stages of grief. Available at http://www.memorialhospital.org/library/general/stress-the-3.html
6. Moyer, C. (2011, June 6). Doctors confront burst of mental health problems after disasters. American Medical News. Available at http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/m/2011/06/06/hl20606.htm
7. NOAA/National Weather Service. (2011, June 7). Monthly and annual U.S. tornado summaries. Available at http://www.spc.noaa.gov/climo/online/monthly/newm.html
An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.
Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:
Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…
Ball, J.L. (2001). Employee Fire and Life Safety: Developing a Preparedness Plan and Conducting Emergency Evacuation Drills. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/pdf/evacuation.pdf
"Fire Preparedness & Response: What the OHS Laws Require." (n.d.). Labor Tek Safety
Training Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.labortek.com/images/articles/24.pdf
"Fire Prevention Plan." (2009, April 21). JSRCC Fire Prevention Plan. Retrieved from J.
catastrophic events can impact hospital risk financing, the purchasing of new physical property and insurance. Catastrophes can range from terrorist acts like 9/11 to natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina to biological endemics/outbreaks that shut down entire cities for days as medical teams race to erect quarantines in order to stop the spread. Each catastrophe has its own unique fall-out and impact. Terrorist attacks call for higher alert by law enforcement authorities and demand more scrutiny and optimum records keeping by hospitals, for safety's sake. Natural disasters call for optimum coordination among the various impacted medical facilities so that the best and highest quality care can be delivered in a collaborative fashion to those in need who are detrimentally affected. And biological outbreaks can be threatening to hospitals especially as they are in the business of treating patients who might have come into contact with a deadly illness and thus have…
Epstein, A. (2014). Financing Risk. JPUB. Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449645656/45656_CH05_Kavaler.pdf
Gould, N. (2015). Understanding the vulnerability of hospitals to natural disasters.
IRMI. Retrieved from https://www.irmi.com/articles/expert-commentary/understanding-the-vulnerability-of-hospitals-to-natural-disasters
RMS. (2015). Catastrophe, injury and insurance. Retrieved from http://static.rms.com/email/documents/liferisks/reports/catastrophe-injury-and-insurance.pdf
Fate of the Earth
Unfortunately, even if someone could wave a magic wand that causes all of the nuclear weapons on earth to disappear, many believe that due to the depletion of natural resources, the earth would still be in danger of catastrophe, and humankind in danger of extinction.
Jonathan Schell's book "Fate of the Earth" is an alarming portrait of the nuclear power in the world. Since the end of orld ar II, nuclear arms have kept the world's population in a state of constant concern that "something" could happen, whether by design or accident. As tensions continue to build throughout the Middle East, particularly between India and Pakistan, and more recently the nuclear potential of North Korea and China, the nuclear arms race may have subsided between the United States and Russia however, it is still alive and thriving around the globe. As Schell writes, "These bombs were…
Borenstein, Seth. "Study blames global warming for early springs."
St. Louis Post-Dispatch; 5/17/2005; pp.
Hanley, Charles J. "Ocean Study Confirms Global Warming."
Wisconsin State Journal; 4/28/2005; pp.
Disasters and Their Management
egional Disaster Analysis
Both natural and human caused disasters have been an issue in the safety of human beings all over the world. Fortunately, there are international agencies that are created for the purpose of mitigation purposes and assist in the prevention of disaster effects that would be more adverse. State governments also have the obligation of adopting the right preventive and counter actions to assist in cushioning citizens from the effects of disasters. This paper, therefore, analyzes the types of disasters in Africa, and the theoretical approaches in the management of the disasters. Under management of disasters, different factors are discussed including response, preparedness and recovery and mitigation practices. There is also a review of both the International Agencies and Local Governments, relating to their preparedness in responding to disasters. Finally, there is an analysis on the partnership relationships between public and private…
Christopher, M. & Tatham, P. (2011) Humanitarian Logistics: Meeting of Challenge of Preparing for and Responding to Disasters. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Congress (2006) congressional Record, V. 149, Pt.2, January 21, 2003 to February 11, 2003. Congress.
Holden, S. (2003) AIDS on the Agenda: Adapting Development and Humanitarian Programs to meet the challenge of HIV / AIDS. New York: Oxfam Publishers.
Oniang'o, R. (2009) Food and Nutrition Emergencies in East Africa: Political, Economic and Environmental Associations. New York: International Food Policy Restoration Institution.
Disaster First esponder
From: Commander, First esponders
e: Disaster Event
Using a Situational Awareness framework, we need to ensure NO gaps exist in the following categories. If we don't have the information, then we can assume that the missing information may be critical to a good decision. While maximizing expediency, we must put forth sufficient effort to fill as many gaps with high-level information as possible -- in the shortest time possible. ecall that, "Studies found that 76% of SA errors in pilots could be traced to problems in perception of needed information" (Endsley, 1997, p. 3). Keep in mind that an inaccurate assessment at this stage increases the odds of an erroneous mental schema.
All critical objectives will be mapped to the activation plan and my command. All of the SA phases listed below must be considered cyclic as we respond to changes and as new information is discovered.…
Endsley, M.R. (1997). The Role of Situation Awareness in Naturalistic Decision Making, In Gary Klein and Caroline E. Zsambok, (Eds,) Naturalistic Decision Making (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997).
Communications and Technology in Disaster Management
The Importance of Communication and Technology in Disaster Management
With the ever increasing chances of disasters occurring in different levels of our societies, the need for institution appropriate disaster management procedures go without saying. The strategic application of processes within organizations and regions, mainly with the aim of protecting the most critical of its assets is a prerequisite (Haddow & Bullock, 2003). With the increasing complexities, in terms of challenges to disaster management, the need for equally complex measures for managing these disasters has been echoed and this has been practically applied in the contemporary world. Generally, the use of communication and technology in facilitating functions like coordination, commanding and control and providing warnings in disaster management has become widespread. A case in point is Australia, a country which since history have implemented and continually developed its disaster management strategies (Healey, 2006).…
Fennel, Z, (2012) what are the Benefits of Communication Technology, Retrieved July 30, 2012, http://www.ehow.com/list_5772270_benefits-communication-technology_.html
GSM Association (2005) the Role of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies, Retrieved July 30, 2012, https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:4iJ5YMea5RsJ:www.enlightenmenteconomics.com/about-diane/assets/disasterreport
Haddow, G.D & Bullock, J.A (2003) Introduction to Emergency Management, Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Healey, J (2006) Natural Disasters, Sydney: The Spinney Press
Nursing Intervention in Disaster
The possibility of occurrence of disasters is a reality. With this in mind there should be efforts made to prevent any upcoming or potentially disastrous events. These efforts are what are known as disaster prevention. Disaster prevention therefore refers to efforts put in place to ensure that adverse effects of events that are potentially disastrous are prevented even when the disaster cannot be controlled. Disaster prevention is done at various levels of the society and is undertaken so as to prevent all types of disasters. Nurses are involved to a large extent when it comes to the prevention and mitigation of disasters. Nurses are involved in institutions that can influence change and due to the unique skills that they posses they can make interventions in disasters. To perform efficiently, a nurse must be always prepared to make changes in plan actions at any time and at…
Harden, E.G., (2004). The role of nursing in disasters. Retrieved march 22, 2013 from http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jdi018e/2.html
Rittenmeyer, L., (2007). Disaster preparedness: Are you ready? Retrieved march 22,2013 from http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp?tid=726331
Wolters Kluwer Health, (2007). LWW Journals - Beginning with A. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://journals.lww.com/smajournalonline/fulltext/2007/09000/spiritual_issues_in_the_aftermath_of_disaster.32.aspx
International Cooperation During Disasters
Discuss how leaders of nations and the international community can strengthen the framework for international cooperation and collaboration in response to disasters
In the contemporary world, there seem be increasing trends of the global weather events or scenarios. This makes it critical for governments to focus significantly on activities that can provide a lasting solution to the problem at hand. This would involve majoring in activities that aid disaster management within the nation. In order to tackle the prospective disasters facing the globe, it is essential to have measures in place to enable organizations to be ready in case of any hit. This notion calls for crucial involvement of leaders of the nations and international communities to strengthen the framework for international cooperation and collaboration in response to disasters.
The first approach by the leaders of the nation to strengthen the framework for international cooperation and…
Asimakopoulou, E. (2010). Advanced ICTs for disaster management and threat detection:
Collaborative and distributed frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Murphy, R. (2009). Leadership in disaster: Learning for a future with global climate change.
Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida
Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…
Adamski, T., Kline, B. & Tyrell, T. (2006). FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief: FEMA Reorganization. Perspectives on Public Affairs, 3, 1-36.
Durmaz, H. (2007). Understanding and Responding to Terrorism. Washington, USA: IOS Press.
Edwards, F. L. & Steinhausler, F. (2007). NATO and Terrorism: On scene: New challenges for the first responders and civil protection. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Elders Affairs. (June 2013). Disaster Preparedness: Guide for Elders. Elder Update -- Special Edition, 24(3), 1-24.
Theories of Disaster Management
Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and other disasters the world over have made it clear that disaster management plans and policies are of great importance to nations and populations attempting to attain any sense of security in the modern world. Despite the pressing nature of disaster management, however, there is not really a true consensus on what the most effective way to actual plan for and manage disasters is. Two overarching theories or frameworks that can be seen as in competition when it comes to disaster management are centralized planning and devolved management. As the following paragraphs will show, there are both pros and cons to each of these frameworks, however a unified approach is possible that can help achieve the best of both worlds in disaster management.
Centralized planning is a framework that, as the name implies, attempts to centralize authority and resource for…
Alexander, D. (2007). Disaster Management: From Theory to Implementation. JSEE 9(1-2): 49-59.
Cheong, S. (2011). The role of government in disaster management: the case of the Hebei Spirit oil spill compensation. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 29(6):1073-86.
In the GEOMA methodology, carbon dioxide displaces methane within the water lattice which reforms into a more stable state than was present with the methane. While this new technology is still in development, it is very promising (Traufetter, 2007). ecent advances by researchers from Japan, China, India, Canada, Australia, and the United States could result in commercial exploitation of Methane gas within the decade.
Natural gas recovery techniques have come a long way since that first primitive well in Fredonia. Now, a complex and sophisticated process brings natural gas from the field to your home. Exploration for new sources of natural gas has become a highly evolved science. Geologists study the physical structure of a potential site. The scientists can use seismology and magnetometers to develop three dimensional models of the earth using computer programs designed for that purpose. These models allow the geologists to narrow down specific areas that…
Natural and human-induced disaster cause major damages; they are usually concentrated in facilities or areas where they are of great significance to the impacted society. Sudden onset disaster like hurricanes, floods and earthquakes cause more impact socially and economically than slow-onset disasters like drought. Different types of hazards have different consequences and impacts, but to some extent some attributes are common across all types of disasters.
Impacts of disasters
The society has institutions that shape different access to different resources; these institutions determine the social impacts of disaster. Different communities are structured by a myriad of social relationships, competition and obligation that shape social characteristics associated mostly with vulnerability and loss; in disaster prone areas. Some impacts are loss of heritage because of cultural architecture due to floods or earthquake like in Prague university floods caused destruction of books; they erode social networks and community integrity. Disasters…
Joseph, P.J. (2010). International Perspectives of National Disasters. Atlanta: Springer.
Programme, U.N. (2007). Enhancing Urban Safety Settlements: Global Report on Human Settlements. New York: Earth Scan.
"Disaster" as a Trigger
Joseph Scanlon, Director of the Emergency Communications esearch Unit at Carleton University, states that the term "disaster" has undergone a transformation in the wake of 9/11. Its transformation is the center of debate for researchers whose work relies on an adequate definition and understanding of "disaster" -- yet Scanlon makes clear that he has been particularly struck "by how much of the debate [is]...influenced by awareness of various events and how much of that awareness [is] media related" (Scanlon 2005:13). In the field of emergency communications, that awareness has led to a new culture of "disaster" maintenance, and it has been largely influenced by media representation. According to Wolf Dombrowsky, "the term 'disaster' has only ephemeral significance. It is a trigger, a flag to signal a meaning, a stimulus to produce a specific reaction" (Dombrowsky 1998:15). Dombrowsky's assertion has been challenged by several researches, but…
Alexander, D 2005a, 'An Interpretation of Disaster in Terms of Changes in Culture,
Society and International Relations. What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old
Questions. [Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli] International Research
Committee on Disasters.
Communication Challenges in esponse to Disasters
Communication and response to disaster
The United States has been hit by several disasters ranging from natural ones to man made. Some of them have included flooding, winds, and terrorism among others. In response to these disasters, the law enforcement agencies have been met with several challenges including communication problems due to failure of early preparedness or poor equipment.
The most known natural one was Hurricane Katrina which strikes the United States. According to the risk management experts, the storm caused $40-60 billion in terms of insured losses, and the actual losses exceeded $150 billion. egarding the human costs, the effects of Katrina was felt for more than decades, (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration., 2005). Some of the far reaching consequences of this killer storm were permanent population shifts as well as large scale changes in terms of land use practices.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2005). Hur-ricane Katrina: A Climatological Perspective (Preliminary Report). Washington, D.C.: Author.
Office of Domestic Preparedness. (2002). Developing Multi-Agen-cy Interoperability Communication Systems: Washington, D.C.: Author.
Oliver, W. (2006). Homeland security for policing (1st Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Risk Management Solutions. (2005). Hurricane Katrina: Profile of a Super Cat. Retrieved December 16, 2005, from http://www.rms.com/Publications/KatrinaReport_LessonsandImplications.pdf .
Formulating a disaster and risk management is necessary for this jurisdiction. This is based on the knowledge that risk management is a demanding initiative that requires an appropriate and responsive. Satellite units are professionally trained to meet global demands. The Lynchburg, Virginia security system has met federal requirements of quality, and as a result, the system has proved suitable to respond to various hazards experienced in this jurisdiction. This report will attempt to present the Homeland Security apparatus of this jurisdiction. The report will assess the current situation of possible hazards and actual preparedness whilst presenting the elements of disaster management at Lynchburg. This section is a critical analysis of how disaster is managed within this jurisdiction compared to the critical disaster management measures in the United Kingdom.
Homeland Security stakeholders
The Lynchburg Homeland Security system is comprised of stakeholders like administrators, first responders, and the local law…
Agostino, D.M., & Jenkins, W.O. (2011). Catastrophic planning: states participating in FEMA's pilot program made progress, but better guidance could enhance future pilot programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.
Brownstein, C. (2007). Report of the DHS national small vessel security summit managing the risk. Arlington, VA: Homeland Security Institute.
Davis, B.J. (2011, November 1). Interagency Logistics Education and Training: Building Homeland Defense and Civil Support Liaisons: Disasters within the United States
Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Cornell University Press.
ole of Technology in educing and Exacerbating Disaster isk: A Case Study of -- Haiti
Examine how technology(s) exacerbates.
Examine how technology(s) reduces the vulnerability of different people facing the same risk.
Make policy recommendations that would reduce the risk for the most vulnerable.
How to involve communities in technology development.
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The technological inventions and life often go hand in hand and the disasters have often been…
Cashmore P. (2010) Haiti Quake Relief: Hoe Technology helps. Cable News Network [online]. Available from [13Nov 2014]
Choney S.(2010) Mobile Giving to help Haiti Exceeds $30 Million[online].Available from [11November 2014]
Encyclopedia of the Nations (2014)Haiti- Agriculture. Available from
8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).
In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).
The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point…
Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.
Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
Disaster Management Plan
Emergency Needs Assessment
There are many tough decisions that hospital facilities have to make in the event of a disaster and preparation is one of the critical success factors in such a situation that can make a world of difference. For example, the delivery of critical care in the emergency department is critically important to identify the nature of critically injured patients and decide whom to attend to first and who needs medical attention at the earliest. Furthermore, in the event of a category 3 hurricane, such as Hurricane Victoria, such a disaster can greatly exacerbate the limitations of a hospital to provide the needed neurological intensive care services. This analysis will provide an overview of the steps that can be taken in the event of a major public emergency and the role that needs assessment and service rationing play in such an event.
Gilboy, N. (2012). Emergency severity index. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Michigan University. (N.d.). Vulnerability Assessment. Retrieved March 24, 2014, from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/7pub207_60741_7.pdf
Papastavrou, E. (2013). The ethical complexities of nursing care rationing. Health Science Journal, 346-348.
Schubert, M., Glass, S., Clarke, L., Aiken, B., & Sloan, D. (2008). Rationing of nursing care and its relationship to patient outcomes: the Swiss extension of the International Hospital Outcomes Study . International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 227-237.
Analysis of the data:
The information contained in this article is highly useful and informative for someone who truly wants to understand why America is repeatedly under attack by its own organizations. There may be variety of other factors too but Brill correctly identifies the presence of complex systems and lack of understanding about low probability issues as the critical factors affecting American accident-prone organizations today. e fail to understand that some of the very high consequence accidents that have low probability of ever occurring are the actual cause of future problems and hence must not be ignored at any cost. Here we can apply Murphy's law and say that if something can go wrong, it will- given the current organizational system working in America.
Limited and justifiable conclusion:
e can thus conclude that despite America's best efforts to avoid accidents, there is a good chance that not only it…
We can thus conclude that despite America's best efforts to avoid accidents, there is a good chance that not only it will have accidents and disasters both natural and economic but also they will be bigger and wider in magnitude and impact. This will happen not because of we lack serious interest in controlling accidents, but primarily because of that very fact. This doesn't mean we must not control accidents but rather we must try not to focus on the too obvious ones only. We must also take into consideration the ones that are unlikely to happen but if they occurred, they could have a huge impact on our economy and society.
This article can be found at http://www.forbes.com/2010/09/21/bp-toyota-gas-technology-cio-network-disasters.html
Loss of Life
A recent disaster event that occurred in this region has apparently contributed to significant loss of life. A review of the organization's response plan demonstrates the lack of a plan to deal with significant loss of life though the plan is ready for implementation. Actually, the plan does not provide any details regarding any treatment of how the response team should address the psychological challenges of dealing with significant loss of life. In light of the impact of the recent disaster, it is increasingly important for responders to have specific instructions and guidance on how to deal with the psychological challenges associated with handling significant loss of life.
The inclusion of this element in the disaster response plan is crucial towards developing and implementing a coordinated response to emergency situations that have the capability of resulting in significant loss of life. Without the inclusion of these guidelines…
Miskel, J.F. (2008). Hurricane Katrina. In Disaster response and homeland security: what works, what doesn't (chap. 6). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Srivastava, K. (2010, June). Disaster: Challenges and Perspectives. Indian Psychiatry Journal,