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The research too has to be reliable and valid cohering to an internal and external scientific definition of reality that is more physical and eschews the metaphysical and the abstract.
Positivism accepts a certain reality of existence and insists that this reality can be discovered by universal and immutable scientific / mathematical principles (Tribe, 2009) .
The researcher has to distance himself as much as possible from his research in order to come to verifiable attempts. The scientific approach can help hims distance himself.
An alternate rendering of this can be the constructionist paradigm where the approach depends upon the researcher in question and is often inductively created. It is subjective and avowedly so and the meaning / conclusions / perspective is generated from one's particular experiences, way of thinking, and origin (Oakes & Minca 2004, p. 30).
The researcher acknowledge existence…
Armstrong, DM (1973). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press
Catarina Marques, Elizabeth Reis & Joao Menezes (2010): Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8, 971-996
Hartmann, Nicolai. 1953. New Ways of Ontology. Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co.
Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ontological Presence and Activity of the Living Lord Jesus within and Through the Christian.
Christianity's real meaning is described as an ontological instead of epistemological. The phrase "ontology" is deduced from two Greek words: ontos signifying 'being" and logos signifying "study" and illustrating 'study of the logical consideration of." Ontology is defined as the philosophical study of being. It takes into account the whole subject of existence and being. Most particularly, we are applying 'ontology' as describing the heavenly being of God, the creator, together with his personal relationship to His own created beings. God's personal being, the I AM (Exod. 3:14), as well as the relationship He has with human beings ought to be ontologically instead of epistemologically thought about (Fowler, p1).
He came into the world as a man with the aim of taking away man's sin, to vicariously endure the consequences of sins of man, to reinstate…
Fowler, J.A. Christianity is NOT Epistemology. Christ in You, 1998. Accessed on October 6, 2015, from: http://www.christinyou.net/pages/Xnotepis.html
N.A. Harmartiology - What is it? Compelling Truth. Accessed on October 6, 2015, from: http://www.compellingtruth.org/Hamartiology.html
N.A. "What is Soteriology?" Accessed on October 6, 2015, from: http://www.gotquestions.org/Soteriology.html
N.A. Jesus' Teachings on Value. Technology and Christian 'Values'. Accessed on October 6, 2015, from: http://web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~funkk/Technology/JesusTeachings.html .
It was empirical and inductive. Understanding being alone was a problem to Heidegger. It would be a greater problem to infer a God from that understanding.
On the other hand, St. Anselm poses a generalized stand by drawing on a negative hypothesis. God is that than which nothing could be imagined as greater. Nothing can be greater than that imaginable entity. He furthermore argues that an existent God is greater than a non-existent God. From these two premises, he concludes that the greatest imaginable entity is God and that a God that exists is greater than a God that does not exist. St. Anselm uses absurd logic, phrased in the negative. Heidegger uses everyday and tangible experience and presents it in the affirmative. St. Anselm derives everything else from that generalization of God's existence from logic. Heidegger finds it painstaking and nearly impossible to even completely understand the concept of…
Charlesworth, M.J., editor/trans. Proslogion Chapter II by St. Anselm. University of Notre Dame Press, June 1979
Korab-Karpowiez, W.J. Martin Heidegger. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007. Retrieved on December 26, 2007 at http://www.iep.utm.edu/heidegger.htm
Kent, WH. St. Anselm. The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol I. Robert Appleton
Company, 1909. Tim Holt, 2006. Retrieved on December 26, 2007 at http://www.newadvent.org.cathen/015466.htm
Matrix, a 1999 film, the Wachowski brothers depict several interrelated and overlapping realities and thereby pose complex philosophical, ontological questions. The filmmakers urge the audience to believe that the world of the matrix -- in which Zion exists -- is "real," whereas the world we live in is an illusion. By doing so, the Wachowski brothers imply that the world in which we live might also be one in which we are simply dreaming or in which we are actually enslaved by powerful overlords as in The Matrix. The fact that there are "architects" of the matrix does also create a philosophical problem in that there are potentially infinite false realities and possibly no absolute truths.
In The Matrix, the protagonist Neo-starts off an ordinary person who has been duped into believing that the workaday world he lives in is "real." When he meets his mentor Morpheus and takes the…
Randrup, Axel. "Idealist Philosophy: What is Real?" Retrieved online: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/1216/1/reality.html
Race is a philosophical issue because it has a strong bearing on identity construction and metaphysical or ontological self-concept. As long as race remains relevant as a means of constructing personal identity or projecting identity onto other people, race will remain a critical component of humanistic philosophies. A discussion of race as a metaphysical concept is distinctly different from a discussion of race as an ethical concept, even though both metaphysics and ethics fall under the rubric of philosophy. However, a discussion of race as an ontological issue depends on an understanding of race as an ethical issue as race has been socially constructed in status-oriented and hierarchal societies like the United States. Race is socially constructed, but race is also subjectively constructed, which is what Ally's case demonstrates. Ally's case is best understood through the lens of what Mills calls subjectivism, in which race designations and categories are arbitrary…
POSITIVISM vs. INTEPETIVISM DEBATE
Epistemology and Ontology
For my part, however, I no longer want to be labeled as a positivist researcher or an interpretive researcher. It is time for us to move beyond labels and to see the underlying unity in what we are trying to achieve via our research methods. The commonalities in my view are compelling and paramount. We ought to celebrate them because they underpin the value of our role as scholars. The differences, on the other hand, are ancillary. We should understand them, but they should not divide us. The challenge for us now is to rethink and develop a new rhetoric so we come to a deeper understanding of the metatheoretical assumptions that underlie our research. (Weber, 2004, X)
Weber's declaration is at the heart of this paper's examination. The paper attempts to gauge the frameworks of three articles in relation to Weber's concerns…
Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (1997). The Ubiquity and Potency of Labeling in Organizations. Organization Science, 8(1), 43-58.
Becker, J., & Niehaves, B. (2007). Epistemological perspectives on IS research: A framework for analysing and systematizing epistemological assumptions. Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 197-214.
Boland Jr., R., & Tenkasi, R. (1995). Perspective Making and Perspective Taking in Communities of Knowing. Organization Science, 6(4), 350-372.
Jackson, J.W. (1993). Realistic group conflict theory: A review and evaluation of the theoretical and empirical literature. Psychological Record, 43(3), 395-405.
Philosophy of Science, Paradigm, Epistemology, and Ontology
Note that defining philosophy of science is different from asking you about your personal philosophy of your discipline, such as your philosophy of education, or your philosophy of management.
• The distinction between and among these terms
• n explanation of why these terms are important for researchers to know
Philosophy of science, paradigm, epistemology, and ontology
Philosophy as a discipline concerns itself with understanding the pursuit of knowledge: how we know things and what we can know. The branch of philosophy specifically known as the philosophy of science is concerned with how knowledge deemed to be 'scientific' is constructed. It concerns itself with questions about what constitutes science (versus art, commonsense knowledge, speculation, and superstition); how scientific knowledge is created; and the standards for establishing scientific principles (Definition of philosophy of science, 2013, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia).
lthough scientific knowledge is often viewed…
Although scientific knowledge is often viewed as 'objective' or at least more 'objective' than subjective opinion, the ways in which scientific knowledge is created are not written in stone. The notion of a paradigm shift, which "refers either to a model or an example to be followed or to an established system or way of doing things," was developed by Thomas Kuhn to explain how science progresses and changes (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004). Another way of defining a paradigm might be that of a 'lens' or the particular way in which a group of persons within a specific discipline sees the world, consciously and unconsciously filtering the stimuli around them. But Kuhn's concept of the scientific paradigm was a departure from previous ways of looking at science. "As a reaction against philosophies of science that prescribed the appropriate scientific method, such as Popper's falsificationism, Kuhn (1970) focused on the practices of communities of scientists" (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004). Instead of science developing in a linear fashion in a quest for ' truth,' Kuhn saw scientific developments as a series of ideological changes, in which there was a radical break with the past when the scientific community as a whole was willing to change long-standing approaches to generating knowledge. Kuhn saw scientists as engaged in a constant negotiation "consisting of their views of the nature of the reality they study (their ontology), including the components that make it up and how they are related; the techniques that are appropriate for investigating this reality (their epistemology); and accepted examples of past scientific achievements (exemplars)" (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004).
Previously, the philosophy science was viewed primarily through a positivist framework: "in a positivist view of the world, science was seen as the way to get at truth, to understand the world well enough so that we might predict and control it" (Trochim 2006). (This is what Popper meant when he said that if a claim could not be proven false, it could not be proven true, either). Kuhn took what came to be known as a post-positivist view, suggesting that science could be affected by history and a willingness of people (who happened to be scientists) to change: "Post-positivists reject the idea that any individual can see the world perfectly as it really is" (Trochim 2006).
The question of epistemology, or how knowledge can be established, is quite critical to science, given that modern science often attempts to answer questions about the physical world in a manner that can have a demonstrable material impact upon human lives: for example the conditions for demonstrating that
The authors pointed out the fact that the integration of semantic Web with the existing remote sensing processes can help in solving the problem. The ability of the remote sensing of information to provide certain functions in an online environment is superb. This results in dynamic transfer of information across the web. The authors further points out the fact that semantic information processing gives rise to semantic-based service reasoning and descriptions. This leads to an automatic web. The building of an environment fuelled by the semantic web leads to the combining of various advantages of various aspects and respects while conducting a service-oriented study. This result in a deeper appreciation of semantic services in providing richer and improved services for various users. Li et al. (2008) provide a discussion of the various classifications of remote sensing and information processing services as well as an ontology-based service that makes use of…
Astels, D.(2002): Refactoring with UML, In Proceedings of 3rd International Conferenceon
eXtreme Programming and Flexible processes in Software Engineering (XP2002), (2002) 67-70
Banko et al. (2006).Open Information Extraction from the Web
Chiu, PH.,Lo, CC.Chao, KM (2009)Integrating Semantic Web and Object-Oriented
" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.
American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…
Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53
Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"
Hooks, Bell. "Postmodern Blackness." 19 Apr 1994.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 16 April 1963.
Management and Theory
Leadership and coaching go hand in many ways because to coach is to lead, and to lead is to coach others. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really theoretical mentoring within the context of a particular organization or activity. For centuries, scholars and philosophers alike have been trying to find a specific and complete definition for coaching and leadership, but have not had much success. True, leadership is, in part, decision making at the nth level; while coaching takes that decision making and often compartmentalizes it into split-second action. In the era of gloablization, theoretical decision making this has become even more critical now that there are so many divergent cultural opportunities that require new skills, approaches, and even that allow coaching to occur not just in the physical environment, but in the virtual as well, with no regard for geographic or political boundaries (Drucker,…
Alvesson, M., & Karreman, D. (2007). Constructing mystery: Empirical matters in theory development. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1265-1281.
Cortes, J. (2012). How Many Coaching Models Can You Find?, Retrieved from:
Drucker, P.F., et al. (2001), Harvard Business Review on Decision Making, Boston, MA:
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The reward for the effort of learning is access to a vocabulary that is shared by a very large population across all industries globally" (p. 214). Moreover, according to Bell, because UML is a language rather than a methodology, practitioners who are familiar with UML can join a project at any point from anywhere in the world and become productive right away. Therefore, Web applications that are built using UML provide a useful approach to helping professionals gain access to the information they need when they need it.
Overview of the Study
This paper used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. Chapter one of the study was used to introduce the topic under consideration, provide a statement of the problem, the purpose of the study and its importance of the study. Chapter two of the study provides a review of the related peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning…
Ontology Definition Metamodel (ODM)
In order to understand the underlying concepts of faith with respect to philosophy, first it is important to understand 'philosophy' adequately. Jaspers was concerned about noting the originality and singularity of philosophy and he frames it as "to elucidate" (erhellen). As per Jaspers, this clarification or elucidation does not come to philosophers through an external agent but it happens by itself during the philosophical process and this happening is an innermost act. (Wildermuth, 2007). Philosophers understand the meaning and philosophy behind actions and things as they seek to explore hitherto mysterious, unexplained happenings and phenomenon.
However, only a few philosophers speak about the death. Even then, the best they can reveal about death is about its awareness. As such, although death is an unavoidable event and that is the only knowledge we have about it. All are aware that they have to face death one day and it will…
The use of support vector machine learning is widely supported to be used to notice micro calcification clusters in the digital mammograms. It is indeed a learning tool that originated from modern statistical theory of learning. (Vapnik, 1998). In the recent past years, SVM learning has got a large range of real life applications. This includes handwritten digit detection (Scholkopf et al., 1997), recognition of object, (Pontil&Verri, 1998), identification of speaker (Wan&Campbell, 2000) and detection of face in images,(Osuna et al.,1997) . Categorization of text is done by SVM. (Joachims,1999). SVM learning formulation has its basis on structural risk minimization principle. It does not minimize an object function on the basis of training examples but on the contrary, SVM tries to minimize leap on generalization error. This is usually the error that is done by the learning machine on the test data that is not used while undertaking…
Abraham, a., Nath, B., and Mahanti, P.K. (2001). Hybrid intelligent systems for stock market analysis. Computational Science, pages 337 -- 345.
Aliferis, C., Tsamardinos, I., and Statnikov, a. (2003). Hiton, a novel markov blanket algorithm for optimal variable selection.
Berger a., a Brief Maximum Entropy Tutorial
Chickering, D.M. (2002). Learning equivalence classes of bayesian-network structures. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3:507 -- 554.
In this order of ideas then, he strives to come up with a theory that explains the construction of global networks, as well as the systems they use to grow and prosper. In order to make his case, Kendall looks at global structures constructed in various domains, including society and technology. He comes to the realization that global peace and order can only be achieved with the full cooperation and collaboration of all structures in the international system. Additionally, there must exist a will and a way in order for the mentioned goals to be achieved. While he recognizes that his arguments address a certain kind of economists and politicians who promoted the idea of a uniform and powerful globalization, he hopes that his points will the least make for an interesting reading.
inally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon…
Finally, in the last chapter of the book's first part, The Security of Governance, author Michael Dillon starts at the premise that there exists a direct connection between the three components of population, government and security. This conclusion was found throughout a previous study, which came to raise new questions that are answered in the current analysis. In a perfect world, peace would be achieved through fruitful partnerships between private and public players and would ensure the safety of all populations and all classes. Yet, this is not the case and Dillon argues that while governmentality is the collection of cooperations and collaborations, it represents more of a "technological ontology that proceeds through reflexive epistemologies."
In other words, there is a direct connection between technology and ontology as they validate each other and support each other in reaching the pre-established goals. "Here the dialogical interplay of the ontological and the technological is in evidence. If it takes a metaphysic to imagine a technic, it takes a technic to realize a metaphysic. But even that rendition fails to do justice to the co-evolutionary dynamic that exists in the power relations between technology and ontology. This is a mutually disclosive relationship in which each seems propelled by independent dynamics as well: the technologist continuously to interrogate and refine systems, the ontologist to secure the meaning of being.
Larner, W., Walters, W., 2004, Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, Routledge
Knowledge Management Best Practices in Services Industries
The ability to stay on in step with customers' rapidly changing needs is only possible when a company completely commits itself to transforming data into information, while also capturing and using tacit and implicit knowledge. As this analysis will illustrate, data, information and knowledge are multifaceted and have many implications across the lifecycle of a business in general and customers specifically. Concentrating on how the data pertaining to customers can be optimized, this analysis concentrates on the Service Quality (SEVQUAL) methodology and metrics. SEVQUAL measures five dimensions of the customer experience including reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, Berry, 1985). While the scope of this analysis concentrates on SEVQUAL from the standpoint of capturing data, information and knowledge from a customer standpoint, there are many ancillary implications that also apply to the knowledge-based theory of firms as well. The use of…
Anders, P.N. (2006). Understanding dynamic capabilities through knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(4), 59-71.
Dyer, J.H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 345-367.
Enz, C & Siguaw, J (2000). Best practices in service quality. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41(5), 20-29.
Gao, F., Li, M., & Nakamori, Y. (2002). Systems thinking on knowledge and its management: Systems methodology for knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 7-7.
Structural Violence Framework in International Conflict
A Structural Violence Framework for Understanding & Analyzing International Conflict
Introduction to Structural Violence
Structural violence is differentiated from direct violence both in terms of etiology and nature. Direct violence is a result of events or the actions of individuals that kill or harm people. Structural violence, on the other hand, is a phenomenon made manifest through social inequalities (Christie, 1997). The organizational structures of political and economic systems cause and sustain the sort of hierarchical relations that enable dramatic differences between and across sectors of societies. Within these hierarchies, the people at the top have privilege, wealth, and power, while those at the bottom of the hierarchy are dominated, oppressed, and exploited (Christie, 1997). People are harmed and killed as a result of structural violence but, unlike direct violence, it occurs more slowly. The harm or death of oppressed people may…
Addison, T. And Murshed, M. (2001). From conflict to reconstruction: Reviving the social contract. UNU/WIDER Discussion Paper No. 48, Helsinki: UNU/WIDER, Retrieved at www.wider.unu.edu / research.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and nonviolence: Pathways to understanding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved http://www.greggbarak.com/custom3_2.html
Barak, G. (2007). A critical perspective on violence. In Walter S. DeKeseredy and Barbara Perry (2006) Advancing Critical Criminology: Theory and Application, Lexington Books.
Bohman, J. (2010). Critical theory, [Web], The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/archives / spr2010/entries/critical-theory
ontological position of postmodernism exhibits scepticism towards knowledge. This paradigmatic view recognizes that the world is constantly changing and subsequently, no one position or perspective of the world should be privileged over any other (Jennings, 2004). While positivism has favored a single mode of knowledge, postmodern perspectives regard different approaches to knowledge as alternative social constructions (Arbib & Hesse, 1986). Postmodern thinkers are bothered by the implication of modern ontology that since there is one world out there, and observation is not problematic, then there is only one reasonable interpretation of the world. The postmodern philosopher counters that while there may in fact be only one 'true' world out there, "there are many reasonable, but distinct interpretations (or understandings) of that world" (Moore, 2001, pg. 4).
Postmodernism rejects the pictorial metaphor of knowledge in favor of a constructivist metaphor (Lyotard, 1984). As such, postmodernism provides new, unconstrained ways to move…
Arbib, M.A., & Hesse, M.B. (1986). The construction of reality. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Becvar, D., & Becvar, S. (2000). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Fruggeri, L. (1992). Therapeutic process as the social construction of change. In K. Gergen & S. McNamee (Eds.), Therapy as a social construction (pp. 40-53). London: Sage.
Gergen, K. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books.
socialist economic thought and that of Marx
Socialist Economic Theories
In order to develop the different theories of socialist economic thought and that of Marx, we look at a description of the contributions by different socialists in the field of economics. These socialists include Sismondi, Proudhon, Godwin, Owen, and Ricard. We also look further into Marx's economic thoughts and his contributions to the history of economic thought.
Sismondi and Proudhon
The socialists made significant contributions to shaping the history of economic thought in the former half of the 19th century. They developed a set of fairly similar doctrines, despite a diversity of cultural backgrounds and approaches to economics. The element that unified these authors was the Ricardian economic thought that was felt, at diverse levels and in diverse ways, by all of the socialist economists belonging to the age, from Sismondi, Owen, and Rodbertus to Proudhon and the economists labeled…
Medema, Steven and Samuels, Warren, Eds. The History of Economic Thought: A Reader. 2nd Edition. London: Routledge, 2013. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=Kac2ipOWHk8C&pg=RA1-PT1078&dq=Medema,+Steven+and+Warren+Samuels.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dpAxVceuD8bboATDwoHgDg&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Medema%2C%20Steven%20and%20Warren%20Samuels.&f=false
Screpanti, Ernesto and Stefano Zamagi. An Outline of the History of Economic Thought . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976, Vol. I. 50. Print.
Takenaga, Susumu. Structure of the Theory of Value of David Ricardo. Tokyo: University of Daitobunka, n.d. Retrieved from: http://www.bing.com/search?q=Takenaga%2C+Susumu.+Structure+of+the+Theory+of+Value+of+David+Ricardo.&form=U303DF&pc=U303
Q1. The mind-body problem in psychology has been discussed consistently since Plato. Discuss Dewey’s approach to understanding experience using Heidegger’s conception of mind and body and any relation to Heidegger’s approach to ontology? In what way does Husserl’s concept of ontology relate to the ideas of Dewey and Heidegger?
According to Neill (2005), the educational philosopher John Dewey attempted to overcome the deficits of both traditional and progressive education by stressing that experience is a product of a dialogue between continuity, defined as the individual’s concept of the past, and interaction, defined as the immediate experience of the individual’s environment. Therefore, two students may be experiencing the same phenomenon but react very differently, based upon their past experiences. Similarly, two individuals with the same past may become quite different, if they have different, later environmental influences.
Dewey’s education philosophy may be seen as reflective of the German philosopher Heidegger’s approach to…
C. Product Improvement and New Products
As the Web Content Monetization System has yet to be launched there are no significant product improvements committed to prospects or customers yet. It is common during this phase of a new systems' development to have a series of 2nd and 3rd generation product enhancements which will be added over the systems' life. It is highly advisable that a Customer Advisory Council be created that seeks to gain insights and intelligence from the top twenty content providers globally to ensure the subsequent system configurations and plans are consistent with their specific needs.
The initial design and development budget are shown in Table 1. This includes the costs of the development of the Web content management application, distributed order management system, AJAX security testing and audits to ensure the payment gateways are secure, multi-taxonomy support for content providers' unique approaches to organizing their…
John Clyman. (2005, December). Better Web-App Interfaces with AJAX; A new approach to building Web applications promises a richer experience for users. PC Magazine, 24(23), 76. Link: http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,1892662,00.asp
Gutierrez, C., Rosado, D., & Fernandez-Medina, E.. (2009). The practical application of a process for eliciting and designing security in web service systems. Information and Software Technology, 51(12), 1712.
McBeath, D.. (2007). The publishing [R]evolution. Journal of Digital Asset Management, 3(5), 231-238.
Mitakos, T., & Almaliotis, I.. (2009). A Modular Logic Approach for Expressing Web Services in XML Applying Dynamic Rules in XML. Informatica Economica, 13(4), 129-136.
If dread enters as the knowledge that there is no knowledge from which to derive a decision, yet decision is all there is, then we reach a complicated idea of what comprises the individual. If there were a concrete and appreciable version of each person, ready at any time to assess, then the concept of dread would have less terrible implications. The fact is, when penetrated by the nothing of pure possibility, the reach of this nothing is beyond almost all conception. There never really is an individual, just some ongoing process of change. The nothing alienates the individual further than from mere others and the world. The nothing of dread brings into its fold, the individual. The individual supports this nothing and yet must determine itself on such grounds. hereas before, we had the Kierkegaardian maxim of individual as truth, we now have no grounds for determining anything. The…
Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays. Alfred A. Knopf, 1955.
Translated by Justin O'Brien.
Kieregaard, Soren. "Dread and Freedom." Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre:
The Basic Writings of Existentialism. Trans. Walter Kaufman. New York.
e. The lack of attachment to other people and things) is beneficial from an individual perspective, but damaging for society as a whole because it hinders advancement.
In reality however, in order to maintain such a belief in our own self-sufficiency and freedom of choice, we would have to rewrite the laws of human nature. As this is highly improbable, we are likely to continue in our flight from freedom for as long as we remain in existence. People are, after all, social creatures by nature and thus, according to Garcin, we "need the suffering of others to exist."
This is Sartre's way of arguing that existentialism is the only valid means of providing mankind with dignity, and life with meaning. Thus at the core of Sartre's suppositions is that the role of existentialism is vitally important in helping the individual to embrace freedom as a manifestation of nothingness and,…
Muller, R.J. (1998) Beyond marginality: Constructing a self in the twilight of western culture, Praeger Publishers
Sartre, J.P. (1993), Being and nothingness: A phenomenological essay on ontology, tr. By Hazel E. Barnes, Washington Square, (orig. 1943)
Sartre, J.P. No exit, Retrieved from http://www.sartre.org/Writings/NoExit.htm
These are the researchers who completed the HTML, DHTML vs. AJAX application performance on XML (Yang, Liao, Fang, 2007) and the XML network optimization research completed across a replicated server and transaction-based methodology (Smullen, Smullen, 2009). Efforts will be made to collaborate with these researchers to learn from their expertise that has not been published in their analyses and also to collaborate on how to capture XML network optimization concepts and AJAX programming best practices that can further accentuate and strengthen the results of this analysis.
During the project the following data will be gathered:
XML network performance measures and analysis across a randomized set of load factors using four-square network configuration of open source Web Application Servers running on the Linux operating system.
AJAX Widget performance using SQL queries randomized to replicate the activity of a distributed order management system.
Use of network analyzers to evaluate packet traffic efficiency…
Bernoff, J., and C. Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3, Last accessed 23 November 2009, 36-42.
Bachle, M., and P. Kirchberg. 2007. Ruby on Rails. IEEE Software 24, no. 6, Last accessed 26 November 2009, 105.
Choi, R., and R. Wong. 2009. Efficient Filtering of Branch Queries for High-Performance XML Data Services. Journal of Database Management 20, no. 2, Last accessed 27 November 2009, 58-83.
Groppe, S., J. Groppe, S. Bottcher, T. Wycisk, and L. Gruenwald. 2009. Optimizing the execution of XSLT stylesheets for querying transformed XML data. Knowledge and Information Systems 18, no. 3, Last accessed 26 November 2009, 331-391.
Epistemology and Philosophy of Socrates and Plato
Epistemology is the theory of knowledge. It attempts to answer such questions as: How does one acquire one's knowledge? What is knowledge? What is possible for us to truly know? Epistemological inquiry also deals with skepticism regarding certain claims of the true nature of knowledge. Ontology is the science of being. Ontological inquiry attempts to answer the fundamental questions of existence, and thus is the central subject of metaphysics in philosophy. Some of the basic questions of ontology include: What is existence? What is an object? What constitutes the identity of an object?
Our textual sources for Socrates' thought come mainly from Plato. Plato was a direct student of Socrates, and was the only student to write down all of the philosopher's principle teachings. Aristotle refers to Socrates in passing in his philosophy, but does not idealize him in the same way Plato…
eligion and Leadership
Core religious and philosophical worldviews have a strong bearing on leadership style and effectiveness. eligious and philosophical worldviews provide the ethical and moral foundations for decision-making, which is a critical component of leadership. Moreover, religious and philosophical worldviews impact the ways leaders guide, teach, and serve others.
Worldview extends beyond religion. Defined loosely as "visions of life," worldviews encompass the "beliefs, values, and principles" that guide behavior and motivate change (Valk, 2010, p. 83). A worldview is a set of mental constructs that impacts the formation of biases and stereotypes. Biases and stereotypes can come in the way of effective leadership. On the other hand, worldviews are influenced by religious beliefs. eligious beliefs impact the formation of ethical codes that define both individual and organizational behavior. A worldview is a paradigm of life. Although a worldview affects more than leadership effectiveness, there are few areas in which…
Agosto, E. (2005). Servant Leadership. Danvers, MA: Chalice.
Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N.M. & Dasborough, M.T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly 20(2): 241-261.
Boyum, G. (2006). The Historical and Philosophical Influences on Greenleaf's Concept of Servant Leadership. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Aug 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/2006/boyum.pdf
Fry, L.F. (2009). Towards a theory of being-centered leadership: Multiple levels of being as context for effective leadership. Human Relations 62(11):1667-1696
DBMS and Data Warehouses
(1) in this writing assignment, you will create a brochure advertising your services as a data repository.
Powered By Excellence
Data epository Service
Powered By Excellence is the only data repository service with globally-located data centers across each continent, each with specific security, reliability and fault redundancy systems in place.
Our staff includes world-class experts on the following platforms: IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, MySQL, Informix, Sybase, Teradata and SAS expertise in-house as part of our consulting services division.
Analytics Advisory Services
Big Data Consultancy - Map and Hadoop expertise for gaining insights from very large datasets)
Custom Software Development
SaaS Application Support
Scalable File Storage
Private Cloud Hosting (Dedicated storage and unlimited virtual machines)
High performance with a world-class platform
24/7 Administrator Access
Unlimited Virtual Machine Use
Service Level Agreement (SLA) metrics available 24/7
Trusted Provider of Data epository Services:
(Benander, Benander, Fadlalla, Gregory, 2000)
Benander, A., Benander, B., Fadlalla, A., & Gregory, J. (2000). Data warehouse administration and management. Information Systems Management, 17(1), 71-80.
Choudhary, A.K., Harding, J.A., & Tiwari, M.K. (2009). Data mining in manufacturing: A review based on the kind of knowledge. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 20(5), 501-521.
He, Z., Lee, B.S., & Snapp, R. (2005). Self-tuning cost modeling of user-defined functions in an object-relational DBMS. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 30(3), 812-812.
There are numerous technical intricacies to neurobiological research. The human brain is a completely intricate mechanism and holds numerous neurons. This creates problems in studying consciousness particularly in comprehending how brain processes trigger human consciousness, and how the brain realizes consciousness. The major aspect of perception is that for every conscious condition, people experiences some qualitative disposition to that state of being consciousness. In this regard, this paper assesses the disparity amid semantic and syntactic knowledge. The paper also highlights the disparities between knowledge content and form, and ascertains the effects of knowledge content and form when evaluating the intelligence of a machine.
Consciousness refers to the state of being responsive towards ones setting. It is the state or condition of wakefulness where one is able to recognize some inner thoughts or feelings or external objects. Scores of philosophers have tried to understand the temperament of consciousness and…
Palmer, D.E. (1998). Searle on Consciousness: or How not to be a Physicalist. Ratio, 11(2),
Tallis, R. (2010). Consciousness, not yet explained. New Scientist, 205(2742), 28-29.
Jinchang, W. (2010). Some Philosophical Thoughts on Machine Consciousness. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), 266-270.
Searle, J.R. (2000). Consciousness. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23(1), 557.
Physicalism is very interesting and brings up many worthy points of discussion even though its precepts appear as limiting the interpretations of human experience. Ontological investigation cannot be taken too seriously as ideas of being and existence seem much too complex to be expressed in words, although I will attempt to do such a task in relating my understanding of the philosophy of physicalism and how it relates to ontological classification methods and the more practical usages of knowledge.
Physicalism attempts to materialize the universe in a quest to make sense of it. In order for physicalism to be plausible a direct and irrefutable relationship establishing cause most stem from the physical nature of objects. Physicalism must ignore the subjective qualities in order for it to assume authority. Physicalism does not take into consideration of exchange and process rather, it rests on the idea that material and the physical world…
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Knowledge creation, according to Borland (2001), requires the systematic analysis of data collected. Best & Kahn (1998, pg. 18) write that "research" has been classically defined as "the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events." The post-positivist paradigm, as Mertens (2005) writes, provides that research is designed to develop confidence that a given claim to knowledge about a particular phenomenon is either true or false, based on collected evidence from objective observations. How researchers collect information, however, depends on the circumstances surrounding the phenomena under examination, the abilities and resources of the researcher(s), as well as pragmatic considerations given the human element.
Among the methods used to conduct systematic inquiry in the social sciences are the qualitative method and the qualitative method. Taylor and Bogdan (1998) note that…
Gay, L.R. (1996). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Taylor, S., Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods (3rd ed.). New York: John Whiley & Sons, Inc.
Cupchik, G. (2001). Constructivist Realism: An Ontology That Encompasses Positivist and Constructivist Approaches to the Social Sciences. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 2(1), 1-9.
Adler, P.A. & Adler, P. (1987). Membership roles in field research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley
The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research.
Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons
Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…
Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.
David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.
Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.
Mbiti and Tempels
There have been many religious theories previously based on the part of the world it originates from and the people it represents. One of such theories is the Africano theory which is further represented by two different theories which represent the religious beliefs of the African people. These theories have been named Mbiti and Tempels.
These theories have in common the fact that both of them believe that Africans and religiously notorious and people have their own set of beliefs and practices. Though Africa is a country which tend to represent people who have more or less a similar background but it is an undeniable fact all of them have their own sets of beliefs.
The major reason why Africa has so many religions is the fact that Africa is represented by tribal people and each tribe has its own religion. The renowned fact about African religions…
Okrah, Kwadwo A. Nyansapo (The Wisdom Knot): Toward an African Philosophy of Education. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Roberts, John W. From Trickster to Badman: The Black Folk Hero in Slavery and Freedom. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1990.
Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre on Existentialism and Humanism
The Essentials of Essentialism
Martin Heidegger's philosophical opus is both deep and complex and a comprehensive examination of it here would be impossible. However it is possible to provide an overview of his essential teachings - of the essential aspects of his essentialism. Doing so will allow us, in later sections, to explore his criticisms of Jean-Paul Sartre's far more famous version of existentialism as well as to examine the ways in which - despite Heidegger's criticism of Sartre - the two are in many ways the same.
Heidegger, like all modern philosophers (and possibly the ancient ones as well), incorporated the work of a number of earlier thinkers into his own formulation of existentialism and his understanding of the nature of reality of the place of humans in the world. As an existentialist, Heidegger believed in a philosophy that was…
Danto, A. (1975). Jean-Paul Sartre. New York: Viking Press.
Heidegger, M. (1997). Being and time. New York: SUNY.
Manser, A. (1966). Sartre: A philosophic study. London: Athlone Press.
Murdoch, I. (1953). Sartre: Romantic rationalist. New Haven: Yale University.
Americans healthcare delivery in the United States has been via a market driven system, 1 usually through purchase of health insurance, participation in HOs or other types of collective agencies. For those who qualify enrollment in edicare and edicaid programs will cover or defray costs of healthcare.2 For a growing number of people in the U.S. medical care costs are not covered by insurance or government programs, for them out of pocket and indigent services are their only options.3 This paper will look at the how financing healthcare affects both costs and use of healthcare services.
Private Health insurance.
Private health insurance in the United States developed around the 1930's during the Depression4 and grew during the economic expansion of the post-WWII years. "Under most private insurance and Blue Cross -- Blue Shield plans, fee-for-service, with physicians determining the economic value of their own services, became the established method of…
Martin Ruef, "Social Ontology and the Dynamics of Organizational Forms: Creating Market Actors in the Healthcare Field, 1966-1994,"
Journal article by; University of North Carolina Press, 1999
Zelman W., and McLaughlin C. (1990). "Product Lines in a Complex Marketplace: Matching Organizational Strategy to Buyer Behavior." Health Care Management Review 15:2 (Spring),
Constructed Myths and Man's Purpose
Since Nietzsche declared that God was dead, science and mankind have begun a twofold search. Nietzsche's declaration asserted that the need for God in the society's constructed identity no longer existed. The understanding of the times was that the scientific method could break down any problem into is components, and uncover both the purpose and the source of all of mankind's desires, tangible and intangible alike. The accompanying hopes for a utopian society would also be ushered in by modern thought. Modern, logical and rational thought would be able to replace oppressive superstition, religious, and myth of ignorant and uneducated people who used religious beliefs to explain those elements of life which previously could not be understood. Since the publishing of his work, along with Jung, Kant and a myriad of others, the social sciences have searched to identify the purpose of religious life within…
Barrett, J.L. Anthropomorphism, intentional agents, and conceptualizing God. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University. 1996
EC. Keil Conceptualizing a non-natural entity: anthropomorphism in God concepts. Cognitive Psychology 31, 219-47. 1996
Blommaert, J. & J. Verschueren. European concepts of nation-building. In E.N. Wilmsen & P. McAllister (eds) The politics of difference: ethnic premises in a world of power, 104-23. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. 1996
Boyer, P. Traditions as Truth and Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1992
School African-American Males Who Are Attending a Community-Based After-School Program
ANTICIPATED ESEACH METHODOLOGY
A qualitative case study would be conducted by the researcher. As described by Gay, Mills, and Airasian (2009), a case study explores and analyzes the behavioral patterns of an exclusive group over an extended period of time. In this approach the researcher analyzes the behavior of the participants while they participate in the intended activities and their response to the outside stimuli. (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009) Case studies are bounded in an approach that connects time (existence) with a place (environment) (Stake, 2005). The case study approach provides the researcher with a stage to examine the patterns of behavior that the individuals portray.
PUPOSE OF THE ESEACH
The purpose of the study is to explore the behaviors of middle-school African-American males who are attending a community-based after-school program. In addition to that, the study will explore…
Afterschool Alliance (2004). After-School alert: Poll report. Retrieved from http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/documents/polling/poll_jan_2004.pdf
Apsler, R. (2009). After-school programs for adolescents: A review of evaluation research. Adolescence, 44(173), 1-19.
Baker, J., Rieg, S., & Clendaniel, T. (2006). An investigation of an after school math tutoring program: University tutors+ elementary students = A successful partnership. Education, 127(2), 287-293.
Baker, P. (2005). The impact of cultural biases on African-American students' education: A review of research literature regarding race-based schooling. Education and Urban Society, 37(3), 243-256.
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…
The modern 21st century has posed new challenges for the organizations to survive and grow (Smith et al. 2010). As they are operated and managed by human beings, the challenges are ultimately faced by the individuals who are responsible for making decisions and implementing them (Nieuwenhuizen, Weiss and Rossouw, 2009). As challenges are multifaceted, and human lives are divided into various aspects, it is difficult to excel in every field. The gap between desired and actual state of mind leads to stress and has a high impact on employee performance and productivity.
The concept of supervision is not new in business settings. It may be rooted right in the main essence of organizational structure from where delegation of authority and chain of command were introduced. In lieu of human psychology to stay conscious when being observed and monitored, it is more likely that they are not in normal…
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
The Bushmen reached advanced age despite living under harsh conditions caused by periodic famine and untreated illness. Some of the Bushmen coding alleles have been associated with disease. The results of the present study may help to reevaluate these earlier reports. They may also help to identify potential population-specific incompatibilities of drugs that are prescribed globally.
Furthermore, the results of this study have implications of admixtures that may be determined from further research. Population-wide PCA defines the Bushmen as distinct from the Niger-Congo populations as from Europeans. Within-Africa analysis separates the Bushmen from the divergent western and southern population, although ABT is within the southern Bantu cluster. However, variable relatedness of the Xhosa to Yoruba may suggest past admixture and/or historical diversity within this population. Within the Bushmen group, the authors predict that the Ju/' admixture and HGDP are essentially the same population. Divergence of KB1 and MD8 may be…
To resolve this conflict in the situation where demographic and experiential differences are found qualitative researchers, such as those studying different cultures, might employ guides, interpreters and/or other "native" individuals to introduce and help them assimilate into the culture, in order to observe it or in some cases they use time as their tool, immersing for longer periods of time with limited or no interruption to eliminate any bias that might occur in research results because of his or her presence. Even among researchers this is not seen as a perfect set up but it can help resolve some of the intrusion challenges associated with diversity.
One of the major problems, as qualitative researchers see it in historical research is the fact that the researcher has often been seen and thought of as holding a position of authority over the subjects being studied. This idea of "social capital" is pervasive,…
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field/. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Finkleman, J.M. (2007) Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation: The Dysfunctional Side of Diversity. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59 (4) 254 -- 260
Pugh, S.D. Dietz, J. Brief, a.P. & Wiley, J.W. (2008) Looking Inside and Out: The Impact of Employee and Community Demographic Composition on Organizational Diversity Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (6) 1422 -- 1428.
Merchant, B.M. & Willis, a.I. (Eds.). (2001). Multiple and Intersecting Identities in Qualitative Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Indeed, the period now spanning the so-called Modern Era and the Industrial Revolution has been dependent upon humanity taming and turning nature to our own ends. This has led to a process whereby we downplay the natural world and of native peoples in general who live in a more harmonious fashion with their surrounding world. hile this process, especially during the Industrial Age, has led to dehumanization process and it has also led to a cheapening of human life in general as well. One can therefore see in New Age approaches to nature (and religion) that there is a hunger to rediscover an intra-natural balance that was lost in the last few centuries. By studying and internalizing these myths and their moral lessons, we can recapture this lost balance. The author compared these other approaches and built upon what we learned in class, especially by comparing and contrasting and them…
Brightman, Robert Alain. (2002). "there was just animals before." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
Ibid. (2002). "they come to be like human." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
In explaining his theories and conceptions regarding the divine nature, the writer helps us understand what the Thomistic school of thought is. It must be underlined that the Thomistic conceptions reach a very profound philosophical level. Regardless of this the author of the book under review manages to introduce them to the general audience through a language and a manner which make them accessible to everyone. Religious issues such as the revelation, the creation of the world in general and of things in particular are briefly explained in a manner which allows the reader to grasp their fundamental meaning. In addition, the writer makes some notes about the Thomistic virtues, explaining Aquinas' contribution to the development of the religious thought.
It is interesting to notice that McDermott's selection includes figures who come from various backgrounds and environments. From Aquinas we pass to Martin Luther, who, in his opinion is the…
McDermott, G. (2001)The great theologians, A brief guide. Intervarsity Press
Stage 1 or Understanding the Problem
The UP recommends using business use cases for locating purposes which have two qualities:(1) easy to understand and (2) easy for the client to use. The UP does not clarify how these "use cases" should be analyzed to determine what is in the NIMSAD purview. To identify sections of the business that need to be examined, ETHICS uses a stakeholder method that demonstrates all parties interacting with the system. ETHICS harbors a more "macro-view" in comprehending project priorities.
Step 2: Diagnostic Evaluations
The UP does not attempt to challenge any requirements which devolve from the client. There is no way to accurately analyze whether total autonomy of the system would provide any productive cost-benefit analysis for the overall organization. ETHICS advises that analysis should be conducted on the current situation to prevent the analyst from developing "tunnel vision" and focusing on the first solution…
Avison, D. & Fitzgerald, G. (2006). Information Systems Development Methodologies, Techniques & Tools, 4th Edition,
Ahamd, SandJochen, K (2008). Welcome to the IBM Rational Unified Process and Certification.Available at http://www.ibmpressbooks.com/articles/article.asp?p=1155863&seqNum=2 [Accessed on 24/10/2010]
Boehm B, (1996). Anchoring the Software Process. IEEE Computer Society Press: USA. Vol 13 (4).
Finally, logic consists of the study of formal argument and is fundamentally related to other branches of philosophy and to the process of human reason, more generally.
he metaphysician might study such things as where the lines are properly drawn between identifying something as living or nonliving, whether our perception of being alive necessarily means that we are alive, and whether or not we can trust that we are awake and not merely dreaming that we are awake (aylor, 2002). he epistemologist might study whether (and how) one can know whether our assumptions and perceptions are capable of yielding information on the basis of which any conclusions can be drawn at all. he epistemologist would be concerned with how we know what we know and with what we can possibly know, whereas the metaphysician would be concerned with understanding the nature of what we perceive around us (aylor, 2002).
Taylor, R. (2002). Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political
Philosophy. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.
Wiley, C. "The ABC's of Business Ethics: Definitions, Philosophies and Implementation" Industrial Management, Vol. 22, No. 5 (1995): 27-34.
Concepts in the mind such as 'society' can thus have an impact on the real, sensory world but they do not have an independent, tangible or ideal existence. The one exception to Abelard's nominalism is the category of "human beings, whose forms are their immaterial (and immortal) souls. Strictly speaking, since human souls are capable of existence in separation form the body, they are not forms after all, though they act as substantial forms as long as they are joined to the body" (King 2004). Through this idea, Abelard strove to reconcile Christianity with nominalism and to elevate the human being.
The other great medieval nominalist of note is illiam Ockham. Ockham also subscribed to the Aristotelian ontology of realist empiricism, believing that universal essences "are nothing more than concepts in the mind" and no innate ideas exist apart from the mind (Kaye 2007). "The defense of nominalism undertaken by…
De Wulf, M. "Nominalism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. May 11, 2010.
Ess, D. "Notes on nominalism, realism, conceptualism." History of Modern Nominalism.
May 11, 2010.
(Hall, 1974) Wings are additionally attributed to "Father Time, the winds and Opportunity, who all pass swiftly." (Hall, 1974) It is clear that wings when used in religious art are used in symbolic representations of beings that are divine, heavenly, or directly connected to the heavens and its creator. Wings are representative of heavenly beings, gods, or messengers of gods, or beings that are endowed with powers not of the realm of the earth. Wings also are symbols of protection and sheltering and this is particularly true in Egyptian art. While few studies exist in relation to wings and winged beings in ancient Peru, it is very likely that the representation of these in art symbolism is much akin to artistic representations in other cultures and since ancient Peruvians have been found to be buried with feathered garments it is likely that these individuals viewed wings and winged beings to…
Hall, James (1974) Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. Westview Press 1974.
Curtis, J., Tallis, N. And Andre-Salvini, B. (2005) Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. University of California Press, 2005.
MacKenzie, Donald A. (2003) Migration of Symbols. Kessinger Publishing 2003.
Perrot, G. And Chipiez, C. (1892) History of Art in Persia: from the French of Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez. Chapman and Hall, limited 1892 University of Michigan digitized 12 Dec 2007.
nursing is both a discipline and a profession
All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.
Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)
The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing
Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field…
Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.
Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.
Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.
Rather, language may be more apt to change the way we see the world, rather than vice versa, at least according to Chomsky.
Meaning thus varies and shifts, some would say as the world shifts, others would say as language itself grows and generates new meanings -- while almost all would agree that the drive to communicate and make consistent and coherent meanings endures in all segments of the species. hile a stroke may damage the ability of some human brains to convey language and different people may have different levels of ability in using language effectively, or learning foreign systems of communication, the innate, structured, yet dynamic nature of human language lives on. Language exists on a biological, linguistic, and cultural level, although the degree to which these factors produce and affect language and meaning remains controversial.
Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In…
Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In Cognitive science: The science of intelligent systems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008. http://www.jimdavies.org/summaries/luger1994.html
Sowa, John F. (2005, Nov 27). "Lexicon." Excerpted from the book Knowledge representation. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008. http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/lexicon.htm
Szab, Zoltan Gendler. (2004). Noam Chomsky. Dictionary of modern American philosophers.
1860-1960, in Ernest LePore (ed.) Bristol. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008. http://www.chomsky.info/bios/2004-.htm
Moeove, this aspect of the text investigates the 'language' of film in a way that causes us to appeciate the fom's singulaity. Such is to say that in this investigation of the sueal and cultually distubing elements which have invaded film in spiitually sick societies, we ae given a pofound undestanding of exactly why one might choose film as a way to fomulate a language that is othewise absent of platfom and inexpessible.
By contast, such essays ae steeped in lengthy and pedantic examinations such as that povided by Ande Bazin and entitled "The Ontology of Photogaphic Image." Hee, the autho goes to lengths to deconstuct the manne in which language is established by the caeful aangement of visual impessions within the context of a shot. Angles, objects and the aangement of inteactants all ae efeenced, accodingly to Bazin, as cucial phases in the message communicated. This is a useful…
references, providing a work that is not overly dense but nonetheless tends to reduce the discourse on film to a dry academic compilation of opinions.
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
Instead, he challenges the reliability of the person who claims knowledge, by asking him for a definition that would hold for all circumstances. The point is not to ascertain whether he is right in this case, but to see whether his claim could hold for every case. This is close to the skeptical issue, but deceptively so."(Benson, 87) in the Socratic view therefore, knowledge is perceived as the greatest possible virtue of the soul. Thus, it is through knowledge that a person may distinguish between right and wrong and thus act virtuously. The process of attaining knowledge is nevertheless an arduous one, not being easily available to its seekers. The role of philosophy is thus central to the proper functioning of the human society since it is comparable to the practice midwifery in that it helps to deliver man from perplexity and allow truth to be born in the mind.…
Benson, Hugh H. Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Plato. The Republic. London: Oxford University Press,1945.
The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters, ed. By Edith Hamilton and Hungtinton Cairns. New York: Pantheon Books, 1961.
Socrates (c. 470 B.C.-399 B.C.)." DISCovering Biography. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003
MacCormick expresses a similar argument, although in different terms. According to MacCormick, the law has no natural existence, no set form and no fixed ontology. In fact, according to this line of reasoning, "the law has no natural role because the law is not a brute fact."
Instead, the law is what MacCormick calls a "thought object," similar to the concept of Love presented in the other article. According to MacCormick's thought object, the law only exists because humans believe in it. In other words, the law does not pre-exist our observation but is instead is constituted in that original decision to designate a specific law. As MacCormick states, "Law is constituted as an object of observation by the very act of observation itself."
Since the law exist because of an observation, or a decision that a law is needed, MacCormick essentially agrees with the concept of Love in…
Bankowski, Z. (1996): Law, Love and Computers.
MacCormick, D.N. (1989): The Ethics of Legalism.
As noted, although Abdellah's theory was patient-centered and involved the care of the patient, it was clinically based and emphasized the science of nursing. Such findings fit well with Jean Watson's theory of nursing, or caring science, which encompasses a humanitarian, human science orientation to the human caring processes and experiences. However, Watson's theoretical frame comes from a metaphysical basis rather than a scientific one. Caring science consists of the arts and humanities in addition to science. Watson states that "A caring science perspective is grounded in a relational ontology of being-in-relation, and a world view of unity and connectedness of all." The concept of Ttranspersonal Caring recognizes unity of life and interrelationships that move in concentric circles of caring -- from individuals, to the community, to the world, to the planet Earth, and to the universe (Watson School).
Watson (Intervarsity, 2005) emphasizes that due to the rise of bureaucratic…
Dodds, V. (2002). Nursing Spectrum. Career Management Magazine. Retrieved November 3, 2007. http://community.nursingspectrum.com/MagazineArticles/article.cfm?AID=7936
Haase, P.T. (1990) the origins and rise of associate degree nursing education. New York: Duke University Press
Intervarsity (2005). Discussion of nursing theories and underlying world views.
Website retrieved November 4, 2007. http://ncf.intervarsity.org/facgrad/forum/nsgtheories.html
This essence is based on his belief that free will an the freedom of choice which is the exercise of free will are rooted in "uprightness":
If freedom-of-choice had not been given to rational nature in order for it to keep uprightness-of-will for the same of this uprightness itself, then freedom would not have been conducive to justice, since it is evident that justice is uprightness-of-will for the sake of this uprightness itself. (Anselm 110)
It appears that Anselm is ultimately equating free will with uprightness-of-will, for he argues that there is nothing -- even God -- which can separate the will from its essential uprightness:
Indeed, although He can reduce to nothing an entire substance which He has created from nothing, He is not able to separate uprightness from a will which has it... If God were to remove (the oft-mentioned) uprightness from someone, he would not will him…
Anselm. Anselm of Canterbury: Volume 2. Toronto: Edward Mellen, 1976.
Anselm's Ontological Argument." 2007. July 22, 23007. http://www.princeton.edu/~grosen/puc/phi203/ontological.html.
Hartshorne, Charles. Anselm's Discovery: A Re-Examination of the Ontological Proof for God's Existence. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1965.
Kent, W.H. "St. Anselm." New Advent (2007). July 23, 2007. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01546a.htm .
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Malone dies just as he finally does away with the alternate identities of his storytelling, such that he can be seen as 'becoming Malone' at the same moment of Malone's death, so that his death forces the reader to recall the beginning of the story and the Malone already in existence there, restarting the narrative loop.
In effect, Malone's storytelling creates an infinitely looping continuity that diminishes the finality of his death, because 'although the physical body will eventually die, we cannot be sure that consciousness discontinues,' and in fact, the novel seems to suggest that Malone's consciousness never ultimately discontinues, but rather briefly goes dark before being reactivated once again at the beginning of the novel (hite, 2009, 45). The tragedy, of course, is that Malone is entirely unequipped to deal with this kind of torturous immortality, so his mind is frayed and confused, with different characters and moments…
Ashwood, Barbara (2003), "Sexuality and its significance in Malone Dies," Undergraduate Review, 15:1.3, p. 10.
Barrett, William (1956), "Real Love Abides," The New York Times, Sec.7.
Barry, Elizabeth (2006), Beckett and Authority, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Beckett, Samuel [1947-1958] (1991), Three Novels: Molly Malone Dies the Unnamable. New York, NY: Grove Press.
Hermeneutic or Phenomenological esearch
Hermeneutic and phenomenological research is qualitative measurement analysis tools. They focus on the understanding and interpretation and execution of theory. Both are becoming more and more popular with contemporary research methodologies (Fuchs 1993). Together, they embody the studying of social phenomenon external to the manipulation of the research. They aim to understand how we construct and gain knowledge from the external world around us. Thus, hermeneutic research "is interpretive and concentrated on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels," (Laverty 2003 p 15). Phenomenological research is additionally very descriptive and thus examines the foundational structure of experience as a way of gaining knowledge (Fuchs 1993). One study, conducted by Ajjawi & Higgs (2007) embodies these elements within its methodological structure.
The study contains particular elements adhering to ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions. Ontology focuses on the categories of…
Ajjawi, Rola & Higgs, Joy. (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 612-638.
Fuchs, Stephan. (1993). Three sociological epistemologies. Sociological Perspectives, 36(1), 23-44.
Laverty, Susann M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29. Web. http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf
In some areas it actually appears as though certain reliability issues and their solutions might be simplified in the cloud when compared to traditional software and hardware set-ups; successful antivirus protection has been achieved simply by running preventative, diagnostic, and corrective programs on host computers and servers in the cloud, rather than necessitating the same type of vigilance for each and every end-user unit (Shah 2010). Solutions to more general and widespread reliability issues, however, have necessitated a much higher level of complexity in their solutions and the mechanisms employed to address them. More detailed and comprehensive infrastructure and internal architecture mapping has been adopted in an effort to better identify and rectify issues that could cause problems with reliability in cloud software systems (Mell & Grance 2009).
As understandings of these systems, their mechanisms, and their functions become more detailed and more concrete, the solutions to reliability issues will…
Dikaiakos, M.D., Katsaros, D., Mehra, P., Pallis, G. & Vakali, A. (2009). Cloud Computing: Distributed Internet Computing for IT and Scientific Research. Internet Computing 13(5): 10-3.
Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2009). Cloud. NIST Information Technology Laboratory.
Shah, S. (2010). Exploring Reliability of Cloud Antivirus solutions. New Jersey Institute of Technology, Independent Research.
Youseff, L., Butrico, M. & Da Silva, D. (2008). Toward a Unified Ontology of Cloud Computing. Grid Computing Environments Workshop.