Ontology, 1-3 Epistemology And Methodology Assessment

Length: 10 pages Sources: 20 Subject: Black Studies - Philosophy Type: Assessment Paper: #75331223 Related Topics: Positivism, Ecotourism, Paradigm Shift, Asian Philosophy
Excerpt from Assessment :

The research too has to be reliable and valid cohering to an internal and external scientific definition of reality that is more physical and eschews the metaphysical and the abstract.

Ontological Basis

Positivism accepts a certain reality of existence and insists that this reality can be discovered by universal and immutable scientific / mathematical principles (Tribe, 2009) .

Epistemological Basis

The researcher has to distance himself as much as possible from his research in order to come to verifiable attempts. The scientific approach can help hims distance himself.

Interpretive Paradigm

An alternate rendering of this can be the constructionist paradigm where the approach depends upon the researcher in question and is often inductively created. It is subjective and avowedly so and the meaning / conclusions / perspective is generated from one's particular experiences, way of thinking, and origin (Oakes & Minca 2004, p. 30).

Ontological Basis

The researcher acknowledge existence of multiple realities

Epistemological Basis

The researcher sees himself as one of the actors who possesses his own 'take' on the subject. None is particularly more true / false than the other.

Feminist Paradigm

Feminism may be more of a political perspective than philosophical, although it combines both. Feminists see man as having dominated females and attempting to oppress them. This mode of masculine conduct is existent in overt and covert ways in many (if not all) cultures. Feminism, therefore, tries to bring these issues out into the open in order that they may be addressed (Letherby, 2003).

Ontological Basis

Men dominate women in a an unequally gendered world

Epistemological Basis

There is the relationship between the knower, the known, and the issue. The knower (researcher) is studying the female in this issue in order to point out existent injustice and to prompt reflection and, when necessary, retroactive action.

Article 1

Ranjan Bandyopadhyay & Karina Nascimento (2010): "Where fantasy becomes reality": how tourism forces made Brazil a sexual playground, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8,


This article uses a feminist approach as is evident in the tenor of the study.

The paper examines the political economy of tourism representations and destination imaging in Brazil and its effect on tourism in the country. The central argument is that the way that Brazil and its women are represented in tourist images has an important effect on how they tourists relate to Brazil and to its women, and that tourist paraphernalia uses the female to sell Brazil to the tourist. . The study investigates the representation of Brazil and its women during colonial times by Europeans, by the Brazilian Government and by the contemporary Western media, and concludes that these representations have made Brazil a sexual playground for tourists. In other words, the researchers conclude that Brazil's image is not a direct outcome of tourism representations alone; but rather its tourist image is strongly connected with complex historical, political and cultural processes.

Using the feminist approach that uses woman as its subject and makes man's domination of woman that issue to be addressed, the authors see their research and findings as significant in correcting social injustice to women. They point out that:

Sex tourism has not been seen as a subject for serious intellectual investigation, except for a few notable studies ... Despite the considerable body of literature on sex trafficking and HIV / AIDS, scholars have paid little attention to the role of tourism in the transmission of HIV / AIDS in this era of sustainable development....The complex issues emerging from the interface of tourism and AIDS deserve an in-depth ethnographic study, which future scholars can delve into. Thus, this study has profound implications for the concept of sustainable tourism. (945-948)


The study uses a feminist paradigm focusing on the plight of women in Brazil and on tendency of tourist marketing to use women as promotional aspect.

Ontological Basis

The researcher sees women as assuming the perspective reality of tourism (meaning that all centers around the woman).

Epistemological Basis

The researchers examined primary and secondary historical sources and documents -- that included letters, brochures, bo0oks, and other material -- in order to see how Brazil and Brazilians were portrayed and thought of throughout the centuries.

Although their material seems to come from an objective source, nonetheless their perspective is biased since they were selective in the type of material that they accepted. There may conceivably be a quantity of material that shows differing or contradictory perspectives of Brazil that the researchers did not review or that they rejected from their study. This makes their epistemology biased and causes me to define it as one that merged from the specific interests of a feminist agenda and was slanted towards that end.



It is qualitative being an examination of data and text ("Data were collected from several sources to answer the research questions. In order to examine how Brazil is represented in colonial travel writings, textual representations of Brazil and Brazilians were collected from books written during the nineteenth century.. etc. etc. 935).

Article 2

Catarina Marques, Elizabeth Reis & Joao Menezes (2010): Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8, 971-996

This study identifies the diversity of domestic visitors to Portuguese protected areas (PPA) based on areas that tourists believe that they can benefit from. The segments of PPA visitors are also compared with other nature-based tourist segments using empirical segmentation literature. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire and multivariate statistics techniques were applied. Five particular segments of visitors were identified based on the motivation for their visit and by the perceived importance of activities, and services, by their frequency of visit and by socio-demographics. Researchers concluded that the reasons for the visit in one segment are unrelated to any of the motivations of nature-based tourism.


This is clearly the positive approach since statistical data are used to conduct and assess outcome of the method (Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire and multivariate statistics techniques were applied.) an d the whole follows pricniples of science as throughly as possible in order to exclude the researcher from the study and let the facts speak for themselves.

As the article says, the study itself was grounded on usage of empirical benefit segmentation literature and the empirical approach was employed throughout.

Ontological Basis

The researchers see science as providing a means to arrive at some certainty of the issue provided that all principles are scrupulously followed. There is, t ehrofre, one way -- rather than multiple ways -- of seeing reality and this is achieved by carefully and throughly following the scientific paradigm: "This study develops a comprehensive analysis of the profile of segments of domestic visitors to PPA, a theme where little empirical research has been conducted to date." (987)

Epistemological Basis

The researchers believe that knowledge can be arrived at form an externalist stance, namely from appealing to the fact and from excluding internalism (i.e subjectivity) as much as possible in order to arrive at clear and hard evidence. Facts are therefore translated in mathematical terms and even the collection and interpretation of facts, including questionnaries used, are all converted into empirical, mathematical mediums.

The researchers note for instance that

With regard to sampling representativeness, the results of the cluster analysis matched the empirical experience almost perfectly, which gives some confidence to the underlying structure and its generalization to the population; and the sample dimension issue is not important because the PPA management agency is only interested in identifying managerially useful segments, i.e. those that represent at least 10% of the population. (993).

Note how all cohered to facts.


This is clearly a quantitative study.

Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire and multivariate statistics techniques were applied. Five particular segments of visitors were identified based on the motivation for their visit and by the perceived importance of activities, and services, by their frequency of visit and by socio-demographics. An empirical base was used as literary component and statistics included principal components, hierarchical and K-means cluster analyses

Article 3

Tao (Teresa), Chang-Hung, Eagles, Paul F.J. And Smith, Stephen L.J.(2004) 'Profiling Taiwanese Ecotourists Using a Self-definition Approach', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12: 2, 149 -- 168

Numerous studies have profiled ecotourists but these have been done mainly in the context of North American ecotourists. This study examines the rapidly developing Asian ecotourism market in the context of domestic visitation to Taiwan's Taroko National Park. The study uses an innovative self-defined approach to defining an ecotourist. Findings include demographic results, benefits sought, travel motivation, and activities. Comparisons between Taiwanese and North American ecotourists are also made.


This is an interpretative paradigm where the author believes that each has his/her particular lens for viewing reality and…

Sources Used in Documents:


Armstrong, DM (1973). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press

Catarina Marques, Elizabeth Reis & Joao Menezes (2010): Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8, 971-996

Hartmann, Nicolai. 1953. New Ways of Ontology. Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co.

Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Cite this Document:

"Ontology 1-3 Epistemology And Methodology" (2012, March 25) Retrieved September 28, 2021, from

"Ontology 1-3 Epistemology And Methodology" 25 March 2012. Web.28 September. 2021. <

"Ontology 1-3 Epistemology And Methodology", 25 March 2012, Accessed.28 September. 2021,

Related Documents
Monist Ontology and Materialism: Back
Words: 1254 Length: 3 Pages Topic: Black Studies - Philosophy Paper #: 94333192

Of course Marx and Russell are radically different on certain aspects of materialism in the physical world. Indeed, Russell spent volumes on taking issue with various aspects of Marx's dialectical materialism (Ironside, 1996, p. 26). Russell comes from the perspective of Fabian Socialism where change can be gradual. Marx is a complete revolutionary who believes that change can only come from a violent overthrow of the present order. For

Positive and Negative Stress in the Workplace
Words: 9457 Length: 6 Pages Topic: Management Paper #: 38630500

1. Introduction The modern 21st century has posed new challenges for the organizations to survive and grow (Smith et al. 2010). As they are operated and managed by human beings, the challenges are ultimately faced by the individuals who are responsible for making decisions and implementing them (Nieuwenhuizen, Weiss and Rossouw, 2009). As challenges are multifaceted, and human lives are divided into various aspects, it is difficult to excel in every

Mentoring of African American Male
Words: 6879 Length: 18 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 41418993

School African-American Males Who Are Attending a Community-Based After-School Program ANTICIPATED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A qualitative case study would be conducted by the researcher. As described by Gay, Mills, and Airasian (2009), a case study explores and analyzes the behavioral patterns of an exclusive group over an extended period of time. In this approach the researcher analyzes the behavior of the participants while they participate in the intended activities and their response

Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East
Words: 4910 Length: 15 Pages Topic: History - Israel Paper #: 89623237

Arab Spring Reshapes the Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East Research Structure Arab Spring Importance of Tourism in the Effected Regions Negative Impacts of Arab Spring on the Tourism Sector of the Middle Eastern Region Selection of Keywords Egypt Tunisia Syria Yemen Recommendations for Further Research The Arab Spring Reshapes the Tourism and Hospitality Industry in the Middle East The Arab Springs can be defined as a series of revolutions along the Middle Eastern countries, for example Tunisia and Egypt.

Caribbean Use ICT How Can Smes in
Words: 4613 Length: 13 Pages Topic: Engineering Paper #: 33772858

Caribbean use ICT How can SMEs in (Caribbean) use ICT to achieve competitive advantage? Literature Review and Conceptual Framework Conceptual Framework Research Philosophy and Paradigm Epistemology Ontology Mixed Methods Primary Data Secondary Data Sampling Techniques and Procedures Data Analysis and Techniques Qualitative Analysis Quantitative Analysis Research Ethics Codes and Policies of Research Ethics Limitations to Methodology Time Plan and Resources The emergence of information and communications technologies or ICTs has a significant influence on different industries and organizations all across the globe. ICT refers to technologies, which

Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
Words: 12148 Length: 45 Pages Topic: Economics Paper #: 52622125

Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science The international political perspectives of free trade A Global Analysis International Trade Impact on Tunisia The Export of agricultural products International trade and development of Tunisia Balance in the Trade Regime Imports and exports of Tunisia Exports Imports Coping With External and Internal Pressures The Common External Tariff (CET) Safeguard Measures Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs) Rules of origin The New Commercial Policy Instrument Sector Based Aspects GATT/WTO's Main Principles Non-discriminatory trade Multilateral negotiation and free trade The Trading Policies