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Apart from the seasonal influenza epidemics caused by antigenic drifts, a significant change in the virus's virulence through antigenic shifts has been a major source of concern for healthcare professionals. These new strains may reach pandemic proportions. Predicting the next outbreak is an impossible task but historically, the longest period between two outbreaks has been forty one years and it usually occurs every 30-40 years. An outbreak can reach pandemic proportions in as little as 6-month's time, or even lesser. This fast spread can be attributed to globalization and urbanization. Countries, such as Bangladesh or Indonesia, where overcrowding is common, can prove to be a haven for the emergence of new strains, but it may still be irrational to predict where the next pandemic may originate from. Two out of the last four strains originated from Southeast Asia and the most recent outbreak of 2009 was from Mexico.…
Addressing ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning. (2008). World Health Orginazation.
Retrieved from www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/cds_flu_ethics_5...
Balkhy, H., Abolfotouh, M., Hathlool, R., & Jumah, M. (2010). Awareness, attitudes, and practices related to the swine influenza pandemic among the saudi public. Infectious Diseases, 10(42).
Damery, S., Wilson, S., Draper, H., Gratus, C., Greenfield, S., Ives, J., & Parry, J. (2009). Will the nhs continue to function in an influenza pandemic? A survey of healthcare workers in the west midlands, uk. BMC Public Health, 9(142), doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-142
Pandemic Flu Impact on Ethics in Nursing Practice
Pandemic flu: A literature review
The dire scenario of a pandemic flu is likely to strike fear in the heart of many healthcare workers, regardless of the level of their experience and knowledge. The 2009-2010 flu season brought additional attention to the issue. 208 countries "had confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 and [stated] that over 13,000 people had died as a direct result" (Stroschein 2010). Although the death toll was not as great as feared, issues regarding how to cope with a pandemic and the need for immunization were brought to the forefront of the public consciousness and the concerns of healthcare workers.
Fears of a pandemic are not limited to the general public at large. In fact, "one of the ethical issues identified in response to a possible pandemic is healthcare workers' duty to provide care during a communicable…
Goldenberg, S. (2009). The swine flu pandemic. Journal of Continuing Education Topics & Issues, 11(3), 108-111
Manos, J. (2009). Lessons learned from the first wave of the swine flu pandemic. Occupational Health, 61(11), 30-30.
Santibanez, S., Fiore, Anthony E., Merlin, T.L., & Redd, S. (2009). A
primer on strategies for prevention and control of seasonal and pandemic influenza. American Journal of Public Health, 99, S216-24.
In other words, the PAHPA should protect volunteers (that rush to the scene of a disaster like Hurricane Katrina) from lawsuits for their "non-criminal actions" in humanitarian efforts (Hodge, p. 3).
Also, Hodge writes that PAHPA does not "…ensure adequate economic incentives to stimulate maximum private sector participation"; in other words, pharmaceutical companies asked to produce vaccines for potential bio-terror attacks, are not guaranteed a return on their investment to produce the vaccines (Hodge, p. 4).
hen the U.S. House of Representatives reauthorized PAHPA in 2011, the Trust for America's Health (TFAH) -- a nonprofit advocacy group -- praised the legislation but cautioned that "…the bill freezes public health preparedness funding at the fiscal-year 2011 levels" which, the TFAH asserts, "will not provide sufficient resources to…ensure we are prepared in the event of an emergency" (Roos, 2011). In fact, Jeffrey Levi, the executive director of TFAH, mentioned that cuts in…
Hamburg, M. (2008). Penny-wise, pound-foolish? State gaps threaten disaster readiness. State Health Watch / the Newsletter on State Health Care Reform, 15(3), 1-5.
Hodge, James G., Gostin, Lawrence O., and Vernick, Jon S. (2007). The Pandemic and All-
Hazards Preparedness Act. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(15),
To meet substantive due process, a public health intervention must be based on a public health necessity, an effective intervention, have a demonstrable means-end connection, be proportionate to the threat involved, and be the least restrictive means of accomplishing the goal. In addition, Daubert explains the parameters of the procedural due process. Due process in a quarantine situation does not always involve a judicial hearing, but it must contain the following elements: notice to the affected individual, an opportunity to contest the government's action, access to legal counsel, and a final decision that is subject to review by a court of law. She includes with a discussion of how due process came to be applied in situations of quarantine, by viewing due process as a continuum, with infected individual on one end of the spectrum and the exposed individual on another. She thinks that due process should increase as the…
CDC. (2005). Fact sheet on legal authorities for isolation/quarantine. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/factsheetlegal.htm
Daubert, M. (2007). Comment: Pandemic fears and contemporary quarantine: Protecting liberty through a continuum of due process rights. 54 Buffalo L. Rev 1299.
PAHPA gives federal officials important judgment to gather and share personal health information without sufficient privacy safeguards. PAHPA does not substantively address privacy worries. The HIPAA Privacy ule prohibits public health data collections from its protections. Other privacy laws supply a patchwork of protections for national public health data (Hodge, 2007).
National organization of interstate volunteer health professionals throughout emergencies assumes that the legal environment supports their deployment. Competent, registered health care professionals who volunteer to assist for humanitarian purposes deserve protection from liability. "During Hurricane Katrina, thousands of interstate and intrastate volunteer health personnel faced potential legal liability or other risks for their actions depending on the nature of their deployment, their existing employment, and varying laws. Whether real or perceived, the specter of liability hindered the deployment or minimized the utility of skilled volunteers" (Hodge, Gostin & Vernick, 2007).
PAHPA promises new initiatives for the rapid development of…
Hodge, J.G. (2007). Legal Forces in Public Health Surveillance. Retrieved from http://www.law.asu.edu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Q9DhovDU3uE%3D&tabid=1497
Hodge, J.G., Gostin, L.O. & Vernick, J.S. (2007). The Pandemic and All-Hazards
Preparedness Act: Improving Public Health Emergency Response. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(15), p. 1708-1711.
HIV/AIDS Pandemic: A Look Back in Time
In modern times, one could easily argue that the HIV/AIDS pandemic was the single most destructive widespread illness to sweep the globe. In summary, the death toll from HIV/AIDS has reached a total of 36 million people. At this time there are around 31-35 million individuals who have been diagnosed with HIV: the bulk of these people reside in Sub-Saharan Africa, a place where around 5% of the total number of people are infected (mphonline.org). While an HIV diagnosis is not the death sentence that it was decades ago, there is still a need for more research and developments in preventing and treating the condition. Looking backwards to the past can be tremendously beneficial in understanding the journey the disease has taken, starting with the first outbreak.
The disease was very pinpointed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1976. The outbreak…
Marketing Protection from a Potential Bird Flu Pandemic
A popular saying is that it 'is an ill wind that blows nobody good.' This means that even something as dire as the looking threat of a bird flu pandemic has the ability to increase demand for manufactures of a vaccine -- or in this case, a facemask that when used in combination with duct tape provides limited protection against catching the dreaded bird flu.
The threat if a bird flue pandemic cannot be minimized. It is not simply paranoid individuals who fear the flu -- news sources such as CNN and the BBC warn of an outbreak. "Bird flu has swept through poultry and wild birds in Asia since 2003. It has killed huge numbers of birds and led to more than 60 human deaths," reported the BBC. ("Bird Flu Could Kill 150 Million People," 2005) The flu is very easily…
"Avian influenza in humans." (2005) Center for Disease Control (CDC) CDC Website. Retrieved 27 Oct 2005 at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm
"Bird Flu Could Kill 150 Million People." (30 Sept 2005) BBC. Retrieved 27 Oct 2005 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4292426.stm 'Bird flu pandemic risk 'very high' (14 Oct 2005) CNN.com. Health. Retrieved 27 Oct 2005
"Romanian Villages Tackle Bird Flu." (16 Oct 2005) BBC. Retrieved 27 Oct 2005 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4347860.stm 'Stage May be set for Bird Flu Pandemic, Says Infectious Diseases Expert." (4 Feb 2004) University of Buffalo." Newswise. Retrieved 27 Oct 2005 at http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/503078/
While public health emergencies crop up from time to time, it is critical that public health stakeholders be prepared to address emergency situations whenever they occur. The spread of influenza is one such public health emergency that stakeholders should be ready to address. Addressing these situations requires a number of steps to be taken: communication must be instrumental in conveying the urgency of the situation among medical personnel, researchers, governmental authorities, and so on, so that everyone is abreast of the situation and on the same page. An agreed upon method of response should also be established, so that the necessary actions can be implemented without hesitation or time lost because of unpreparedness.
Preventing the spread of disease is the top concern in a public health emergency. Prevention requires using all the means at one’s disposal—from the media (through which alerts can be given and calm, orderly instructions can…
The authors point out that there is a lack of previous studies focussed on health promotion and the effect on preventing DM. The conclusion of the authors is very logical and convincing from the statistics they show. It is important to note that type 2 diabetes (insulin independent diabetes), which is also widely prevalent, is a preventable condition. The authors argue that nursing focus must shift from a sickness service to a health promotion service among the healthy people. Nurses have a strategic role in care delivery and also in increasing the awareness of the disease among the masses. The authors suggest that a patient centred health care delivery system should be established. This approach is appropriate and endorsed by recent studies that show that nurses can improve care delivery for diabetics by promoting a problem-based learning model. [Gale Group] in this approach, patients are encouraged to actively interact in…
Katarina Hjelm et.al, 'Preparing Nurses to Face the Pandemic of Diabetes Mellitus; a Literature review', Journal of Advanced Nursing Mar 2003, Vol 41 Issue
Gale Group, 'FEND Conference: Munich 2004; Problem-Based Learning Promotes Self-Care in People with Diabetes', Journal of Diabetes Nursing, Sep 2004
Brownlee, C. "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients." Science News, 30 September 2006, 211+.
Grist, N.. Pandemic Influenza 1918. 2009. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town. Online. Available from the Internet: http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/jmoodie/influen2.html, accessed 17 April 2009.
Imperato, Pascal James. "America's Forgotten Pandemic. The Influenza of 1918." Journal of Community Health 29, no. 1 (2004): 100+.
Irwin, Julia F. "An Epidemic without Enmity: Explaining the Missing Ethnic Tensions in New Haven's 1918 Influenza Epidemic." Urban History eview 36, no. 2 (2008): 5+.
Phillips, Howard and David Killingray, eds. The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. New York: outledge, 2003.
1. Howard Phillips and David Killingray, eds., The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. New York: outledge, 2003, 2.
C. Brownlee, "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients," Science News, 30 September 2006.
Brownlee, C. "The Bad Fight: Immune Systems Harmed 1918 Flu Patients." Science News, 30 September 2006, 211+.
Grist, N.R. Pandemic Influenza 1918. 2009. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town. Online. Available from the Internet: http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/mmi/jmoodie/influen2.html, accessed 17 April 2009.
Imperato, Pascal James. "America's Forgotten Pandemic. The Influenza of 1918." Journal of Community Health 29, no. 1 (2004): 100+.
Irwin, Julia F. "An Epidemic without Enmity: Explaining the Missing Ethnic Tensions in New Haven's 1918 Influenza Epidemic." Urban History Review 36, no. 2 (2008): 5+.
From the onset, it would be prudent to point out that Asians, as Croucher, Nguyen, and Rahmani point out, happen to be America’s fastest growing population. However, the said population also happens to be one of the populations most susceptible to discrimination. This is a fact that has clearly revealed itself during the COVID-19 pandemic where there have been reports of increased discrimination against Asian Americans. This text will largely concern itself with anti-Asian American sentiment during the present pandemic. In so doing, it will not only track the nature of the said discrimination, but also chart its consequences. It will also highlight some of the solutions that have been suggested in an attempt to reign in the said discrimination. The present discussion also demonstrates that the pandemic appears to be just but an excuse to continue a well-established trend of discrimination against Asian Americans.
As Strochlic points out, from…
Balvaneda, Bryan, Lizabeth Roemer, Sarah Hayes-Skeleton, Amelia Yang, and Anna Ying. “Responding to Anti-Asian Racism During the COVID-19 Outbreak.” ADAA, https://adaa.org/learn-from-us/from-the-experts/blog-posts/consumer/responding-anti-asian-racism-during-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Croucher, Stephen M., Thao Nguyen, and Diyako Rahmani. “Prejudice Toward Asian Americans in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Effects of Social Media Use in the United States.” Frontiers in Communication, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00039/full . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Ho, Jennifer. “Anti-Asian racism and COVID-19.” University of Colorado, https://www.colorado.edu/asmagazine/2020/04/08/anti-asian-racism-and-covid-19 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Kandil, Caitlin and Yam Kimmy. “Asian Americans face dual challenges: Surging unemployment and racism.” NBC, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/asian-americans-face-dual-challenges-surging-unemployment-racism-n1235356 . Accessed 1 December 2020.
Strochlic, Nina. “America’s long history of scapegoating its Asian citizens.” National Geographic, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/09/asian-american-racism-covid/ . Accessed 1 December 2020.
To be honest, the pandemic is only affecting my life in a really limited way. I try not to take any of it too seriously because then I just get really frustrated with how idiotic everything has become. But sometimes I get so annoyed that I find myself ranting and venting to myself. For instance, today on the 19th, I listened to this commentary from Dr. Roger Hodkinson, who is a medical specialist in pathology, which includes virology. He trained at Cambridge University and is the ex-president of the Pathology Section of the Medical Association, and was previously an assistant professor at the Faculty of Medicine, and was chairman of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada Examination Committee of Pathology in Ottawa, and is currently the chairman of a biotechnology company in North Carolina that manufactures and sells the COVID-19 tests—so, in short, he knows a bit…
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
The objective of this study is to consider what leadership knowledge and skills are needed during a pandemic situation. The best practices utilized by health care leaders when working collaboratively during a pandemic situation (real or potential) will be
According to the work of the Canadian College of Health Service Executives work entitled "The Role of Health Leaders in Planning for an Influenza Pandemic" published in 2006, pandemic planning "is uniquely complex. From local to international plans, all require a blend of strategic and operational, proactive and reactive, integrated and independent and personal and professional approaches." (p.7) It is necessary that those planning for such a pandemic prepare various reactions to a diverse number of situations and that plans are made in advance of their actual execution. It is necessary that such planning take place across all governmental and health system levels.
Areas of Planning
Recommendations made for…
Influenza Pandemic Simulation: Implications for the United States (n.d.) Booz Allen Hamilton. Center for Health Transformation. Retrieved from: http://www.boozallen.com/media/file/Influenza_Pandemic_Simulation_US.pdf
Pandemic Planning and Patient and Family Centered Care (n.d.) Institute for Family Centered Care. Retrieved from: http://www.ipfcc.org/tools/Pandemic-Planning-and-PFCC.pdf
Schoch-Spana, M. et al. (2007) Community Engagement: Leadership Tool for Catastrophic Health Events. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science. Vol. 5 No. 1. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=12&cad=rja&ved=0CEAQFjABOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmuse.jhu.edu%2Fjournals%2Fjournal_of_health_care_for_the_poor_and_underserved%2Fsummary%2Fv022%2F22.3A.earl.html&ei=L3s8Ur30N47-4AOOn4HgCA&usg=AFQjCNEPUrM8ZQsNt_4l6d4RvhoxHq9w2g&sig2=ETb_rWLTgBOvxMdodEdjNA&bvm=bv.52434380,d.cGE
The Role of Health Leaders in Planning for an Influenza Pandemic (2006) Canadian College of Health Service Executives. Retrieved from: http://www.cchl-ccls.ca/assets/publications/CCHLPublication_PandemicEnglish.pdf
The result is that the flu pandemic created a greater respect from citizens to medical professionals and also increased the role of government in preventing and anticipating the spread of infectious diseases.
Overall Crosby's work makes very valid arguments; his intent throughout the book is to provide an analysis of the impact of the influenza pandemic. He wanted the reader to understand precisely why this pandemic, though so large in scope and so damaging to the youth of merica during that era has escaped the national consciousness. He argues that this is the result of apt responses by government and the emergence of a new confidence in the medical profession. On all of these counts Crosby has succeeded admirably, he demonstrates through his narrative how even though individuals became more hysterical over the threat of the flu, they were at the same time persuaded and assuaged by local, state and…
America's Forgotten Pandemic" has become extremely popular over the course of the last twenty years. Mainly because it provides a vivid account of another modern pandemic that threatens to mirror the myriad of epidemics that the world is confronting. The similarities between the avian flu scare as well as the current fight against AIDS have made this book much more vivid in the minds of both the public and scholars. This book has now been in print for over twenty five years, and has released itself in a new addition. It is primarily worth reading because it is not only a book about the pandemic, but more so a thorough psychological review of why the pandemic has such a strong influence upon the national consciousness of 1918, but is barely referenced in narratives in contemporary society. The blending of psychology, medical history and the thrill of narrative writing makes this book a highly worthy read.
Crosby is a noted American history; he is the Professor Emeritus in American Studies, History and Geography at the University of Texas at Austin where he has taught for twenty years. His specialty has been on the historical significance of "national terror events," and he has published numerous book sons the theme of reality vs. The national psychology. In this narrative, he uses thorough research to recreate the feelings and emotions that encompassed the crisis. In particular he uses primary narratives such as newspaper accounts during the tragedy as well as first hand narratives from people who lived through the crisis. His strong use of primary sources is probably why the stories and case studies he provides are so vivid. In addition to the primary sources he used to recreate the narrative of the pandemic, he also used many secondary resources to support the rise of the medical profession and the impact of the epidemic upon the historical response and the current practice of the medical profession. This is especially evident in his research on the changes that occurred to government responses to epidemics as a result of the 1918 pandemic. In both of these areas he uses strong research to support his story and not only provides a strong academic review of the impact, both psychological and real, of the pandemic but also a stirring story of tragedy, pain, and fear that arose from the actual people affected by the Spanish flu. In general I found this book to be very engrossing and would definitely recommend it to others.
Crosby, Alfred, America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)
The risk to humans is generally low, however during any outbreak of Avian Flu among poultry, there is always a possible risk to humans who have contact with the infected birds and surfaces contaminated with excretions from the infected fowl (Avian1). The current outbreak of H5N1 among poultry in Asia and Europe is an example of a bird flu outbreak that has caused human infections and death (Avian1). In rare instances, limited human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus has occurred, however transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person (Avian1). Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could mutate and infect humans with a strain that could easily spread from one person to another (Avian1).
Furthermore, according to the CDC, because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human…
Avian1 Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm
Avian Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from World Health Organization Web site: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/avian_faqs/en/index.html#whatis
History1 of the Avian Flue. The Avian Flu Information Site. Retrieved November 01, 2005 at http://www.avian-flu-info.org/history_of_bird_flu.asp
AIDS and Politics in African
Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…
Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003
Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf
Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003
Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
Public Health Emergencies
When it comes to public health, there are two main issues: basic control of general public health concerns, and what takes place during an emergency. The United States and other countries have recently made some changes in how public health emergencies are handled, mostly in response to disasters that have been seen on their home soil or in other areas of the world. A public health emergency can come from a natural disaster, a terrorist act, or in other ways, but being prepared for it is important. It can also be difficult, because it is unpredictable and cannot be accurately planned for in many cases.
esponse to Japan Disasters
Japan has experienced its share of public health emergencies in recent years. The tsunami created a massive issue for a significant number of people (CDC, 2011). Additionally, the nuclear radiation that began leaking added fuel to the fire,…
Brandt, A.M., & Gardner, M. (2000). Antagonism and accommodation: Interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century. American Journal of Public Health, 90(5): 707 -- 715.
CDC responds to earthquake, tsunami and radiation release in Japan (2011). Retrieved November 18, 2012 from: http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2011/03/cdc-responds-to-earthquake-tsunami-and-radiation-release-in-japan/
Christodouleas, J.P., Forrest, R.D., Ainsley, C.G., Tochner, Z., Hahn, S.M.,and Glatste, E. (2011). Short-term and long-term health risks of nuclear-power-plant accidents. New England Journal of Medicine, 10(10), 56. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1103676
DeLia, D., & Wood, E. (2008). The dwindling supply of empty beds: Implications for hospital surge capacity. Health Affairs, 27(6), 1688-94. Retrieved from: ProQuest.
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.
In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).
In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…
Cavendish, M. (2007). Diseases and Disorders (p. 328). Marshall Cavendish.
Groseth, A., Feldmann, H., & Strong, J.E. (2007). The ecology of Ebola virus. Trends in Microbiology, 15(9), 408-416. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.08.001.
Petersen, W. (1995). Outbreak. Warner Bros. Pictures.
Preston, R. (2009). Panic in Level 4 (p. 230). Random House, Inc.
Avian Influenza is a disease that humans are becoming exposed to through contact, either directly or indirectly with infected poultry or fowl. This paper intends to explore the history of the flu as well as what is being done to combat this infectious and deadly disease.
Avian Influenza, also known as Avian flu or "bird flu" is "an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus" according to the World Health Organization. Identified over 100 years ago in Italy it has now spread throughout the entire globe. The immune systems of some bird species are more resistant to this disease than other although it is believed that all species are susceptible to becoming infected with the disease. The flue ranges "from mild illness to a highly contagious and rapidly fatal disease results in severe epidemics."
Facts of the Disease:
The fatal version…
Avian Influenza - Fact Sheet (2004) World Health Organization Web site [Online] available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_01_15/en/
Guidance for Protecting Workers Against Avian Flu
Weekly Epidemiological Record: Avian Influenza Thailand
This tax would also concentrate of taxing large corporations as a result of the fact that they are among the most pollutant communities in the world.
The basic idea is that every individual who pollutes needs to take responsibility for his or her own actions. Also, a large amount of the money raised through taxing pollution would be invested in creating green technologies which would replace pollutant technologies in time. People need to understand that they are not being deprived of particular technologies through the fact that this tax is imposed, as they are actually heading toward a stage where technology is no longer pollutant, regardless of the level of comfort that it generates. Green cars can actually be much better than cars that run on fossil fuels, given that contemporary progress in the technological sector has made it possible for fossil fuels to appear like an obsolete source of…
Victor, David G. "Enforcing International Law: Implications for an Effective Global Warming Regime," Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum 10.1 (1999): 147
Victor, David G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001)
Avoid dangerous spots near a window, hanging objects, mirrors, or merchandise fixtures
If you take cover under a piece of furniture, be sure to hold onto it. If the furniture moves be prepared to move and navigate along with it
Hold the position until the aftershock abates and it's safe to proceed further.
A pandemic or other people disaster has struck, and people resources (employees) have been impacted.
Being located in South Florida, heavy rains will undoubtedly occur. These rains coupled with the high prevalence of winds increases the likelihood of a flood. This problem is further compounded as the hurricane season is south Florida is predicated with high winds and rain. Floods can be troublesome for XYZ personnel as merchandise is damaged, the threat of electrical damage is increased, and the water damage to the facility can be substantial (United States Department of Commerce, 2006). In…
1) Amanda Ripley. "Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare. "Time. August 28, 2006.
2) Burgos, Jr., Nestor P. (11/07/2010). "Iloilo power firms asked to explain brownouts." Philippine Daily Inquireir. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/regions/view/20101107-301974/Iloilo-power-firms-asked-to-explain-brownouts. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
3) Dobson et al. Blackout Mitigation Assessment in Power Transmission Systems. System Sciences 2003. July 20, 2011
4) Petroski, Henry (2006). Levees and Other Raised Ground. 94. American Scientist. pp. 7 -- 18..
Health and Community
Nola Pender states that the most important challenge in modern nursing is the understanding of global health issues. It is not enough to merely be aware of international disease patterns but to utilize western technologies to both inform and help bring about change to these epidemic situations. Several diseases have transcended the original locale to become worldwide issues. Most prevalent of these is the epidemic of HIV which has infected people all over the world. The orld Health Organization (HO) has officially labeled the virus as a "pandemic," meaning that there is no place in the populated world that is not in some way impacted by HIV. The HIV and Aids epidemics are not new information. People have been suffering and dying with this disease for more than twenty years now. However, knowledge of the illness does not mean that people should give up and stop providing…
"Aids" (2009). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2009/JC1700_Epi_Update_2009_en.pdf
Shi, Leiyu (2010). Vulnerable Populations in the United States. John Wiley: San Francisco, CA.
U.S. Handling of Pandemic-Level Mass Fatality Event
A pandemic is classified as an event that takes place across a wide geographic area and has the capacity to affect an exceptionally high percentage of the population. A mass fatality event usually generates numerous casualties to an extent that clinical personnel, emergency services, and referral systems work collaboratively to offer adequate and timely response. The United States has experienced some pandemic-level mass fatality event in its history such as the 1918 pandemic influenza that led to the death of over 650,000 people across the country. Since the Civil War, the United States has not experienced a pandemic-level mass casualty or fatality event. While the 9/11 attacks was a tragedy with far reaching impacts, it was not necessarily a pandemic-level mass fatality event. Actually, the closest the country has come to a mass fatality event is during the flu season, which usually utilizes…
Hopmeier, M.J., Carmona, R. & Noji, E. (2003, May). The Mundane to the Critical: The Need for Transition from Individual Care to Population Health Maintenance. Retrieved April 29, 2016, from http://www.bibalex.org/supercourse/supercoursePPT/11011-12001/11391.ppt
Ohio Department of Health. (2010, February). Pandemic Influenza Mass Fatality Response Guidance. Retrieved from Office of Health and Vital Statistics website: http://ema.ohio.gov/Documents/ODH%20Pandemic%20Influenza%20Mass%20Fatality%20Response%20Guidance%20Plan.pdf
Like much of the other material under review, the only way to control a flu pandemic is to develop more technologically savvy prediction models, more complex warning and communication systems, and globally coordinated response preparation.
Schmidt, C. (2009). Swine CAFOs & Novel H1N1 Flu: Separating Facts from Fears. Environmental Health erspectives. 117 (9): A394-401.
Schmidt writes in a popular science mode and hopes to help the public understand how flu viruses regularly mutate through avian and swine farming sources. The article chronicles the conditions that most swine are subjected, and explains the nature of an antigenic shift in birds and hogs, then to humans. Overall, the situation is complex and multidimensional. The flu pandemic cannot be won on a medical basis only; but requires global economic, political, and even organizational cooperation.
Yang, Y., et.al. (2009). The Transmissibility and Control of andemic Influenza a (H1N1) Virus. Science. 326 (4): 729-33.
Pandemic H1N1 flu has now spread globally and is the dominant flu strain in the Southern Hemisphere. The authors estimate that about 30% of all exposed will manifest the virus, and a typical schoolchild will infect at least 2 others during the initial course of the outbreak. The major point of the article focuses on vaccination strategies, finding that if an appropriate vaccine were available early enough, vaccination of children, older adults, then the regular adult population might prevent a serious outbreak with a 70% vaccine coverage ratio.
Zimmer, S., and Burke, D. (2009). Historical Perspective -- Emergency of Influenza a (H1N1) Viruses. The New England Journal of Medicine. 361 (3): 279-85.
This is a focused historical study of the manner in which the Spanish Flu mutated over decades, becoming less virulent and then mutating more into avian and swine flu. Each mutation is cataloged by year, showing its mutation, method of infection, and overall basic organic makeup. Rather than focusing on solutions, the article is more a chronicle of the events surrounding a virus particularly adapted to humans and our agricultural practices.
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/programs
HIV / AIDS Implication in African Governance
Implications of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
This dissertation paper is a research study that foresees on the governance structure of African nations, in particular, Botswana. The country has had a declining development on the improvements being instigated in government. This has been attributed to ht increasing rates of HIV / AIDS in the country; more so, it has been rated top among nations with the highest rate of HIV / AIDS infection. This paper raises concerns being implicated on in the social and economic aspects of Botswana government structure and Africa in general. The future is also prospected with a close analysis on the disease's trend in the country, and the importance of reducing the rate of infection for the betterment of governance.
Impact of HIV / AIDS on Botswana's Governance
Governance is the act of utilizing institutional resources in…
Adepoju, A., Naerssen, A. L & Zoomers, E.B. 2008. International migration and national development in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: BRILL.
Bell, C., Shantayanan, D & Hans, G. 2003. The long-run economic costs of AIDS: Theory and an application to Southern Africa. Heidelberg: Heidelberg University.
Deacon, H., Stepheny, I & Prosalendis, S. 2005. Understanding HIV / AIDS stigma: a theoretical and methodological analysis. Chicago: HSRC Press.
EPub. 2002. Botswana: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix. New York: International Monetary Fund.
As standard procedure warranted in this case, her obstetrician injected her with varicella zoster specific immunoglobulin. The injection did occur too late, but this is a special case warranting attention and was a prophylactic to protect the baby. A few days later the N developed chickenpox anyway. The reasons why the vaccine did not take could have been the fact that the N had already been exposed, and the situation is referred to as "breakthrough varicella," (National Centre for Immunisation, 2009, p. 3). Breakthrough varicella is a mild form of the infection, and yet is still contagious. Varicella vaccine should not be given to the baby until it is twelve months of age, but it may not be necessary at all due to the potential in vitro exposure to the varicella zoster virus. Infants "should receive no specific treatment or vaccination after exposure to Varicella zoster virus (VZV) but…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Preventing varicella in health care settings. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/chickenpox/hcp/healthcare-setting.html
Cheprasov, A. (2014). The spread of disease. Retrieved online: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-spread-of-disease-endemic-epidemic-pandemic.html#lesson
Children, Youth, and Women's Health Service (n.d.). Chickenpox. Retrieved online: http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Diseases/Communicable/Virus/HP8873_chickenpox.pdf
"Descriptive Epidemiology," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.med.uottawa.ca/SIM/data/Epidemiology_rates_e.htm
She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.
The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.
It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…
Barroni & Lemer, (1993). Temporarily Detained: Tuberculous Alcoholics in Seattle: 1949
through 1960. Public Health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 86 No. 2. http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/257.pdf
Elizabeth & Daniel M., (1988). AIDS: The Burdens of History. PP 151-152. London: University
of California Press Ltd. retrieved on May 17, 2010 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=z6NTN5uYOEAC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=the+most+concerted+attack+on+civil+liberties+in+the+name+of+public+health+in+American+history.%22&source=bl&ots=ex3b2rbZNW&sig=A0oWLrxni6iipuMdeUwT5jiCzEI&hl=en&ei=jvXyS6jkJZGnsAazg8HrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=the%20most%20concerted%20attack%20on%20civil%20liberties%20in%20the%20name%20of%20public%20health%20in%20American%20history.%22&f=false
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…
Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.
Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.
Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
Human Resources planning and strategy will be 'key' in enabling the organization to deal with pandemic situations. This leads to another primary challenge that the health care industry faces which is the shortage of nursing staff in today's health care organizations and institutions. Nursing staff in the healthcare industry re under great stresses on staffing due to an inadequate supply of individuals pursuing their nursing degree with an."..unprecedented demand for nursing services" however, colleges and universities as well as health care institutions have failed to develop effective workforce supply. The work of leich and Hewlett (2004) entitled: "Dissipating the Perfect Storm - Responses from Nursing and the Health Care Industry to Protect the Public's Health" published by the Journal of Issues in Nursing states: "In spite of the progress in nurse recruitment, the prognosis for balancing supply with demand is still precarious, at best. Sadly, AACN (2003a) reports that more…
Bleich, Michael R. And Hewlett, Peggy O. (2004) Dissipating the Perfect Storm - Reponses to Nursing and the Health Care Industry to Protect the Public's Health. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 9 No.2, May 2004. Online available at http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume92004/No2May04/DissipatingthePerfectStorm.aspx
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Career Guide to Industries, 2008-09 Edition, Health Care, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs035.htm (visited March 11, 2008).
Business Continuity Planning for the Global Healthcare Industry (2007) International Federal of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations. Jan 2007 IFPMA.
A group of researchers write, "To effectively respond to this pandemic, HIV / AIDS must be treated as both an emergency and a long-term developmental issue" (Da Cruz, Da Cruz & Hammers, 2007). First, additional research must be developed to help find an ultimate cure for this disease. This would be the ultimate form of control and eradication, and would eliminate this social problem from the world.
However, this research is costly and takes time. Simply developing drugs that help combat the disease effectively has taken decades, and there is still no cure or preventative for AIDS, other than abstinence. There is an office of AIDS research in the Federal Government that coordinates research and development activities, and there is research under way to help develop an AIDS vaccine to prevent the disease. esearch should be heavily funded, and if federal funds are not available, they should be sought through…
Da Cruz, J.D., Da Cruz, B.K., & Hammers, C. (2007). HIV / AIDS: The pandemic hits the 'sleeping giant'. International Social Science Review, 82(1-2), 55+.
Editors. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the AIDS.gov Web site: http://www.aids.gov/ .
Editors. (2007). Basic information: AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the CDC.gov Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/#origin
However, their theories, like the catastrophic predictions, lack real, hard, personal evidence. They may be right - but what if they are wrong and civilization does nothing to combat global warming and the other issues facing the Earth?
In conclusion, it seems that many of the people who are so convinced the Earth will survive on its own are ignoring many of the facts. The Earth's survival has depended on regeneration and re-growth in the past, and many species have been eliminated in global events of the past (think of the dinosaurs). During these historic events, man was a blip on the global landscape, or did not exist at all. Today, billions of humans populate the planet and pollute it in a wide variety of ways. The Earth has been able to survive natural events in the past because it was naturally able to regenerate. Today, man has altered the…
Bailey, R. Two sides to global warming: Is it proven fact, or just conventional wisdom? 20 Nov. 2004.
BBCNews. Pollution hot spots. 2004
Blackmore, S. Our civilisation will survive the coming climate catastrophe.
Borenstein, S. UN report says climate change man-made. Associated Press; 2 Feb. 2007
ADS in South Africa
Those of us living in the United States became used to the face of ADS a generation ago. We learned to recognize the particular gauntness that characterized those who had been struck by it, and who would soon be taken away by it. And then, after years of people dying from this disease, we learned that people who had this terrible disease could be healed; not cured, for they still contained the viruses within their bodies, but they could live lives that were happy and meaningful - and long. The terror of ADS subsided, becoming one of only many of the perils of modern life rather than one of the predominant ones.
But the trajectory of ADS in South Africa (as well as in other parts of the developing world, has been very different. Even in the first years of the disease the manifestations of it…
In already unstable societies, this cocktail of disasters is a sure recipe for more conflict. And conflict, in turn, provides fertile ground for further infections (http://www.nkosi.iafrica.com/aids_sa/).
AIDS is both the enemy in South Africa and a potential aid to other enemies. One of the reasons that AIDS has been successfully fought in the United States and Europe is the wealth of these nations; this has certainly been their primary advantage. But they have also benefited in the fight against AIDS from a high degree of social stability; public health measures can only be effective when used in a stable society.
One of the terrible ironies of AIDS in South Africa is that the nation does not have strong enough social structures to allow (at least so far) for the necessary public health measures to be taken. And as AIDS takes a greater and greater toll, the necessary social structures will only become weaker and weaker.
Threats due to weather include floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes and blizzards. Planning for weather events should be very realistic in nature. Major weather events usually occur in 25, 50 and 100-year cycles. Disease outbreaks are also a big threat. A potential flu pandemic could be detrimental to many businesses. For example, the bird flu pandemic scenarios that are floating around are being modeled on the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. That global outbreak killed 500,000 people in the United States and more than 20 million people worldwide. Since that time there have been two other smaller scale flu pandemics, each that killed hundreds of thousands of people. The flu is just one disease that can cause a business disaster situation around the world (Business Continuity during a Disaster, 2008).
ecent years have also shown that terrorism threats are a real possibility that needs to be considered. Terrorism is a great…
Aceh Post-Tsunami Reconstruction: Lessons Learned Two Years on. (2006). Retrieved
September 22, 2009, from the World Bank Web site:
Amato-McCoy, Deena M. (2006). Planning for Continuity. Retrieved September 23, 2009, from Bank Systems and Technology Web site:
National Preparedness (PPD-8) examines how the nation should approach preparing for threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk to U.S. security. It is the view of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that "national preparedness is the shared responsibility of our whole community. Ever member contributes, including individuals, communities, the private and nonprofit sectors, faith-based organizations, and Federal, state, and local governments" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). Therefore, the Department of Homeland Security feels that increasing preparedness across all sectors, public and private, better enables the entire society to deal with potential disasters. Moreover, one of the Department's goals is to increase resiliency; they are aware that not all disasters can be avoided, but want to make sure the country is well-prepared to weather a disaster.
One of the recurring issues with homeland security-geared legislation is that it is seen by many as being somewhat overbroad and unconstitutional.…
Clovis, S. (2006). Federalism, homeland security and national preparedness: A case study in the development of public policy. Homeland Security Affairs, 2(3), Article 4. Retrieved from: http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=2.3.4
Clovis, S. (2008). Promises unfulfilled: The sub-optimization of homeland security national preparedness. Homeland Security Affairs, 4(3), Article 3. Retrieved from: http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=4.3.3
Hardenbrook, B.J. (2005). The need for a policy framework to develop disaster resilient regions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 2(3), Article 2. doi: 10.2202/1547-7355.1133
Tierney, K. (2007). Recent developments in U.S. homeland security policies and their implications for the management of extreme events. Handbook of Disaster Research, 405-412.
Native Societies and Disease
Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…
Hackett, Paul. "A Very Remarkable Sickness": Epidemics in the Petit Nord, 1670 to 1846. (University of Manitoba Press, 2002).
Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Revisited (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985).
Warrick, Garry A., "European Infections, Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionotate (Huron-Petun)" in Jordan F. Kerber (ed) Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources (Syracuse University Press, 2007), pp. 269-86.
Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (Yale University Press, 1997).
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
Inspiration Towards Choosing Medicine and Becoming a Physician
In the year 2014, the month of February the world woke to a shocking revelation of an outbreak of Ebola in parts of Africa, West Africa in particular. The WHO confirmed t he pandemic and wooed the world, governments, nations and individuals to helping putting together help of whatever form towards helping this part of the world from the pandemic. The news literally took over the news headlines, the blogs online, the websites and all tabloids and even radio were all a buzz with the sad news of the Ebola outbreak. The speed at which is spread at the devastating effects were of apocalyptic proportions.
The CDC activated the Emergency Operations Center meant to directly deal with the Ebola catastrophe, this center was specifically meant to coordinate the technical assistance and control the activities with other agencies of the US government, the…
CDC, (2016). 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Retrieved May 18, 2017 from https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/
Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).
The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…
Zika, that was identified accidentally in Uganda in 1947 in the midst of insect and primate monitoring, had so far stayed as a hidden virus limited to a slim equatorial belt functioning along Africa and running into Parts of Asia. Not much is known with regards to ZIKV’s release in the US. Phylogenetic studies suggest that the virus originated with the French Polynesian ZIKV force came into Brazil around May and Dec of 2013.
The unparalleled dimension and impact from the ZIKV pandemic within the Americas could be the all-natural consequence of a unique release right into a big populace without having preexisting immune system; Much like the Americas, the communities of Yap Tropical island and French. The seriousness of results in latest breakouts, in comparison with previous findings of moderate illness, has directed a few to hypothesize that this virus seems to have mutated to become much more…
Section 1 – Typical Case
Research the characteristics of a typical case associated with the pathogen you have chosen to analyze.
Coronaviruses represent a family of single-stranded, enveloped, positive-strand, Nidovirales RNA viruses. The family encompasses human pathogens and pathogens of several animal species, such as the latest-isolated SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) (Weiss & Navas-Martin, 2005). COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 surfaced for the first time towards the end of 2019 and, ever since, has affected over two-hundred nations. In a matter of a mere five months, over 4,890,000 individuals worldwide were diagnosed with the illness. Over 100,000 individuals tested positive for the disease within a single day (Yang, Li, Sun, Zhao, & Tang, 2019).
The first patient to contract the disease was a Chinese man aged 31 years, hailing from Wuhan, hospitalized at the Parisian Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital while on holiday in Paris, France, with his wife.…
Asrani, P., Eapen, M., Chia, C., Haug, G., Weber, H., & Hassan, I. (2020). Diagnostic approaches in COVID-19: clinical updates. Taylor and Francis Online.
Clark, A., Jit, M., Warren-Gash, C., Guthrie, B., Wang, H., & Mercer, S. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modeling study. The Lancet, E1003-E1017.
ECDPC. (2020, August). Clinical characteristics of COVID-19. Retrieved from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/latest-evidence/clinical
Kumar, S., Nyodu, R., Maurya, V., & Saxena, S. (2020). Morphology, Genome Organization, Replication, and Pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). National Center for Biotechnology Information, 23-31.
Ouassou, H., Kharchoufa, L., Bouhrim, M., Daoudi, N., Imtara, H., Bencheikh, N., . . . Bnouham, M. (2020). The Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evaluation and Prevention. Journal of Immunology Research.
Rosenthal, M. (2020). Why Are Bats the Perfect Coronavirus Reservoir? Infectious Disease Special Edition.
Weiss, S., & Navas-Martin, S. (2005). Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.
WHO. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization.
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH).
The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…
American Society for Microbiology and (Corporate Author) Patrick R. Murray. (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Manual of Clinical Microbiology). 8th ed. American Society Microbiology.
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Flu.Gov. (2009). Vaccination. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.flu.gov/individualfamily/vaccination/index.html .
ODH. (2009). Ohio.Gov. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Department of Health web site at http://www.odh.ohio.gov/landing/phs_emergency/swineflu.aspx .
However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN-? And TNF-? levels correlated with reduction in ss cell apoptosis. [Yang et.al, 2003] Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis. [Lipsett et.al, (2007)]
A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to…
1) George S. Eisenbarth, (2007) 'Update in Type 1 Diabetes', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No.7. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/2403
2) McGill University, 'Deficient Regulators in the Immune System Responsible for Type 1 Diabetes', Updated 25 Jan 2008, Available at, http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/article.php?q=08012539
3) Kent SC, Chen Y, & Bregoli L. et.al (2005) 'Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope'. Nature 435:224 -- 228
4) Mathieu C, Gysemans C. et.al (Jul 2005), 'Vitamin D and Diabetes', Diabetologia. 48(7):1247-57
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…
Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.
Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).
Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Prevention and Control of the Flu
The flu is a serious illness but one of its great advantages is that a vaccine does exist to contain its spread and prevent or at least mitigate its symptoms. The flu is a virus and available antiviral medications like Tamiflu are not as effective as treating, for example, a bacterial infection with an antibiotic. The most effective method of treating the flu is to not get it at all -- which is why vaccination is so essential. However, even flu vaccinations are not particularly effective on a seasonal basis: "A flu virus mutates at an exceptionally high rate as it reproduces, and some mutations will change the tips of the surface proteins. The antibodies cannot grab tightly to the altered tips, so the virus is able to proceed with its invasion. From one flu season to the next, the evolution of the flu…
Mwangi, T. Bethony. J. & Brooker, S. (2006). Malaria and helminth interactions in humans: an epidemiological viewpoint. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100(7): 551-570. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858631/
Zimmer, C. (2013). The quest to end the flu. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:
Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and can promote public health worldwide. However, new strains of existing diseases like influenza and potent viruses like HIV continue to plague researchers. Of the various epidemics and pandemics currently facing the international community, all are concerns but it is possible that influenza will become the gravest threat to humanity because of its continual mutations and changes.
The international research community needs to respond to influenza by more aggressive programs in vaccine development, designing new vaccines using methods like those described by Berkeley in his Ted talk. Every few years, a new type of infectious disease becomes a pandemic, according to Berkeley, and this means that the research community around the world must work tirelessly to target new expressions of the same…
Berkeley, Seth. "HIV and Flu: The Vaccine Strategy." TED Talks. Retrieved online: https://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy?language=en#t-35482
Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
Description of HIV; the causes, symptoms, complications, mode of transmission and treatment
HIV is a condition that manifests in the virus attacking the immune system of the victim. When the immune system is weakened, the body does not effectively fight off diseases. The combination of the infection plus the virus that triggers it is referred to as HIV. The immune system heavily relies on the presence of white blood cells to carry out the defence activities. The HIV virus targets and destroys a type of white blood cells referred to as CD4 cells. If the virus destroys a significant number of these cells, the body begins to fail to fight infections. The final stage of infection by HIV is called AIDS. AIDS is an abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS suffer ailments that are not commonly experienced by healthy people. They may acquire rare cancers and…
CATIE. (2016). The Social Determinants of Health and Structural Interventions. Retrieved from Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information: http://www.catie.ca/en/hiv-canada/introduction
Hariri, S., & McKenna, M. T. (2007). Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. Clin Microbiol Rev, 20(3), 478 -- 488.
MDH. (2001, March). Public Health Interventions - Applications for Public Health Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Minnesota Department of Health Division of Community Health Services Public Health Nursing Section: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf
Morison, L. (2001). The global epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Br Med Bull, 58(1), 7-18.
I believe my background and extensive business acumen, make me an ideal candidate for admission into your PhD program. As an international student, I believe that I also possess a unique approach to healthcare that differentiates me from other applicants to the program. The combination of a strong business background, unique skillset, and a passion for health will drive my continued success in the program. I will also help facilitate the growth of other members in my cohort through my diverse background from the Middle East.
To begin, I have a very strong track record of working together with others to derive mutually beneficial results within the healthcare industry. I have experience building entirely new healthcare departments, which requires vision, foresight, and strong communication skills. Through my leadership, I have also developed healthcare infrastructure programs design to provide aid to the poor and less fortunate. Here, I was able to…
Coordinating community-wide efforts with representatives and respected leaders from each of the constituent sub-communities and populations will ensure the development of effective strategies.
Specifically, each sub-community needs to be apprised of the likelihood and risks of various types of events, including natural disasters and different terrorist attacks. Care must be taken not to cause undue alarm, but also to provide realistic and relevant information that objectively and directly assesses the situation. Providing such information without causing unnecessary fear is a delicate process even when one is familiar with the culture one is dealing with, and it is near impossible if the culture is foreign to the preparer. This is why coordination with community leaders is essential in the planning and education phases of emergency and disaster preparedness; no emergency management team could hope to develop the proper materials and information without consultation.
Coming to an understanding of the cultural and…
Eisenman et al. (2009); Schnirring (2008); National Resource Center (2009); American Red Cross (2004)
National Resource Center (2009), pp. 4-5.
James et al. (2007).
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate secto, ensuing that a gowing majoity of people, especially in the ichest counties, and paticulaly in the United States, must pay -- often consideably -- fo health cae. Finally, gowing inteest in cosmetic sugey, involving such elective pocedues as hinoplasty, liposuction, beast enhancement o eduction, LASIK eye sugey and so on, o moe simply the emoval of tattoos, have ceated new demands. Vaious foms of dental sugey, especially cosmetic dental sugey, ae not coveed by insuance in counties like the UK and Austalia; hence dental touism has become paticulaly common. In Asia these tends ae 'the unlikely child of new global ealities: the fallout of teoism, the Asian economic downtun, intenet access to pice infomation, and the globalisation of health sevices'…
references because the family vetoes it, in part because they were never made known. For a grieving and bereft family, a request for organ donation is difficult to agree to because they can only guess at the wishes of the deceased and if there were any doubt at all, would not the natural answer be a rejection? If relatives had severe objections, they should be taken into account for to do otherwise raises the spectre of the swastika, but the point remains that by changing the default position of organ donation it is a veto clearly against the deceased's wishes, which would be rather more unlikely to take place than the current veto due to a simple lack of information. It is not that the PC system is ethically unsound (Hatfield and Walker 1998).
It can be argued that presumed consent is superior to the opt-in system because it truly ensures autonomy by giving effect to choices each person makes. It gives legal effect to individual autonomy and it ensures truly informed consent when accompanied by public education and information, instead of intuitive responses to organ donation. But one has to question how comfortable the deceased family will be when they come to realise that their relatives' kidney is being placed into someone who is HIV positive. This is likely to be an ethical and morale matter rather than a discriminatory one (Williams, 1999).
Nonetheless, some problems with presumed consent have been pointed out. Patient autonomy lies at the very heart of modern medicine and medical research. This is partly a reaction against medical paternalism and an increasing awareness of the integrity of the individual. It may be argued that a presumed consent (PC) system is paternalistic - but it concomitantly reinforces individual autonomy and preserves the dignity and integrity of the individual especially in comparison to, for example, an organs market. (Brooks).
McLean points out that underpinning the system of organ donation is the fundamental view that organ transplantation should be a gift relationship and should not be based on the type of disease a person has. This underlines that HIV sufferers are just as entitled to a kidney transplant as those who are looking for a heart transplant. John Morris doubts that proposals to change legislation to allow presumed consent to be introduced are likely to be publicly accepted. However, why is presumed consent any less a gift? It does not mean widespread harvesting of major organs. It means greater public awareness and individual choice that is made concrete.
In today's modern, the reality is that HIV / AIDS is at a crossroads where the economic and political niches of the contemporary modern condition provide both the possibility to raise scientific research in order to create a means of effective pandemic or the new religion of globalize capital may only serve as to extend HIV / AIDS to become the biggest social issue of all history. There is a huge issue with regards to donor transplantation and especially kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, some patients with Human Immunodeficiency Disease are denied equal access to kidney transplantation and the same priorities of other people who are suffering from other serious diseases. Therefore, in this research, evidence will be provided to proof HIV patients have the same rights as others to get a kidney transplant regardless if they appear completely diseased.
End Poverty in 30 Years?
Ending extreme poverty seems as if it should be relatively easy. There is a tremendous amount of wealth in the world, and, even with the growing world population, redistributing only a small portion of the world's total wealth would result in the eradication of extreme poverty. However, history has repeatedly shown that people, regardless of religious affiliation or social orientation are not willing to simply allow for resource redistribution. Communist ideals have remained just that, ideals, as people have routinely used power positions to ensure wealth concentration, which has meant that prior attempts to forcefully redistribute wealth have been unsuccessful. Furthermore, while some people with wealth would be willing to give up some portion of their wealth in order to eradicate poverty, the reality is that charities are notoriously inefficient at asset relocation. Charities are fantastic for solving short-term problems, but poverty is a life-long…
Interestingly enough, one of the themes in the post-modernism period of American history has been the reexamination of the "real America," particularly the moral, ethical and sexual changes that have evolved since the turn of the century. This has not been a new theme, nor has it been relegated to non-fiction. At the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists were expanding the role fiction took by examining high and low life in society. Edith harton, for instance, found tremendous hypocrisy within the ranks of the Eastern elite in terms of morality and sexuality and in Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser portrayed a country girl who moved to the big city of Chicago to become a "kept woman," relinquishing her American morals for the pleasures of the flesh. Similarly, even in the stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway there are notions and reexaminations of…
Bales, R. (2001). Social Interaction Systmes: Theory and Measurment. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Berthrong, J. (2004). Love, Lust and Sex- A Christian Perspective. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 24(2), 3-22.
Gosine, M. (2010). Whatever Happened to the Real America. Boston: Pearson.
Smith, J. (1996, March). The Christian View of Sex: A Time for Apologetics, not Apologies. Retrieved July 2011, from Cathlic Education Research Center: http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0004.html
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…
Corbin, Charles B., and Lindsay, Ruth, "Fitness For Life," (Human Kinetics, 01.06.2006)
Evans, Lisa, "Obesity in England: why is it increasing?," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Guardian Website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/feb/23/obesity-problem-increasing
Genuis, Stephen J., and Genuis Shelagh K., "Managing the sexually transmitted disease pandemic: A time for reevaluation," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2004) 191, 1103-12
"Half of UK obese by 2030'," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the NHS Website: http://www.nhs.uk/news/2011/08August/Pages/half-of-uk-predicted-to-be-obese-by-2030.aspx
U.S. Military Institute Quarantine?
Law and Policy:
Can the U.S. Military Institute Quarantine Without Legal Issues?
Instituting a quarantine of large numbers of people within the United States would be complicated and difficult, but is it legal? More clearly, is it legal for the military to do such a thing without any kind of legislative or legal issue. If it is legal for the military to do this, there must be various requirements that have to be met in order to ensure that issues are handled properly. If it is not legal for the military to undertake such action, why not? And is there legislation being considered that would make this type of action legal? The question comes about in light of recent issues with the H1N1 "swine flu" scare, where many people thought the U.S. was going to be overtaken by this new strain of flu that would kill…
18 U.S.C. § 1385 - Use of Army and Air Force as Posse Comitatus
Ahrcanum. (2009). H1N1 swine flu quarantine legal in USA. Retrieved from http://ahrcanum.wordpress.com/2009/09/28/h1n1-swine-flu-quarantine-usa/
Hendell, G.B. (2011). Domestic use of the armed forces to maintain law and order -- posse comitatus pitfalls at the inauguration of the 44th president" Publius (2011) 41(2): 336-348
Lindorff, D. (1988). Could It Happen Here? Mother Jones Magazine.
Unintended Limitations on Ada Protections
The American with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) was designed to prevent discrimination in terms of employment (Title I), telecommunications (Title IV), and public services (Title II), transportation (Title II), and accommodations (Title III), for persons with physical and/or mental disabilities (EEOC, n.d.; Disabled World, 2009). Employers and public establishments are required under the ADA to make accommodations for persons with disabilities, unless it imposes an undue hardship. To ensure compliance, a large number of different federal agencies act as enforcers of the ADA provisions.
The ADA defines a disabled person as anyone who is prevented from engaging in a major life activity, either currently or historically, or is perceived by others as being limited in this way. The latter criteria was intended to be one of three primary routes for bringing a discrimination suit to court, resulting in the 'regarded as' disabled…
American Diabetes Association. (2012). Diabetes basics: Symptoms. Diabetes.org. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/symptoms/?loc=DropDownDB-symptoms .
Brown University. (n.d.). Major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR #296.2-296.3). Brown.edu. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI_278/Other/Clerkship/Didactics/Readings/major%20depression.pdf .
Disability Rights California. (2010). Employment rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act (and other related laws) (4th ed.). DisabilityRightsCA.org. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from http://www.disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/506801.pdf .
Disabled World. (2009). Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). Disabled-World.com. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2012 from http://www.disabled-world.com/disability/ada/.
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health