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However, more serious side-effects may occur as a result of taking Zoloft. One of the greatest risks with Sertraline HCl is the tendency for some patients, especially those under the age of 18, to develop suicidal thoughts during the first few weeks of taking the drug. Other potentially serious side-effects include seizures, convulsions, hallucinations, tremors, balance or coordination problems, and allergic reactions.
Zoloft and other Sertraline hydrochloride compounds are contraindicated with MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) and patients taking MAOIs must cease their MAOI medication no less than 14 days before taking Zoloft. Similarly, patients who are prescribed MAOIs must wait at least two weeks after terminating their use of Zoloft. Other contraindicated medications include pimozide. Patients with a history of renal (kidney) or hepatic (liver) problems must use caution when taking Zoloft. Moreover, patients with a history of mania or bipolar disorder may not be candidates for Sartraline treatment. Pregnancy and…
Long, P. (2005). Sertraline. Internet Mental Health. Retrieved online Sept 20, 2006 at http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-z02.html
Sertraline." Wikipedia. Retrieved online Sept 20, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sertraline
Treatment for Depression and Anxiety." Zoloft.com. Retrieved Sept 20, 2006 at http://www.zoloft.com/zoloft/zoloft.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=default_home
Zoloft." (2006). Micromedex Physician's Desk Reference. Retrieved online Sept 20, 2006 at http://www.drugs.com/zoloft.html
artleby, The Scrivener
In many ways, "artleby, the Scrivener" is a rather strange and enigmatic story. It does not follow a natural line, it is more of a character-based story, full of the strangest characters. However, if we will take a closer look at it, we may be able to discover the hidden meanings that Herman Melville has laid out for us. From the very beginning we must identify what a scrivener is, as this story revolves around their lives and habits. Thus, a scrivener is an old use for a clerk and is a person who used to write letters for illiterate people. In our context, we can identify a scrivener as being a person that copied and drafted documents in a law office.
The story starts with the short description, in the first person, of the main character, the I of the storytelling, a simple lawyer on Wall…
1. Mollinger, Robert N. "Bartleby the Scrivener- A Story of Wall Street."
2. Hornby, A.S., Gatenby, E.V., Wakefield, H. The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Second Edition. 1972.
Module 2 Class Discussion
1. There are several issues with pegging a currency. Largely they relate to the economic distortion this creates – Chinese good are cheaper than they should be in America and American goods are more expensive than they should be in China. This results in higher employment in China, higher GDP, but also much higher inflation. In the US, inflation is held low but employment and GDP growth are suppressed (Lee, 2017).
2. Liability isn't the same thing as risk. Liability is a form of risk, so I'm not 100% what the question is asking. Yes, pharmaceutical companies are likely to face a substantial amount of liability. Liability risk arises when a company sells anything that is ingested into the body, and pharmaceuticals can be especially powerful. They are a product that, despite being tightly regulated, often has tremendous potential to harm its users, and that alone…
Fame, E. & French, K. (1989) Business conditions and expected returns on stocks and bonds. Journal of Financial Economics. Vol. 25 (1989) 23-49.
Lee, R. (2017) The pros and cons of a pegged exchange rate. Investopedia. Retrieved August 5, 2017 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex/08/pegged-vs-floating-currencies.asp
MSN Moneycentral (2017) General Electric. MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved August 5, 2017 from http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails?symbol=GE&ocid=qbeb
MSN Moneycentral (2017) Target. MSN Moneycentral . Retrieved August 5, 2017 from http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails?symbol=TGT&ocid=qbeb
Also cited as threats are those of:
(1) Product manufacturing and marketing risks;
(2) Cost and expense control or unusual events; and (3) Changes in laws and accounting standards. (Pfizer Inc. Report to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, 2008)
IV. Internal Environment -- Strength and Weaknesses
Stated as strengths of Pfizer Inc. are the following components of its organization:
(1) Written policies and procedures;
(2) a compliance officer and compliance committee;
(3) Effective training and education;
(4) Effective lines of communication;
(5) Internal monitoring and auditing;
(6) Enforcement through discipline pursuant to established guidelines; and (7) Prompt response and corrective action for detected problems.
(Pfizer, Inc., 2009)
Another component that provides strength to Pfizer Inc. is its effective training and education program. As well Pfizer boasts effective lines of communication including an 'open door' policy allowing and encouraging colleagues to "discuss any issues, concerns, problems and suggestions with…
Pfizer Inc. (2009) Center for Responsive Politics. Online available at: http://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D
Pfizer Streamlines Operational Processes to Achieve Balanced Excellence (2004) Tradeline 29 Sept 2004. Online available at; http://www.tradelineinc.com/reports/40CF58BA-2B3B-B525-80444AE6588980A1
Corporate Governance FactSheet (2009) Pfizer Inc. Online available at: http://www.pfizer.com /about/corporate_governance/corporate_governance_fact_sheet.jsp
Pfizer's Infectious Disease Commitment and Portfolio (2007) Pfizer, Inc. 18 Sept 2007. Online available at:
Pfizer Inc. - Good Buy in Pharmaceutical Stock?
Pfizer Inc., is a giant in the Pharmaceutical Sector. It is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under ticker symbol PFE. Its principle activities include the research and manufacturing of prescription medicines for human and veterinary applications on a global scale. Their products carry such familiar names as Zoloft, Lipitor, Norvasc, Zithromax, Zyrtec, and the household name, Viagra. They also have a line of consumer products such as confectionery products, shaving products, and tetra fish products (www.bigcharts.com,2003). Pharmaceuticals account for the largest portion of their revenues, averaging 84%, while consumer products make up the remainder of their income stream.
Pfizer stock has been on a downtrend since mid year 2001. This came after a boom in the biotechnology sector, a sector closely related to the pharmaceutical sector. The key question that an investor must answer is whether this means that Pfizer…
Bigcharts.com. (2003) Profile. Http://www.bigcharts.com . Accessed February 14, 2003.
Pfizer, Inc. (2003a) For Investors. http://www.pfizer.com /are/mn_investors.cfm Accessed February 14, 2003.
Pfizer, Inc. (2003b) For Investors. SEC Filings.
Pfizer's Batch Process Design Model
Pfizer is a global pharmaceutical manufacturer heavily invested in drug discovery (Pfizer, 2013a). Accordingly, the supply chain needs of Pfizer are atypical of most manufacturers because a significant portion of its production activities must be tailored to meet the needs of researchers investigating the efficacy of drugs in clinical trials. The needs of the research and development arm of Pfizer therefore dominate the process development structure of the company.
Pfizer is in the business of supplying drugs for human and animal consumption; however, before a drug candidate can be brought to market it must win regulatory approval through clinical trials (Pfizer, 2013b). Drugs must therefore be manufactured initially in small batches and then scaled up as it progresses through the three phases of clinical trials. These drugs can represent small molecules manufactured from chemicals, biological derived from plants or animals, or vaccines. Many of these…
Pfizer. (2013a). Worldwide Research and Development. Pfizer.com. Retrieved 16 Aug. 2013 from http://www.pfizer.com /partnering/areas_of_interest/research_and_development.
Pfizer. (2013b). Pfizer pipeline -- Our medicines in development. Pfizer.com. Retrieved 16 Aug. 2013 from
The other considerations weight more heavily. There are likely some cost savings due to economies of scale, although that would be difficult to test for in a product such as Viagra, which has enjoyed strong sales its entire existence, and for which specific production cost data is unavailable.
ith respect to Viagra, Pfizer is operating in a constant returns to scale environment. The market for Viagra has been slow growing in recent years, and at a high level. The changes in demand for Viagra are of such small size that they are unlikely to have a significant impact on production costs. The primary impact of economies of scale is with respect to the manner in which drug companies exploit the high margins they can earn on blockbuster drugs to finance their operations. Even with this, the contribution that these drugs make is based less on the ability of the company…
Goldstein, J. (2010). Pfizer plans to cut billions in annual R&D spending. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 17, 2010 from http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2010/02/03/pfizer-plans-to-cut-billions-in-annual-rd-spending/
Outsourcing Pharma. (2003). Drug development costs hit $1.7 billion. Outsourcing Pharma. Retrieved November 17, 2010 from http://www.outsourcing-pharma.com/Preclinical-Research/Drug-development-costs-hit-1.7-billion
Pfizer Financial Report 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2010 from http://media.pfizer.com/files/annualreport/2009/financial/financial2009.pdf
The return on assets was 7.3% last year, up slightly from 7.1% the year before. Again, the metric has fluctuated and 7.3% is in the middle.
These figures indicate that Pfizer's returns are about average. Aside from an unusually good year in 2007 with respect to their returns, the company is rangebound in terms of its managerial efficiency. Recapturing the 2007 successes would be more encouraging but at present there is little to indicate a long-term trend of improved returns on either equity or assets.
Pfizer's performance in the past five years has been uninspiring. The firm has been relatively stationery, especially with respect to revenues. Their business seems to be maturing as well, supported by the fact that the company has steadily increased its dividend. Indeed, without top line growth to attract investors, Pfizer has little choice but to increase the dividend in order to stem the sale…
Some financials from MSN Moneycentral. (2009). Retrieved November 20, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/invsub/results/statemnt.aspx?Symbol=PFE&lstStatement=Income&stmtView=Ann
According to the Pfizer press release section of its website, discomfort associated with fibromyaglia, a common chronic pain condition, has been shown to be significantly reduced by a new drug developed by Pfizer called Lyrica, "according to study results presented today at the American Academy of Neurology annual meeting" ("Lyrica Significantly Reduced Pain," 2007, Press Release). Pfizer has also developed a new AIDS drug called Maraviroc, which is likely to considerably improve and extend the life of AIDS patients who take the drug, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburg and Columbia University (Altman & Pollock, 2007).
Both Merck and Schering-Plough, two of Pfizer's greatest rivals, plan to combine forces and develop a medicine to rival Lipitor. "The planned drug, meant to reduce levels of the harmful type of cholesterol in two ways, could hit the market when Lipitor's patent expires in a few years" ("Merck and…
Altman, Lawrence & Andrew Pollock. (28 Feb 2007). "2 New Drugs Offer Options in H.I.V. Fight." The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/28/health/28hiv.html?ei=5070&en=c009b27fab6d02ae&ex=1179460800&pagewanted=print
Berenson, Alex. (10 Apr 2007). "Pfizer Drug for Diabetes Is Lagging." The New York
Times. Retrieved 16 May 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/10/business/10drug.html?ei=5070&en=24b0845a8ddbc0d1&ex=1179460800&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1179352594-6dgJ3Hydh0yYFcYeNY+5Fg&pagewanted=print
Lyrica Significantly Reduced Pain and Helped Patients Manage the Symptoms of Fibromyalgia, Data Show. (1 May 2007). Pfizer Press Release. Retrieved 16 May 2007 at http://www.pfizer.com
hile it will be important to reach out to ranchers and get them excited about premium, branded beef, it is equally important to reach out to the meatpackers. As was mentioned, four meatpackers have a monopoly control over the market. If they don't want premium beef, it won't matter what the ranchers do. The program could yield many benefits for Pfizer, and the beef market as a whole, but perhaps the first communications on the program should be with the meatpackers.
Cost pressures in the beef industry are threatening Pfizer's ability to sell premium medicinal products to the cattle market. Sales of these premium pharmaceuticals allow Pfizer to aggressively offer new and innovative products and to support the ranching industry through trade events and technical support. Pfizer needs to preserve its pricing and sales levels in order to maintain its market advantages.
The best way for Pfizer to…
Cravens, David W. And Piercy, Nigel F. (2003). Strategic Marketing. McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston.
Pfizer can be included in the larger industrial sector of biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, although a great part of its revenues come from the pharmaceutical products for which it is renowned. The pharmaceutical companies have specialized in a vast category of drugs, from simple, aspirin- type drugs, to more complex ones, including drugs that inhibit or activate individual molecules in different selected environments. They also produce vitamins and livestock food supplements.
The pharmaceutical industry in the United States (and worldwide for that matter) is considered to be one of the most profitable and continuously booming. It is estimated that globally, over $300 billion worth of drugs are sold. A simple explanation for this high degree of profitability is, of course, the high demand of the sector: no matter what happens, drugs and medicine continue to be one of the necessities of people. Additionally, this demand seems to be on a constant…
Merck's profit margin was 13.6%, while Pfizer scored 34.8%, almost three times as much! This means either that Pfizer is selling at higher prices than Merck (it may be the case that Pfizer provides more specialized drugs that sell at a higher price) or that Pfizer has lower costs (I doubt that this is the main cause here. In general, the main costs in the pharmaceutical industry come from research and developed. As is the case here, it is very probable that these two companies are spending more or less the same amount on R& D. In order to remain competitive).
The return on total assets ratio, obtained by dividing the net income after tax to the total asset value, showed a score of 1.9% in Pfizer's case and of 14.8% in Merck's case, while the ROE (return on equity) amounted for 40.37% in Merck's case and 3.57% on Pfizer's case. The differences, as we can see, are extremely high. I could explain the first indicator, the ROI, with the very high value of total assets for Pfizer in 2003 (this almost doubled from 2002), which made the company less profitable that year, but the difference in ROE is enormous. It does not necessarily reflect a low profit in Pfizer's case (this seems comparable), but a very high value of equity. However, the analysis is even more complicated when we look at the P/E ratio, where the differences are staggering: Pfizer has a reported P/E of 136.92, while Merck has one of only 16.75, with the industrial average somewhere at 28.72. The closest to Pfizer in this case is Bayer, with 96.01.
The conclusions that we can draw from this analysis are somewhat ambiguous. We have had a look at several financial indicators and in many of them, Pfizer has scored lower scores than its competitor Merck. This is mainly the case of the asset management ratio and the profitability ratio. However, one of the most important indicators, the P/E, that shows us the perspective of a company, showed extremely high values for Pfizer, compared to all other companies and to the industrial average. Seeing that many indicators were influenced by the unstable value of the total assets, due to current acquisitions and mergers, investing in Pfizer may be advisable given the fact that a long-term growth is expected in the industry, as well as for the company (see again the P/E).
In contrast, Pfizer uses a different process type from General Motors. ecause Pfizer is a drug maker it is more interested in getting approval for new drugs and keeping the drugs it already makes out on the market for the individuals that need them. It is limited in the process type that it uses because of the regulations that are placed on it and other drug makers by the FDA. The governance in the United States reflects in what a drug maker is able to do or not do with the way that it sells its product, and this directly affects Pfizer, which might have a somewhat different process type if it had the option.
Harley Davidson, on the other hand, uses a process type that is by far the most interesting of all of the companies. Harley-Davidson definitely has the competitive advantage when it comes to their products and…
Barrett, a. (2005, February). Pfizer's Funk. BusinessWeek online. Retrieved from EBSCO HOST Academic Search Premier Database.
Levinson, W. (2006, January). On the Road Again Industrial Engineer: IE. (28), Retrieved from EBSCO HOST Business Source Premier Database.
Sui, C. (2006, April 11). Harleys face tough China road. motoring iafrica.com. Retrieved at http://motoring.iafrica.com/newsbriefs/216580.htm
business model canvas developed by Osterwalder and Pigneur in order to evaluate and diagnose Pfizer Inc. organizational model. This is done to provide recommendations for improvements as identified using the canvas model. Key areas of internal assessment include its products and services offerings, key resources, capabilities and competitive advantages. Key areas of external assessment include Porter's five forces, including but not limited to, key products, major competitors, new entry and market dynamics, suppliers and customers.
Pfizer Inc. has its headquarters in New York City. It has a staff of about 115,000 people. It is involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products for both animals and humans.
Principal Services and Product-line
The company manufactures 31 different products, which are categorized into ten different divisions. Each division has a major product that it promotes as follows:
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases (Lipitor, Caduet, Norvasc)
Central Nervous System Disorders (Aricept, Geodon, Lyrica,…
Grant, R. (2010). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA.
MarketLine. (2014). Company Profile: SWOT Analysis. Accessed from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=8df88857-0b4b-446b-8527-53d27ea4d339%40sessionmgr4004&vid=1&hid=4105
Research and Markets. (2012). Pfizer Inc. - Company Analysis: a Strategic Insight into the Prospects for Pfizer over the Next Six Years. Business Wire, Regional Business News.
Research and Markets. (2013a). Research and Markets: Comprehensive Company and Financial Analysis of Pfizer 2013. Business Wire, Regional Business News.
Q1.Why has the attractiveness of the pharmaceutical industry declined so much since the 1980’s? What are the implications of those changes in industry structure for firm strategy?
Despite the tremendous profits garnered by large pharmaceutical companies for so-called blockbuster drugs, pharmaceutical companies must make huge investments in R&D to produce profitable medications. The vast majority of drugs which are developed and tested never go to market. Additionally, once companies produce valuable drugs, they have a limited window on which to capitalize upon a drug’s profitability before its compounds can be sold in the form of a much cheaper generic. The FDA shortened the patient life of drugs from 11-12 years from 17-20, thus vastly reducing the financial ability of companies to cash in on valuable non-generics (Collis & Smith, 2007, p.5).
The industry structure also changed significantly, as more and more companies began to enter into the fray of developing…
The chosen case studies are those of Pfizer and Intel. The two case studies are much similar because they are founded on the basis of organizational capability being improved through better H practices. They show that H practices are important in ensuring success in organizations and ensuring better performance. As stated by Ulrich et al. (2009)
, the case studies show that it is important to think about organizational capability and H practices and how they impact performance and not the other way around. Organizational capability as a source of competitive advantage is also highlighted in the case studies which show that by looking at the organization from an inside-out perspective, rather than an outside-in perspective is important in ensuring sustainability of change and that the change is based on effective reasoning Zhang, 2010()
In the case of Pfizer, the organization's capabilities are seen in how it organizes…
CASCIO, W.F. 2003. Managing human resources: Productivity, Quality of work, life, profits, New-York McGraw Hill Higher Education.
GOMEZ -MEJIA, L.R., DALKIN, D.B. & CARDY, R.L. 2006. Managing human resources, New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall.
ULRICH, D., ALLEN, J., BROCKBANK, W., YOUNGER, J. & NYMAN, M. 2009. HR Transformation: Building Human Resources from the Outside In, New York City, The RBL Institute.
ZHANG, J. 2010. Employee Orientation and Performance: An Exploration of the Mediating Role of Customer Orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 91, 111-121.
From the perspective of the firm, Pfizer and Wyeth can combine their diverse strengths and capabilities, and merge their talents and skills thus enabling them to become more profitable and lucrative. Doing so, they will be able to reach more clients, solidify their already existent client base, and, possibly, expand into other areas whilst establishing themselves in other states and/or in other parts of the globe.
More specifically, advantages to the firm include the fact that:
Quality staff, or additional skills, non-existent in one's own firm, can be acquired
That additional knowledge of the industry or sector can be gained;
That the business intelligence of other firm (or each particular company) can add to current experiences and knowledge;
That there is enhanced access to asses for new products and business development;
That the larger company can now gain a wider customer base, therefore increasing market share;
That there is…
Allocative efficiency. Economics. Help www.economicshelp.org/dictionary/a/allocative-efficiency.html
Merging with or acquiring another business Just Start Ups.com http://www.juststartups.com/
NY Times Pfizer agrees to pay $68 billion for rival drug maker Wyeth www.nytimes.com/2009/01/26/business/26drug.html
"("Vision and Values," ho we are: About Pfizer, 2006) Notice how people, and a focus on attracting quality people to the company to create a sense of common teamwork and leadership forms the core of this healthcare company's stated focus. The company realizes it cannot develop or sell its product without a human face.
Its mission statement and purpose is also short and clear: "e will become the world's most valued company to patients, customers, colleagues, investors, business partners, and the communities where we work and live," and "we dedicate ourselves to humanity's quest for longer, healthier, happier lives through innovation in pharmaceutical, consumer, and animal health products." ("Mission Statement," ho we are: About Pfizer, 2006) Again, people form the fore of its philosophy.
A recent letter by the CEO, Jeffrey Kindler, stressed the company's commitment to people and to patient care, above all other values, showing that this view…
Blodgett, Mindy. "Prescription Strength." CIO. 1 Feb 2000. [8 Nov 2006] http://www.cio.com/archive/020100/prescription.html
Find a Career at Pfizer." Pfizer Careers. 2006. [8 Nov 2006] http://www.pfizer.com /pfizer/are/careers/fr_find.jsp
Gaining Competitive Advantage in the Pharmaceutical Market." Market Research.com.
Report. 2000. [8 Nov 2006] http://www.marketresearch.com/map/prod/814569.html
The need for clinical research is less for generic drugs but nevertheless may be needed for improvements.
2) Explain why the process or procedure produces a competitive product or service in the domestic and global markets
Other than the mandatory requirements the clinical trials are part of the quality management system. The credibility of the company depends on the effectiveness of the medicine it sells. So for both the companies the results of clinical trials and the opinions from the market and the medical fraternity is very important in improving the quality of the medicine and also bring about a better product to gain a better market share. The clinical trials thus help bring high-quality products to market not only in the therapeutic side of pharmaceuticals. For the generic drug segments that are a niche, high-barrier-to-entry products like the ones dealt with by Par Pharmaceutical the clinical trials are also…
Clinical Trials. Gov. (2007) "Understanding Clinical Trials" Retrieved 17 June, 2011 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/info/understand
MedReps Career. (2011) "Pfizer going for the e for world's first virtual clinical study"
Retrieved 17 June, 2011 from http://www.medreps.com/pharmaceutical-company-news/pfizer-goes-online-for-world~s-first-virtual-clinical-study/
Par Pharmaceuticals. (2011) "About Us" Retrieved 17 June, 2011 from http://www.parpharm.com/generics/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49&Itemid=71
Understanding how a company operates within any industry is dependent upon comprehension of many financial properties. Assessing the financial stability of a company is essential in determining the company's strengths and weaknesses as well as ultimately assessing its profitability. Financial ratios should be considered a useful tool when examining the profitability and efficiency of any company. Some companies are certainly more successful and profitable than others, and pharmaceutical companies in particular seem to have a distinct advantage when measuring financial ratios.
When assessing any organization, for terms of this paper are as follows: Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Merck it is important to consider the profitability and efficiency of the company. This is among the first information investors will explore before "investing" in a company. atio analysis is a critical analysis of the financial structure of an organization. There are four categories of ratios that need to be…
Calculating and Interpreting Financial Ratios. http://aolsearch.aol.com/redir.adp?appname=MS&query=Pfizer%20efficiency%20and%20profitability%20ratios&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2efool%2ecom%2fportfolios%2frulemaker%2f2001%2frulemaker010531%2ehtm&datasource=Google&partner=Google&clickedItemRank=2&requestId=cns92890&component=websearch.google.http.tcl&searchType=MS
MBA 681, Fall 2002. "Financial Analysis." http://aolsearch.aol.com/redir.adp?appname=MS&query=Merck%20profitability%20and%20efficiency%20ratios&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww%2emgmtguru%2ecom%2fmgt499%2fTN4%5f3%2ehtm&datasource=Google&partner=Google&clickedItemRank=5&requestId=cns41327&component=websearch.google.http.tcl&searchType=MS
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
Three -- Steel Dynamics, Alcoa and IE DuPont fell in excess of 6% for the week. The drop in the first two can be attributed to weakness in commodities. The other outlier was Pfizer, which was the only stock to gain this week, up 0.49%. Even fellow pharmaceutical firms JNJ and MRK dropped, indicating specific strength in Pfizer, most likely tied to merger talks. Most stocks in the portfolio, however, roughly tracked the market, which slumped on generally discouraging sentiment with regards to economic recovery, spurred by weak new home sales and durable goods sales, two key economic indicators (Perman, 2009).
Close Sept 18
Close Sept 25
All stock quotes from MSN Moneycentral. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/home.asp
No author. (2009). Stock index futures point to higher open. Reuters. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/provider/providerarticle.aspx?feed=OBR&date=20090925&id=10373441
Gibson, Nevil. (2009). Wall Street Stocks Fall as Fed Keeps Interest Rates Down. National Business Review. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://www.nbr.co.nz/article/wall-street-stocks-fall-fed-keeps-interest-rates-down-111655
No author. (2009). Merck Seeks EU Approval to buy Schering-Plough. Associated Press. Retrieved September 25, 2009 from http://news.moneycentral.msn.com/ticker/article.aspx?symbol=U.S.:JNJ&feed=AP&date=20090921&id=10408829
) (adhwa, Rissing, Gereffi, Trumpbour and Engardio, 2008).
Clearly, it is important to have standards for all pharmaceuticals. Perhaps the HO or TO could monitor the quality control of this globally, adding a few cents per dose to help defray the cost, or utilizing a United Nations budget to oversee this program. It is just as important, though, to realize that until the Developed Countries share in their own resources, whether that be intellectual property or certain types of manufacturing, there will remain a large inequity and thus, an inability for globalization to really work (See: Globalization, Patents and Drugs, 2001).
Drug companies like Pfizer do have a utilitarian and moral responsibility to their stakeholders and, conversely, to patients in emerging markets. If there is a drug that will help alleviate suffering, it is not moral to keep it only for the rich countries. Conversely, there is an argument to…
Globalization, Patents and Drugs. (2001, March). Retrieved November 2010, from World Health Organization: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js2251e/
Wadhwa, Rissing, Gereffi, Trumpbour and Engardio. (2008, June 18). The Globalization of Innovation: Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved November 2010, from Social Science Research Network: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1143472
Case analysis Pharma Technologies: A biotechnology firm, Pharma Technologies, developed a competing method treatment erectile dysfunction
Pharma Technologies Inc. based in Canada at a major medical research University in February 1999, wanted to develop a product to compete with Viagra which is developed by Pfizer. PTI obtained a patent for developing a revolutionary sexual dysfunctional treatment drug. The company is faced with financial problems to assist it in developing the new drug. Before a drug can receive full approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it needs to undergo several testing phases. These testing phases consume a lot of time money. The case study indicates that it can cost over $500 million and take 10 years before the drug is approved for manufacturing and marketing Herbert, 2004.
The patent the company obtained has a life span of 20 years. The patent is obtained when the development process…
http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/12289_Chapter_1.pdfHerbert , J. (2004). Pharma Technologies Inc., Pg 72-79, from Taylor, R.S., Drummond, M.F., Salkeld, G., & Sullivan, S.D. (2004). Inclusion Of Cost Effectiveness In Licensing Requirements Of New Drugs: The Fourth Hurdle. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 329(7472), 972-975.
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…
1. "Exxon, Mobil in $80B deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 1 Dec. 1998.
2. Beaudin, Guy. "Kraft- Cadbury: Making Acquisitions Work." BusinessWeek. 9 Feb. 2010.
3. "Mannesmann seals deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 3 Feb. 2000.
4. "$58B bank deal set: J.P. Morgan agrees to buy Bank One in a deal that would combine two of the nation's biggest banks." CNN Money.com. 15 Jan 2004.
usiness Management: Staffing Practices & Selection Tools:
Analysis of a Pharmaceutical Organization
In the past few decades, globalization and technology are two emerging trends that play a significant role in any organization's staffing practices and selection tools used to meet current and future employment needs. oth globalization and technology pose dilemmas for any pharmaceutical company with a large number of promising drug candidates. This paper examines and analyzes the staffing practices of Pfizer in its position as a leading worldwide pharmaceutical company. Pfizer is a good example of a company whose staffing practices have met their current employment needs and continues to meet future employment needs. This company is in an excellent position, as demonstrated by the fact that its overall sales exceeded $45 billion in the last year, up 40% over the previous year (Pfizer, 2004). This strong financial performance has its roots in the employees that comprise the…
International Monetary Fund. (2002). Globalization: Threat of Opportunity? Retrieved
May 31, 2005 from the International Monetary Website:
Pfizer. (2004). Pfizer. Retrieved May 31, 2005 from the Pfizer Website:
Financial Analysis of Mergers and Acquisitions
In the past few years, the amount of mergers and acquisitions have dramatically increased, raising the importance of the strategies and financial analyses performed before the merger or acquisition is expected to occur. Financial, operational, and technical due diligence have become routine undertakings before companies consummate a merger or acquisition. A review of the literature indicates that the strategies employed have a significant impact on whether the merger or acquisition is a success. An example of a very successful strategy that has been implemented several times in the acquisition or merger of companies is the strategy employed by Pfizer. A strategy that did not work out as well is portrayed by Matsushita in its' failed acquisition with MCA. This paper will illustrate and analyze the strategies employed in such transactions in addition to the financial outcomes of the deals.
Pfizer's overall business philosophy has…
Mcgarvey, R. (1997). Due Diligence. Entrepreneur Magazine, October.
Recklies, O. (2003). Vision as Key Factor in Merger Processes. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from http://www.themanager.org .
Tsao, Amy. (2004). Pfizer's Show of Strength. Business Week, December.
Wood, Mackenzie. (2004). Pharmaceutical Overview. Executives Guide, 15-18.
Strategic Planning & Strategy Formulation
Case: Strategic Planning & Strategy Formulation
Case Assignment -- Comcast
Comcast's Current Strategy
Current Event Blog
Discussion Question: Strategy Planning and Formulation
Strategy Implementation & Evaluation
Current Event Blog 4 -- Strategy Implementation & Evaluation
Discussion Question: Strategy Implementation and Evaluation
Case: Strategic Planning & Strategy Formulation
Case Assignment -- Comcast
Comcast's Current Strategy
Comcast has developed a current business strategy that is completely focused on the customer. The company has positioned itself at the "intersection of media and technology" (Corporate.comcast.com, 2016). The company seems to be doing well and in 2015 the company had raised their dividend by 10%, for the eighth consecutive year.
The present strategy of the company is to focus on innovation and enhancing of customer experience and being innovative at the same time. The company claims that this strategy has paid off well for them. In fact,…
Business success: Strategic unit comprehensive computer-based Expert support system. (1991). Long-Range Planning, 24(3), 107-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301 (91)90212-7
Carter, T. (2016). Comcast rolls out strategy for new emphasis on customer care. Mississippi Business Journal, p. 1. Retrieved from http://msbusiness.com/2015/05/comcast-rolls-out-strategy-for-new-emphasis-on-customer-care/
Collins, M., & Winrow, B. (2010). Porter's generic strategies as applied toward e -- etailers post -- e Leegin. Journal Of Product & Brand Management, 19(4), 306-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421011059621
Cooper, C., & Finkelstein, S. (2009). Advances in mergers and acquisitions. Bingley: Emerald Group Pub.
Instead of trying to build a brand, Pfizer hoped to 'buy into' the next big drug solution, and failed in its Patton-like strategy of focusing on the goal, and trying to leap over the many hurdles in creating its own new drug.
In contrast, the athletic shoe store Foot Locker has shown a successful Eisenhower-style approach by focusing on tightening its budget and cutting costs. Although streamlining is not a sexy 'big picture' strategy, by shying away from seeking market domination and taking a conservative strategy, Foot Locker showed a fourth quarter profit, despite a dismal market overall in the apparel industry. "Foot Locker announced another wave of store closures and a revamped management structure that combines the Lady Foot Locker chain with its three other brands. [CEO] Sterne Agee said it was 'essential' for the company to reduce its store base in the U.S. By at least 300 stores…[but]…
Jannarone, John. (2010, March 3). Big Pharma best skip course in Medivation. The Wall Street
Journal Online. Retrieved March 3, 2010 at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703862704575099991122047042.html?mod=WSJ_business_IndustryNews_DHC
Kell, John. (2010, March 3). Foot Locker swings to profit. The Wall Street Journal Online.
Retrieved March 3, 2010 at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703862704575100010642743540.html?mod=WSJ_business_whatsNews
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Marketing and Branding a Healthcare-elated product
Marketing and Branding Lipitor
Target markets, branding, marketing strategy, execution and product positioning all directly contribute to the market share and profitability of a product. In the marketing and selling of healthcare related products, brands must communicate a viable and realistic solution t a patient's condition to be seen with credibility and trust (Angelmar, Angelmar, Kane, 2007). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the marketing strategies of Lipitor, a best-selling drug of Pfizer Corporation used for treating high cholesterol and its related heart disease effects. This drug generated $10.7B in the company's latest fiscal year according to their annual report and is also considered one of the top-selling drugs throughout the entire pharmaceutical industry. Beginning with an analysis of the Lipitor target market, and progressing through their branding strategies, analysis of product success and recommendations for future marketing strategies, this paper provides…
Angelmar, R., Angelmar, S., & Kane, L.. (2007). Building strong condition brands. Journal of Medical Marketing: Special Issue New Paradigms in Life Sciences Marketing, 7(4), 341-351.
Iain Black. (2005). Pharmaceutical marketing strategy: Lessons from the medical literature. Journal of Medical Marketing, 5(2), 119-125,106.
Griffiths, S.. (2008). Pharmaceutical branding: 'To brand or not to brand'. Journal of Medical Marketing, 8(2), 113-118.
Krion, D., & Shockley, R.. (2011). How Pfizer Uses Tablet PCs and Click-Stream Data to Track Its Strategy. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(1), 1.
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
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Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.
Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
In general, the price I would pay for this bond will depend on the risk that the company has. My personal risk preference is that I am risk averse. I expect inflation to continue to be very low over the next year, but increasing slightly from current levels. The prevailing interest rates are low, which means I would expect the corporate bond rates to also be quite low. The company I have selected is Johnson & Johnson, and I do not believe that there is any default risk with this company. They are a large, stable company with a large cash position and stable earnings. They have a wide range of products, meaning they are well-diversified. In addition, that company has increased its earnings steadily over the past several years. They compete in a number of different industries as well. Thus, there is little risk that Johnson & Johnson…
The point is that a $1 billion criminal violation in every state would significantly undermine Johnson&Johnson's profitablility, especially if more products are added to this list, and while the company sets aside accruals against these events when the suits are first filed, ultimately these legal costs will drag down the bottom line especially if other firms do not get convicted for fraud or intellectual property violation as often as Johnson&Johnson subsidiaries appear to by the firm's own admission. On the other hand these decisions have been reversed in the past as a successful appeal in West Virginia for similar criminal violations demonstrated in 2010 over marketing DURAGESIC (61-62).
If the firm can reduce this deadweight compliance loss than it stands to capture growing baby boomer demand even as shelf price growth is constrained to CPI (Johnson&Johnson 35). One interesting but absent perspective this provokes is that if medical producers limit…
So is the appeal to ignorance. One need look no further than Fox News to find such an appeal -- what else can one say about a news site that has a regular featured financial columnist called "the capitalist pig?" Jonathan Hoenig who proudly calls himself by this title, plays into the readers' likely assumptions that greed is good is lauded for selecting the highest yield profile over one year, regardless of the fact that many readers may really want to be long-term investors -- the one with the most money wins, proclaims the "Cash it in Challenge" of Fox. The fine print of the challenge, however, reads that "is FOX News' policy that contributors disclose positions they hold in stocks they discuss, though positions may change. Readers of "Cashin' in Challenge" must take responsibility for their own investment decisions."
Yet even though one might snidely observe that Fox News…
Hoenig, Jonathan (20 May 2005) "Cashing it in Challenge." Fox News Website. Retrieved 21 May 2005 at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,122620,00.html
Hurt, Harry III. (20 May 2005) "Freud and Schwarzenegger: Both Can't Be Wrong." Business News. The New York Times. Retrieved 21 May 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/21/business/21pursuits.html
Soprano Star in Depression Fight." (11 Mar 2005) BBC News. Retrieved 21 May 2005 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4339889.stm
Why Live with Depression." (2005) Pfizer Company Website. Retrieved 21 May 2005 at http://www.lbracco.com/battlingdepression2005.htm
.....industries that are much more profitable than others. Per data from the BBC, there are two industries among five major ones that stand out (Anderson, 2016). Indeed, when looking at pharmaceutical firms, banks, car manufacturers, oil/gas refiners/sellers and the media, the first two of that list are clearly the best. The media does decently at about 12%, oil and gas does about 8% and carmakers are at about six percent. On the other hand, banks and pharmaceutical companies are both quite close to 18% and many firms within that realm do even better. Indeed, Pfizer does 43% in terms of profit.
Whether one focuses on the pharmaceutical company in particular or not, however, Glaxosmithkline (GSK) is clearly in its own echelon of performance and adeptness. They are very much in the "pack" when it comes to their profit level as many pharmaceutical companies hover around twenty percent. However, many others…
Unethical Business esearch Conduct
Business research is conducted for many reasons that are dependent on intended recipient of the research. For business marketers, research might include customer surveys of focus groups. When the research is for the development of a product, it can have a scientific basis and when it comes to stakeholders the research may include financial projections. This paper will therefore look at an article that focuses on some of the unethical business research conduct. The paper will clearly highlight some of the unethical research behavior that is involved and the people who are affected by these unethical research behaviors. The paper will further highlight how the unethical behavior has affected the organization, individuals and society at large. Finally a conclusion will be made on how the unethical behavior can be avoided or resolved.
The article "The case of Neurontin; Skewed esearch in service selling" is an example…
Ramirez de Arellano, A.B. (2009). The Case of Neurontin: Skewed Research in the Service of Selling. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from http://www.citizen.org/Page.aspx?pid=2887
A challenger thus goes for an all out attack against the leader in order to gain market share. In the field of pharmaceuticals, for example, Merck would be seriously challenged by Pfizer because both companies are massive in size and are targeting almost the same areas. Some of the strategies attained by a challenger would include Frontal attack (offering new and better products at lower price) Leapfrog (offering treatment in previously untouched areas), Flank (reach a new segment of market) and encircle (develop a niche).
A company may choose to focus on one single segment and hence achieve the title of a specialist. The company is still trying for domination but only in its selected areas. It doesn't want to compete in every single field like the leader or the challenger. For example a firm may try to become a dominant player in discovering treatments for neurological disorders.…
The main advantage is that the stories are well documented and written in an objective manner.
008, GSK Outlines Plans to Become More 'Biotech-like', Fierce Biotech, http://www.fiercebiotech.com/story/gsk-outlines-plans-become-more-biotech/008-06-10 last accessed on June 3, 009
009, GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Hoovers, last accessed on June 3, 009 -- Hoovers is a centralized database that reveals information on multiple organizations. The benefit is that the data offered is extensive and comprises features such as industry forecasts, competition nature and organizational financial highlight, alongside with description of the respective company. The downside of the source is however given by the reduced amount of free information and for more extensive data, the user has to create a paid account.
009, The Industry Handbook -- Biotechnology, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/features/industryhandbook/biotech.asp last accessed on June 3, 009 -- Investopedia.com has been developed as an initiative of the highly popular and leading business publication Forbes. It can be useful for novice as…
2009, Website of GSK, http://www.gsk.com last accessed on June 3, 2009 -- The official of the British pharmaceutical company is a highly useful research tool as it contains vast information on the organization, its strategies and its products. It is however insufficient as it does not contain any information on the overall industry and as the organizational information are presented from their angle, without mentions of organizational problems.
2009, myalli.com, http://www.myalli.com / last accessed on June 3, 2009 -- the website presents the features of the Alli weight loss program in a manner that makes it attractive to the prospective buyer. The main role of the website was that of promoting the product, familiarizing the population with its existence and boosting sales. Despite the offering of extensive data on the product, the website under the patronage of GSK reveals the disadvantage of only praising the product and not seeming objective.
GSK 2008 Annual Report, Retrieved from
76), ROE has ranged from 21.6% to 28.3% in recent years, with the 2007 figure being 25.6%. This reflects outperformance of both the industry and the market. The ROA has exhibited similar outperformance of both industry and market. The return on assets for JNJ over the past several years has ranged from 13.1% in 2007 to 17.l% in 2005. The industry five-year average is 8.85% and the market five-year average is 7.50%.
Net Income increased despite decline in revenues
Growth in each business segment
R&D expense growing slower than revenues
2-year upward trend in net income
Upward trend in cash levels
Upward trend in cash flow from operations
Current ratio 46.36% higher than industry
Interest coverage 80.09% higher than industry
Net margin 14.04% higher than industry
Return on Equity 1414.79% higher than industry
Return on Assets 48.02% higher than industry
Decline in revenue this year (1st…
The statement regulating accounting for stock-based compensations defines a fair value-based method of accounting for an employee stock option or similar equity instrument and encourages all entities to adopt that method of accounting for all of their employee stock compensation plans. However, it also allows an entity to continue to measure compensation cost for those plans using the intrinsic value-based method of accounting prescribed by APB Opinion No. 25, Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees. The fair value-based method is preferable to the Opinion 25 method for purposes of justifying a change in accounting principle under APB Opinion No. 20, Accounting Changes. Entities electing to remain with the accounting in Opinion 25 must make pro forma disclosures of net income and, if presented, earnings per share, as if the fair value-based method of accounting defined in this statement had been applied.
Stock options are the most frequently used method in…
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Girma, S., Thompson, S. And Wright, P.W. 2007. Corporate governance reforms and executive compensation determination: evidence from the UK, the Manchester School, vol. 75(1): pp. 65-81.
But the shareholders themselves need to be more aware and more involved in their company's business in order for any meaningful change to sustain itself:
Shareholders, the intended beneficiaries of the corporate vehicle, are the ultimate capitalists: avaricious accumulators with little fiscal risk and no legal responsibility for the way in which they pursue their imperative to accumulate. Shareholders, not corporations, show indifference to the needs and values of society. It is their behaviour that is most appropriately characterized as amoral indifference to the plight of others and their environment. Shareholders, not corporations, behave in a pathological manner. And shareholders should be the targets for the cure that we need for our ills. (Glasbeek 2005: 24)
There is also the problem of victimisation of other cultures in a global market. As Strike, Gao and Bansal (2006) point out in their article, 'Being Good While Being Bad: Social esponsibility and the…
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There are two constant irritations in U.S. pharma companies' relationships internationally:
Some developing nations, such as India, razil and South Africa, are chipping away at the patent situation, trying to shorten the time until the drugs can be brought out in generic form.
The U.S. has supported high prices as the cost for innovation. Since other countries are not playing along, this means that their citizens are benefiting from the innovation paid by Americans.
ig Pharma is at a crossroads today. The previous "great" chronic diseases, like diabetes, heart disease, infectious disease (viral and bacterial) have now been tackled by "blockbuster" drugs.
The high regulatory pressures, price pressures and lack of future such blockbuster markets dictates that pharma companies will have to innovate a lot more in niches -- more products, smaller markets. The large pharma companies which grew up in a time of plenty will therefore have to…
Bureau, U.S. Census. (2001). An Aging World. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
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Herper, M. (2007, October 29). Drug Drought. Forbes, p. n.p.
Specifically focused on products for each phase of a persons' life, this business segment is the most mainstream in terms of promotional strategies. Skin Care, OTC and Nutritionals have successfully given JNJ a permanent marketing strategy for selling to women in the 25-34 and 25-45 segments, two of the fastest growing demographic markets for these products.
The biggest challenge for JNJ is the ability to quickly develop and launch products across all of their business units. This is the most challenging task internally for the entire company to coordinate on, specifically in the area of pharmaceuticals where Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and the need for compliance are very high.
The costs of producing a new drug can be well over $800M according to AM esearch (2004). An analysis of each phase of the development of a new drug is shown in the following graphic from PhMA (2005).…
AMR Research (2006) - Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences Industry Overview. AMR Research Alert. Monday June 5, 2006. Hussain Moorai and Roddy Martin.
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esearch also helps in planning marketing programs through helping to identify new opportunities and thus to evaluate the potential for a new idea and also to identify the areas where the marketing efforts will be concentrated KnowThis LLC, 2012()
esearch also helps to minimize risks. By the marketing managers being able to plan the marketing efforts effectively and they can then identify what is required and to ensure that the development of the programs is highly focused towards the demand in the market. Market research also helps to create benchmarks and to measure progress. Early research helps to highlight any major gaps in the marketing plan which need to be bridged and regular market research helps to show if there are any improvements in sales being brought about by the marketing efforts.
Segmentation and the marketing mix
Segmentation helps greatly in customer retention and acquisition of new clientele. This is…
Cherian, M., Flores, M., & Srinivasan, G. (2008). Critical Success Factors to Collaborate in Cross Border Alliances: Experiences of Indian Manufacturing Enterprises. Paper presented at the SMF conference, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.
Horn, L.P. (2011). Online Marketing Strategies for Reaching Today's Teens. [Article]. Young Adult Library Services, 9(2), 24-27.
KnowThis LLC. (2012). Marketing Research Retrieved May 20th, 2012, from http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/marketing-research/examples-of-research-in-marketing/
Kotler, P., & Keller, K.L. (2012). Marketing Management, Thirteenth Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
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International Business Machines Corporation in detail. The paper is divided into three distinct parts with the corporate history constituting the beginning of the paper followed by the structure of the corporation, its shareholders, officers and the board of directors. The last part before the conclusion unfolds the precious information pertaining to the financial status of International Business Machines Corporation. The orks Cited eight sources in MLA format.
Entrepreneurs set up business ventures and assign people as well as invest heavily in order to reap massive benefits by selling their products and ideas. here investment, sound financial stability, confidence, technical know-how and other factors play a significant role, it has been observed that working on and building trust is what it takes to establish a reputable name in the industry. Over the years since its inception, International Business Machines also referred to as IBM Corporation has successfully managed to…
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). Issued by IBM in 1969-1973. Retrieved from IBM Archives (Business Magazine) and Scripophily. com Old Stock Certificate Superstore- The Gift of History.
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Corporate Social esponsibility
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility in the Workplace and the World
Key stakeholders within the PharmaCare scenario
Stakeholders play a significant role in influencing the performance and the realization of goals and objectives of the organization. They make corporate decisions about the ways in which the organization should carry out its operations meeting the demands of the customers and the legal requirements. The stakeholders of the PharmaCare Company are varied and have varying characteristics. Among the stakeholders, include the employees, customers, investors, and the creditors of the company. The performance of the PharmaCare Company relies largely on the hard work of the employees, the managers, and the members of its board. As such, it implies that the company should provide a variety of services to its employees such as compensation packages to retain and ensure their satisfaction with their job. In addition, the company provides regular training opportunities…
Cragg, W. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Hunnicutt, S. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Kao, R.W. (2010). Sustainable economy corporate, social, and environmental responsibility. Singapore: World Scientific.
McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. (n.d.). McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://www.mcspotlight.org/beyond/drugs.html
Data Quality Standards
This paper examines the different ways of assessing the quality of clinical trial data submitted for regulatory purposes compared to data submitted for academic publication.
esearchers and pharmaceutical firms do clinical trials for the purposes of collecting data and sharing with industry, scholars and regulators to help make policies and decisions about the efficacy/safety of illness, disease or preventative drugs being studied. To make sure that researchers are adhering to protocol and best practices in their investigations, sponsors of such studies often monitor these trials in one way or the other (Quality Management in Clinical Trials, n.d). The main objectives of monitoring are to guarantee patient safety and the integrity of the collected data. Monitoring could entail spontaneous visits during the study so as to check on the progress.
One of the most important documents in clinical trials is the CS (Clinical Study eport). This…
(n.d.). Pfizer: One of the world's premier biopharmaceutical companies. Quality Management in Clinical Trials. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.pfizer.com /sites/default/files/research/research_clinical_trials
Williams, E. (2007). Federation of American Scientists -. Clinical Trials Reporting and Publication. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32832.pdf
Arthritis is considered as one of the major health conditions affecting a significant portion of the United States population. Even though the condition currently affects approximately 50 million adults in the country, it is not primarily an adulthood health condition. There are numerous cases of children suffering from arthritis, which implies that this condition is not uncommon among children. As a result of the prevalence of arthritis among children and adults, understanding the pathophysiology and symptoms of this condition has emerged as an important component in proper diagnosis and treatment. This paper examines the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to the similarities and differences between the two conditions. The analysis includes a selection of two patient factors that could impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis is an umbrella term that refers to different conditions involving inflammation of…
Even if Bristol-Squib Meyers is not directly implicated in all of the cases surrounding this issue, fears about the over all health of the industry will affect stock prices. And finally, there is increased consumer outrage about drug costs and pressure to change current regulations about providing effective health care to Americans. Whatever the long-term impact upon the industry, the government is likely to have to devote considerable resources to health care reform in the near future. Changes in regulation, whatever they are, will make pharmaceutical stocks very volatile for the next 5-7 years.
Finally, the particularly negative publicity surrounding ImClone, justified or not, will negatively impact stock prices for all of the companies connected to the scandal, and Bristol must struggle and devote valuable corporate resources to generate positive media coverage to regain its faltering ethical reputation in the eyes of investors…
Corporate executive pay needs to be reconsidered. Proponents of corporate greed will claim all sorts of outlandish reasons why their mansion on the iviera is benefitting the worker making $7 per hour in the fields. Companies will even use spurious research methods to justify corporate executive pay. The Institute for Policy Studies and the Center for Corporate Policy (2007) notes that "amounts for restricted stock, pension benefits, deferred compensation, and severance pay" are rarely factored into the evaluations of corporate executive pay to make it look like chief executives are not making as much as they actually are. Hiding money, misreporting money, and misreporting data are just a few of the ways corporate America is ruining America. It is high time the people of the United States took back their nation from the greedy corporate executives. A score of executives are laughing all the way to the bank while millions…
AFL-CIO (2011). 2011 Executive Paywatch. Retrieved online: http://www.aflcio.org/corporatewatch/paywatch/
Anderson, S., Pizzigati, S. Collins, C. & Cavanagh, J. (2007). Selfish interest. Center for Corporate Policy.
DeCarlo, S. & Zajac, B. (2009). CEO Compensation. Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/22/executive-pay-ceo-leadership-compensation-best-boss-09-ceo_land.html
Domhoff, G.W. (2005). Welath, income, and power. Who Rules America. Retrieved online: http://sociology.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html
pag). Some business will continue as usual, of course: Abbott's nutrition division, based in Columbus, Ohio and employing approximately 2,000 people, announced that the nutrition unit will "fall under the umbrella of a new medical products company that will retain the Abbott name in a split announced ednesday" (Rouan n.pag). In addition, the announcement has apparently met with international investor approval: "At the news, Abbott's shares went up 7.3% in premarket trading on ednesday" (M2 Pharma n.pag).
The split is expected to occur in 2012 and will result in the currently-unnamed pharmaceutical company and the diversified medical products company, retaining the name "Abbott" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag).
(a). Pharmaceutical Company:
The pharmaceutical company is projected to have annual sales of approximately $18 Billion, a portfolio including Abbott's high-profile drugs such as Humira and Lupron, and a pipeline of "promising new specialty medicines and formulations" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag). According to Abbott's press…
Abbott Laboratories. A Tradition of Innovation. n.d. Web. 22 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Reports Strong Ongoing Third Quarter Results; Confirms Double-Digit Ongoing Earnings Growth Outlook for 2011. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott to Separate into Two Leading Companies in Diversified Medical Products and Research-Based Pharmaceuticals. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Worldwide. n.d. 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
Industry and egulatory Strategy
The generic drug industry provides the public with pharmaceutical alternatives to branded big name prescription drugs. "In 2010 alone, the use of FDA-approved generics saved $158 billion, an average of $3 billion every week."(Generic Pharmaceutical Association. 2011. P.1). With the continuing increase in health care expenditures and health insurance premiums for business and consumers; in 2011 premiums increased by nine percent (Abelson, eed. September 27, 2011. P.1), and "with so many people relying on prescriptions, the cost implications loom large for the American public, health insurers, and government payers" (Kaiser.edu.org. N.D.P.1). Generic drugs must play a more prominent role in the U.S. health care profile, as such as CEO of the Generic Pharmaceutical Association (GPA), the organizations legislative push is toward patent reform which would call for generic drug competition within seven years of the name brand drug introduction. In so doing pharmaceutical prices would fall…
Abelson, Reed. (September 27, 2011). Health Insurance Costs Rising Sharply This Year,
Study Shows. The New York Times. Retrieved December, 12, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/business/health-insurance-costs-rise-sharply-this-year-study-shows.html?pagewanted=all
Bio Job Blog.com. (February 1, 2010). Why Generic Drug Companies Will Dominate
Future Pharmaceutical Markets. Bio Job Blog.com. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from http://www.biojobblog.com/2010/02/articles/biobusiness/why-generic-drug-companies-will-dominate-future-pharmaceutical-markets/
Motivation grows out of the awareness that someone gave the time and effort to notice one's achievement (Klaff).
Recent strikes against continuously rising health care costs have strained all employers and labor and employee relations. Employers have been trying to reduce double-digit cost increases by modifying health-care plans, which shift the expense to employees, by raising premiums for family members to providing alternatives (Klaff 2003). Health care costs have been nightmarish to companies and led to strikes, which have left more and more Americans without health coverage at all. Although some manage to come, the system itself appears headed to a collapse before any reform can be put in place (Klaff)
In their rabid search for answers, employers revaluate the traditional way of providing health coverage, but experts think that these companies or employers must first discover where the costs are coming from (Klaff 2003). A study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers…
Cohen, D.J. (2003). Knowledge Development in Human Resource Management. HR Magazine. Society for Human Resource Management. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_1_48/ai_96453615
Feeney, SA. (2003). The Battle Over Benefits. Workforce Management, pp 20-33. Crain Communications, Inc. http://www.workforce.com
Hansen, F. (2003). The Cutting Edge of Benefit Cost Control. Workforce, pp 36-42. Crain Communications, Inc.
Article 60 of the atent Law and Article 25 of the Anti-Unfair Competition Law holds not specific provision however, Article 118 of the General rinciples of Civil Law provides that the plaintiff possess right to have ill effects of infringement eliminated. This is also including disclosure of third-party infringers.
48: Indemnification of the defendant in relation to the Courts holding of the power to order that damages be paid by the plaintiff to the defendant if enforcement complaint procedures are abused under Article 98 Civil rocedure Law which required compensation be paid if interim preservation is obtained and the laintiff loses the suit
China is complaint under art III Section 3: rovisional Measures, art III Section 3: Special Requirements Related to Border Measures, art III Section 5: Criminal rocedures, and art IV: Acquisition and Maintenance of Intellectual roperty Rights and Related Interparties rocedures. China is "essentially complaint and "not complaint"…
Projections are that within five years of China and other countries having joined the WTO that infringement of Intellectual Property will decrease however it is projected as well that China's government will have to be very active in implementing more extension reforms in order to liberalize the domestic market in China and to allow People's Republic of China and other foreign companies to more freely import and export products.
Clark, Douglas (2000) IP Rights Protection Will Improve in China - Eventually - Online available at www.chinabusinessreview.com/public/0005/clark.html
The Relationship Between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity (2002) Summary of Issues Raised and Points Made - World Trade Organization Report Noted by the Secretariat 2002 August 8 IP/C/W/368 (02-4363) Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ii the Relationship Between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity (2002) Summary of Issues Raised and Points Made - World Trade Organization Report Noted by the Secretariat 2002 August 8 IP/C/W/368 (02-4363) Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights iii the Relationship Between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity (2002) Summary of Issues Raised and Points Made - World Trade Organization Report Noted by the Secretariat 2002 August 8 IP/C/W/368 (02-4363) Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights iv Ibid
In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.
On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…
Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on
Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht
National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197
National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health. http://www.genome.gov/11009201
Because research on romantic love has increased markedly in the past few years, undoubtedly stimulated by the widespread interest in close relationships, Hendrick and Hendrick examined five different measurement approaches to love, including those of the researchers noted above (1989). Hendrick and Hendrick state, "These theories appear to have considerable overlap, but they also deal with different phenomena as well. Modest claims of one theory's superiority over another are beginning to appear, suggesting the fruitfulness of comparison to determine commonalities and differences."
To compare the above theories, Hendrick and Hendrick surveyed 424 undergraduate students at a large southwestern university during the fall semester of 1987. After dropouts, the remaining sample consisted of 391 unmarried undergraduate students (189 men, 202 women), and representative of a somewhat affluent, white, middle-class student population. The researchers measured each of the approaches noted above through specially designed scales. They found an overall problem not particularly…
Chapter 10: Direct to Consumer Advertising
Television advertising has caused a rift in traditional doctor-patient relationship.
Patients arriving for doctor visits with a firm, fixed idea of outcome -- prescribe me the drug because I saw it on television! Encourage consumers to think buying drug like buying soap.
End of expectation that individual doctor knows best and best medical care emerges from open discussion of patient symptoms, concerns, and exam and consideration of the options, some of which may involve lifestyle changes not drugs
1. Even in car, hear about medical miracles that can change your life. Unending assault on consumer ears through various media.
There are financial ties between many of the supposedly most trusted medical experts and the medical industry
Medical 'news' or advertising masquerading as news
Studies on real news shows, funded by drug companies are presented as objective
Inadequate medical coverage and…
However, there are often no rules, or weak ones, and that can create an ethical dilemma on the part of marketers. They must decide for themselves what lines they want to cross, and set their own codes of ethics. here rules only provide guidelines, these can be open to interpretation. As we have seen with the area of marketing to children, however, the marketing industry has kept ahead of the regulators in how they approach the issue. The government has barely been able to ban Joe Camel, and has no answer for companies that reach children with child-oriented web content that blends.
In order to create a code of ethics where there are no laws to provide guidance, there are bodies that have taken the lead. A company should begin, for example, with a statement of ethical norms from the American Marketing Association (2012). There are three ethical…
Akaah, I. & Riordan, E. (1989). Judgments of marketing professionals about ethical issues in marketing research: A replication and extension. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 26 (1) 112-120
Shrubsole, G. (2012). Marketing and advertising that respects children's rights. The Guardian. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/marketing-advertising-respect-childrens-rights
Horovitz, B. (2011). Marketing to kids gets more savvy with new technologies. USA Today. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2011-07-27-new-technolgies-for-marketing-to-kids_n.htm
Smart Consulting Group. (2009). Dishonest marketing in pharmaceuticals demands a big price to pay. SCG. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://www.smartconsultinggroup.com/2009/11/dishonest-marketing-in-pharmaceuticals-demands-a-big-price-to-pay/
ole of Family Physician
It is important for us to understand the role of a family physician before we begin our discussion on the importance of family physicians in any health care system of the community. Many reforms have been made in the health care systems of various communities all over the world. Almost all of these reforms lay their focus on the prevention as well as the treatment of any disease along with the promotion of health and management of conditions that have become a chronic problem for the patients. All of these areas are the center of the family physicians and therefore family medicine has a huge role to play in here.
In this paper, we shall look at the current health care system in Libya and see how the government and other organizations like WHO are playing their role to improve the health care system in the…
(2005). Libya country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (April 2005).
(2004). Pfizer Clear Health Communication Initiative. What it Health Literacy? [Online].
(2004). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition; 2000. [Online].
Kates N. (1997). Psychiatry and family medicine: sharing care. Can J. Psychiatry. Vol. 42:913-14.