Physiology Essays (Examples)

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Chemical Digestion

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42959598

Physiology

The mechanical and chemical digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth. Chewing also termed as mastication ensures that the carbohydrates crumble down into smaller pieces. There are salivary glands within the oral cavity that secrete saliva which coats the food. Saliva comprises of an enzyme salivary amylase which breaks down the bods that are found between monomeric sugars like disaccharides, oligosaccharides and starches. It also breaks down amylose and amylopectin into small glucose chains referred to as dextrin and maltose. About 5% of starches are broken down within the mouth. There is also production of mucus by mucus cells within the salivary glad which helps the food to stick together and also lubricates food hence help in swallowing. At this stage the food is known as bolus and it is forced into the pharynx with the help of the tongue (Swartz, 2012).

During swallowing, the food passes through the…… [Read More]

References

Swartz, A. (2012). Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates. Retrieved September 25, 2014 from http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-nutrition-s08-02-digestion-and-absorption-of-ca.html
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Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33544989

Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts

The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.

Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.

Modulation of Physiology

The modulation of physiology is similar to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Randi, James (2001) My Heroes, The Pale Blue Dot, Houdini's Last Stunt. SWIFT. Online Newsletter of the JREP. 28 Dec 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.randi.org/jr/122801.html

Shermer, Michael (2001) Houdini's Skeptical Advice: Just Because Something's Unexplained Doesn't Mean It's Supernatural. Scientific American. 4 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=houdinis-skeptical-advice

Seabourne, Tom Dr. (nd) Breathing and Heart Rate Control. Universal Nutrition. Retrieved from:  http://www.universalnutrition.com/features/breathingheartrate.html
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Cardiac Health and Lifestyle

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36543295

incidence rates of childhood obesity are linked to socio-economic factors. Core drivers of obesity in both children and adults are diet and exercise, and research has shown that a calorie is not a calorie. That is to say that certain foods serve as triggers for metabolic responses and physiological events that impact the overall health of individuals. The old adage that people can focus on loosing weight -- the associated implication is that they will be healthy as a result -- has shown not to be true. Much of the prepackaged food consumed today -- particularly so-called junk food -- is high in sugar, fats, and calories. However, this statement is too reductionist to be of help to people who are interested in improving their diets in order to actually become healthier.

ecent research indicates that obesity is certainly a factor in the incidence of diabetes, as is total caloric…… [Read More]

References

Basu, S., Yoffe, P., Hills, N., & Lustig, R.H. (2013). The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: An econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873

Breen, C., Ryan, M., McNulty, B., Gibney, M., Canavan, R., & O'Shea, D. (2014, February). High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Nutrition and Diabetes, 4, e104. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.2.

Eckel, R.H. (1997). Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 96, 3248-3250. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.9.3248

[Type text]
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Kidneys and How They Function

Words: 2771 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33287328

However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."

In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients

With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu.

Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease

Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu.
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Questions Concerning the Study of

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76550023


Homeostasis is the goal promoted by both positive and negative
feedback mechanisms. This is the principle which indicates that there is a
balance in autonomic life functions which the body attempts always to
maintain. This refers to such features as body temperature, heart rate,
respiration and the powering of vital organs. When stimuli create a
divergence from this status, the body will activate a set of responses
designed to regulate a return to balance.

4. In anatomical position, how many planes can be described and what
are their names?
There are three major anatomical planes, which are used to refer to
different ways of addressing the body and its systems. The anatomical
planes include the Coronal Plane, which refers to the frontal surface of
the body from head to foot. The Sagittal Plan refers to the surface which
might be viewed from a profile, indicating a lateral perspective on the…… [Read More]

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Melatonin and the Pineal Gland

Words: 2598 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19486196

Melatonin & the Pineal Gland

The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."

Melatonin & The Pineal Gland

The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arendt, Josephine (1998) Melatonin and the pineal gland: in-uence on mammalian seasonal and Bercemi, N. et al. (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Summary: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 108. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm

Borijgin, J. And Snyder SH (1999) The pineal gland and melatonin: molecular and pharmacologic regulation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;39:53-65.

Bowen, R. (2003) The Pineal Gland and Melatonin. Other Endocrine Tissues and Hormones 17 Mar 2003 Rerieved from:  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/pineal.html  circadian physiology. Reviews of Reproduction 3; 13-22. Retrieved from:  http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/revreprod/3/1/13.full.pdf 

Summation -- Fluoride and Pineal Gland (2012) Fluoride Action Network. Retried from: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/pineal/
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Electromyography Biopac Exercise Discussion This

Words: 1205 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33751831

The authors were trying to develop a system of estimating and indexing muscle fatigue rates during static muscle contraction. The results of this study indicated that estimations were reasonably successful with some limitations that were noted. One limitation was that the study neglected muscle recovery since the experiment was performed in a lab under controlled conditions and the muscles were able to fully recover. However, in the real world muscles move in a dynamic environment thus making muscle recovery rates a challenge in producing an accurate estimate of fatigue.

Another study looked at the efficacy of treatments in patients who suffer from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The study conducted research using 111 patients who suffer from CTS. They compared the standard conservative treatment (SCT) with other forms of treatment available that also propose to alleviate symptoms associated CTS. They found that SCT, which includes local steroid injections, was effective as…… [Read More]

References:

Yewguan Soo; Sugi, M.; Nishino, M.; Yokoi, H.; Arai, T.; Kato, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ota, J.;, "Quantitative estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography during static muscle contraction," Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009. EMBC 2009. Annual International Conference of the IEEE, vol., no., pp.2975-2978, 3-6 Sept. 2009

doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5332521

URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5332521&isnumber=5332379

Ay-e N. Bardak, Mehmet Alp, Belgin Erhan, Nurdan Paker, Betul Kaya and Ay-e . Onal,;, "Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of conservative treatment in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome," Advances in Therapy, Publisher Springer Healthcare Communications, ISSN 0741-238X (Print) 1865-8652 (Online), Issue Volume 26, Number 1 / January, 2009
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Physiological Effects of Endurance Training

Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97922192

Physiological Effects of Endurance Training

Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.

Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).

Duration and Intensity of Different…… [Read More]

References

1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998

2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.

3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.

4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
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Cardiac Cycle Diastole and Systole Phases and

Words: 1411 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90976222

Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Phases and Heart Disease

The objective of the research in this study is to examine the cardiac cycle from the anatomy and physiology perspective. Toward this end, literature in this area of inquiry, which for the purpose of this study is the cardiac cycle, is examined and reported.

Two Phases of the Cardiac Cycle

The work of Klabunde reports that the single cycle of cardiac activity may be divided into two primary phases stated to be those of: (1) the diastole phase; and (2) the systole phase. (Klabunde, 2012, p.1, p.1) Diastole is representative of the span of time when the "ventricles are relaxed…blood is passively flowing from the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) into the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively." (Klabunde, 2012, p.1) The mitral and triscuspid or atrioventircular valves are reported to "separate the atria from the ventricles…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chute, RM (2012) Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels. Retrieved from:  http://www.apchute.com/ap2chap/chapt19.htm 

Fukuta, H. And Little, W.C. (2008) The Cardiac Cycle and the Physiological Basis of Left Ventricular Contraction, Ejection, Relaxation, and Filling. Heart Fail Clin. 2008. Jan 4(1):1-11. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390899/ 

Klabunde, R.E. (2012) Cardiac Cycle. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Retrieved from:  http://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Disease/HD002.htm 

Limacher, MC (2004) Understanding the Impact of Abnormal Cardiac Activation on Cardiac Function. J Am Cardiol 2004;43(9): 1532-1533. Retrieved from: http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1135544
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Cardiac Arrest

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91083108

Heart Disease

elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease

The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac…… [Read More]

References

Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600

CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/ 

Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054

Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
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Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Effects on

Words: 1587 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33227949



Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.

Macario, a., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J. Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68.

Marczin, N. (2004). Editorial I: Tiny wonders of tiny impurities of nitrous oxide during anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 93(5), 619-623.

Ng, a. (2005). Sevoflurane sedation in infants - a fine line between sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth, 15(1), 1-2.

Preckel, B., Mullenheim, J., Hoff, J., Obal, D., Heiderhoff, M., Thamer, V., et al. (2004). Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after…… [Read More]

References

Desalu, I., Kushimo, O.T., & Odelola, M.A. (2004). Cardiovascular changes during halothane induction in children. Niger Postgrad Med J, 11(3), 173-178.

Gungor, I., Bozkirli, F., Celebi, H., & Gunaydin, B. (2003). Comparison of the effects of neuroleptanesthesia and enflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. J Anesth, 17(2), 129-132.

Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.
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Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Words: 3177 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56691092

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Personality is defined as a person's exceptional deviation on the general evolutionary design for human temperament. A personality trait refers to a durable disposition to act in a certain manner in different situations. Personality traits represent some of the most significant sets of individual disparities in organizations. It is the comparatively set of psychological characteristics that differentiates one person from another. People should strive to comprehend fundamental personality attributes and the manner in which they influence a person's behavior (Griffin 2007).Most perspectives to personality presuppose that some traits are more fundamental compared to others. This concept underlie that a small number of basic personality traits determine other, more superficial traits. With respect to the biological approach to personality, personality traits are determined by human genetic inheritance, behavioral tendencies that develop from evolutionary history and human conduct that generate through intricate biological…… [Read More]

References

Andrewes, D. (2001). Neuropsychology: From theory to practice. New York: Psychology Press.

Ashton, Q. (2012). Advances in Nervous System Research and Application: 2011 Edition. New York: Scholarly Editions.

Carducci, B. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research and applications.

London: John Wiley & Sons.
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Obesity in Children Has Become a Common

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35646224

Obesity in children has become a common health problem. Obesity in children is a result of indulging in fast foods and spending time in front of the television or being stationary playing video

Supportive arguments

Food Factors

There is an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (Hill and Peters, 1998). The portion-sizes of food in America's restaurants are unreasonable and uncontrolled (Hill and Peters, 1998). There is an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004). There is also an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Most importantly, studies show that a diet of 35% fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). It is no wonder that children having this unnutritious food become obese.

Sedentary Lifestyle

Another factor is the increasingly sedentary lifestyle that is due, in part,…… [Read More]

References

Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.

Bell & Standish, (2009) Building healthy communities through equitable food access. Community Development Investment Review, 75-87

Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
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Glycogen Storage and Use

Words: 1689 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35160916

Glycogen Storage and Use

Exercise and diabetes: Beneficial effects

Diabetes is increasing in the United States and throughout the world due to the ever-growing adoption of an unhealthy lifestyle, including poor diet and lack of physical activity. Obesity is a characteristic often present in individuals with diabetes, and in order for the occurrences of diabetes to be reduced and the effects of diabetes to be minimized, efforts must be put in place to encourage weight loss and the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is expected that obesity and diabetes will reach epidemic proportions unless prompt action is taken to counteract these conditions (Albu & aja-Khan, 2003).

Lifestyle factors have been identified that are associated with glycemic control and body mass in individuals with diabetes. Grylls et al. (2003) found that reducing dietary saturated fat and excess body weight may be useful for improving glycemic control in older adults with…… [Read More]

References

Albu, J. & Raja-Khan, N. (2003). The management of the obese diabetic patient. Primary Care, 30(2), 465-91.

Borghouts, L. & Keizer, H. (2000). Exercise and insulin sensitivity: A review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(1), 1-12.

Casteneda, C., Layne, J., Munoz-Orians, L., Gordon, P., Walsmith, J., Foldvari, M., Roubenoff, R., Tucker, K., Nelson, M. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(12), 2335-41.

Cradock, S. (1997). The role of exercise in diabetes management. Community Nurse, 3(3), 23-4.
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Skin Blood Flow Thermoregulation Is

Words: 6746 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92554129



The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).

Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)

"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.

Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)

Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331

Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
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Acclimatization Ascending to Higher Altitudes

Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71284850

(1989). These researchers investigated skeletal muscle adaptations in response to acclimatization at high altitude. Samples of muscle extracted before reaching high altitude and after returning to sea-level showed that maximal activities of enzymes, such as those representative of beta-oxidation, were unchanged. However, after exposure to extremely high altitude hypoxic conditions, reductions were observed in succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthetase and hexokinase. The findings of this study did not support the researchers' hypothesis that extremely hypoxic conditions elicit changes that are adaptive toward maximizing oxidative function at the intracellular level (Green et al., 1989).

eference

Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., obbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in esponse to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.

Green, H.J., Sutton, J.., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology…… [Read More]

Reference

Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., Robbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in Response to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.

Green, H.J., Sutton, J.R., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology 66.5 (1989): 2454-61.

Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M. "Muscle Tissue Adaptations to Hypoxia." The Journal of Experimental Biology 204 (2001): 3133-9.

Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M., Weibel, E.R., Fluck, M. "Response of Skeletal Muscle Mirochondria to Hypoxia." Experimental Physiology 88.1 (2003): 109-19.
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Lungs What Are the Lungs

Words: 3387 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31909477

However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)

The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…… [Read More]

References

Bennett, Taylor. B. (1996) "Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel"

Diane Publishing.

De Reuck, a.V. S; O'Connor, Maeve. (1962) "CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary

Structure and Function" a. Churchill Ltd.: London.
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Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Systems Integrated

Words: 2173 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56960433

Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]

References:

Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011,  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html 

Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041

Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011,  http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm 

Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
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Calcium Neuro the Role of

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67501431

It had been hypothesized that the release of four calcium ions is necessary for the release of one acetylcholine packet (which is necessary for the neuromuscular communication taking place at the neuromuscular junction), and thus that calcium has a cooperative impact on neuromuscular transmissions (Dodge & ahamimoff, 1967). Specifically, these researchers noted a logarithmic scale that described the relationship between calcium ion concentration and the level of neuromuscular activity taking place during a given activation cycle that suggests the fourth power of calcium concentration is equal to action at the junction (Dodge & ahamimoff, 1967).

Later research into the same basic phenomenon has yielded still greater understanding of the mechanism by which calcium achieves its purposed ends in neuromuscular transmission. Augustine and Charlton (1986) have shown that the cooperative aspect of calcium's involvement in neuromuscular transmission likely does not take place at the presynaptic areas of transmission, but rather that…… [Read More]

References

Augustine, G. & Charlton, M. (1986). Calcium dependence of presynaptic calcium current and post-synaptic response at the squid giant synapse. The Journal of Physiology 381: 619-40.

Dodge, F. & Rahamimoff, R. (1967). Co-operative action of calcium ions in transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. The Journal of Physiology 193: 419-32.

Katz, B. & Miledi, R. (1968). The role of calcium in neuromuscular facilitation. The Journal of Physiology 195: 481-92.
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Shin Splints From Ecs Conditions

Words: 4210 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40062881



Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I

The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.

Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…… [Read More]

References

AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from:  http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .

Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS

Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved

October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/382
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NPR Health and Science Special

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99954997

Silk and tassel look similar but the two structures are functionally different. The NP interviewer uses them synonymously without correction by the farmer.

However, the farmer is correct in emphasizing the importance of the silk and tassel, the stigma and the male inflorescence, in the reproduction of the corn. Moreover, the farmer stresses the relationship between wind and corn fertilization. Pollen grains are "borne in anthers, each of which contains a large number of pollen grains" that emerge only during certain morning hours (Thomison). The farmer in the NP segment fails to mention the crucial timing involved in corn pollination.

Corn ovules are potential kernels, which are the fruits of the corn. The seeds of the corn are its pollen: which is created in the anthers and which travel along the male inflorescence to fertilize the stigmas. Stigmas are essentially pollen receptors. In many plants, the stigma is part of…… [Read More]

References

Thomison, P. Corn Pollination - an Overview. Retrieved Oct 1, 2008 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0128.html
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Burned on Stove Biology Scenario

Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82618830

Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…… [Read More]

Bibliography

DeSanti, Leslie (2005) Pathophysiology and Current Management of Burn Injury Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Volume 18(6), July/August 2005, pp 323-332

Hancock, Elise (1995) The Handy Guide to Touch - April 1995. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/495web/touch.html.

Kane, Daniel (2004) Feb 19 How Your Brain Handles Love and Pain MSNBC Online available at http://www.sciam.com/search/index.cfm?QT=Q&SCC=Q&Q=burns%3A+skin+receptors.

Britt, Robert Roy (2006) The Pain Truth: How and Why We Hurt - Health Sci-Tech 31 January 2006 Live Science Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=signals+to+brain+from+burn&page=4&nt=SG1_S I0&userid=-7493026336042476887&invocationType=topsearchbox.search&c lickstreamid=-7493026336042476889
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Plasma & Rbc Plasma Constitutes the Majority

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94076051

Plasma & BC

Plasma constitutes the majority of whole blood volume, about 46-63% (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Plasma is the matrix of blood, contributing to blood's unique composition. Plasma has three main components: plasma proteins, water, and other solutes (Patton & Thibodeau, 2009). Plasma proteins are too large in size to get across capillary walls; therefore after the majority of these proteins are synthesized by the liver, they go into the bloodstream and remain there (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). The majority of plasma proteins are albumins. Albumin's role is to contribute to the osmotic pressure of plasma; they also serve as carrier proteins, transporting various hormones and fatty acids (Tortora & Derrickson, 2011). Globulin is another plasma protein whose role is to transport ions, thyroid and steroid hormones, and lipids; they also contain our antibodies that help our immune system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Fibrinogin is an…… [Read More]

References:

Martini, F., Nath, J., & Bartholomew, E. (2011).Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology.. (9th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.

Patton, K.T., & Thibodeau, G.A. (2009). Anatomy & physiology. (7th ed.). Missouri: Mosby.

Tortora, G.J., & Derrickson, B.H. (2011). Principles of anatomy and physiology. (13th ed., Vol. 22). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
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Alzheimer's Disease According to the

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2571036

One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).

In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, Elwood. (1999). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Coughlin, Patricia B. (1993). Facing Alzheimer's. New York: Ballantine Books.

Powell, Lenore S. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease: A Guide for Families. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.

A and Katie Courtice. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
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Renaissance the Trend in Medicine

Words: 2914 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48408487



It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.

The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…… [Read More]

References

1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.

History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007

Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet,  http://www.lsumc.edu.com , Accessed May 12, 2007

Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
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Emotions What Is an Emotion

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37957571

However, anxiety, like all emotions, is not the same for every person who experiences that emotion. One person may value the relationship more than the other person who is engaged in a conflict. Thus, the stakes are higher in the conflict, and one party has more motivation to instigate resolution.

There is also the potential for different levels of post-resolution anxiety to vary between individual to individual. A highly suspicious person may still experience intense anxiety, even after the conflict has been resolved, and continue to feel the heightened sense of awareness that goes along with the physical changes induced by conflict resolution.

Living in a social group presents conflicts of interest but is the result of interests in common. Explain how social interactions can result in positive emotional responses and influence the strength of a social bond. How is physical contact important for maintaining relationships and facilitating conflict resolution?…… [Read More]

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Boyle's Dalton's and Henry's Laws

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60223145

relationship among Boyle's, Dalton's, and Henry's Laws and the physiology of the lung. obert Boyle investigated the relationship between the volume of a dry ideal gas and its pressure. Since there are four variables that can be altered in a gas sample, in order to investigate how one variable will affect another, all other variables must be held constant or fixed. Boyle fixed the amount of gas and its temperature during his investigation. He found that when he manipulated the pressure that the volume responded in the opposite direction. For example, when Boyle increased the pressure on a gas sample, the volume would decrease.

A physiological example of Boyle's Law is the action of the diaphragm. This muscle is located just below the lungs. When one inhales, the diaphragm moves downward allowing the lungs an increased volume. Consequently, this decreases the pressure inside the lungs so that the pressure is…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ewalenko, M. (2002). [Scuba diving: practical aspects]. Rev Med Brux, 23(4), A218-222.

Wagner, P.D. (1993). Algebraic analysis of the determinants of VO2,max. Respir Physiol, 93(2), 221-237.

West, J.B. (1999). The original presentation of Boyle's law. J Appl Physiol, 87(4), 1543-1545.
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Drugs and Health

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53181604

Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career

Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.

As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…… [Read More]

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Nursing Related Case Study Tom's Vitals in

Words: 3386 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27331105

Nursing elated Case Study

Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.

Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.

Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from  http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf 

Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.

Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.

Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
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Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems Static and

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88782789

Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems

Static and Dynamic Equilibrium

Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium

There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.

The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…… [Read More]

References

Hain, T. And Helminski, J. (2001). Anatomy and physiology of the normal vestibular system. In S. Herdman (Ed.) Vestibular Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition (pp. 2-18). Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.

Lledo, Peirre-Marie, Gheusi, Gilles, and Vincent, Jean-Didier. (2005). Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiological Reviews, 85, 281-317.

Virtual Medical Centre. (2010). Ear. VirtualMedicalCentre.com. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2011 from http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/ear/29
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Instructional Design Models Including Elements Defining Ways

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10809582

instructional design models, including elements defining ways traditional methods encourage learner involvement. eferences required. A peer reviewed journal article, textbooks, and current journal articles credible websites.

Discuss the various instructional design models, including elements defining ways in which traditional methods encourage learner involvement.

The foundational instructional design model is called the 'ADDIE' model: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. During the analysis (planning) phase, the designer identifies the "learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience's needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project" (ADDIE Model, 2012, Learning Theories). During the design phase, learning objectives are further specified as the instructional plan takes shape. The development phase involves the actual creation of the content. The implementation phase is the execution of the instructional plan. During this execution phase, input is solicited from learners…… [Read More]

References

ADDIE Model. (2012). Learning theories. Retrieved:

 http://www.learning-theories.com/addie-model.html 

Clark, Don. (2010). Why instructional system design? Retrieved:

 http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat1.html
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Woman Entered the National Institutes of Health

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43959445

woman entered the National Institutes of Health esearch Hospital in Bethesda Maryland with a serious, but fairly routine infection; however the subsequent events were to prove anything but routine. The article titled "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-esistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Whole-Genome Sequencing," traced the effort to discover the cause of the woman's illness, as well how the staff at one of America's most advanced hospitals dealt with the subsequent outbreak of disease. (Starr, 2012) This article interested me because it focused on an outbreak of illness, something which anyone could have been affected, but also because it discussed two aspects of the course and it's text: single-celled life forms and genetics.

The woman brought to the NIH research hospital was suffering from an infection caused by an antibiotic-resistant organism, but it was a new strain, never before encountered. About a month after she was treated and discharged, another patient…… [Read More]

References

"Klebsiella Pneumoniae Morphology" Klebsiella Pneumoniae.org. Retrieved from  http://klebsiella-pneumoniae.org/klebsiella_pneumoniae_morphology.html 

Melissa Block, Eddie Cornish. (30 Oct 2012). Interview "NIH Takes Extraordinary Steps

In Fighting 'Superbug'." NPR.org. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2012/08/23/159931389/nih-takes-extraordinary-steps-in-fighting-super bug

Snitkin, Evan, etal. (Aug 2012). "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant
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Psychology in Order to Develop Effective Treatment

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31250655

Psychology

In order to develop effective treatment programs for drug addicts, it is essential to maintain a basic knowledge of the physiological basis of their cravings. Given social and political mandates calling for a cessation of drug abuse or at the very least for the implementation of harm reduction, it is just as important to administer to those exposed to addictive substances as it is to develop methods of preventing exposure. In addition, an ability to explain the neuro-scientific effects of drug use allows those that are responsible for prevention to provide potential users with deterrents that are less dogmatic and more circumspect. To these ends, neuroscience has developed a new understanding of the reasons for addiction.

Behavioral neuroscience has taught us that humans, like other animals, crave certain pharmaceutical agents. Studies have enabled scientists to better understand the neuro-chemistry of pleasure and of cravings. A side effect of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=27130511

Bolles, Robert C., ed. The Hedonics of Taste. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=14214733

Isralowitz, Richard E., and Darwin Telias. Drug Use, Policy, and Management. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=87280154

Leaf, Russell C., and Stacy Lamon. "5 Development of a New Clinical Procedure for Conditioning Aversions to Cigarette Smoking with Perceptually Induced Nausea." Affect, Conditioning, and Cognition: Essays on the Determinants of Behavior. Ed. Brush, F. Robert. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985. 75-76. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=87280154
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A proper lesson plan

Words: 536 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51959802

Lesson Plan

Materials Needed

• Diagrams

• Glossary of terms

• Whiteboard/Chalkboard/Computer Projector

• Textbooks

• Paper

• Pens

• Pencils

• Pencil Sharpeners

• Quick reference guides for lesson

• Computer file copies of information (PDF's, etc.)

Lesson Objectives

• Teach physiology terminology in English

• Teach physiology terminology in Spanish

• Be able to describe major functions of each body part

• In both Spanish and English

• Teach general fitness guidelines and metrics

• Teach students to be able to synthesize both narrative/report speech relating to the subject as well as graphs, charts and diagrams

• Drive home the importance of having a strong and fluent understanding of terminology and contextual information within the medical paradigm

• Be able to explain Spanish narratives and speech into English

• Same thing in reverse

• Full

• Teach proper sentence structure. Define types of words (nouns, verbs, etc.) as…… [Read More]

Reference

• Verbal lectures

• Diagrams/Charts/Graphs

• Narrative/Report Content

Multiple Means of Engagement
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Magnetic Resonance System on Patients Magnetic Resonance

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80574645

Magnetic esonance System on patients

Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.

MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…… [Read More]

References

Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New

York. McGraw-Hill.

Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.

Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
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Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31344353

Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).

It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…… [Read More]

References

Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.

Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin

Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.

Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
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Manipulative Thrust Techniques in Lower

Words: 3037 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 594913



The practice of manipulative thrust therapy can be dangerous and cases of injuries and tragic events have been recorded. Cases of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) have been recorded in people that had the cervical spine manipulation technique done and research on the cases from 1966 to 1993 concluded 30% could be attributed to the procedure (Cleland 2007). VADs are spontaneous and can be normally present at the initial onset of headaches or neck pain. This represents the conclusion that the VAD was present before the technique is performed on a patient complaining of neck pain. The debate over the truth is still being waged. Even authors have joined the debate but they are touted as biased and do not support the evidenced based in research (User's Guide 2008).

Other debates rage as well. The risks of the manipulative thrusts therapies are actually no worse the risks from NSAIDs and cervical…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. "Activator turns 35." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2001. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .

Anonymous. "Study Finds "Manual Therapy" Effective for Shoulder Dysfunction/Pain." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2004. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .

Anonymous. "Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2006. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .

Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001 Vol. 47-163-24 April 2010
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Healthy Heart vs Coronary Disease

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61031010

hen an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami, and Imami).

There are different treatment options for coronary artery disease. Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kern, Morton, Amir Lerman, Jan-Willen Bech, Bernard De Bruyne, Eric Eeckhout, William Fearon, Stuart Higano, Michael Lim, and Martjin Meuwissen. "Physiological Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory ." American Heart Association Journal 114 (2006): 1321-1341. American Heart Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.

Pazoki, Raha, Iraj Nabipour, Nasrin Seyednezami, and Seyed Reza Imami. "Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)." BMC Public Health 7 (2007): 216-220. Print.

Rub, M., Cremer, J., Krian, a., Meinertz, T., Werdan, K., & Zerkowski, H. "Different Treatment Options in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease." Deutschs Arzteblatt International 106.15 (10 Apr 2009): 253-261.

Shirato, Susan, and Beth Ann Swan. "Women and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidentiary Review." MedSurg Nursing 19.5 (2010): 282-306. Print.
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Equine Nutrition -- Review of

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21525587

The variability of salt consumption in horses makes it difficult to use salt as a carrier for other nutrients. It is preferable to offer a balanced feed that is designed for the type of horse you are feeding and simply provide free choice white salt" ("Don't forget the salt," CFC, 2006).

Treatment and prognosis for recovery

Horses that are salt starved "must be introduced to salt slowly. Salt poisoning is possible if salt is suddenly available. Symptoms of salt poisoning are digestive upset and cramps" if the horse indulges in too much salt at once ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). Salt is the only mineral which horses know they need. "Horses can be deficient in copper or any other mineral and not consume the needed amounts when they are available. But horses will eat salt if their body needs it" ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). hen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"A pinch of salt." Horse and Rider. 2001. February 5, 2010.

 http://www.horses-and-horse-information.com/articles/0701salt.shtml 

"Don't forget the salt." CFC farm and home center. January-February 2006.

February 5, 2010. http://www.cfcfarmhome.net/images/E0228001/horsenewsjanfeb.pdf
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Pulmonary Therapist the Health Care

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53887971



For example, Dr. Gutierrez took me around to the different departments and allowed me to meet and talk with Dustin Bowman, one of his patients. He is 23-year-old, was in the U.S. Air Force and just transferred to Haley Hospital about a week ago. He had a Cervical 1 injury, and his left lung was deflated, which completely affected his entire body. He needs a great deal of respiratory care. With this patient and others that Dr. Gutierrez told me about during my observations at the hospital, I clearly came to see how respiratory therapist must know the patient's entire medical condition to fully provide effective treatment.

Respiratory therapists have to be knowledgeable and skillful about cardiopulmonary therapy, but beyond this, they must have the necessary understanding about human physiology, anatomy, and body chemistry to best understand the holistic condition of their patients. For example, to evaluate patients, the respiratory…… [Read More]

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Risk and Hazard Factors of

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60811016

Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)

The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7

Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.

Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report

Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
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Buffer Systems in the Body

Words: 1495 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80104274

Hypokalemia occurs when the blood plasma level of potassium is too low (below 3.5 mcg). This is the most common electrolyte imbalance. It effects cardiac conduction and function.

Calcium

Calcium is a cation that is stored in the bone, plasma and body cells. In plasma, it binds with albumin. It is well-known that calcium is necessary for healthy teeth and bones. However, it is also necessary for blood clotting, hormone secretion, maintaining the integrity of cell membranes, cardiac conduction, transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Calcium levels in the body are regulated by bone resorption.

Hypercalcemia occurs when calcium levels rise above 5 mcg in the plasma. One of the most common symptoms is cardiac arrhythmia. X-rays will show calcium loss in the bones when blood plasma levels are high. This is frequently a symptom of and underlying disease with excess bone resorption and the release of calcium. It…… [Read More]

References

Levitsky, M. (2007) Pulmonary Physiology. Sixth Edition. New York, New York; McGraw Hill Professional. pp.163-187.
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Reason for Choosing Nursing as a Career

Words: 838 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79705697

Nursing

Personal Statement

Choosing Nursing

My life has centered upon answering a central question. This question has been a in my mind since I was 10 years old. At that age, my first image of medicine was largely influenced by the doctors and nurses who were always helping my grandfather battle a rare form of brain cancer. His illness was a life changing experience for me, as, at that age, I watched his condition gradually deteriorate over a period of three months, and I detested I could do nothing to help. This thought, however painful then, has motivated my entire life, and has led to my choosing of nursing as a profession,

Though some did not approve of this particular career path, I never gave up my dreams. For this reason, I began studying and volunteering so as to combine education in theory with education in practice. Giving back to…… [Read More]

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Psychology Impact of Neurotransmitters on

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57281081

d.).

Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).

Serotonin

Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…… [Read More]

References

Acetylcholine. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.chemistryexplained.com/A-

Ar/Acetylcholine.html

Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://axon.psyc.memphis.edu/~charlesblaha/3507/Biogenic%20Amines/Lecture%20-

%20Biogenic%20Amines%20-%20Summer%203507.pdf