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Physiology & the Orange
As I tune in to "my orange," I find that it is difficult to separate the sensory input that I am experiencing. My mind seems to put integration on automatic pilot. Before I close my eyes, I find my visual sense to be dominant. I know that I tend to be a visually-oriented person anyway, so this is not really a surprise. But in my attempts to deal with each sensation separately, it is readily apparent that vision stays in the forefront of my awareness. I know from my reading that the brainstem receives information from my eyes and ears and then sends the sensations along to the midbrain.
Once I close my eyes, it becomes easier to focus on the sensations that my fingers and hands are generating as I manipulate the orange. I am aware of the heft and roundness of the fruit, and…
Calvert, G., Spence, C. And Stein, B.E. (2004). The handbook of multisensory processes. Retrieved books.google.com/books?isbn=0262033216
Frackowiak, R.S.J. (2004). Human brain function. Retreived books.google.com/books?isbn=0122648412
Guthrie, D.M. (1990). Higher order sensory processing. Retrieved books.google.com/books?isbn=0719028043
Mukundan, C.R. (20087). Brain experience: neuroexperiential perspectives of brain-mind. Retrieved books.google.com/books?isbn=8126908173
Body Systems Involved in Eating a Snack
The first thing I do when eating a snack is to prepare it. In this case, I reach into the cabinet above me and grab a bag of potato chips. I read the label and make sure they are plain chips, because I do not like flavored chips. When I am satisfied they are the type of chip I like, I break open the seal of the bag. I immediately smell the chips when I open the seal. The smell is familiar: oily, salty, and potato-ey. Still standing, I reach one hand into the bag of chips. My fingers feel all the salt granules and the distinct shape of the thinly sliced crisps. The edges of the crisps are rough but not sharp. I put one chip into my mouth and begin to chew. The initial flavors are salty, and then that…
"What is Digestion?' Retrieved online: http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Digestion.aspx
In an acute shock situation, the body shuts down many of its functions in the interest of addressing the patient's most-urgent problem.
In addition to reduced kidney function, the patient's brain function slows down; she may appear lethargic, have difficulty talking, and eventually lapse into a coma. This is due to the body's diverting blood supply from the brain, which typically takes 20% of oxygen and nutrition, to other areas which require it most.
The woman's broken cells will put out markers for tissue injury: in the case of the liver, the SGPT and SGOT enzymes will be elevated, indicating liver damage. General enzyme levels indicating systemic injury will also climb, including myoglobin, various tissue factor antigens, endotoxins and a series of other enzymes which are released upon cell destruction. If the initial concern was the spleen, kidney and liver, it may also make sense for the attending ER physician…
Dubois, C., Panicot-Dubois, L., Gainor, J.F., Furie, B.C. And Furie, B. "Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model." Journal of Clinical Investigation (2007): 953-960.
Gando, S., Nanzaki, S. And Kemmotsu, O. "Coagulofibrinolytic Changes after Isolated Head Injury Are Not Different from Those in Trauma Patients without Head Injury." The Journal of Trauma (1999): 1070-1076.
V.E. Mack, M.D. McCarter, H.A. Naama, S.E. Calvano and J.M. Daly. "Dominance of T-helper 2-type cytokines after severe injury." Archives of Surgery (1996): n.p.
Physiology - How a Woman's Various Organs and Systems Respond to Trauma
Physiology of Emotions
Varying Theories on the Physiology of Emotions
In their theory, "How Emotion Shapes Behavior: Feedback, Anticipation, and eflection, ather Than Direct Causation," Baumeister, Vohs, DeWall and Zhang show how the secondary function of emotions is much more important to humans than their initial response to an emotion. Emotions in response to stimuli provoke actions that usually begin too late to effectively react to the stimuli. Thus, it makes more sense to consider the function of emotions as part of a learning process than it does to imagine their value rests with the initial human response. Human emotion is studied as a feedback system that shapes current and future behaviors based on processing prior actions and reactions motivated by emotions. We need this feedback system to successfully function in such complex social and cultural systems. For example, if one is in a public place and moved to anger…
Barrett, L.F., Ochsner, K.N., & Gross, J.J. (2007). On the automaticity of emotion. Social Psychology and the Unconscious, 173-217.
Baumeister, R.F., Vohs K.D., DeWall C.N., Zhang L. (2007). How emotion shapes behavior: Feedback, anticipation, and reflection, rather than direct causation. Personal Social Psychology Review,11, 167-203.
Cunningham, W.A., Zelazo, P.D., Packer, D.J., & Bavel, J.J. (2007). The iterative reprocessing model: A multilevel framework for attitudes and evaluation. Social Cognition, 25(5), 736-760.
Ortony, A., Norman, D.A., & Revelle, W. (2005). Affect and pro-affect in effective functioning. In J. Fellous & M. Arbib (Eds.), Who Needs Emotions? The Brain Meets the Robot (pp. 173-198). New York: Oxford.
The plaintiff sustained life-changing and debilitating injuries in the form of skin cancer that could have also proven fatal had it not been diagnosed in time to treat. There is still no guarantee that the cancer will not recur and the plaintiff will now have to endure that grave uncertainty for the rest of his life.
The employer benefited tremendously from the labor of this employee and it had an affirmative duty to provide the necessary information and forms of protection against solar radiation that could have easily prevented these harms. In light of the tremendous danger and cost of treating skin cancer in comparison to the relative small cost of providing simple precautions and protocols to protect it employees, the employer had a duty to protect the health and welfare of its employees.
Argument against Employer Liability
The employee was never exposed to any hidden or unknown risks of…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
These indications then proceed to the neuromuscular connections of skeletal muscles. From there, acetylcholine is released from the axon terminal knobs of alpha motor neurons and received by postsynaptic receptors of muscles, thereby communicating the stimulus to contract muscle fibers (Ihlen & Vereijken, 2010).
esearch on patient's brains scanned by Positron Emmision Tomography have designated that the kind of thoughts people have influence the balance of brain chemicals, so by learning to think more positively and sensibly one can influence brain chemistry in a positive way, but other factors like an unloved, unsupported childhood can influence brain chemistry and physiology in such a way that it makes people less able to cope with stress in adulthood. If people think mainly negatively their brains secrete chemicals that can undermine their psychological and physiological health, whereas if they think more positively they can cause chemicals to be secreted that boost…
Dulleck, U., Ristl, A., Schaffner, M., & Torgler, B. (2011). Heart rate variability, the autonomic nervous system, and neuroeconomic experiments. Journal Of
Neuroscience, Psychology, And Economics, 4(2), 117-124.
El-Sheikh, M., Hinnant, J., & Erath, S. (2011). Developmental trajectories of delinquency symptoms in childhood: The role of marital conflict and autonomic nervous system activity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(1), 16-32.
Flaherty A. Brain illness and creativity: mechanisms and treatment risks. Canadian Journal
Therefore, in cases unrelated to ileocecal valve malfunction, large distal bowel obstruction is a direct function of LaPlace's Law at the area of the cecum. For the same mechanical reason, the most frequent location of colonic perforation is also at the cecum because it is the area of the largest diameter, and therefore, most susceptible to rupture in comparison to areas smaller in diameter.
11. What are the major types of movement of small intestine?
The first major type of movement in the small intestine is peristalsis. The second major type of movement in the small intestine are discrete clustered contractions, which are comparatively small movements. The third type of major movement in the small intestine is giant migrating contractions, which are larger versions of peristaltic contractions believed to serve a bacterial cleansing purpose.
12. Describe gastric acid feedback function
Gastric acid feedback is controlled by nerve endings in the…
Iazzetti, G., and Rigutti, E, (2007). Atlas of Human Anatomy. London, UK: TAJ Books
Therefore, understanding the ways in which insulin resistance can be counteracted is critical toward developing strategies to help individuals with insulin resistance issues. Kaoru et al. explain that increasing fatty acid utilization fights insulin resistance, and that exercise is known to increase utilization (109). The question mark, as the authors explain, is how much exercise and at what level is required in order to facilitate fatty acid utilization. Therefore the rationale for designing a study to probe this question was well founded.
The hypothesis of the study was similarly well-structured. As already mentioned, the study was designed to test the hypothesis that fatty acids are available for utilization in the body even following short-term exercise at low levels of intensity (109). This is a positive hypothesis, one that is designed to demonstrate a conclusion the authors are interested in finding. The study could have, in theory, been designed in an…
Toda, Kaoru, Oshida, Yoshiharu, Tokudome, Mizuho, Manzai, Tomoko, and Sato, Yuzo. "Effects of Moderate Exercise on Metabolic Responses and Respiratory Exchange Ration (RER)." Journal of Medical Science 65 (2002): 109-113.
Nephrotic Syndrome is not a disease. It is a condition that is characterized by damaged glomeruli in the kidney. This damage might be caused by one or more disease. These diseases can be related to the kidney as in Familial Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, abbreviated FFGS or membranous nephropathy. Or it can present from relatively distantly related diseases such as heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes and lupus. The types of diseases that cause nephrotic syndrome also vary with age. Some cases can be corrected with properly prescribed medication, despite some side effects. In more serious cases, kidney failure can occur. Regular dialysis and ultimately, transplantation may be required. Nephrotic Syndrome can cause damage to (or arise from damage to) the glomeruli, which affects it's function of filtering out waste matter and excess water that is converted into urine. Nephrotic syndrome is identified from symptoms known as proteinuria, hematuria and edema. The first…
EdREN. (2004). Nephrotic Syndrome. Renal Unit of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Retrieved February 27, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://renux.dmed.ed.ac.uk/EdREN/EdRenINFObits/NephroticLong.html
Haas, M., Meehan, S.M., Karrison, T.G., & Spargo, B.H. (1997). Changing etiologies of unexplained adult nephrotic syndrome: a comparison of renal biopsy findings from 1976-1979 and 1995-1997. Am J. Kidney Dis, 30(5), 621-631.
Jennette, J.C. (2004). Renal Pathology Tutorial. Maddux, F.W. Retrieved February, 23, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.gamewood.net/rnet/renalpath/ch3.htm
Kassirer, J.P. (1971). Clinical evaluation of kidney function -- glomerular function. N Engl J. Med, 285(7), 385-389.
Physiology & Food elated Social Issue
Physiology and food-related social issue
The chosen food-related social issue is the advertising of junk food as appealing to children. For years, the junk food industry has been accused for promoting obesity and ill-health among children Linn and Novosat 135.
Junk food often contains unhealthy components because of the high content of calories, fats, and sugar Kime 317.
The figure below shows that from the 1960s to the year 2008, the number of children and teenagers with obesity has increased significantly from about 4% across to about 17% - 20% all ages.
The specific research question related to this food-related social issue is "what is the relationship between eating junk food and obesity?" This research question aims at identifying the link between the body's digestion and absorption processes and junk food that has a high calorie, fat, and sugar content. This research question…
Kime, Nicola. "Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting." Area 40.3 (2008): 315-22. Print.
Linn, Susan, and Courtney L. Novosat. "Calories for Sale: Food Marketing to Children in the Twenty-First Century." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 615 (2008): 133-55. Print.
Evolution of Organisms
For millions of years earth has gone under tremendous changes. This rapid change in environment, landscape and temperature alters the intact system and for surviving this change, a steady modification in living organisms occurs for adaption to surrounding environment. This change is never over night nor does it occur suddenly in newborns, it takes generations to evolve a new feature or characteristic. This adaption is not only in mammals but can also occur in plants and microscopic organisms; plants developed the process of photosynthesis in order to survive in oxygen abundant environment and micro-organisms being not used to access of oxygen either went extinct or formed symbiotic association with oxygen for survival.
The rule of survival of the fittest as determined by nature also applies to all living beings inhabiting earth. A simple example would be a breed of heavy coated sheep living in extreme…
Darwin, C.R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. 6th ed. London: John Murray.
Gould, S.J. (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Pincher, C. (1949). "Evolution of the Giraffe," Nature, 164, pp. 29-30.
Simmons, R. & Scheepers, L. (1996). "Winning by a Neck: Sexual Selection in the Evolution of the Giraffe," The American Naturalist, 148, pp. 771-786.
The Planarian or "cross-eyed flatworm" is a relatively simple invertebrate organism, belonging to the animal kingdom and the phylum of Platyhelminthes which covers all flatworms. The phylum of Platyhelminthes contains four separate classes: three of these cover parasitic forms of flatworm that live inside other organisms (like the famous tapeworm). The fourth class, Turbellaria, includes all non-parasitic flatworms. One of these is the Planarian, which exists in a number of different genus and species: our diagram is derived from the standard Planarian used for biology students, Girardia Tigrina. A close examination of the structures and functions of the main organs found in this simple organism can explain how the Planarian has evolved physiologically to become suited to its environment.
The first organ to consider in the Planarian is not an internal one. The epidermis, or outer skin layer, of the Planarian (numbered 4 on the diagram above) is…
Kenk, R. (1976). Freshwater planarians (turbellaria) of North America. Cincinnati: Environmental Protection Agency.
Littlewood, DTJ, Bray, RA (eds). (2001). Interrelationships of the platyhelminthes. London: Taylor and Francis.
Newman, L, Cannon L. (2003). Marine flatworms: The world of polyclads. Clayton: CSIRO Publishing.
For obese individuals on the Atkins diet, a moderate exercise program that allows the body to burn fat rather than glycogen can be beneficial, since they would be able to exercise longer. For trained athletes, a higher level of exercise at a longer duration is possible, since the body's threshold for the change to using glycogen as ATP is higher.
Thus, our results that obese individuals on that Atkins diet who participate in moderate activity are able to exercise for longer periods of time is supported.
In conclusion, our results indicated that weight loss in our subjects was caused from a negative energy balance, rather than metabolic advantage. The Atkins diet works well not because of a lowered carbohydrate intake, but because of a lowered overall food and caloric intake. This lower level of food intake in turn leads to a higher ratio between energy output, and energy intake. These…
Cecil, J.E., Francis, J., & Read, N.W. (1999, August). Comparison of the effects of a high-fat and high-carbohydrate soup delivered orally and intragastrically on gastric emptying, appetite, and eating behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 67(2), 299-306.
Freedman, M.R., King, J., & Kennedy, E. (2001, March). Popular diets: a scientific review. Obesity Research, 9(1), 40-47S.
Golay A, Allaz A-F, Morel Y, de Tonnac N, Tankova S, & Reaven G. (1996). Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 174-8.
Helge, J.W., Richter, E.A., & Kiens, B. (1996). Interaction of training and diet on metabolism and endurance during exercise in man. Journal of Physiology, 492, 293-306.
Project Management, Sustainability and hole Lifecycle Thinking
Application of Anatomy and Physiology when Performing Direct Patient Care
Scenario: A patient suffering from the following conditions requires direct patient care:
Urosepsis (Urinary tract infection)
Acute Gouty arthritis (Gout)
Cardiac dysrhythmias (Irregular heartbeat)
Hypertensive renal disease (Kidney damage caused by chronic high blood pressure)
DM Type II (Type II diabetes)
Bipolar (Bipolar disorder)
Derangement of joint (Internal joint damage caused by previous trauma)
Contracture joint (Permanent shortening and contraction of joint)
Dental condition (Missing all but four front teeth)
The presence of urosepsis in a patient already suffering from the chronic condition of Type II diabetes is an immediate concern. Diabetes causes many of the predisposing factors, including poor glycemic control, high urinary glucose, and increased bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells, which are known to cause a variety of severe complications associated with urosepsis. This situation requires immediate treatment of the urinary…
Christensen, Barbara Lauritsen, and Kockrow, Elaine Oden. Foundations of Nursing. New York, NY: Mosby, 2010. 434-472. Print.
Cushing's disease, as well as Cushing's syndrome, is caused by the overproduction of something called cortisol. Cortisol is "a normal hormone produced in the outer portion, or cortex, of the adrenal glands" (Margulies). hether your body naturally overproduces this hormone, or your body receives too much cortisol in steroid medications used as treatment for other diseases, it can lead to development of Cushing's disease.
In normal function, cortisol helps the body respond to changes and to stressors. Its normal functions include the mobilization of nutrients, modifying the body's response to inflammation, getting the liver to raise blood sugar levels, and regulating the amount of water in the body (Margulies). Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH for short) is made by the pituitary gland, and regulates cortisol production. Overproduction of cortisol, or taking in excess amounts via medications causes significant changes in "all of the tissues and organs of the body" (Margulies). The culmination…
Kirk M.D., Lawrence F., Hash M.D., Robert B., Katner M.D., Harold P., Jones M.D., Tom. "Cushing's Disease: Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation." American Family Physician. Vol. 62, No. 5. pp. 1119-27
Kirk M.D., Lawrence F., Hash M.D., Robert B., Katner M.D., Harold P., Jones M.D., Tom. "Patient Information: Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease." American Family Physician. Vol. 62, No. 5. pp. 1133-4
Margulies M.D., Paul. "Cushing's Syndrome: The facts you need to know." NADF Online. http://www.medhelp.org/www/nadf4.htm21Mar 2002
Research shows that some personality traits like introversion and extraversion have biological or physiological origins. Eysenck (1983) spearheaded much of the research on the physiology of introversion/extraversion, showing that introverts are essentially more aroused than extraverts. Gale (1983) and Stelmach (1990) have pointed out some methodological weaknesses in Eysenck’s work but generally the principle that extraverts can handle stimulation or distraction better than introverts has seemed to correspond to the differences in these temperaments. The results of these studies have tremendous implications for everything from classroom design to communications. For example, O’Connor, Gardiner & Watson (2016) found that introverts benefitted more from relaxation techniques to stimulate creativity, whereas extraverts benefitted more from ideational skills training.
As someone who is basically an introvert with some extraverted tendencies, I can see why there are some inconsistencies in the research. A pure introvert or extravert might react as expected on physiological tests like…
Hypoxia (Flight Physiology)
Hypoxia and Flight Physiology
What is Hypoxia?
Hypoxia is a condition that is caused by a lack of oxygen. It is a common discussion in flight physiology, and occurs when people reach a high altitude without adequate oxygen supplementation. As people fly to higher altitudes, they can get altitude sickness. That can lead to pulmonary edema and high altitude cerebral edema. These can be fatal, but not everyone who develops hypoxia will die from it. The important thing to do when hypoxia occurs is to get to a lower altitude or get supplemental oxygen quickly, in order to mitigate the problematic and dangerous effects of a lack of oxygen. It is not just flight that can cause hypoxia to occur. Climbing to very high altitudes (i.e. Mount Everest) can also cause a lack of oxygen, as can certain medical conditions. The focus of this paper, however, is…
The mechanical and chemical digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth. Chewing also termed as mastication ensures that the carbohydrates crumble down into smaller pieces. There are salivary glands within the oral cavity that secrete saliva which coats the food. Saliva comprises of an enzyme salivary amylase which breaks down the bods that are found between monomeric sugars like disaccharides, oligosaccharides and starches. It also breaks down amylose and amylopectin into small glucose chains referred to as dextrin and maltose. About 5% of starches are broken down within the mouth. There is also production of mucus by mucus cells within the salivary glad which helps the food to stick together and also lubricates food hence help in swallowing. At this stage the food is known as bolus and it is forced into the pharynx with the help of the tongue (Swartz, 2012).
During swallowing, the food passes through the…
Swartz, A. (2012). Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates. Retrieved September 25, 2014 from http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-nutrition-s08-02-digestion-and-absorption-of-ca.html
Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts
The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.
Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.
Modulation of Physiology
The modulation of physiology is similar to…
Randi, James (2001) My Heroes, The Pale Blue Dot, Houdini's Last Stunt. SWIFT. Online Newsletter of the JREP. 28 Dec 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.randi.org/jr/122801.html
Shermer, Michael (2001) Houdini's Skeptical Advice: Just Because Something's Unexplained Doesn't Mean It's Supernatural. Scientific American. 4 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=houdinis-skeptical-advice
Seabourne, Tom Dr. (nd) Breathing and Heart Rate Control. Universal Nutrition. Retrieved from: http://www.universalnutrition.com/features/breathingheartrate.html
incidence rates of childhood obesity are linked to socio-economic factors. Core drivers of obesity in both children and adults are diet and exercise, and research has shown that a calorie is not a calorie. That is to say that certain foods serve as triggers for metabolic responses and physiological events that impact the overall health of individuals. The old adage that people can focus on loosing weight -- the associated implication is that they will be healthy as a result -- has shown not to be true. Much of the prepackaged food consumed today -- particularly so-called junk food -- is high in sugar, fats, and calories. However, this statement is too reductionist to be of help to people who are interested in improving their diets in order to actually become healthier.
ecent research indicates that obesity is certainly a factor in the incidence of diabetes, as is total caloric…
Basu, S., Yoffe, P., Hills, N., & Lustig, R.H. (2013). The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: An econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
Breen, C., Ryan, M., McNulty, B., Gibney, M., Canavan, R., & O'Shea, D. (2014, February). High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Nutrition and Diabetes, 4, e104. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.2.
Eckel, R.H. (1997). Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 96, 3248-3250. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.9.3248
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…
Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients
With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu .
Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease
Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at
Homeostasis is the goal promoted by both positive and negative
feedback mechanisms. This is the principle which indicates that there is a
balance in autonomic life functions which the body attempts always to
maintain. This refers to such features as body temperature, heart rate,
respiration and the powering of vital organs. When stimuli create a
divergence from this status, the body will activate a set of responses
designed to regulate a return to balance.
4. In anatomical position, how many planes can be described and what
are their names?
There are three major anatomical planes, which are used to refer to
different ways of addressing the body and its systems. The anatomical
planes include the Coronal Plane, which refers to the frontal surface of
the body from head to foot. The Sagittal Plan refers to the surface which
might be viewed from a profile, indicating a lateral perspective on the…
Melatonin & the Pineal Gland
The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."
Melatonin & The Pineal Gland
The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…
Arendt, Josephine (1998) Melatonin and the pineal gland: in-uence on mammalian seasonal and Bercemi, N. et al. (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Summary: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 108. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm
Borijgin, J. And Snyder SH (1999) The pineal gland and melatonin: molecular and pharmacologic regulation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;39:53-65.
Bowen, R. (2003) The Pineal Gland and Melatonin. Other Endocrine Tissues and Hormones 17 Mar 2003 Rerieved from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/pineal.html circadian physiology. Reviews of Reproduction 3; 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/revreprod/3/1/13.full.pdf
Summation -- Fluoride and Pineal Gland (2012) Fluoride Action Network. Retried from: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/pineal/
The authors were trying to develop a system of estimating and indexing muscle fatigue rates during static muscle contraction. The results of this study indicated that estimations were reasonably successful with some limitations that were noted. One limitation was that the study neglected muscle recovery since the experiment was performed in a lab under controlled conditions and the muscles were able to fully recover. However, in the real world muscles move in a dynamic environment thus making muscle recovery rates a challenge in producing an accurate estimate of fatigue.
Another study looked at the efficacy of treatments in patients who suffer from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The study conducted research using 111 patients who suffer from CTS. They compared the standard conservative treatment (SCT) with other forms of treatment available that also propose to alleviate symptoms associated CTS. They found that SCT, which includes local steroid injections, was effective as…
Yewguan Soo; Sugi, M.; Nishino, M.; Yokoi, H.; Arai, T.; Kato, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ota, J.;, "Quantitative estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography during static muscle contraction," Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009. EMBC 2009. Annual International Conference of the IEEE, vol., no., pp.2975-2978, 3-6 Sept. 2009
Ay-e N. Bardak, Mehmet Alp, Belgin Erhan, Nurdan Paker, Betul Kaya and Ay-e . Onal,;, "Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of conservative treatment in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome," Advances in Therapy, Publisher Springer Healthcare Communications, ISSN 0741-238X (Print) 1865-8652 (Online), Issue Volume 26, Number 1 / January, 2009
Physiological Effects of Endurance Training
Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.
Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).
Duration and Intensity of Different…
1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998
2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.
3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.
4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Phases and Heart Disease
The objective of the research in this study is to examine the cardiac cycle from the anatomy and physiology perspective. Toward this end, literature in this area of inquiry, which for the purpose of this study is the cardiac cycle, is examined and reported.
Two Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The work of Klabunde reports that the single cycle of cardiac activity may be divided into two primary phases stated to be those of: (1) the diastole phase; and (2) the systole phase. (Klabunde, 2012, p.1, p.1) Diastole is representative of the span of time when the "ventricles are relaxed…blood is passively flowing from the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) into the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively." (Klabunde, 2012, p.1) The mitral and triscuspid or atrioventircular valves are reported to "separate the atria from the ventricles…
Chute, RM (2012) Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels. Retrieved from: http://www.apchute.com/ap2chap/chapt19.htm
Fukuta, H. And Little, W.C. (2008) The Cardiac Cycle and the Physiological Basis of Left Ventricular Contraction, Ejection, Relaxation, and Filling. Heart Fail Clin. 2008. Jan 4(1):1-11. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390899/
Klabunde, R.E. (2012) Cardiac Cycle. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Retrieved from: http://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Disease/HD002.htm
Limacher, MC (2004) Understanding the Impact of Abnormal Cardiac Activation on Cardiac Function. J Am Cardiol 2004;43(9): 1532-1533. Retrieved from: http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1135544
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600
CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/
Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054
Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.
Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.
Macario, a., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J. Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68.
Marczin, N. (2004). Editorial I: Tiny wonders of tiny impurities of nitrous oxide during anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 93(5), 619-623.
Ng, a. (2005). Sevoflurane sedation in infants - a fine line between sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth, 15(1), 1-2.
Preckel, B., Mullenheim, J., Hoff, J., Obal, D., Heiderhoff, M., Thamer, V., et al. (2004). Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after…
Desalu, I., Kushimo, O.T., & Odelola, M.A. (2004). Cardiovascular changes during halothane induction in children. Niger Postgrad Med J, 11(3), 173-178.
Gungor, I., Bozkirli, F., Celebi, H., & Gunaydin, B. (2003). Comparison of the effects of neuroleptanesthesia and enflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. J Anesth, 17(2), 129-132.
Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.
Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.
Obesity in children has become a common health problem. Obesity in children is a result of indulging in fast foods and spending time in front of the television or being stationary playing video
There is an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (Hill and Peters, 1998). The portion-sizes of food in America's restaurants are unreasonable and uncontrolled (Hill and Peters, 1998). There is an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004). There is also an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Most importantly, studies show that a diet of 35% fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). It is no wonder that children having this unnutritious food become obese.
Another factor is the increasingly sedentary lifestyle that is due, in part,…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Bell & Standish, (2009) Building healthy communities through equitable food access. Community Development Investment Review, 75-87
Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
Glycogen Storage and Use
Exercise and diabetes: Beneficial effects
Diabetes is increasing in the United States and throughout the world due to the ever-growing adoption of an unhealthy lifestyle, including poor diet and lack of physical activity. Obesity is a characteristic often present in individuals with diabetes, and in order for the occurrences of diabetes to be reduced and the effects of diabetes to be minimized, efforts must be put in place to encourage weight loss and the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is expected that obesity and diabetes will reach epidemic proportions unless prompt action is taken to counteract these conditions (Albu & aja-Khan, 2003).
Lifestyle factors have been identified that are associated with glycemic control and body mass in individuals with diabetes. Grylls et al. (2003) found that reducing dietary saturated fat and excess body weight may be useful for improving glycemic control in older adults with…
Albu, J. & Raja-Khan, N. (2003). The management of the obese diabetic patient. Primary Care, 30(2), 465-91.
Borghouts, L. & Keizer, H. (2000). Exercise and insulin sensitivity: A review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(1), 1-12.
Casteneda, C., Layne, J., Munoz-Orians, L., Gordon, P., Walsmith, J., Foldvari, M., Roubenoff, R., Tucker, K., Nelson, M. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(12), 2335-41.
Cradock, S. (1997). The role of exercise in diabetes management. Community Nurse, 3(3), 23-4.
The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).
Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)
"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…
Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.
Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)
Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331
Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
(1989). These researchers investigated skeletal muscle adaptations in response to acclimatization at high altitude. Samples of muscle extracted before reaching high altitude and after returning to sea-level showed that maximal activities of enzymes, such as those representative of beta-oxidation, were unchanged. However, after exposure to extremely high altitude hypoxic conditions, reductions were observed in succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthetase and hexokinase. The findings of this study did not support the researchers' hypothesis that extremely hypoxic conditions elicit changes that are adaptive toward maximizing oxidative function at the intracellular level (Green et al., 1989).
Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., obbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in esponse to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.
Green, H.J., Sutton, J.., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology…
Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., Robbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in Response to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.
Green, H.J., Sutton, J.R., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology 66.5 (1989): 2454-61.
Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M. "Muscle Tissue Adaptations to Hypoxia." The Journal of Experimental Biology 204 (2001): 3133-9.
Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M., Weibel, E.R., Fluck, M. "Response of Skeletal Muscle Mirochondria to Hypoxia." Experimental Physiology 88.1 (2003): 109-19.
However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)
The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…
Bennett, Taylor. B. (1996) "Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel"
De Reuck, a.V. S; O'Connor, Maeve. (1962) "CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary
Structure and Function" a. Churchill Ltd.: London.
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…
Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html
Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041
Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
It had been hypothesized that the release of four calcium ions is necessary for the release of one acetylcholine packet (which is necessary for the neuromuscular communication taking place at the neuromuscular junction), and thus that calcium has a cooperative impact on neuromuscular transmissions (Dodge & ahamimoff, 1967). Specifically, these researchers noted a logarithmic scale that described the relationship between calcium ion concentration and the level of neuromuscular activity taking place during a given activation cycle that suggests the fourth power of calcium concentration is equal to action at the junction (Dodge & ahamimoff, 1967).
Later research into the same basic phenomenon has yielded still greater understanding of the mechanism by which calcium achieves its purposed ends in neuromuscular transmission. Augustine and Charlton (1986) have shown that the cooperative aspect of calcium's involvement in neuromuscular transmission likely does not take place at the presynaptic areas of transmission, but rather that…
Augustine, G. & Charlton, M. (1986). Calcium dependence of presynaptic calcium current and post-synaptic response at the squid giant synapse. The Journal of Physiology 381: 619-40.
Dodge, F. & Rahamimoff, R. (1967). Co-operative action of calcium ions in transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. The Journal of Physiology 193: 419-32.
Katz, B. & Miledi, R. (1968). The role of calcium in neuromuscular facilitation. The Journal of Physiology 195: 481-92.
Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I
The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.
Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…
AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .
Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS
Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved
October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/382
Silk and tassel look similar but the two structures are functionally different. The NP interviewer uses them synonymously without correction by the farmer.
However, the farmer is correct in emphasizing the importance of the silk and tassel, the stigma and the male inflorescence, in the reproduction of the corn. Moreover, the farmer stresses the relationship between wind and corn fertilization. Pollen grains are "borne in anthers, each of which contains a large number of pollen grains" that emerge only during certain morning hours (Thomison). The farmer in the NP segment fails to mention the crucial timing involved in corn pollination.
Corn ovules are potential kernels, which are the fruits of the corn. The seeds of the corn are its pollen: which is created in the anthers and which travel along the male inflorescence to fertilize the stigmas. Stigmas are essentially pollen receptors. In many plants, the stigma is part of…
Thomison, P. Corn Pollination - an Overview. Retrieved Oct 1, 2008 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0128.html
Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…
DeSanti, Leslie (2005) Pathophysiology and Current Management of Burn Injury Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Volume 18(6), July/August 2005, pp 323-332
Hancock, Elise (1995) The Handy Guide to Touch - April 1995. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/495web/touch.html .
Kane, Daniel (2004) Feb 19 How Your Brain Handles Love and Pain MSNBC Online available at http://www.sciam.com/search/index.cfm?QT=Q&SCC=Q&Q=burns%3A+skin+receptors .
Britt, Robert Roy (2006) The Pain Truth: How and Why We Hurt - Health Sci-Tech 31 January 2006 Live Science Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=signals+to+brain+from+burn&page=4&nt=SG1_S I0&userid=-7493026336042476887&invocationType=topsearchbox.search&c lickstreamid=-7493026336042476889
Plasma & BC
Plasma constitutes the majority of whole blood volume, about 46-63% (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Plasma is the matrix of blood, contributing to blood's unique composition. Plasma has three main components: plasma proteins, water, and other solutes (Patton & Thibodeau, 2009). Plasma proteins are too large in size to get across capillary walls; therefore after the majority of these proteins are synthesized by the liver, they go into the bloodstream and remain there (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). The majority of plasma proteins are albumins. Albumin's role is to contribute to the osmotic pressure of plasma; they also serve as carrier proteins, transporting various hormones and fatty acids (Tortora & Derrickson, 2011). Globulin is another plasma protein whose role is to transport ions, thyroid and steroid hormones, and lipids; they also contain our antibodies that help our immune system (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Fibrinogin is an…
Martini, F., Nath, J., & Bartholomew, E. (2011).Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology.. (9th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.
Patton, K.T., & Thibodeau, G.A. (2009). Anatomy & physiology. (7th ed.). Missouri: Mosby.
Tortora, G.J., & Derrickson, B.H. (2011). Principles of anatomy and physiology. (13th ed., Vol. 22). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…
Cohen, Elwood. (1999). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Coughlin, Patricia B. (1993). Facing Alzheimer's. New York: Ballantine Books.
Powell, Lenore S. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease: A Guide for Families. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
A and Katie Courtice. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.
The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…
1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.
History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.lsumc.edu.com, Accessed May 12, 2007
Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet,
relationship among Boyle's, Dalton's, and Henry's Laws and the physiology of the lung. obert Boyle investigated the relationship between the volume of a dry ideal gas and its pressure. Since there are four variables that can be altered in a gas sample, in order to investigate how one variable will affect another, all other variables must be held constant or fixed. Boyle fixed the amount of gas and its temperature during his investigation. He found that when he manipulated the pressure that the volume responded in the opposite direction. For example, when Boyle increased the pressure on a gas sample, the volume would decrease.
A physiological example of Boyle's Law is the action of the diaphragm. This muscle is located just below the lungs. When one inhales, the diaphragm moves downward allowing the lungs an increased volume. Consequently, this decreases the pressure inside the lungs so that the pressure is…
Ewalenko, M. (2002). [Scuba diving: practical aspects]. Rev Med Brux, 23(4), A218-222.
Wagner, P.D. (1993). Algebraic analysis of the determinants of VO2,max. Respir Physiol, 93(2), 221-237.
West, J.B. (1999). The original presentation of Boyle's law. J Appl Physiol, 87(4), 1543-1545.
Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career
Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.
As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…
Nursing elated Case Study
Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.
Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.
Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…
Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf
Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.
Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems
Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium
There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.
The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…
Hain, T. And Helminski, J. (2001). Anatomy and physiology of the normal vestibular system. In S. Herdman (Ed.) Vestibular Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition (pp. 2-18). Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.
Lledo, Peirre-Marie, Gheusi, Gilles, and Vincent, Jean-Didier. (2005). Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiological Reviews, 85, 281-317.
Virtual Medical Centre. (2010). Ear. VirtualMedicalCentre.com. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2011 from http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/ear/29
instructional design models, including elements defining ways traditional methods encourage learner involvement. eferences required. A peer reviewed journal article, textbooks, and current journal articles credible websites.
Discuss the various instructional design models, including elements defining ways in which traditional methods encourage learner involvement.
The foundational instructional design model is called the 'ADDIE' model: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. During the analysis (planning) phase, the designer identifies the "learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience's needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project" (ADDIE Model, 2012, Learning Theories). During the design phase, learning objectives are further specified as the instructional plan takes shape. The development phase involves the actual creation of the content. The implementation phase is the execution of the instructional plan. During this execution phase, input is solicited from learners…
ADDIE Model. (2012). Learning theories. Retrieved:
Clark, Don. (2010). Why instructional system design? Retrieved:
woman entered the National Institutes of Health esearch Hospital in Bethesda Maryland with a serious, but fairly routine infection; however the subsequent events were to prove anything but routine. The article titled "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-esistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Whole-Genome Sequencing," traced the effort to discover the cause of the woman's illness, as well how the staff at one of America's most advanced hospitals dealt with the subsequent outbreak of disease. (Starr, 2012) This article interested me because it focused on an outbreak of illness, something which anyone could have been affected, but also because it discussed two aspects of the course and it's text: single-celled life forms and genetics.
The woman brought to the NIH research hospital was suffering from an infection caused by an antibiotic-resistant organism, but it was a new strain, never before encountered. About a month after she was treated and discharged, another patient…
"Klebsiella Pneumoniae Morphology" Klebsiella Pneumoniae.org. Retrieved from http://klebsiella-pneumoniae.org/klebsiella_pneumoniae_morphology.html
Melissa Block, Eddie Cornish. (30 Oct 2012). Interview "NIH Takes Extraordinary Steps
In Fighting 'Superbug'." NPR.org. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2012/08/23/159931389/nih-takes-extraordinary-steps-in-fighting-super bug
Snitkin, Evan, etal. (Aug 2012). "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant
• Glossary of terms
• Whiteboard/Chalkboard/Computer Projector
• Pencil Sharpeners
• Quick reference guides for lesson
• Computer file copies of information (PDF's, etc.)
• Teach physiology terminology in English
• Teach physiology terminology in Spanish
• Be able to describe major functions of each body part
• In both Spanish and English
• Teach general fitness guidelines and metrics
• Teach students to be able to synthesize both narrative/report speech relating to the subject as well as graphs, charts and diagrams
• Drive home the importance of having a strong and fluent understanding of terminology and contextual information within the medical paradigm
• Be able to explain Spanish narratives and speech into English
• Same thing in reverse
• Teach proper sentence structure. Define types of words (nouns, verbs, etc.) as…
• Verbal lectures
• Narrative/Report Content
Multiple Means of Engagement
Magnetic esonance System on patients
Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.
MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…
Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New
Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.
Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).
It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…
Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.
Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin
Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.
Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
The practice of manipulative thrust therapy can be dangerous and cases of injuries and tragic events have been recorded. Cases of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) have been recorded in people that had the cervical spine manipulation technique done and research on the cases from 1966 to 1993 concluded 30% could be attributed to the procedure (Cleland 2007). VADs are spontaneous and can be normally present at the initial onset of headaches or neck pain. This represents the conclusion that the VAD was present before the technique is performed on a patient complaining of neck pain. The debate over the truth is still being waged. Even authors have joined the debate but they are touted as biased and do not support the evidenced based in research (User's Guide 2008).
Other debates rage as well. The risks of the manipulative thrusts therapies are actually no worse the risks from NSAIDs and cervical…
Anonymous. "Activator turns 35." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2001. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Anonymous. "Study Finds "Manual Therapy" Effective for Shoulder Dysfunction/Pain." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2004. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Anonymous. "Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2006. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001 Vol. 47-163-24 April 2010
hen an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami, and Imami).
There are different treatment options for coronary artery disease. Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle…
Kern, Morton, Amir Lerman, Jan-Willen Bech, Bernard De Bruyne, Eric Eeckhout, William Fearon, Stuart Higano, Michael Lim, and Martjin Meuwissen. "Physiological Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory ." American Heart Association Journal 114 (2006): 1321-1341. American Heart Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
Pazoki, Raha, Iraj Nabipour, Nasrin Seyednezami, and Seyed Reza Imami. "Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)." BMC Public Health 7 (2007): 216-220. Print.
Rub, M., Cremer, J., Krian, a., Meinertz, T., Werdan, K., & Zerkowski, H. "Different Treatment Options in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease." Deutschs Arzteblatt International 106.15 (10 Apr 2009): 253-261.
Shirato, Susan, and Beth Ann Swan. "Women and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidentiary Review." MedSurg Nursing 19.5 (2010): 282-306. Print.
The variability of salt consumption in horses makes it difficult to use salt as a carrier for other nutrients. It is preferable to offer a balanced feed that is designed for the type of horse you are feeding and simply provide free choice white salt" ("Don't forget the salt," CFC, 2006).
Treatment and prognosis for recovery
Horses that are salt starved "must be introduced to salt slowly. Salt poisoning is possible if salt is suddenly available. Symptoms of salt poisoning are digestive upset and cramps" if the horse indulges in too much salt at once ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). Salt is the only mineral which horses know they need. "Horses can be deficient in copper or any other mineral and not consume the needed amounts when they are available. But horses will eat salt if their body needs it" ("Horses and salt," University of isconsin, 2010). hen…
"A pinch of salt." Horse and Rider. 2001. February 5, 2010.
"Don't forget the salt." CFC farm and home center. January-February 2006.
February 5, 2010. http://www.cfcfarmhome.net/images/E0228001/horsenewsjanfeb.pdf
For example, Dr. Gutierrez took me around to the different departments and allowed me to meet and talk with Dustin Bowman, one of his patients. He is 23-year-old, was in the U.S. Air Force and just transferred to Haley Hospital about a week ago. He had a Cervical 1 injury, and his left lung was deflated, which completely affected his entire body. He needs a great deal of respiratory care. With this patient and others that Dr. Gutierrez told me about during my observations at the hospital, I clearly came to see how respiratory therapist must know the patient's entire medical condition to fully provide effective treatment.
Respiratory therapists have to be knowledgeable and skillful about cardiopulmonary therapy, but beyond this, they must have the necessary understanding about human physiology, anatomy, and body chemistry to best understand the holistic condition of their patients. For example, to evaluate patients, the respiratory…
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…
Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7
Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.
Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report
Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
Hypokalemia occurs when the blood plasma level of potassium is too low (below 3.5 mcg). This is the most common electrolyte imbalance. It effects cardiac conduction and function.
Calcium is a cation that is stored in the bone, plasma and body cells. In plasma, it binds with albumin. It is well-known that calcium is necessary for healthy teeth and bones. However, it is also necessary for blood clotting, hormone secretion, maintaining the integrity of cell membranes, cardiac conduction, transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Calcium levels in the body are regulated by bone resorption.
Hypercalcemia occurs when calcium levels rise above 5 mcg in the plasma. One of the most common symptoms is cardiac arrhythmia. X-rays will show calcium loss in the bones when blood plasma levels are high. This is frequently a symptom of and underlying disease with excess bone resorption and the release of calcium. It…
Levitsky, M. (2007) Pulmonary Physiology. Sixth Edition. New York, New York; McGraw Hill Professional. pp.163-187.
My life has centered upon answering a central question. This question has been a in my mind since I was 10 years old. At that age, my first image of medicine was largely influenced by the doctors and nurses who were always helping my grandfather battle a rare form of brain cancer. His illness was a life changing experience for me, as, at that age, I watched his condition gradually deteriorate over a period of three months, and I detested I could do nothing to help. This thought, however painful then, has motivated my entire life, and has led to my choosing of nursing as a profession,
Though some did not approve of this particular career path, I never gave up my dreams. For this reason, I began studying and volunteering so as to combine education in theory with education in practice. Giving back to…
Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).
Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…
Acetylcholine. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.chemistryexplained.com/A-
Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://axon.psyc.memphis.edu/~charlesblaha/3507/Biogenic%20Amines/Lecture%20-
, 2007). The results of that research indicates that light users of MDMA do exhibit mild cognitive impairment during the short-term in which they occasionally use the drug but that after six months or more of abstinence, their performance on the same cognitive tests used to identify those changes returns to being indistinguishable from the performance of those who have never been exposed to the drug (Golding, Groome, ycroft, et al., 2007).
The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of Heavy MDMA Use
Animal studies have conclusively established that MDMA causes permanent destruction of neurons and synaptic processes that are essential to the physiological mechanisms of neurotransmitter secretion, response, and reuptake by virtue of the selectively neurotoxic properties of the drug on 5-HT neurons in rats (Verrico, Miller, & Madras, 2007). Those findings are consistent with anecdotal evidence collected from clinical human data in connection with the long-term cognitive, behavioral, and mood…
Golding, J.F., Groome, DH, Rycroft, N., and Denton, Z. "Cognitive Performance in Light Current Users and Ex-Users of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Controls." The
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 33 (2007): 301 -- 307.
Koprich, J.B., Chen, E.Y., Kanaan, N.M., Campbell, N.G., Kordower, J.H., and Lipton, J.W. "Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters exploratory behavior, reduces monoamine metabolism, and increases forebrain tyrosine hydroxylase fiber density of juvenile rats." Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 25, No. 5 (2003): 509 -- 517.
Roiser, J.P., Rogers, R.D., and Sahakian, B.J. "Neuropsychological function in ecstasy
According to Croucher (2003), there are five layers in the erotic life of human beings. The first of these is sexual identity. This is the physical differentiation between male and female, which is fixed by the end of the first trimester in the development of the foetus. Transsexuals feel that they have the "wrong sex" and therefore the wrong core identity. The second layer is sexual orientation, which refers to hetero- or homosexuality. This is also almost impossible to change, since a genetic component plays a role here. The third layer, which is sexual preferences, refers to the elements of sexual stimulation. For men, for example, this would generally be female body parts, while women are aroused by factors such as intimacy, character, and other more subtle factors. The fourth layer is sex roles, where roles are assigned accordign to gender. This demarcation is strongest in young children.…
Berman, J.R. (2005). Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, Vol. 17. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v17/n1s/full/3901428a.html
Croucher, R. (2003, Jan 4). What you Can Change and What you Can't. John Mark Ministeries. Retrieved from: http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/2136.htm
Hucker, S.J. (2005). Paraphilias. Forensic Psychiatry.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.forensicpsychiatry.ca/paraphilia/overview.htm
Magnus Hirschfield Archive for Sexology. (2011). The Role of Hormones. Retrieved from: http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ATLAS_EN/html/the_role_of_hormones.html