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However, a politically correct attitude can in time reduce this reality because it can ensure a neutral education of the society in the sense that the society can learn not to differentiate based on other than the individual's capacities.
Finally, another reason for which political correctness is related to aspects of more tangible conditions such as the working environment. A politically correct attitude implies offering the same job opportunities to both men and women, to all races, cultures, and religious orientation. Providing such an open poll of selection can actually improve efficiency and working conditions in the workplace. For instance, it is important that women receive maternity leave and time off to attend their newborn children. However, it should be encouraged that men as well benefit from this opportunity. Although there are cases in which men are given paternity leave for childcare, they are not a rule, nor are these…
Political Correctness on the Ball Field
In the article entitled "Sticks and Stones and Sports Team Names," author Richard Estrada writes about the continued use of Native Americans as nicknames for American sports teams and how he feels this is culturally insensitive and that the practice should be banned. In making this case, he invokes feelings of nostalgia and pride in a region's sports team and how this is incongruous with mocking of an ethnic identity. Estrada utilizes the rhetorical devices of pathos, ethos, and logos while at the same timing intentionally or unintentionally employing fallacies in making his arguments regarding the harm of continuing the practice of naming teams after ethnic minorities.
Pathos, or emotional appeal, is utilized throughout the piece, but most obviously in Estrada's opening paragraph. He first uses nostalgic terms to create an image of childhood and then uses hyperbole to describe the ballplayers (Estrada). By…
Estrada, Richard. "Sticks and Stones and Sports Team Names."
When it comes to cancel culture, some love it and some hate it. Like much in this nation, it is a subject that divides most people. At root, cancel culture is about establishing new social norms through ostracism. When a person fails to live according to the standards of political correctness, that person is in danger of being canceled, which can be anything from relentless online trolling via social media to being fired and blacklisted from whatever industry in which one works. Essentially, it is not a new phenomenon. Hawthorne wrote about it in The Scarlet Letter: Hester Prynne was cancelled and ostracized from her community for violating norms regarding adultery. Today’s Puritanical culture of political correctness has different standards for men and women, blacks and whites, and insists on those differences as a form of making reparations for perceived gender and racial wrongs committed by an immoral patriarchy. …
Schwarz, H. (2015). Jerry Seinfeld hates political correctness. So we ruined 7 Seinfeld episodes by making them PC. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/06/10/jerry-seinfeld-hates-political-correctness-so-we-ruined-7-seinfeld-episodes-by-making-them-pc/
White, A. (2020). Golden Globes: Read Ricky Gervais' Scathing Opening Monologue. Retrieved from https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/transcript-ricky-gervais-golden-globes-2020-opening-monologue-1266516
ith the difficulties of resolving budget controversies, contending with myriad resource shortfalls and enduring a federal economic perspective toward education that is today, inconsistent at best, criminally negligent at worst, the superintendent must sometimes make decisions which are responsible but reprehensible to those without a full appreciate for the centricity required of the position. To this end, one journal published superintendent conceded that "partisan politics sometimes forces the superintendent of schools into a dilemma in which he must champion disgusting leadership in his party simply for the sake of being regular and therefore to hold his position as a school leader and through this leadership to do what he can to carry forward a decent program for education in his community." (Hall, 241) Such is to say that the superintendent must be conscientious of and willingly participatory in the political process if he is to survive in the position.
AP. (2004). Georgia considers banning 'evolution.' CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2004/EDUCATION/01/30/striking.evolution.ap/index.html.
Bjork, L.G. & Kowalski, T.J. (2005). The Contemporary Superintendent. Corwin Press.
Danitz, T. (2000). States Confronting School Superintendent Shortage. Stateline. Online at http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136&languageId=1&contentId=13937 .
Edwards, M.E. (2006). The Modern School Superintendent: An Overview of the Role and Responsibilities in the 21st Century. iUniverse, Inc.
age of political correctness, there are those who are attempting to rewrite history into something that never happened. One such case is the statue commemorating the firefighters of September 11th. (indle, 2002)
The Fire Department of New York City is planning to erect a 19-foot bronze statue at its Brooklyn headquarters in honor of the 343 firefighters who died on September 11th. This statue is receiving criticism among several groups throughout the city.
The statue is "based on the famous photograph of three firefighters raising the American flag on the rubble at the orld Trade Center site (indle, 2002)." The three firefighters in the photo are white, but the statue has been changed to depict one white man, one Hispanic man and one black man (indle, 2002).
Some of the firefighters and their families are upset by the statue and look at it as the city's way to…
Windle, N.R. COLUMN: Statue seeks political correctness by rewriting history.
University Wire. (2002): 14 January.
true since we were children and we were told by adults that "words will never hurt us." A good many of us would most likely have preferred the sticks and stones because physical injuries often heal far more quickly and far more effectively than psychological ones.
And yet, even as we must all acknowledge the basic principle that words can do real harm, many people continue to insist that sexist language is a trivial concern. This paper looks at the reasons why it is important to be careful about the language that we use. It is all too easy for opponents of care in language to toss off concerns about bias as "political correctness." But it is important that the rest of us insist that "political correctness" can be viewed another way: As basic courtesy and civility.
Because language is one of the most powerful forces that there is, anyone…
Cameron, D. (1990). The feminist critique of language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://www.friesian.com/language.htm l
Spender, D. (1985). Man-made language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand. New York: William Morrow.
White guilt is a sociological and social psychological phenomenon that refers to a collective taking of responsibility by the dominant group for perpetrating past injustices. The phenomenon of white guilt is usually associated with greater support for affirmative action and other activist approaches to mitigating the effects of racism. Therefore, white guilt can be perceived as a desirable or positive variable that can predict pro-social behavior. Indeed, research has shown statistically significant correlations between perceived white guilt and low levels of prejudice against people of color (wim and Miller). Likewise, there is strong support in academic literature that white guilt is associated with more support for affirmative action programs (Gunn and Wilson). White guilt is also associated with the acknowledgment of the existence of white privilege, which is the phenomenon of whites benefitting from their social status (Iver, Leach and Crosby; wim and Miller). The experience of white guilt is…
Swim, Janet K. And Miller, Deborah L. "White Guilt: Its Antecedents and Consequences for attitudes Towards Affirmative Action." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 25(4).
Vanairsdale, S.T. "Why white guilt is anything but dead." Esquire. 14 Oct. 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.esquire.com/the-side/hollywood/white-guilt-is-not-dead-101409
Washington, Ellis. "White Guilt, Black Victimhood." WND. 2 Sept 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.wnd.com/2011/09/340797/
In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).
The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…
Blumberg, S.J., Osborn, M.L., Larry, C. & Olson, L. (2003). The impact of touch-tone data entry on reports of HIV and STD risk behaviors in telephone interviews. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 121.
Hak-Su, K. (2004, March-May). Why we must defeat HIV / AIDS. UN Chronicle, 41(1), 51.
Hackl, K.L., Somlai, a.M., Kelly, J.A. & Kalichman, S.C. (1997). Women living with HIV / AIDS: The dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health and Social Work, 22(1), 53.
HIV / AIDS and women. (2008). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/index.htm .
.....controversy of establishing a court system at the creation of the U.S. Constitution centered on the power struggle between states and the creation of a federal, central government with its own court and ability to overrule state court decisions. The Constitution pitted Federalists against Anti-Federalists. The former wanted a central government that acted as the top force over all the states; the latter wanted no central government -- because, after all, the Revolutionaries had just fought a war against a king -- why should they turn around and elect a new one? The idea of sovereign states was such that each state was its own master and local citizens could have more say in their government at a localized, grassroots level. The passing of the Constitution essentially tipped the scales towards the centralized federal government having power over all the states (Brutus No. 1, 1787).
UNIT 1 DISCUSSION (2)
To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.
However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).
Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational…
Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.
Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,
Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
life that what once may have been a derogatory word for something may have, over the years, come to mean something entirely different, and in a similar fashion, what was once a term of endearment or something commonplace may have evolved through the years, into something that would have derogatory connotations. (World Wide Words) For example, when one interviewer asked an American about the origin of the word 'Bozo', he had to refer to a Dictionary, and what he was about to discover amazed him. This was because of the fact that most Dictionaries tended to avoid the word Bozo for some reason or another, giving a vague and uncertain 'origin uncertain' as the explanation. As a matter of fact, the term Bozo seems to have initially appeared in the year 1916, and one of the first meanings for the word probably meant 'man' or a 'fellow'. Later on, it…
Is Refugee a Racist Term, Jesse Jackson seems to think so. 6 September, 2005. Retrieved
From http://www.metafilter.com/mefi/44884 Accessed 21 September, 2005
Morse, Caroll Andrew. No Refugees in America. 7 September, 2005. Retrieved From
http://www.techcentralstation.com/090705J.html Accessed 21 September, 2005
Race, Gender and Class as Sources of Comedic Tension in HBO’s Advertisement for Season One of “Vice Principals”
An online ad for Season One of HBO’s show “Vice Principals,” starring Danny McBride, Walton Goggins and Kimberly Gregory, consists of a two-minute trailer that showcases the main “selling” points of the comedy series—conflict, romance, “bromance,” action, and racial tension. The two main sources of conflict in the series, as represented in the ad, are between the two rivaling vice principals played by McBride and Goggins, both of whom vie for the Principal’s job, and between the two of them and the new principal played by Gregory, against whom McBride and Goggins unite to overthrow). The characters represent various types: McBride plays a middle-class, middle-aged white male with a traditional though pudgy bearing (he sports a sweater vest to school and has a very out-of-date hair cut and moustache that resembles more…
Since the terrorist is from the U.S., they likely have the ability and resources to remain more anonymous than an international terrorist. Since Kaczynski had a motive, or manifesto that he wanted to promote, it is interesting to note that he was so successful at not being caught. Often time domestic terrorists are quite bold, and willing to get caught as long as their message is delivered to a large amount of people. Most often domestic terrorists hold right-leaning beliefs, and Kaczynski is no exception (Chase, 2000). His thoughts and anger toward the leftists helped propel him through the UNIBOMBER campaign, and gave him the fuel to both write a manifesto as well as carry out attacks against other U.S. citizens. The familiarity with other citizens also makes the UNIBOMBER case quite chilling, since it is tough for many people to consider the fact that another American is bombing his…
Chase, Alston. (2000). "Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber." The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/2000/06/chase.htm . Retrieved February 8, 2010.
Comey, James B. (2009). Fighting Terrorism and Preserving Civil Liberties. University of Richmond Press: Richmond, VA.
"Interview with Ted Kaczynski, Administrative Maximum Facility Prison, Florence, Colorado, USA." Earth First Journal, June 1999.
Kaczynski, Theodore. (2005) the Unabomber Manifesto: Industrial Society and Its Future. Oxford Press: New York, NY.
No Justice, No Peace
In Z-Ro’s “No Justice No Peace,” the hip hop artist states, “No justice, no peace
It's us against police. Every time I turn around they shoot another brother down.” The argument made by the artist is that police brutality and oppression is marginalizing African-Americans and making them fearful of the law—which to them represents white rule, white power, and white aggression. The artist, like all hip hop artists, is coming from a traditional of criticism against Jim Crow: his descendents are men like Malcolm X and MLK, Jr., Ice Cube, and Tupac Shakur. Z-Ro’s words echo with all the history of those stories and more rolled into a monumental protest anthem. It is an anthem that many can understand. However, there is also a racial component to it that disqualified anyone who is not African-American from identifying with the song. For instance, others who are white…
money is a factor in politics, it is also a factor in academics and it is a corrupting influence, because who controls the purse strings controls the content. It is like having sponsored content in a newspaper: the university's educative content is essentially sponsored by benefactors who have a say and a stake in the ideas that are promoted. Thus one should pay attention to who and what entities are supporting universities if one is sensitive to what sort of material he or she wants to learn, because depending on the backers of the institution it might turn out that a very specific worldview or focus is promoted.
Also, with college tuitions rising and the job market shrinking, there is a significant chance that a great many students will be left with a bill that they simply cannot afford. Debt over one's eyeballs is certainly nowhere close to being the…
Butler, S. (2003). War is a Racket. LA: Feral House.
Hershbein, B., Hollenbeck, K. (2015). Student Loans and the Dynamic of Debt. MI:
W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Lind, W. (2011). The History of Political Correctness. Free Congress Foundation.
American Orwellian Tyranny
Although the apocalyptic vision of the future that Orwell presented in 1984 has not yet occurred, some of the most chilling concepts he described are gradually becoming doctrinal pillars of law in the United States. An analysis of contemporary society reveals that an Orwellian manipulation of language is causing a dramatic shift in the way people think and is exerting tyrannical control over the common American. This control is being brought about by newly formed standards of speech backed by governmental regulation and which commands that government approved behavior be displayed. These events parallel the control that Orwell's "Big Brother" (1) exerted on the populace in 1984 but which is commonly referred to today as political correctness.
Three of the most potent ideas discussed in Orwell's 1984 are "doublethink" (3), the destruction of actual events (17) and "thoughtcrime" (8). These ideas work collaboratively to bring about the…
Arnold, Catherine "Minority Report." Marketing News 15 Nov. 2004: 38
"Makeup test: More history, less P.C." Newsweek 15 Apr. 1996: 127
Wright, Ellen "U.S. Senate Passes Hate Crimes Act." Lesbian News Aug. 2004: 30
Abraham, Delphine "Changing Websters Dictionary." Essence Mar. 1998: 28
Gender is often considered an immutable trait, linked inextricably to the biological sex one was born with. However, research over the past several decades in a multitude of fields including anthropology, psychology, and sociology shows that gender is socially constructed and not innate. Gender is projected onto children before they are fully cognizant of their surroundings, dressed in gendered clothes and channeled into gendered activities. A child is rarely free to construct his or her own gender. While it is rare for a person to be born hermaphroditic, it is not rare at all for someone to dis-identify with their socially prescribed gender and therefore deviate from the norm. Some forms of gender-bending are considered normative, but only in certain contexts. For example, a young girl can be a tomboy without serious social consequences but if she continues to subvert traditional gender norms, she risks social stigma. The level of…
Charon, J.M. & Vigilant, L.G. Social Problems: Readings with Four Questions 4th Edition
What Beck and Balfe fail to recognize is the inconvenient truth of statistics showing that European countries are leagues ahead of the United States on basic but quantifiable quality of life factors ranging from measures like access to education and health care or income disparity. Beck and Balfe love to rant about the French and it becomes painfully obvious their tantrum is rooted in jealousy. The authors spew what many readers will recognize as a 1980s mentality: blind pursuit of the American Dream in spite of its failure to nurture a large portion of the nation's citizens. As predicted, Beck and Balfe rage against anything slightly resembling socialized medicine by waving the Communist banner.
Readers who can get beyond the amusing antics will still find tidbits of truth in the pages of an Inconvenient Book. The chapters cover every possible topic imaginable from child sex offenders and the harmful effect…
Too many leaders today do not see much as necessarily bad or good, and they simply go through their life without realizing there is so much more out there to be done and seen, just like the people in Plato's Cave. They have blinders on -- some of which are part of society, and some of which are self-inflicted. If only they would break out of the chains which enslave them in that Cave they could climb up into the light where they could truly see, and they would be aware of all the beauty and wonder in this world.
Unfortunately, the people in the Cave choose not to make an attempt at going outside, and because they do not strive to see more and to learn more, they do not teach the children to see more and to learn more. The cycle simply perpetuates, and this is the case…
Anderson, Albert a. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program. http://roger.babson.edu/ethics/downsizi.htm.
Donaldson, Thomas, and a.R. Gini. (1984). Case Studies in Business Ethics. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Giardina, Denise. (1999). Saints and Villains. New York: Ballantine Books.
Guthrie, W.K.C. (1986). A History of Greek Philosophy: Volume 4, Plato: The Man and His Dialogues: Earlier Period. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Under Clinton's administration, the CIA was a low-priority issue and American intelligence services became sucked up into the Washington political circles and in useless bureaucracy. Business trumped national security in terms of importance, which is why the CIA reduced the numbers of field operatives like Baer. Fewer officers were trained in local languages and customs in order to infiltrate terrorist organizations before they could wreak havoc. The reduced numbers of field officers meant less intelligence and more potential for terrorists to organize attacks such as September 11.
Most readers will find Baer's book shocking and frightening, given that it will take many years for American intelligence to grow back in stature and effectiveness. Additionally, the CIA's emphasis on technology over people, on business over security, on political correctness over the real and gritty work of a real security officer, might come as a surprise to those who still believe that…
So let's change the interpretation a little bit so that it will be the way we wished it were." Well, that's not what history is. History is what happened, and history ought to be nothing more than the quest to find out what happened. Now, if you want to get into why what happened, that's probably valid too, but why what happened shouldn't have much of anything to do with what happened. (Limbaugh 1994)
The push for the elimination of negative stereotypes, and to encourage the diversification of perspectives through education of our youths is certainly a noble and worthwhile effort. However, there cannot be an absolute answer for all of the problems. Certainly racism, for example, needs to be abolished, and the tone and viewpoints of our educational tools is the perfect place to begin this alteration. However, is it necessarily beneficial to erase all evidence of racism from…
Cheney, Lynne V. 1994. The end of history. Wall Street Journal. 20 October 1994.Evans, R.W., & Pang, V.O. (1995). National Standards for United States History: the Storm of Controversy Continues. Social Studies, 86(6), 270-274.
Faulconer, T., & Freeman, A.C. (2005). Teachers, Classroom Controversy and the Media. Social Education, 69(6), 323+.
Garvey, J. (1995, December 15). The Earth Is Flat: My Textbook Says So. Commonweal, 122, 7+.
Heritage Foundation (2006). http://www.heritage.org/ .
The social problem studied in this paper is racial discrimination. acial discrimination is any discriminatory act against a person based on race. A subtype of racial discrimination would be racial harassment. The magnitude of racial discrimination is very high: according to the FBI's most recent HCSA report, 51% of reported hate crimes are based on race (Hate Crimes in America, 2015). However, as Blank, Dabady and Citro (2004) point out, "simply identifying an association with race is not equivalent to measuring the magnitude of racial discrimination or its contribution to differential outcomes by race" (p. 72). In other words, it is not easy to define the magnitude of racial discrimination because distilling the cause-and-effect relationship requires testing and in complex socio-economic environments, experiments are difficult to conduct with adequate controls. Nonetheless, a qualitative magnitude may be discerned in the narratives of men like Malcolm X and Martin Luther…
Blank, R., Dabady, M., Citro, C. (2004). Measuring Racial Discrimination. NY: NAP.
Hate Crimes in America. (2015). Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www.civilrights.org/publications/hatecrimes/nature-and-magnitude.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control.
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).
Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…
Societies and social beliefs change from tribe to tribe, and from nation to nation. The constructed nature of social beliefs mandate that from one society to another, the social beliefs change because each tribe has experienced a different growth curve, has experienced a different history, has identified different seminal events. As a result, each tribe has a unique set of socially constructed beliefs.
For most of the last century, the primary understanding of social values has been based on a constructed and evolutionary model. Darwin's and his cousin Galton's theories of constructed identities have influenced the field of sociology. What was once believed to be passed down as 'truth' on the authority of a society's religious beliefs has now been redefined as 'myth construction.' We believe that man's feelings of weakness, or powerlessness over aspects of his environment has led individual societies to build myths which look…
Goodale, Jane. To Sing with the Pigs is Human. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1995
Social support through social networking sites; case in point - YouTube
Way before the Internet exploded, Marshall McLuhan (1964) said that "the medium is the message." His statement is applicable in our society today where the internet is instrumental in communication. Communication technology has grown and continues to grow exponentially and it cannot be ignored in the current environment. It has altered the way people interact, how we learn and how we entertain ourselves. Because of the exponential growth of information sharing and electronic communication, pioneers in social support have come up with ways to use communication technology for treatment (Huang and Alessi 1996; Murphy and Mitchell1998; Smith and Reynolds 2002) and also to give interventions on the internet (Mishna et al., 2012).
This essay will seek to establish how social networking sites have impacted the practice of social support and ethical issues arising: how social networking sites…
For geographical communities, YouTube has served to provide world-class social support services to remote regions. By opening up remote communities, they are able to access high quality professional support or simply encouragement and support from persons experiencing similar issues (Skeels et al., 2010). This has enabled persons to shade the feeling of isolation and gain hope towards overcoming or managing the issues in question.
Another important contribution made is to the acceptance of certain physical features. The physical appearance of people can either be a liability or an asset. Physical attractiveness is valued highly in several cultures and people who are not as attractive may be socially disadvantaged. Looks affect marriage ability and employment opportunities. It is therefore important to pay attention to physical features that may influence social functioning. Certain attributes which should be paid attention to include dental health, body build, gait, facial features and any anomalies that can cause negative or positive perceptions, have an effect on self-image or become a liability socially (Hepworth et al., 2010).
Practitioners have to comprehend the inherent issues as well as the
Benefits that the poor might gain from poverty tourism is that their situation becomes more understood and thus the possibility for change becomes real. If no one is paying any attention to them (i.e., no poverty tourism) then there is less exposure in the public's eye. Thus, impoverished nations gain the fruits of awareness. They gain the tourism of wealthier individuals and can benefit economically from that perspective. So in one sense, this practice could be seen as exploitive but in another sense, it is natural for one half of the world to want to see how the other half lives, and on a human level it is also natural to want to be noticed.
From the libertarian perspective, personal freedom should allow things like poverty tourism, if individuals choose to spend their time in such a manner. From the liberal perspective, it can seem an insensitive and…
On the surface, the Academic Bill of Rights (ABOR) sounds innocuous and even full of cliches and platitudes about pluralism and academic freedom for all. Given that its author is David Horowitz, however, a 1960s Leftist ideologue who transformed himself into a Rightist ideologue over the last thirty years, a deeper examination reveals a hidden political agenda. His Bill of Rights or any other project in which he is involved should therefore never even be considered by any university or legislature. Contrary to what he claims in the ABOR, he is not in the least interested in promoting balance, fairness or pluralism in the university or anywhere else in American society, and all his efforts are simply stalking horses for the far Right. A man like this should never be allowed to get his foot in the door, no matter how polished his verbiage might be. Horowitz was…
Academic Bill of Rights (ABOR). Students for Academic Freedom. 2007.
Cohen, Patricia. "Professors' Liberalism Contagious? Maybe Not." New York Times, November 2, 2008.
discrimination in U.S.
There are people still alive today who remember Jim Crow laws. Half a century ago, segregation of drinking fountains, public restrooms, public buses, and public schools was still legal. Fifty years ago blacks in many states could not make a living except to work in jobs that resembled slavery in their wages and work conditions. The Civil Rights movement ostensibly changed everything. Yet decades of political correctness and affirmative action have all but glossed over the deeply rooted problems of racism and other forms of injustice evident in the daily lives of many Americans. African-Americans are also not the only minority group to suffer from systematic discrimination. Half of all Americans -- black, white, rich poor -- experience daily discrimination at home and in the workplace. Less than a hundred years ago, women could not even vote. Suffrage created twice as many voters and like the Civil…
Hispanic challenge" real?
Is the "Hispanic challenge" real?
The issue of immigration and the assimilation of other cultures into the dominant culture and social context of a country has become an issue of extreme political and social relevance in the world today. This problem or issue has also been exacerbated by the phenomenon of globalization. This is also an issue that is fraught with contentious debate and argument as there is a delicate line between political correctness in an increasingly multicultural world and the perception that national and cultural identity is being threatened by the influx of other cultures.
In the United States this issue is centered on the influx and the establishment of Hispanic and Latino culture in the country, while a similar debate about the influx of immigrants, especially from Africa and the Middle East, in the United Kingdom is ongoing.
This paper discusses the question of…
Abraham F. Lowenthal. " Understanding the Hispanic Challenge." NPQ. 2004. Web. 5 June
Davis, J. "Britain's Problem with Immigration." 2011. Web. 8 June 2012. (
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to counter-terrorism frameworks. First, the author is asked to provide a revised framework for the national terrorism prevention and response agencies in the United States. Per the parameters of the assignment, there are to be at least three agencies involved in the revised framework. Subsequent to that, the author is asked to answer to how and when the agencies will interact and why. The author is asked what tools can be used to help the agencies function and do their jobs and that will be included in the framework summary. The author is asked to wrap up the paper by enumerating at least three policy and/or procedural recommendations that should be implemented to make the existing framework gel and function more effectively.
The existing framework for law enforcement and…
Boehm, E. (2013, August 20). New audit finds IRS can't keep track of its own software Watchdog.org. Watchdog.org - The Government Watchdog. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://watchdog.org/101977/new-audit-finds-irs-cant-keep-track-of-its-own-software/
Cillizza, C. (2013, May 21). Everything you need to know about the IRS scandal. The Washington Post: National, World & D.C. Area News and Headlines - The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2013/05/21/what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-about-the-irs-scandal/
DOJ. (2004, November 1). Special Report: A Review of the FBI's Handling of Intelligence Information Prior to the September 11 Attacks. Welcome to the United States Department of Justice. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/oig/special/0506/chapter2.htm
Poulson, K. (2013, August 29). New Snowden Leak Reports 'Groundbreaking' NSA Crypto-Cracking | Threat Level | Wired.com. wired.com . Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2013/08/black-budget/
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…
Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.
University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.
Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html
Romantic and Neoclassical Paintings
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugene Delacroix were contemporaries -- but they practiced two very different styles: the former was a Neoclassical painter and the latter a Romantic painter. Neoclassicalism emphasized symmetry and simplicity and found its inspiration in the ancient art of Greece and Rome: its practitioners celebrated the artistic styles of the Greco-Roman world, rejecting the drama of the Baroque and adopting a more intellectualized approached to the visual arts. The subjects of these paintings were often political, social historical and classical -- a portrait of the Horatii, for example, or of a scene in Homer's Iliad. The visual style was decorous, concise, restrained, balanced, rational, and sometimes witty: it appealed to the Enlightenment thinkers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Romanticism on the other hand was more emotional: its subjects were more often focused on nature, the individual, the common man, the spirit…
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum." Freemasonry.
"The Lady with an Ermine." Italian Renaissance. http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Lady-with-an-Ermine.html
In this regard, Meyers concludes that, "As for Flory, environment has been too much for him, for he is not really alcoholic or crapulous by nature, and he regrets it when a girl from England arrives to stay at Kyauktada; she is a poverty-stricken little snob on the look-out for a husband, but he has not seen a spinster for a decade, and he succumbs on the spot whereupon his discarded Burmese mistress makes a scene in front of her and every one else, and he ends by committing suicide" (Meyers 52). hile it may seem that Flory simply got what he deserved given his wishy-washy nature and lack of fortitude when it came to standing up for his friend, Dr. Veraswami when put to the test, but the suicide of the protagonist provides a useful literary vehicle whereby Orwell advances the plot and highlights just how shallow the friendship…
Aung-Thwin, Maitrii. 2003, "Brave Men of the Hills: Resistance and Rebellion in Burma, 1824-
1932." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34(2): 376-377.
Brunsdale, Mitzi M. Student Companion to George Orwell. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
In Chapter 2, verses 1-11, of St. Paul's letter to the Philippians, the Apostle exhorts his followers to be faithful to Christ. Christ is, as always, the point of the Pauline letters -- and arriving at Christ, whether through exhortation, logic, works, or affection and charity, is the sole aim. Paul points the finger in all matters to the divine Son of God, thanks Him for all things, and for Him suffers all things. What makes the letter to the Philippians especially meaningful is the robust affection that these disciples maintain for their teacher, Paul. As Joseph Frey tells us, "The church at Philippi was St. Paul's first foundation on European soil…The occasion of [the letter's] composition can be gathered from the Epistle. Learning that St. Paul had been cast into prison, the church at Philippi, in order to assist him, sent Epaphroditus with a sum of money…
Cole, Stephen J. "Supreme Humility." Flagstaff Christian Fellowship.
Cheung, Vincent. Commentary on Philippians. Boston: Cheung.
Frey, Rev. Joseph. The New Testament. NY: Confraternity of the Precious Blood.
Johnson, Luke T. "The New Testaments Anti-Jewish Slander and the Conventions of Ancient Polemic." Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 108, no. 3, 1989, 419-441.
Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est
Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…
Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.
Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.
Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."
Parliament of Canada, 2015.
It would seem worthless to provide a religious education without catechesis alongside.
The benefits of the Christian praxis approach are far-reaching. They include both the personal development of the individual student and also the collective development of the society. Students introduced to the Christian praxis approach learn how to address real life problems from a Christian lens -- but one that denounces dogma in favor of genuine critical thought. While the story of Christ and the Christian experience are central to the praxis approach, so too are the student's own story and experience with suffering or joy. A personal benefit of the Christian praxis approach is to encourage compassion and the "right relationships of justice, love, and peace," (O'Murchu n.d. p. 46). On the collective level, the Christian praxis approach helps to usher in what O'Murchu (n.d.) calls a new world order that is rooted not in the past patriarchal…
Groome, T.H. (n.d.). Catechesis and Religious Education"
O'Murchu, D. (n.d.). The kingdom of God: The contemporary challenge.
Ryan, M. (2007). The way of shared Christian praxis. In a common search: The history and forms of religious education in Catholic schools
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
There has been a lot of debate and discussions on how exactly these so called heritage films must be interpreted, in academic circles as well as in the mainstream press, and in the more specialized film publications.
As a part of the debate, certain issues became more important than others, and some of them were that a limit must be imposed on this type of trend in production, and that in terms of subject matter of the film, the sources from which the film would draw, the casting in the film, and the style. Would all these factors be able to make up and contribute to a major genre of films? As a matter of fact, heritage films do indeed operate at the culturally respectable end of the market, and they are also the main players in the British Art Film genre. The heritage film generally has a sort of…
Biography for Colin Welland. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at http://www.imdb.com /name/nm0919815/bio
British Cinema in the eighties, Cinema, - Review - Book Review. Film Quarterly. Summer, 2001. Accessed 21 August, 2005; Available at http://www.gobelle.com/p/articles/mi_m1070/is_4_54/ai_76997332
Chariots of Fire, 1981. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at
Capital Punishment: A Capital Offense in Today's Easily Misguided orld
The debate surrounding the usage of capital punishment in the modern era has raged for generations. hile there have always been arguments for the positive aspects of capital punishment, today's world is less optimistic about the death penalty -- and with good reason. The death penalty affects more than just the convicted, it affects all of society. In order to show why capital punishment should be avoided, it is helpful to draw lessons from history, literature, and psychology.
The historical case for capital punishment has long been made. Capital punishment has existed in every major society in one form or another throughout the centuries. As Michael Kronenwetter states, in every society "all punishment is based on the same simple proposition: There must be a penalty for wrongdoing" (1). Kronenwetter is correct in asserting as much: all major societies have had…
Arriens, Jan, ed. Welcome to Hell: Letters and Writings from Death Row. UK: UPNE,
Bacon, Francis. "Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature." Essays of Francis Bacon (The
Harvard Classics), 1909. Web.
Ceasar and McGuinn (1998), "We are approaching the end of an era in educational philosophy." What was once a wholly Eurocentric framework for constructing an approach to the structures of the mind, psychology, and education, is shifting to include models of Eastern thought and new constructions of educational psychology. Western education has had for more than two millennia a singular purpose in mind - to make a better citizen of the community through learning, social development, and an initiation into the prevailing political, economic, and social structures of the community. Aristotle observed that there is no hard and fast rule to determining what should and should not be the focus of education. To determine what balance is "perfect" for education between practical and theoretical, between concrete and abstract, is a question that has been unanswered since Aristotle and, likely, will be unanswered over the course of the next two-thousand years.…
From Aristotle to Arendt...education has always served profoundly political functions, functions that inextricably link the social responsibilities of schools with their intellectual responsibilities. Indeed, noted reformers -- Thomas Jefferson, Horace Mann, John Dewey -- have amplified such purposes, viewing schooling as the process of creating an embryonic community life in which children's intellectual, personal, emotional, and social development should be nourished (Kagan, 1994)." However, beginning with the American cultural revolution of the 1960's and 70's, the focus of American education has been changing. Increasingly, schools are the developing point of the individual. Individualism is what guides most children through school now which is particularly true of higher education. The introduction of the child to the community was once based upon a very grand plan to mold minds into the shape of the ideal citizen (a very Roman ideal). Education, then, was intended to create citizens who would further the cause and ensure the longevity of the community / nation. While this approach continues today, it has been steadily changing. We continue to teach citizenship in schools by encouraging sharing of toys and ideas, joining in group activities, and feeling part of something bigger (i.e. patriotism and nationalism). But, one must ask, what is an ideal citizen?
Aristotle's question of whether education should be of the mind or the character of the soul, toward practice or virtue, is one that many individual schools have tried to take on in a small scale. While elementary level education is fairly universal, our national education system is peppered with Charter Schools, Magnet Schools, and other unique institutions that are conducting an experiment seemingly, on a larger scale, to answer Aristotle's question. What it is that makes a good citizen is what guides our educational system. The problem is, however, that in a culture so bent upon erasing barriers, of unconditional equality, of absolute access, and to complete political correctness, the definition of citizenship no longer acts as a unifying theme in education. Indeed, the very idea of "civic education" grows out of the connection with this kind of regime. As everything depends on education in a republican system - the city being formed more by the character of its citizens than formal institutions - it cannot be left to chance but must be legislated by the city (Ceasar & McGuinn, 1998). But, this too is in contention because of the concerns since the 1960's about the overreaching power of the government in controlling our minds and lives.
If education is to focus upon the functions of the body, the instinctual behaviors or
Accessed October 5, 2010 at http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/bdorsey1/41docs/02-las.html
eaction 2: Bartolome de Las Casas' brief biography and timeline
The Christian humanitarian Bartolome de Las Casas is characterized as one of the world's earliest international human rights advocates. During the Age of European Imperialism and conquest of the New World, Las Casas is justifiably called a colonist rather than a conquistador, although at the beginning of his ventures in the New World he took part in a "violent and bloody conquest of Cuba" and received "Indian serfs for his efforts" (Las Casas, Philosophy 302, 2010). Although he was a Dominican priest, and many Christian missionaries acted barbarically towards the native population, Las Casas became more and more Utopian in his outlook. He fought to ban slave labor and briefly set up a colony to teach the native people about Christ. He treated the natives in an equitable fashion. The first man to…
Bartoleme de Las Casas. Philosophy 302. Oregon State. Accessed October 5, 2010 at http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/las_casas.html
As Robillard points out, "Julian's cynicism shuts him off from any human association," (143). He has lost his family home due to the changes taking place in Southern society. The economic infrastructure that was supported by slavery has crumbled. Julian notes, "He never spoke of it without contempt or thought of it without longing. He had seen it once when he was a child before it had been sold." Moreover, the narrator mentions that African-Americans lived in his old family home now. Julian seems to be experiencing a cognitive dissonance that epitomizes Southern culture during integration.
Using an unreliable narrator enhances cognitive dissonance and irony. Aull also notes that Julian might be deceiving himself. In that case, the third-person omniscient narrator would only be echoing Julian's mind games. Ultimately, "Everything that Rises Must Converge" is a tragedy. The story needs its unreliable narrator to flush out the dissonance in Southern…
"Analysis." Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://swc2.hccs.cc.tx.us/htmls/rowhtml/foc/analysis.html
Beck-Watt, Sebastian. "Literary analysis: Racial prejudice in Everything That Rises Must Converge, by Flannery O'Connor." Helium. Retrieved May 3, 2009 from http://www.helium.com/items/914481-literary-analysis-racial-prejudice-in-everything-rises-converge-flannery
O'Connor, Flannery. "Everything that Rises Must Converge."
Rath, Sura Prasad and Shaw, Mary Neff. Flannery O'Connor. University of Georgia Press, 1996
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…
Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)
Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com .
IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com .
Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
Joseph made me hate Communists, then intolerance, and finally everything that could break the charmed pattern of our lives. I am not sure the Sisters of St. Joseph expected this from their daily lessons on the Red threat. The nuns' stories made me want to keep everything that I could. First, I would keep my faith. Much later, I would keep our regard for each other, and the ways which we revealed ourselves in these small houses.
The return from the very bloody and life changing WWII also peppers the reflections of the work, through both the ability of the community to embrace the Red scare with complete and utter servitude, build civic and amateur bomb shelters and honor those who returned with constancy. Many of the homes in Lakewood were purchased by young couples, the male partner being a returning veteran from WWII, as a result of the programs…
Waldie, D.J. Holy Land: a Suburban Memoir. New York: W.W. Norton. 1996.
D.J. Waldie Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir (New York: WW Norton, 1996) 73-74.
Ibid. 16, 33, 85, 86, 87, 168.
Ibid. 108, 112, 113.
This emphasis will build culturally sensitive curriculum. (Oakes, Quartz, yan & Lipton, 2000, p. 77) Though the importance of cultural identity, and even the dreaded sources of nationalism, such as independent cultural identity and linguistic heritage must not be ignored in an attempt to universalize education. With some of the world's most influential organizations in a serious bid to establish universal education the goals of the economists may be essentially answered, but educators must take care to make sure that universalization does not include an element of whitewashing that reduces the importance of individual cultural/linguistic heritage.
A directly related to the world's economic needs. Education and the global economy are envisioned as having an interdependent relationship. Competition in the global economy is dependent on the quality of education, whereas the goals of education are dependent on the economy. Under these circumstances, education changes as the requirements of the economy change.…
Anicich, Maggie; Kirk, Rea. (1999) "Cultural Awareness Education in Early Childhood Education.." 14 pp. (ED433928) at http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&an=ED433928&loginpage=reflogin.asp&site=ehost-live .
Darder, a. (2002). Reinventing Paulo Freire: A Pedagogy of Love. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Freire, P. Ramos, M.B. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 30-year anniversary Edition. New York, NY: Continuum International.
Giroux, H.A. (1981). Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling. Philadelphia: PA: Temple Press.
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Sometimes the worst disabilities are those which are invisible to the naked eye; people who have a mental illness or disability are overwhelmingly stigmatized by society and discrimination against them is both widespread and fully condoned in our culture. (Johnstone, 2005). The disadvantages of mental disabilities are compounded by the fact that the abilities which are disabled, so to speak, tend to be those which are most useful in navigating the social provisions for the disabled, and by the lack of physical manifestations which may discourage outsiders from recognizing the need for intervention. Thus there are many particular challenges facing the mentally disabled, including a lack of social sensitivity to, acceptance of, and knowledge about these disabilities, and widespread institutional discrimination affecting employment, medical care, travel, residency, and many other aspects of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the portrayal in film and literature of the…
Hispanic vs. Latino
In these times of political correctness and cultural awareness and sensitivity, it is very important to know the right term when discussing a people or their culture. It is very easy to offend without intending to so or to cause emotional pain through ignorance. This is why it has become increasingly important to know the right cultural term for a given population. People with Mexican heritage have interchangeably been referred to by the terms Hispanic or Latino for many years. Lately, it has become necessary to create a single identifying term so that the group feels unified and no one feels at all slighted by a term they deem to be in any way offensive to themselves or their culture. Many cultural critics have argued that the term Hispanic is more offensive that Latino because it the term was created by the government and Latino was the…
Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.
Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino: What's in a Name?" Latino Like Me.
Granados, Christine. "Hispanic vs. Latino." Hispanic Magazine. Dec 2000.
Grech, Dan and Jose Maya. "Episode 4: Hispanic vs. Latino."
Institution of Slavery
One may find it quite easy to stand with The Reverend Thornton Stringfellow concerning his views of the institution of slavery. As a Deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Diocese of Virginia, and Pastor of the Stevensburg Baptist church in Culpeper County, Virginia, Reverend Stringfellow brings a clear understanding of the traditional beliefs of his congregation. His argument in favor of slavery is substantiated point for point by the Scripture of the Old and New Testament. Unlike those whose main complaint against slavery is that it is "wrong," Stringfellow elucidates the mandate one has, according to the Bible, to protect those whose fortunes have left them crying for support against those who would use them carelessly. According to the American Heritage Dictionary electronic edition, something is wrong if it is contrary to conscience, morality, law, or custom. How, then, can Rev. Thornton Stringfellow be wrong?…
American Heritage Dictionary and Roget's II: The New Thesaurus. SII Seiko Instruments. 2000
Boys, Dr. Don. The Facts As I See Them: What About Slavery? 2001 Cornerstone Communications. http://www.cstnews.com/Code/Slavery1.html
Stringfellow, Thornton. A Brief Examination of Scripture Testimony on the Institution of Slavery (1841. http://vassun.vassar.edu/~juweisen/382/stringfellow.html
Smedley, Agnes. Daughters of Earth. 1929. The Feminist Press of CUNY Reissue 1987.
It is interesting to read Agnes Smedley's philosophy of marriage as expressed in the early feminist classic Daughters of Earth in light of the current controversy over gay marriage. The author takes an explicitly deflationary view of marriage's effect upon women, and also to a lesser extent, a negative view of the male's participation in what she considers a form of social bondage. Rather than seeing personal connections as a source of positive alliance between individuals, she sees marriage as a threat to society and the formation of effective unions of labor and politics.
Smedley calls marriage "a relic of human slavery," rather than as a potential right all human beings ought to strive to. Because of the history of marriage and its limiting legal and social constraints upon the female partner, the author believes…
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.
Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
Cultural Diversity: What Is It?
Cultural diversity is that quality or characteristic of any society, community, group or family that consists of a variety of cultural and/or ethnic backgrounds. Thus, for example, a nation like America could be said to be culturally diverse because it is represented by various cultures and ethnicities throughout the land. At the same time, being culturally diverse is also about showing respect and appreciation for and towards the various cultural and ethnic groups within the community. Diversity is something that is recognized rather than something is suppressed or ignored. True cultural diversity is not just the physical make-up of the group of community but also the state of mind of the members of that group regarding how they think about and view diversity. Yet, as DiMaggio and Bryson (2000) show, cultural diversity remains a controversial subject for some.
One of the main challenges of cultural…
Day, R. (2007). Facing the Challenge of Cultural Diversity. Retrieved Nov. 2010 from http://farnhamcastle.blogspot.com/2007/09/facing-challenge-of-cultural-diversity.html
DiMaggio, P., and Bryson, B. (2000). Public attitudes towards cultural authority and cultural diversity in higher education and the arts. Retrieved December 2012 from http://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP11%20-%20DiMaggio%2BBryson.pdf
Turner-Vorbeck, Tammy A. (2005). Expanding multicultural education to include family diversity. Multicultural Education,13(2), 6-10. Retrieved August 2013 from ProQuest.
Russia, Reform and Revolution
The Great Reforms freed the serfs but they did not really ease the life of the peasant or make it much better. The social structure (i.e., class system) remained fundamentally the same, except now the landowning class was determined to give as little to the peasants as possible. hereas prior to the Reforms, the peasants viewed the landowners similarly to the way Europeans viewed their lords in feudal Europe, as their providers and protectors. Now the peasants were viewed as autonomous and dependent upon themselves and the law was rigged against them regarding in particular the land settlement act (Freeze). The actual beneficiary of the Reform was neither serf nor landowner, but the State, which expanded its bureaucracy from the Tsar on down to the village. Now the serfs, who had always operated under the expression "we are yours, but the land is ours" now had…
Freeze, "Reform and Counter-Reform," pp. 180-93
Cracraft, pp. 344-58: MacKenzie-Wallace on mir and zemstvo (1877)
Olga Vasileva, "The Significance of the Peasant Commune in Revolutionary Thought" (student paper, 2012)
"The Catechism of a Revolutionary" (1868) and "Demands of Narodnaia Volia [People's Will]" (1879) in Dmytryshyn, ed. Imperial Russia, pp. 350-59
There is no real difference between the racism that Du Bois witnessed 100 years ago and the racism seen today. The same WASPs who were the controlling elites in those days are still the controlling elites today -- only there has been a strain of political correctness introduced into the culture that covers the racism. Nonetheless, the Puritanical racist mentality fostered by the WASPs has also trickled down from the elites to the "middle class" which arose in the post-War period thanks to hefty incentives and kickbacks from the government. Du Bois witnessed Jim Crow laws that hurt blacks -- these were everywhere: in the Army, in the neighborhoods in the South, in schools, on buses, in diners. There was one set of laws for whites and another for blacks. Today, de-segregation has largely eliminated the "Jim Crow" standard, but different laws are on the books now -- laws…
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. IN:
St. Augustine Press.
PBS. (2010). People & ideas: W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/web-dubois.html
This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.
Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…
I can show up for a job that I have earned through my hard work without knowing that I have to overcome assumptions that I am less qualified than any other new hire; and 3. I can offer to help someone with a task like home repair or vehicle maintenance without eliciting either complete shock or appreciation that turns out to me much more patronizing than genuine. However, I also appreciate what the author refers to as the "advantages" of my status a female because I am much quicker to receive offers of assistance, for one example, should I drop something in public or have to fix a flat tire.
The principal reason that I do not think the article suffers from any failure to further develop the genderism issue is precisely a function of my view about the most appropriate manner to deal with the issues faced by double…
Under all of that, there is a theoretical angle that he brings to the table, and it is one that most other historians have really said very little about.
There are many participants in the world that White (1991) describes. There are traders, colonial officials, prophets, chiefs, women, missionaries, and warriors. According to White (1991) these people all had to continually construct the rules of a 'game' of sorts. The traditions and cultures these people had were not capable of handling what was happening on their own, so they had to all work together to play this game so that they could reach some kind of conclusion they all could accept. The natives and the Europeans did not just discard the cultural baggage they still carried with them, however. Instead, they used what worked from their own cultures and then took what they needed, wanted, and liked from the other…
White, Richard. (1991). The middle ground: Indians, empires, and republics in the Great Lakes region 1650-1815. Cambridge University Press.
Internal support, within Canada, is also needed for success. If Canadian citizens don't believe in the mission, then resources are going to be even more difficult to receive. Lastly, and most importantly, support within Afghanistan is necessary, otherwise as soon as forces have left the country, it will simply revert back to their old ways.
I don't believe any media source is ever 100% completely unbiased, in today's world. The media industry is far too competitive to simply 'report the news', as journalists once did. Today, as the Internet continues to cut painfully into more traditional news sources' bottom lines, it's all about readership and viewership. Magazines, newspapers, and news channels know who their demographic is. To report something completely contrary to what this demographic expects is a sure way to reduce subscribers and viewers. Each media source has an identity -- an image. Even when the news is clearly…
Hitchens, C. (16 Mar 2009). Terrorists, dissidents, and copy editors. Slate. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from http://www.slate.com/id/2213867 / .
(Conniptions886 2009). Again the ad stresses the outdoor beach culture among those who have the means and leisure to enjoy it.
Coca Cola ads have not seemed to change that much over time. They have sacrificed expressing multiculturalism, without popular exception to build a following for their target market. One comparison ad done by Pepsi and much more reflective of diversity, and especially the diversity of the urban culture is the ad affectionately known as "Chain reaction." In general Pepsi seems to have somewhat let go of the beach culture and decided to focus on the massive urban youth culture. This is not to say that Pepsi has become the label of multicultural expression, as they still clearly target the white youth audience:
(Youtube user DuncansTV2008)
The Pepsi chain reaction video is a great example of the change of focus of one brand to the urban culture of the youth…
CocaColaChannel 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tXufTYF80b0
Conniptions886 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8TDXFy7LSo&feature=email
Conniptions886 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4o-GR2wogWE&NR=1
Conniptions886 2009): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xrBxEZfejBE&NR=1
The examples from China, with their purely geometric design, would be even more confusing.
But these examples of how limiting icons are for communicating specific and clear meaning also illustrate the vast amounts of inferred knowledge that they can provide about a culture who uses them. The very fact that each culture has its own very unique way of representing this meaning (i.e. "restrooms") is evidence of this, but the specific examples can again be quite helpful in understanding the true import of cultural knowledge received through icons. The icons from Thailand reveal a people who are fairly literal minded and certainly unabashed about bodily functions. The Chinese icons represent a culture that is almost diametrically opposed on these counts; there is a marked attempt to refrain from representing the human form, while at the same time the complimentary asymmetry of the two icons is similar to other symbols of…