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Product Life Cycle Essays (Examples)

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Norton Life Cycle the Product
Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54960997
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The strategy would prove successful in assisting the rapid proliferation of the Norton Antivirus packages. Accordingly, ikipedia (2010) reports that "Norton AntiVirus and Norton Internet Security, a related product, held a 61% U.S. retail market share for security suites as of the first half of 2007." (ikipedia, 1) In addition to casting a dominant shadow over its sector of the technology industry, this would make Symantec a leading developer of antivirus technologies.


The maturation of Norton Antivirus is marked both by the annual or multi-annual release of newer or more refined versions of its software. A constant research and development phase is required so that Norton can remain abreast of advances amongst hackers and developers of malware, spyware and viruses. This is demonstrated by continual re-release of the Norton packages. According to available research, "Existing users of the 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 versions can upgrade to the latest…

Works Cited:

Fisher, L.M. (1990). Company News; Symantec to Acquire Peter Norton. The New York Times.

NetMBA. (2007). The Product Life Cycle. Business Knowledge Center. Online at 

Wikipedia. (2010). Norton Antivirus. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.

Virtual Team Life Cycle
Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16118334
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Virtual Teams
The use of virtual teams has grown more and more with each recent passing year. Even so, there has been some companies that have pushed back on the use of virtual employees in the name of maximizing output and productivity. There is a great amount of debate as to whether localized or remote teams are more feasible or workable. Regardless, there is a lot of theory behind how to do virtual teams the right way. This is precisely what Hertel and the other two authors are describing in their review of the current empirical research. They describe a series of phases and steps that are integral to the process. While the parallels are not complete and definitive, assembling and disassembling a team is much like the product life cycle and project management steps.
Article Summary
As is mentioned in the introduction of this report, there…

Relevance and Application of the Product Life
Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40768537
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elevance and Application of the Product Life Cycle Concept in Budgeting

Company and business unit budgets often lend financial expression to strategy, inspire managers to attain generally understood targets and offer a logical framework for the analysis of outcomes. On the other hand, many companies suffer from badly conceived or incompetent budgeting processes which do not inspire accomplishment of targets and are of little value for operational management (Corporate Budgeting, n.d.).

Life cycle budgeting comprises approximations of a product's revenues and expenses over its complete life cycle starting with research and development, going through the introduction and growth stages, into the maturing stage, and in conclusion into the harvest or decline stage. Life cycle budgeting adopts a life cycle approach. It is planned to account for the expenses at all stages of the value chain. This knowledge is significant for pricing choices because revenues must cover expenses acquired in each…


Corporate Budgeting. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2011, from Web site: 

Product Life Cycle. (2011). Retrieved February 26, 2011, from Web site:

Product Writing on the Movie
Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45529121
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Unlike most television series which wait until the entire series is filmed and aired before they release it on DVD, Glee has already released its first season on DVD, despite the fact that they have not yet completed filming the second season. This strategy supports increased sales volumes due to the following reasons:

It allows the Glee fans to immediately purchase the DVD and view any episode they missed or simply review the series or the episodes they liked

It allows the Glee fans to begin collecting the series on DVD, which also supports the popularity of the show.

Another reason as to why it is estimated that the sales of the Glee DVDs would register high volumes is pegged to the soundtracks used in the filming of the series, namely the songs the students in the glee club sing. These are popular songs, listened and appreciated all over the…


Longam Dictionary of Contemporary English, Online Version,  / last accessed on May 13, 2011

Managing Life Cycles in an
Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42628415
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These symptoms should be identified by the management team beforehand, even as early as in the planning stage. This is then used by the team of observers to identify any problems relating to dry rot in the company. The observing team and management team then work together to once again implement new ideas regarding products and services.

In order to deal with rivalry, a marketing team can be formed in order to respond to the challenge offered by rivals in terms of new products and services. The rival's products and services can then be observed by this team, after which improved products and services are then created.

Challenges in the Growth and Maturity Phases

Challenges in the growth phase are mostly related to issues of revenue generation, and implementing new products and services, as well as employing new people. The focus is on maintaining a steady rate of development. In…


Adizes, Ichak. (1988). Corporate Lifecycles. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Gross, Susan, Mathiasen, Karl and Franco, Nancy. (1998, Summer). "Organizational Life Cycles: Revisited." In MagNews, Management Assistance Group, Inc. 

Johannsen, Murray. (1996-2004). "Five Phases of The Organizational Life Cycle." Legacee Management Systems Inc. 

McNamara, Carter. (1999). "Basic Overview of Organizational Life Cycles." Minnesota: Management Assistance Program for Nonprofits.

Organizational Life Cycle
Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56196514
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Organizational Transformation

Organizations are seen as having several different stages in their life cycle, with specific implications for management at each stage. The stages are, roughly, birth, growth, decline and death, depending on which model of the organizational life cycle is used. While the details on the life stages of an organization differ, the strategies are different for each, and management must be able to differentiate each stage, and make the right moves accordingly. It could also reasonably be argued that the stages are dynamic, rather than distinct, and that the passage from one stage to the next can take place gradually, incrementally, and that management can actually affect this process (Hanks, 2015).


The initial stage of organizational development is the birth stage. At this stage, the organization is founded, its purpose identified, and it is given the resources needed to survive. The life cycle metaphor is apt at…


Greiner, L. (1998). Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved July 23, 2015 from 

Hanks, S. (2015). The organization life cycle: Integrating content and process. Journal of Small Business Strategy. Retrieved July 23, 2015 from 

Manktelow, J. (2015). The Greiner curve. Retrieved July 23, 2015 from 

Smith, K., Mitchell, T. & Summer, C. (1985). Top level management priorities in different stages of the organizational life cycle. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 28 (4) 789-820.

Spiral Project Life Cycle Project
Words: 487 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17166234
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From the analysis of that first prototype, the project team would then produce a second prototype. The analysis of the first prototype should include looking at strengths, weaknesses, and any possible complications. The findings of this analysis by the project team would influence the next step in the spiral of producing the second prototype. This approach allows the project team to analyze the overall functionality of the product and system as it evolves, and will help predict problems such as cost overruns for development, unanticipated expenses for operating, or the possibility that the final result will not meet the customer's need. Using a spiral approach for both project management and product system/design allows the project team to spot serious problems as early as possible and either deal with them effectively or scrap the design in favor of a more effective one while minimizing costs incurred by this necessity. In a…

Use of Life Cycle Costing Management Technique at Glazer's Inc
Words: 4601 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89082371
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ationale for the use of life cycle Management at Glazers

LCM (Life Cycle Management) is a framework which manages and scrutinises the performance and sustainability of services and goods. This framework aims to achieve the long-term objectives of the business, and gives less stress on the short-term objectives. For getting a more sustainable value chain, organizations are making use of this framework, which would in turn improve their economic and social performance. Businesses throughout the world are making use of this framework for many purposes, like to improve their standing within the market, to strengthen the relationships with the stakeholders and to produce more environment friendly goods.

LCM urges the companies to look away from their own processes, and focus on activities which are not under the direct control of the company. Such activities include the upstream and the downstream operations that become a part of value chain. In…


Crul, M. And Diehl, J.C. (2007) Design for Sustainability (D4S): A Practical Approach for Developing Economies, UNEP publication (at asp?id=DTI/0826/PA).

International Standard ISO 14040 (2006) Environmental Management -Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Framework. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

Rebitzer, G., Hunkeler, D. (2003) Life cycle costing in LCM: ambitions, opportunities, and limitations - discussing a framework International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 8 (5), pp. 253-6.

Remmen, A., Jensen, A.A., Frydendal. J. (2007) Life Cycle Management: A business guide to sustainability. UNEP/SETAC publication (at / publications/).

Information Technology Project Life Cycle
Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27623524
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4. Control Phase: This phase is the one in which maintaining the project within the "scope, cost, and schedule" as well as "within acceptable quality" is addressed due to the possible variables. "Unknown or unproven technologies....make these projects difficult for the project manager to baseline the scope, schedules, and costs during the Planning Phase." (Systems Lifecycle Development, 2001) Key deliverables in this phase are the development, testing, implementation and documentation of the scope control, schedule control, cost and quality control as well as the contract administration and configuration management in the project.

5. Closeout Phase: the final phase is characterized by the project being brought to an end with the manager of the project holding responsibility for making sure that the processes in closeout are accomplished while the systems are transitioned to maintenance perspective. The main activities in this phase are administration of closure of the project as well as…


Concept: Life Cycle Model (nd) available {Online] at 

Overview of Life Cycle Management (2004) United States Patent and Trademark Office Life Cycle Management Manual

Systems Development Lifecycle (2000) Executive Branch Dept. State of Michigan 2000 Dec 11 [Online] available at,1607,7-150-9131_9347-28112  -- 00.html

Information Technology Project Lifecycle

System Development Life Cycle
Words: 2836 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25061562
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system development life cycle (SDLC) approach to the development of Information Systems and/or software is provided. An explanation of SDLC is offered, with different models applied in implementing SDLC delineated. Advantages and disadvantages associated with each of the models will be identified.

System Development Life Cycle

According to Walsham (1993), system development life cycle (SDLC) is an approach to developing an information system or software product that is characterized by a linear sequence of steps that progress from start to finish without revisiting any previous step. The SDLC model is one of the oldest systems development models and is still probably the most commonly used (Walsham, 1993). The SDLC model is basically a project management tool that is used to plan, execute, and control systems development projects (Whitten & Bentley, 1998). System development life cycles are usually discussed in terms of the conventional development using the waterfall model or the…

References survey of system development methods (1998). Center for Technology in Government,

Albany, NY: University at Albany, CTG Publication, pp. 1-13.

Ahituv, Niv & Neumann, Seev (1982). Principles of information systems for management. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.

Hughes, P. (2002). SDLC models and methodologies. Information Systems Branch,

Ministry of Transportation, Governement of British Columbia, Victoria, BC, Canada.

EHR Life Cycle and Hit
Words: 1094 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40608154
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Health Information Technology Systems Life Cycle or HIT systems life cycle has several broad categories. One such broad category is EH or electronic health records. EHs are patient-centered, real-time records. They allow users to get information instantly wherever and whenever it is needed. Simply put, EHs are computerized, digital versions of a patient's paper charts. EHs contain the medications, radiology images, test and lab results, immunization dates, medical history of a patient and offers access as well to evidence-based tools a provider may use to make decisions concerning a patient's care. Not only does it offer streamlining and automation of the providers' workflow, it also increases accuracy and organization of patient information.

Security and maintenance is the end phase of any basic system development life cycle. The entire process is used to recognize, examine, and design information systems (Vallette & Caldwell, 2013). In order to aid in accomplishing such an…


Ajami, S., Ketabi, S., Isfahani, S., & Heidari, A. (2011). Readiness Assessment of Electronic Health Records Implementation. Acta Informatica Medica, 19(4), 224. 

Joukes, E., Cornet, R., de Bruijne, M., & de Keizer, N. (2016). Eliciting end-user expectations to guide the implementation process of a new electronic health record: A case study using concept mapping.International Journal Of Medical Informatics, 87, 111-117. 

Vallette, M., & Caldwell, B. (2013). Patient and Provider Perspectives on Electronic Helath Record (EHR) Information Access and Rights. Proceedings Of The International Symposium Of Human Factors And Ergonomics In Healthcare, 2(1), 64-68. 

Wright, L. (2014). Thinking holistically about EHR selection and implementation. Behavioral Healthcare, 34(1), 18-21. Retrieved from

Potential Approaches to Change and Life Cycle Stage of Nike
Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85917609
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Nike Case Study

Nike are undergoing change, after initial difficulties adapting to a changing environment, a strategy of acquisition, combined with decentralisation was implemented, facilitating specialised focus on different product lines. However, there is still the potential to increase the overall level of efficiency within the companies design processes.

One approach may be the development of an intrepreneurship, a model that supports innovation and development associated with entrepreneurial processes in large organisations (Cowles, 2013). Within this approach, not only would there be the division of the various researchers, there will also be placed in divisions with the aim of emulating small organisations where entrepreneurial stretch would be required. The aim of this is to increase original thought and innovation stimulated by their environment (Cowles, 2013).

The organisation could also adopt a Blue Ocean Strategy. This the company would need to examine the current marketplace, and identify markets which are currently…


Cowles, M, (2013), "The Changing Architecture of Big Business" in Aspinwall, M, Greenwood, J, (2013), Collective Action in the European Union, Abingdon, Routledge, pp.108-128

Daft, R. L., Murphy, J., & Willmott, H. (2000). Organization Theory and Design. Stanford: Cengage Learning.

Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (2015). Blue Ocean Strategy. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., & Lampel, J. B. (2008). Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management,. Harlow: Financial Times / Prentice Hall.

System Development Life Cycle SDLC
Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49076136
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However, the company did feel it should develop its own Database infrastructure that would work with the new underlying database management system and would mesh with existing organizational skills and the selected enterprise software solution.

Because the company followed a standardized implementation process, they were able to successfully reengineer their existing business structure. The objective of the System Development Life Cycle is to help organizations define what an appropriate system development methodology should be in order for them to continue to meet the rapidly changing business environment. The specific research approach employed by International Lumberyards, Inc. was to follow the steps of the cycle and it helped them dramatically.


This report attempted to analyze a work-related project that used a systems analysis tool for a specific business system. The report focused on the use of the System Development Life Cycle to implement a business or information technology need as…


Grabski, Severin V. (2002). International Lumberyards, Inc.: An Information System Consulting Case. Journal of Information Systems, 9/22.

Knight, Ph.D., Linda V. (2001, November 1). System Development Methodologies for Web Enabled E-Business: A Customization Paradigm. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at

Peacock, Eileen (2004). Accounting for the development costs of internal-use software. Journal of Information Systems, 3/22.

Wikopedia. (n.d.). System Development Life Cycle. Retrieved January 16, 2005, at

Product by Value Analysis Product-By-Value Analysis in
Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59094255
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Product by Value Analysis

Product-by-Value Analysis

In order to understand the concept of product-by-value analysis, one must first understand the correct concept of a product. A product itself is the "need-satisfying" offering of an organization, which may be defined as a good or a service. In understanding this fact, one can then gauge a deeper understanding of how these products are levied through the use of product-by-value analysis within a firm or an organization.

In dealing with product development, production, and distribution, companies must ask themselves the following question: how can we determine which products to develop? Product-by-value analysis is one such tool in terms of assessing whether or not the production of existing products within a company remains one that keeps an organization on the path to profit with a loyal consumer base. Heizer and ender (2010) note that product-by-value analysis is a concept that lists products in descending…


Heizer, J. And Render, B. (2010). Operations management, 10 ed. Print. New York, NY:

Prentice Hall Publishers.

Mukherjee, P.N. (2006). Total quality management. Print. New Delhi, India: Prentice

Hall Publishers.

Product Promotion the Computer Tablet
Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25161318
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There are specific benefits that accrue to companies that build share, including an increase in the number of available apps and also capital to make continuous improvements. Thus, winning new customers is particularly important at this stage of the industry's life cycle. Once a customer becomes familiar with a company's product or operating system, they are likely to remain a customer, which in turn can bring customers to that firm's smartphone business as well.

The companies that have been most successful with tablets are Apple and Samsung. Apple had first mover advantage in the marketplace and was able to communicate the benefits of the iPad to consumers in such a way that the product was clearly differentiated from the iPhone. Apple continues to focus its communication on benefits in terms of functionality and life enhancement. Samsung, entering the market later, utilized a combination of functionality and price in its marketing.…

Works Cited:

O'Reilly, L. (2012). Separate your tablet strategy from your mobile strategy. Marketing Week. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from

Brand Repositioning Consumer Product Brand Repositioning of
Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65877946
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Brand epositioning

Consumer Product


epositioning in the Target Market

Hallmark greeting cards are the most ubiquitous printed greeting cards found across the United States. The company prides itself on having a card for every occasion and to express every sentiment. Hence, the volume of cards printed by the company has increased with time. The chief strengths of the brand are excellent product quality, the quality of the sentiment, the visual appeal and the convenience of accessing and purchasing the card. However, with the advent of free and interactive online greeting card services, the popularity of printed greeting cards has been declining over the years. According to Kardes et al. (2011), brands need to be rejuvenated when they are in the decline stage. Franzen & Moriarty (2009) state that a brand needs to be repositioned when it fails to remain relevant to the value patterns…


Franzen, G., & Moriarty, S. (2009). The science and art of branding. (p. 187) M.E. Sharpe.

Kardes, F., Cronley, M., & Cline, T.W. (2011). Consumer behavior. (p. 350). Cengage Learning.

United States Census Bureau. (2012). Statistics about Business Size (Including Small Business) from the U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from 

Wreden, N. (2007). Profit brand. (p. 130). Kogan Page Publishers.

iPad 2 The Product Being
Words: 2582 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54542740
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The promotion budget remains high, however, and it is essential to maintain the promotions budget to defend the space, especially over the coming months when technologically superior rivals may finally enter the tablet space.

The iPad 2 has been given a premium price, consistent with Apple products. Competitors such as Samsung have chosen to meet Apple at this price rather than undercut. This brings the iPad 2 into direct competition with such products on the basis of features, something that at present favors the iPad 2. The price points are consistent globally, and are not expected to change until the next generation of iPad is introduced and the old devices need to be cleared from inventory. Apple typically does not discount its products while they are still current, and has no plans to change that policy for the iPad 2.

ith respect to place, distribution of the iPad 2 is…

Works Cited:

Madway, G. & Raj, J. (2011). Apple iPad 2 sales seen clearing 1 million units. Reuters. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from 

King, R. (2011). Best Buy holding iPad2 sales due to shortages. ZD Net. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from 

Kahney, L. (2002). Apple: It's all about the brand. Wired Magazine. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from 

MarketingMinds. (2010). Apple's branding strategy. Marketing Retrieved August 18, 2011 from

Analyzing New Product Paper
Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Marketing Plan Paper #: 84425354
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product name? Describe the product

The product discussed in this essay is "drone delivery'. This service, as the name suggests, achieves delivery of packages and bought goods through a drone in a span of about half an hour. The consumer, through this prospect, uses geographical position system (GPS) data and information from the mobile device, such as phone or iPad; the drone tracks it and delivers the package to the desired or designated location (Marsh, 2015). In addition, subsequent to placing an order for delivery, the consumer is not obligated to remain in one location. The package delivery system can be designated to a particular location, not obligatory to the location of the client. The packages to be delivered will have an average weight of 86 pounds, which is basically the normal weight of products that are delivered to households (Marsh, 2015).

Identify and explain which market segmentation variable you…


Marsh, Rene. Amazon drone patent application imagines delivery that comes to you with one click. CNN, 2015. Retrieved 22 January, 2016 from: 

Notes Desk. Product Life Cycle (PLC), 2009. Retrieved 22 January, 2016 from: 

Smith, Cooper., BI Intelligence. Amazon's delivery drones could make 30-minute deliveries a reality. Business Insider, 2015. Retrieved 22 January, 2016 from:

Product Distribution Should Barclay's Caribbean Operations Merge
Words: 1671 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43994260
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Product, Distribution

Should Barclay's Caribbean Operations Merge?

The strategy for Barclay in the Caribbean is to consider the market as a small share of the global commercial and investment banking market. Business units that operate in the Caribbean or West Indies are seen as offshore business operations with emerging onshore business. (Wood, Beamish, 2004) The units have also focused on reducing operational risk exposure as ameans to drive revenue growth. Such a strategy is rather conservative and represents a risk-free growth rate for Barclay's Caribbean operations.

Barclay's operations are extensive and span the globe with offices and accounts on six of seven continents. "Corporate and business services are offered in all 14 countries, and offshore banking services are offered in the Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman, the British Virgin Islands (BVI), and Turks & Caicos. Corporate banking accounts for 45% of corporate income, personal banking 27 per cent and offshore banking 28…


Platt, G., Hawser, A., Neville, L., Green, P., & Fittipaldi, S. (2005). 2005 world's best banks. Global Finance, 19(9), 18. Retrieved from 

Wood D., Beamish P. (2004) CIBC -- Barclays: Should Their Caribbean Operations Be Merged? The University of Western Ontario, IVEY School of Business.

Product Warranty for Home Improvements
Words: 1315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69055201
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Product Warranty

Products for home improvement are the most common commodities in the market from which consumers demand much warranty from the manufacturers because of the basic fact that they are expected to exist and last long within the presence of homes. Such products include both electrical and non-electric appliances, home furniture, as well as services and materials provided for home improvements. In general, product warranty, even in any type of transaction, equates product liability. In that the consumers expect that a product will only show the inability to provide its purpose because of wear due to length of period that it was frequently used or because of damage caused by the consumer's failure to take care of the product. Except from these two reasons, product reliability is expected. When product reliability is not served to consumers, product warranty comes in to protect the consumers' rights of acquiring quality products.…


Consumer Products Warranty Law, New Brunswick. 2004. 

A Businessperson's Guide To Federal Warranty Law.

Federal Trade Commission Online.

Product or a Service and in General
Words: 1522 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50850207
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product or a service, and in general, a project would include all the risks and the constraints and the restrictions, as well as an idea about the costs involved for the particular problem or project that one is about to undertake. The schedule would be detailed, as well as the intended performance outcome of the project, and 'project management' as such is a set of principles and practices and code of ethics, and techniques that are generally used to lead the project team, and to exercise a form of control over the other related issues in a project such as the schedule, the costs, and the desired outcome of the project, all of which if handled well would bring one the satisfaction of a happy customer. (Project Management: What is it?)

However, in the management of a project, one must keep in mind certain very important points, so that the…


Cleland, David L; Ireland, Lewis R. (2004) "Ireland Project managers' portable handbook" McGraw-Hill Professional.

'5 Phase Project Management, what is a Project?" Retrieved From

Accessed 3 October, 2005

Products and Services That the
Words: 3842 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 16624550
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This is because the public image that is created can be very good for creating a good reputation and company image. This is mainly fueled by positive consumerism.CS should therefore be integrated into corporate strategy.

Environmental problems

Food Packaging

Almost all parts of the industries that deal with packaging, not excluding food packaging, are facing several environmental problems. For instance, the shops that are dealing with fast-food are receiving a lot of pressure to minimize the quantity of the solid wastes that they are generating (Testin and Vergano, 1991). As a result, the company will result into numerous environmental problems. Packaging is indeed an essential part of modern life style. The loss from packaging is more rampant in the firms that process food and those in the system of distribution. In the countries that are still developing, packaging is a rare thing and sometimes, it does not exist. In such…


Demetrakakes, P. (2004, Oct). Nestle's packaging wraps up the world: a truly international food company combines local and global strategies in packaging its huge array of products

Domberger, S. And Fernandez, P. (1999), Public-Private Partnerships for Service Delivery.

Business Strategy Review, 10: 29 -- 39

Kakabadse, a.P. And Kakabadse, N. (2000a) Sourcing: new face to economies of scale and the emergence of new organizational forms. Knowledge and Process Management 7(2), 107 -- 118.

Product Financial and Market Analyses of 3 Products
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 61565816
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Strategic Review -- Simulation

A 4-year strategic review of the Company's X5, X6 and X7 Tablets has been requested by Sally. The strategic review contains product, financial and market reviews for all 3 products over the 4-year period from 2011 -- 2014. As the report will show, the X5 behaved admirably but is now in shakeout, the X6 continues to perform best of all the products and the X7 has performed horribly in all 4 years. Consequently, I recommend discontinuing the X5 and X7 and allocating R&D and other resources to the X6 for 2015.

Generally in 2011, the cumulative profit score is $81,571,138. The X5 costs more than most other products in its category and last year it was in the growth phase of the product lifecycle. The performance of the X6 is better than that of competing tablets (Sun, Tablet Development Sim - View Summary, n.d.).

A. A…

Nuclear Ores and Its Life Cycle
Words: 3810 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88244684
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Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are: [1] mining, [2] crushing, [3] processing, [4] enrichment, and [5] the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…


Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from:

ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: 

IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from:

Product Marketing Reasons for Product Line Expansion
Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18831000
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Product Marketing

easons for product line expansion

Product line is a group of related products manufactured by a single company and the products are closely related in one way or the other. There are several reasons that can puch a firm towards the expansion of a product line.

Increase sales; Some firms expand their product lines with an intension of increasing the firm's overall sales. This is because when the company expands its product lines, it increases its production and therefore more products will be produced hence increasing the company's sales. (Mc Grath Michael, 2010).

Profit growth; Some firms expand their product lines to increase their profitability through greater sales volume which might be obtained from new products since most people prefer purchasing products from brands which they are familiar with. The expansion of the product lines may be with an aim of enabling a specific item in the firm…

References, (2011). Differentiation strategy. Integrated knowledge. Retrieved October 26, 2010

from strategy.html

Kim. T. Gordon,(2004). Pros and Cons of expanding your product line

Retrieved October 26, 2010 from

Product Management Issues Quality of Design Performance
Words: 2626 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83044849
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Product Management Issues

Quality of Design, Performance, and TQM -- As manufacturing design and implementation became even more complex, an integrative approach to the end product became necessary. There are many theoretical rubrics for this, but one of the more stable and robust is that of TQM, or Total Quality Management. TQM, like other theories such as Six Sigma, is based on the idea that the quality of the end product is the responsibility of everyone who touches the process -- from the creation to the manufacturing to the distribution. TQM, as noted, is an evolving process, and one that includes design, process management, stakeholder involvement and integration, leadership and management, strategic planning, cross-functional training opportunities, and the ongoing involvement of all employees. It becomes, in fact, the culture of the company. (Peratec, 1995). There are different aspects of TQM that impact the organization in slightly different ways, although the…


Chaos Theory: A Brief Introduction. (2010) IMHO. Retrieved from:

Trend and Control Chart Interpretation. (2009). Success Through Quality. Retrieved from:

Using Change Concepts for Improvement. (March 30, 2012). Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Retrieved from:  / Changes/UsingChangeConceptsforImprovement.aspx

Design of Goods and Services
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Product Life Cycles

How product design is applied in decision-making of that organization?

Design decision making at (organization name) involves generating a series of product alternatives using very clear criteria. The goal is evaluate which solutions maximize value and function, but minimize costs. This approach is based on a need to shorten product development cycles to get new products to market faster. The market can be very intense and competitive. Therefore, the company is always eager to gain a competitive advantage by reaching consumers with the best product possible before others in the industry. This means that front-end strategic planning is a must have when design decisions are being made. Poor decisions during product development can lead to products that no one wants to buy or that are so expensive they cannot be manufactured in sufficient quantity (Cao & Folan, 2012). Thus, (organization name) has come to understand that design…


Cao, H., & Folan, P. (2012). Product life cycle: the evolution of a paradigm and literature review from 1950 -- 2009. Production Planning & Control, 23(8), 641-662. doi:10.1080/09537287.2011.577460.

Sy, M., & Mascle, C. (2011). Product design analysis based on life cycle features. Journal of Engineering Design, 22(6), 387-406. doi:10.1080/09544820903409899.

New Product Service or Process Produce a
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New Product, Service or Process

Produce a specification for an agreed project to implement a new product, service or process

Be able to plan for the launch of a project to implement a new product, service or process

Produce a project plan for an agreed project

Match appropriate resources to a Project

Cost all resources required for implementing a project

Agree timescales for the management and implementation of a project

Plan an appropriate strategy for the implementation of a project

Be able to implement a project

Implement a project in accordance with an agreed specification

Develop appropriate measures to monitor and evaluate progress and outcomes

Monitor the implementation of a project

Task 4: Be able to evaluate the outcomes of a project

Analyze the outcomes of a project in terms of the original project specification

Evaluate the outcomes of a project

Make justified recommendations for improvements to the project


Marketing Life Stage Segmentation the Generational Cohort
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Life Stage Segmentation

The generational cohort segmentation shows how segmentation divides a population into smaller distinct groups. The different and unique characteristics of each group formed during segmentation allow advertisers to get an important guidance for communications planning. There are generally five ways of using this information once advertisers have divided a certain group.

First, segmentation permits advertisers to consider differences within the potential consumer audience for a particular product or service. As the segment characteristics in the generational cohort segmentation illustrate, it is unlikely that all individuals in the broader adult population will see all brands within a product category as equally acceptable or all advertising messages for brands within a category as equally relevant or persuasive. Different segments are likely to respond differently to the same product or advertising message. Thus, segmentation provides the information required for the planning and presentation of an advertising campaign that exactly…

Works Cited

Faye Rice, "Making Generational Marketing Come of Age," Fortune (June 25, 1995): 110-113.

Art Weinstein, Market Segmentation (Chicago, IL: Probus Publishing Company, 1994). 8-9.

Campbell Gibson, "The Four Baby Boomers," American Demographics (November 1993): 36- 40.

Gabriella Stem, "Aging Boomers Are New Target For Maybelline," Wall Street Journal (April 13, 1993): B1.

Work Life Balance - The Role of
Words: 7287 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68583743
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Work Life Balance - the ole of HM

Human resources management come with massive demands chiefly in light of the fact that it involves dealing with people, a task that is complex in itself. To enhance organizational growth, pleasure on the part of workforce is very crucial. This is a necessity that human resources sectors in organizations have to grapple with on a day-to-day basis through the initiation and implementation of means of achieving workers satisfaction and overall performance (Frame & Hartog, 2003). Creating room for work life balance constitutes come of the mechanisms that employers use in achieving this goal (Clutterbuck, 2003). Work life balance is a concept whose relevance in the organization and more so in the world of advancing technology holds a lot of water. It brings to both parties in the business environment numerous benefits (Ehnert, 2009). The concept has a wide range of practice ranging…


Avgar, Ariel C., Givan, Rebecca Kolins and Liu, Mingwei, A Balancing Act: Work -- Life Balance and Multiple Stakeholder Outcomes in Hospitals (December 2011). British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 49, Issue 4, Pp. 717-741, 2011

Business: The Ultimate Resource. (2003). Beijing: Citic Publishing House

Cascio, W.F. (2010). Investing In People, Electronic Resource, FT Press

Cieri HD, Holmes B, Abbott J & Pettit T (2005), Achievements And Challenges For Work/Life Balance Strategies In Australian Organizations, The International Journal Of Human Resource Management16 (1)

Microsoft Vista Physical vs Digital Products --
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Microsoft Vista

Physical vs. Digital Products -- Physical products are those that can be touched, felt, have physical presence, must be produced, warehoused, packaged, shipped and purchased. However, physical products are most certainly not limited to brick and mortar stores. The Internet has opened up an entirely new world for commerce online -- in both physical and virtual worlds with e-Commerce. E-Commerce is the buying and selling of products and services over electronic means, usually the Internet. As Internet usage grows, so does trade conducted electronically, allowing for a number of improvements and innovations that follow suit. Most economists see e-commerce as a market segment that leads to intensive price competition and consumers armed with greater knowledge. In two particular industries, e-commerce has actually changed the way the market works on those industries, causing the brick and mortar versions to fade away. In fact, larger e-commerce firms like, use…


Microsoft's Seventh Seal. (October 23, 2009). The Economist. Cited from: 

Physical Product vs. Digital Product -- Pros and Cons. (September 17, 2010). Online Business Watch. Retrieved from:

The Click and the Dead. (July 1, 2010). The Economist: Retrieved from:

Work vs Life Balance the
Words: 8772 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58655658
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ood indicates that "everyone has different motivations and aspirations that they wish to achieve in their life. ork-life balance is about adjustments that can be made to working patterns to enable people to combine work with the other facets of their life. Bratton and Gold (2003: 105) de-ne work-life balance as, 'the relationship between the institutional and cultural times and spaces of work and non-work in societies where income is predominantly generated and distributed through labour markets.'" (p. 388) This implicates various aspects of one's working experience, including the manner in which one's responsibility's are balanced with one's personal needs; the degree to which social needs are constructed within the workplace; and the manner in which the employer goes about providing opportunities for attendance of personal needs for employees. This definition is also underscored by the basic assumption that employee morale and work/life balance are inextricable and that, additionally, these…

Works Cited:

Allen, P. (2000). Wegmans Tops Best CNY Companies to Work for in America. The Business Journal, Central New York.

Ayree, S.; Srinivas, E.S. & Tan, H.H. (2005), Rhythms of Life: Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Balance in Employed Parents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 132-146.

Boyle, M. (2005). The Wegmans Way.

CNNMoney. (2006). Fortune 100 Best Companies To Work For.

International Supply Chain and Product Management
Words: 1608 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 91448339
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Business in Malaysia

The author of this report is asked to answer to a theoretical scenario whereby the training and other initial materials for a new product line are lost in transit but yet the big-wigs want the sales and other outcomes of this new product line to be over the top regardless. The author of this report is asked to answer to the ethical, strategic, operational and financial issues relative to this situation, is asked to offer the options that present themselves vis-a-vis fixing this whole situation with the associated consequences with each choice enumerated. The best choice and worst case scenario overall are to be chosen and explained. While some delay will be needed due to the lost shipment, there is no reason why recovery is not possible over the long-term.

Ethical, Strategic, Operational & Financial Issues

The ethical implications of the above is that management has to…


Apple. (2014, April 18). Apple. Apple. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from 

IUPUI. (2014, April 8). Supply Chain Management. Kelley School of Business

Indianapolis. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from  / undergrad/academics/majors/supply-chain-management/

Differences in Two Distinct Product Categories
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Soft Drinks and Smartphone Apps Product Categories
Product categories allow marketers to classify products into meaningful categories that assist them in deciding on the appropriate strategies and methods that will assist them in promoting a particular product. Product categories are the primary method for grouping products that have similar features. Each category will have a distinct marketing strategy and even if the target market might be similar. This is because each category will be geared towards a different aspect of an individual's life. The two categories we are discussing are soft drinks and smartphone apps. These two categories will have different marketing strategies because they target different aspects of the consumers’ needs and wants. Understanding the product category for a brand is vital for marketing because each category will require a different marketing approach. There are glaring differences between the two categories especially because one is considered to be…

New Product Management Overview- Many
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The children do not see a template of moral fiber in the structure of the family, are certainly not learning it at school, and therefore have no basis for any type of ethic or morals other than the secular humanist -- "it depends" and "if you don't hurt anyone" viewpoint. The secular humanist, though, espouses that there are moral values that can be ascribed without God:

. . . The moral consequences of believing the universe not to be guided by a personal god to whom petitionary prayer can be addressed are huge. That is why it is so inadequate to call oneself solely an atheist; one needs some sort of description for what motivates one's behavior afterwards (Cooke in Kurtz, 2010).

And, reading this, one might forgive Al and Peg if they at least had a moral view; but that is the issue, they do not, which causes the…


Clark, T. (2008). "Center for Naturalism." The Center for Naturalism.

Cited in: 

Kurtz, P. (2010). "Beyond Atheism -- Beyond Agnosticism -- Secular Humanism."

Council for Secular Humanism. Cited in:

Design of Goods and Services
Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 71443151
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egal Marine

Product life cycle is an approach that companies use when analyzing the evolution of their products. This is intended to determine the investments that must be made regarding these products, but also the incomes they are likely to determine. The concept of product life cycle also applies in the case of egal Marine products. In this case, most of the company's products usually have a life cycle of three to five years. This can be considered a short life style in comparison with other products that benefit from life cycles of decades.

In this situation, products with short life cycles require increased levels of investments. This is because the company must focus on introducing new products on the market in order to be competitive (Wu et al., 2005). However, these products are also able to determine increased levels of incomes that can be used in investing in the…

Reference list:

1. Wu, D. et al. (2005). Managing Short Lifecycle Technology Products for Agere Systems. Retrieved May 3, 2013 from

Cookie Craze it Is Difficult to Differentiate
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Cookie Craze

It is difficult to differentiate in the cookie business, as there are a lot of good cookies in this world, and a lot of very creative cookie makers. Cookie Craze is going to differentiate at least on part on the basis of the brand. But the cookies will be unfathomably good, and that is part of the appeal of Cookie Craze. The flavors of the cookies will be key. ith all due respect to grandmother, chocolate chip simply is not going to get it done in a competitive market today. Consumers take their cues from the food porn they watch on television, where chefs dazzle with unique, exciting flavors and that is exactly the kind of Craze we are aiming for. Exotic ingredients -- things not considered normal for cookies -- and a gooey, chewy base dough will form the key differentiating factors. That there will be a…

Works Cited:

NetMBA. (2010). The marketing mix (the 4 Ps of marketing). NetMBA. Retrieved March 23, 2012 from 

QuickMBA. (2010). The product life cycle. Retrieved March 23, 2012 from  

Tablet SIM Joe Schmoe's Performance Was Not
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Tablet SIM

Joe Schmoe's performance was not optimal, and there are a few different changes that can be made. In order to understand the flaws in Joe's performance, it is necessary to understand some key business concepts.

The first of these is profitability, in particular the concept of contribution. This is important to the analysis for a couple of reasons. The first is that the X5 product lost money in its final year. One of the characteristics of this product is that it has high fixed costs of $75 million, double that of the other two products. The contribution to fixed costs is the revenue minus the variable costs. With this information, the breakeven point can be calculated for the X5. In a year when the sales are expected to fall below the breakeven point, the product should be discontinued. Contribution margin is also useful for the X7, because that…

Cruiserthor Perceptual Maps Using Perceptual Maps in
Words: 1102 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38432475
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Perceptual maps

Using perceptual maps in marketing: CruiserThor

This paper will review the market situation of CruiserThor Motorcycles and examine how the introduction of a new low-cost motorcycle to its product offerings was able to change the company's brand image. CruiserThor had a market image and price tag commensurate with Harley Davidson or other large, expensive, high-power bikes. Unfortunately, consumer desires are changing and these vehicles are no longer in high demand. At the beginning of the simulation, CruiserThor had to find a way to change with the times, or be left behind its competitors.


During the first phase of the simulation, CruiserThor Motorcycles controlled 40% of the market of heavy duty motorcycles. The market environment was an oligopoly, which meant that it was dominated by a few, select companies. It was particularly well-known in the heavyweight motorcycle category. CruiserThor's dominance of the market had been carefully crafted…


Product life cycle. (2013). Quick MBA. Retrieved:


Sony Corporation Is a Global
Words: 5507 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 75579401
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Buyer Power:

etailers are the primary tier of buyers in the television segment of the global consumer electronics market. There are a variety of retailing channels used in this industry. The primary channel of distribution is through electronics retailers, like Best Buy, which comprises 65% of the total market value. Hyper and supermarkets, such as WalMart and Target, make up only 14.4% of the market. Sales via department stores, like Sears, only contributes 3.7% of the market's value. Although they typically don't sell televisions, music, video, books, and stationery retailers do contribute 3.1% of sales for the overall consumer electronics market. Lastly, a variety of other retailers make up 13.8% of the sales in this industry ("Global consumer," 2010) (See Figure 3).

The primary manufacturers in this market segment, like Sony, are often highly valued by retailers, as they provide branded products that retailers' buyers, the end consumers, have come…


"Global consumer electronics." (May 2010). Datamonitor. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from .

Gonsalves, a. (28 Jan 2010). "Samsung 3D TV mass production begins." InformationWeek. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from ,

"History." (2010). Datamonitor. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from

Perceptual Mapping Analysis of the Cruisethorr Perceptual
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Perceptual Mapping

Analysis of the CruiseThorr Perceptual Map and Market Positioning

The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the simulations involving perpetual mapping for the CruiseThorr and oth motorcycles, the latter model launched as part of this simulation. Each of the situations are described, followed by a recommended solution and results achieved. Additional questions are also answered at the end of this analysis pertaining to product differentiation, product repositioning and product lifecycles,

Analysis of Scenario-based Simulations

The initial situations, recommended solution and results of each iteration of the simulation are presented and analyzed in this section.

Situation Analysis

The first simulation begins with the CruiseThorr losing market share as younger buyers don't have the high disposable income to afford it The 21- to 35-year-old age group is interested in motorcycles yet cannot afford the CruiseThorr, and also find the model to be behind the times in terms of their…


Bachand, D. (1988). The marketing of ideas: Advertising and road safety. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 4(4), 291-291.

Bijmolt, T.H.A., & Wedel, M. (1999). A comparison of multidimensional scaling methods for perceptual mapping. JMR, Journal of Marketing Research, 36(2), 277-285.

Gelb, T. (1989). Overhauling corporate engine drives winning strategy. The Journal of Business Strategy, 10(6), 8-8.

Hooley, G.J. (1979). Perceptual mapping for product positioning: A comparison of two approaches. European Research, 7(1), 17-17.