..to work properly, propaganda must strike a balance between reason and emotion." That may be true - it's probably why some political advertisements have been so effective, such as the "Daisy" ad used against Goldwater in 1964 and the "Willie Horton" ad used by then-Vice President George ush against Michael Dukakis. oth of those ads were effective, but I question anyone who would argue that the ads were honorable.
The one instance I can think of in which propaganda was utilized effectively and honorably was in some of the campaigns used by the U.S. government at home during World War II. Slogans such as "Loose lips sink ships" and the like seemed to influence the public, and they weren't harmful.
This, however seems to be the exception to the rule. In that case, the propaganda may have been essential, and it wasn't dishonorable, but it's the only case I can…… [Read More]
It is hard to ignore the large influence and wide scoping effects propaganda and all of its branches have produced within the last 100 years. Propaganda is the suggestive information designed to influence the minds and emotional attitudes towards a certain subject, idea, relationship or individual. Often this powerful tool is used for both honorable and dishonorable means. Propaganda seems to be essential as well, as its uses has been demonstrated throughout the course of history and will most likely continue as long as there is political strife and national interests at stake within the concept of international coexistence.
It is my firm belief that, although propaganda as a distinctive dirty side towards its uses, I believe it is an essential and honorable position within the conduct of affairs of the 20th century and throughout more recent times. In this essay I'll highlight that is not necessarily the propaganda…… [Read More]
Propaganda vs. Art
Propaganda may be defined as "the activity or the art of inducing others to behave in a way in which they would not behave in its absence." central question in the debate about propaganda vs. art is - can the artist be separated from the art he or she produces and to what extent is the artist complicit with the use of their artworks for propaganda purposes?
Many feel that it is a healthy practice in the analysis of an artist's work to see the art in its own right "... separating the art from the artist is, as a rule, a healthy impulse. I simply question how much we should do so and why we seem to be willing to let some artists get away with more than others." The second part of this quotation alludes to a central problematic in the issue of propaganda vs.…… [Read More]
Not only the German men were presented as barbarians, beasts who stopped at nothing in the countries they invaded, but also German women are described are being merciless and prone to laugh at the helpless and powerless wounded instead of helping him. The text reads: Wounded and a prisoner, our soldier cries for water. The German "sister" pours it on the ground before his eyes. There is no woman in Britain who would do it. There is no woman in Britain who will forget it" (www.firstworldwar.com) Thisis another analogy between opposite features of the two enemy nations and their character. British civilians at home must have been impressed by such display of inhumane behavior in a woman who swore to take care of the wounded and should have answered the cry of an invalid the only way the Red Cross members are supposed to: with compassion.
The last of the…… [Read More]
Whitney, C. & Wartella, E. (2001). Violence and Media. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.
Media in a way supposedly contributes to violence in the world. This is a controversial subject, but reviews conclude that media violence plays a significant role in the real world violence is a public policy issue. Impacts of social media on a young audience are the most impressionable and there is a perception that adults have resistance to the influence of violence. A number of agencies dealing with health have identified media violence as a main health problem. esearch shows that Americans are among the world's most violent, most exported, and there exists some arguments that violent behaviors in adulthood have developed from media using social media.
Through audiovisual, viewers learn certain behaviors, and they determine which behavior to term as a reward or punishment. Viewers identify actors and learn their aggressive…… [Read More]
Propaganda & Persuasion
A COMMON WORD BETWEEN U.S. AND YOU
The critical analysis of the aforementioned work, A COMMON WORD BETWEEN U.S. AND YOU offers highly charged rhetoric to the audience. Before getting into the work itself, one is behoved to understand the so-called 'messengers' of such documents under the auspice of the Ethnomethodologist, Conflict Theorist, Symbolic Interactionist, and Structural Functionalism. Certainly, the theories reviewed throughout the course fit into one of the aforementioned sociological labels and therefore are able to identify specific sociological states based on the identification of the semantic meaning.
A brief review of these sociological labels reveals the ethnomethodologist to label mankind as 'rule ridden animals', a sort of socially inferior beast that cannot function in a free society. Rules are needed to restrain free behaviour essentially the behaviour of these individuals can be predicted as the probability of acting outside of the expected norm is…… [Read More]
In this sense, during the First World War, because of the fact that the governments of the belligerent countries had to have the public support for the waging of the war, they acted in a propagandistic manner. More precisely, "under the name of propaganda or 'public information' (...) reports of reverses were suppressed or toned down. Victories were magnified. Everything was done, directly or indirectly, to keep people at home cheerful, confident, determined, industrious and united. Doubt and criticism, however justified, were discouraged or suppressed, and even in countries with a strong democratic tradition, the Press worked loyally with the government in galvanizing the national effort, in glorifying the national cause, and in discrediting the aims and achievements of the enemy" (Jepson, n.d.). Therefore, it can be pointed out that the entire array of techniques specific for a propagandistic process was used in this sense. The limited amount of information…… [Read More]
In the end, it depends on the power of the propagandistic process.
The third technique is related to the second one and includes the description of the common values and of current realities in a different way. More precisely, "when propagandists use glittering generalities and name-calling symbols, they are attempting to arouse their audience with vivid, emotionally suggestive words. In certain situations, however, the propagandist attempts to pacify the audience in order to make an unpleasant reality more palatable. This is accomplished by using words that are bland and euphemistic" (Propaganda Critic, n.d.). This was rather obvious in the way in which the ush Administration presented the ongoing war in the Middle East. While there are wide acclaims for the values it promotes in Iraq, at the same time, they try to diffuse the news concerning the victims of the war (Shah, 2003).In this sense, the Pentagon and the State…… [Read More]
While we may be shocked by the U.S. government's attempt to spread disinformation about the current war on terrorism, we should not be. Governments have always been less than fully forthcoming to their citizens, although they rarely admit to lying. ather they see it as a form of propaganda, and thoroughly patriotic.
Moreover, while the term "propaganda" is almost always used in a pejorative sense and as citizens of a democracy we are deeply troubled by the idea that our government is not always engaged in being strictly truthful with us, we should perhaps before condemning the attempts of the federal government to sway public opinion reconsider our ideas about the relationship between the government and the people at large.
Certainly the government of a democracy should never lie to its people and should keep secrets from the population at large only under the strictest criteria of national security.…… [Read More]
The final filter discussed is that of flak. Flak, like advertising and ownership, has the power to edit out details from an article before it is printed. An news item such as this one might be edited to avoid flak. For example, editors may have anticipated the negative reaction to the United States' interference and outreach to Indonesia. Concern over terrorism in Indonesia, and the fact that it is a large Muslim nation might create American concern. For this reason, it is possible that the interaction between Rumsfeld and the Indonesian citizen was not to make Rumsfeld look good. Rather, it was to humanize Indonesian people so that Americans could accept them as allies. To reduce reader concern, outcry and complaint, the author may have considered this as a mediating option.
Hermann, Edward, and Noam Chomsky. "A Propaganda Model." Media and Cultural Studies: Key orks. Ed. Meenakshi Gigi…… [Read More]
All parties involved in the Russian Revolution and civil war used black, gray and white (open) propaganda constantly during this period to rally supporters to their cause and denounce enemies, including the Germans, Bolsheviks and hites, monarchists, as well as Allied governments and Social Revolutionaries. Gray propaganda, often of uncertain or unknown origins, undermined support for the Tsar and the monarchy by portraying them as corrupt, traitorous and sympathetic to Germany in the First orld ar and opened the door to revolution. In the Civil ar that followed, the hites appealed to estern governments and public opinion through black propaganda, much of which was heavily anti-Semitic and later picked up by various fascist movements in Europe -- most notoriously through the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a forgery created by the Tsar's secret police and widely circulated in hite and emigre circles in Europe. Open or 'white' Bolshevik…… [Read More]
(2013) McCain also offered no specifics as to how he would secure the border, ease nuclear threats, or restore the economy, just the statement that if elected by 2013 these problems would be solved.
hile McClintock's essay stated there were six techniques by which advertisers use propaganda in their advertisements, the Obama campaign did something unexpected; they blended these techniques together. On the other hand, the McCain campaign stuck to using one technique per ad; for example the "Ayers" ad which attempted to only use the "Transfer" technique of associating Barack Obama with what the ad referred to as "domestic terrorist Bill Ayers." (Ayers) the Obama campaign's blending together of techniques meant that for one ad, there were several propaganda techniques used. The "Maverick No More" advertisement, which used "Testimonials" from other politicians such as Joe Biden, John Kerry, Tom Daschle, Hillary Clinton, and Howard Dean, provides an example. However,…… [Read More]
war can never truly be called a humane practice, the atrocities of World War One were in many ways unprecedented. The program of "total war" that dominated military discourse enabled and in many cases actively advocated the killing of civilians, something that had not before been considered traditional military strategy. Moreover, significant technological developments in warfare made it possible to annihilate large numbers of people at once. Propaganda campaigns became integral to the "total war" theater. Atrocity propaganda was "employed on a global scale" during the first world war to serve four key functions: the mobilization of hatred against the enemy, to "convince" the population of their own righteousness in the cause, to enlist support from otherwise neutral parties or countries, and to strengthen support for allies.[footnoteef:1] During the peak of the age of nationalism, national identities fueled the power of propaganda during the First World War, making the enforcement…… [Read More]
Propaganda and Mass Media
It is possible to say that modern propaganda could never exist without mass media because the very nature of propaganda in times requires widespread, rapid dissemination, which is only possible through a massive media structure. Internet, films, television, literature -- all of these assist in the spread of information designed for public consumption.
Moreover, when it is considered that most media corporations have overlapping boards of directorates with other corporations (mobile phones, military-industrial, food items) and ties to banking and government cartels, it becomes clear that the media is the tool of the big business. Big business wants to stay in business and the main way to do that in the modern era is to control the market by controlling the consumers. Advertising is a form of propaganda that did not really take off until the 20th century when Edward Bernays, nephew of Sigmund Freud, realized…… [Read More]
The Propaganda Campaign Surrounding Hugo Chavez
Chavez - Loved or Loathed (McCarthy, 2013)
Ideology and Purpose of the Chavez Propaganda Campaign
Context in which the Propaganda Occurs
Identification of the Propagandist
Hugo Chavez served as the President of Venezuela since 1998 when won the democratic election in Venezuela in landslide until just recently when he passed away due to cancer. Hugo Chavez was a controversial character who was the subject of propaganda and portrayed in some circles as an authoritarian thug. Many portray Chavez as a human rights defender and champion of the poor while others described him as a human rights violator who was a radical dictator. ith all the propaganda and different portrayals of Chavez it is difficult to discern fiction from reality. This analysis will consider the aspects of the propaganda such as the motivations behind such efforts.
Ideology and Purpose of the Chavez Propaganda…… [Read More]
Hitler's Ideology And Propaganda
All propaganda must be popular and its intellectual level must be adjusted to the most limited intelligence among those it is addressed to." Thus wrote Adolf Hitler in Mein Kampf, while serving a prison sentence in the Bavarian capital of Munich following an aborted coup that he had attempted in the fall of 1923 -- known in history as the "The Beer Hall Putsch." Another decade was to pass before the former corporal and failed artist was to capture power and become the unchallenged dictator of Germany but the blueprint of his ideology and modus operandi were already defined at that early stage of his political career. Although the failure of the coup attempt by Hitler and a handful of his supporters had at the time looked like the end of the political career of the "Austrian upstart," Hitler's clever use of propaganda at his public…… [Read More]
Although propaganda seems the stuff of the modern media age, the ancient world was equally as savvy at influencing the public as today. For example, the Romans were inundated with propaganda. Any strong civilization with centralized authority must use propaganda to control and influence its citizens. Propaganda dramatically shapes the ways citizens feel about their culture and can either create or destroy whole governments. The main difference between ancient and modern propaganda is the media and mode of delivery: whereas now the television and Internet are at people's disposal, the Romans had to resort to less instant means of disseminating propaganda. One of the ways the Roman rulers influenced their citizens was through the minting of special coins that imparted mythic tales or images of Roman rulers. By linking their names to gods or mythic heroes, Roman rulers could establish their authority and secure a clear mandate among…… [Read More]
He also has a knack for making language more difficult in order to serve his purposes. hen the language is made more complicated, it becomes more confusing for the proletariat farm animals. This is certainly seen in the apples and milk propaganda. Squealer twists his words saying that pigs must eat milk and apples not for the love of milk and apples but because it is better for the comrades.
Squealer uses many different tactics when it comes to twisting language. Of course there is the fact that he lies, but he also uses rhetorical question and repetition as some of his propaganda techniques. hen he gives a speech to the farm animals about the changing of the commandments, he says:
'You have heard then, comrades, that we pigs now sleep in the beds of the farmhouse? And why not? You did not suppose, surely, that there was ever a…… [Read More]
He supported he examples by using select rumors from newspapers and how they influenced stock prices. This example can be seen on a daily basis through CNN Money and other news sources. His examples can still be found today, and one can observe similar reactions as those described in Bernay's work.
Chapter VI explores how propaganda influences public leadership and how politicians use these techniques in a deliberate attempt to influence public opinion. Bernay sees the public and the American voter as an apathetic group. Bernay talks about how the modern leader must be able to create circumstances for their own benefit, using an example of how Czecho-Slovakia suddenly became a free state on a Monday, as opposed to a Sunday. The announcement was made so that it would be timely and presented at a time when more people would hear the news and would be more receptive.
Chapters VII,…… [Read More]
French Revolution a major symbol liberty equality estern world historically, terror oppression. Its failure led Napoleonic ars July Revolution 1830. Illustrate idea art propaganda examination work artists period.
The French Revolution has had a strong impact on society as a whole, with many events occurring during the era shaping the thinking of many and even triggering other rebellions. The revolution was one of the first occurrences to demonstrate the power of propaganda on the people and to encourage individuals to use it as a tool to emphasize their points-of-view. The French revolutionaries had developed a complex system of propaganda that they used with the purpose of shaping how the masses saw the revolution as a whole. These people considered a wide range of concepts that could amplify the feelings the masses would experience when becoming acquainted with propaganda techniques they used.
Art was one of the primary means of propaganda…… [Read More]
hile it is not always used during times of war, propaganda was used extensively by both the Allied and Axis powers during orld ar II. The research also showed that although propaganda can assume a wide variety of forms, including print and motion picture media, one of the most cost-effective and popular approaches used by propagandists in the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany and the Soviet Union was posters because they were inexpensive to produce, easy to transport and provided an enormous "bang for the propaganda buck." Posters during orld ar II were also shown to be used for a number of purposes, including encouraging Americans to join the armed forces or to work harder in war-related industries and to buy war bonds to directly support the war effort. Other posters were used to promote national security by emphasizing the need for secrecy at all levels while still…… [Read More]
Propaganda is an important tool for shaping public opinion during wartime. The United States initially resisted using propaganda, but later established two official government propaganda agencies: the Writers War Board and the United States Office of War Information (Riddle, 2016). The latter became the primary propaganda engine during World War Two. The Office of War Information used multiple media for propaganda dissemination, including the relatively new media like comic books and movies. Posters were a primary means of influencing public opinion, too. Through these different propaganda techniques, the United States government reduced the potential for anti-war sentiments, minimized dissent, and created a normative cultural environment of patriotism. The “loose lips sink ships” message is an example of how the government established norms of behavior, and also used fear as a driving emotive force behind its propaganda (Little, 2016). Propaganda posters were also designed to create a sense of community-driven war…… [Read More]
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…… [Read More]
As a result, consumers again have choices. y limiting media exposure, and being aware of media techniques used to brand and market pop stars, we can make educated choices. Rather than choosing what to listen to by turning on the radio and television, we now have the choice to investigate on our own, on the Internet. It will be interesting to see how pop music responds.
Daly, Steve. "ritney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. elmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
Lelanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio rings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." illboard, 17 June…… [Read More]
Some of the most emotionally incendiary propaganda to utilize the medium of film was conceived and directed towards partisans during the fighting of World War II. A pair of films, Went the Day Well and 49th Parallel, delicately play upon the psyche of their intended audiences to get viewers to emotionally, (and perhaps even physically) take a stance during the fighting of the second Great War. By demonstrating various aspects of homeland vulnerability and enemy infiltration, these movies were created to galvanize audiences into an anti-Nazi stance at the time when Hitler's Third Reich was at its peak of power.
The events that constitute the plot of Went the Day Well are obviously designed to prey on the fears of British residents during World War II. The film actually was released in 1942 while the war was still contested -- and largely undecided -- and depicts Nazi's posing…… [Read More]
perceptions of World War One propaganda from the Dutch, neutral perspective. The reception of this foreign propaganda can be measured in a number of different ways: via the culling of contemporary newspapers with editorials reacting to the propaganda, and with counter-propaganda materials such as pamphlets. Special attention will be given to pamphlets, posters, and other propaganda describing the 1914 invasion of Belgium by Germany, known colloquially as the ape of Belgium.
Historical context will comprise the background section of the research report. It is necessary to highlight the specific issues that the propaganda material were designed to address in the public consciousness. The propaganda material will be analyzed in terms of its symbolism and composition, and there will be some mention also of the prevailing artistic sensibilities that influenced the artwork -- which cannot be taken out of its historical context. For example, many of the sketches used for the…… [Read More]
Espionage was also a seious domestic concen, which was emphasized in postes admonishing gossip and iesponsible convesation. These postes caied themes like "Loose lips sink ships" and the enemy is always listening."
Question D. What acial, ethnic and gende steeotypes can be found in these postes? What attitudes towad the Gemans and Japanese did the postes pomote?
Domestic watime postes typically potayed the enemy in the wost steeotypical images, such as caicatues of Japanese that emphasized thei diffeent physical featues, including vey exaggeated negative taits. Postes of Japanese efeed to "Japs" and Nips" and pictued potuding at-like font teeth and idiculously thick eyeglasses.
Likewise, postes potaying Gemans included efeences to "Kauts" and depicted the enemy as obese, bee-guzzling chaactes dessed in "leidehosen" and holding taditional Geman bee mugs in one hand and stings of Geman sausages in the othe. Altenatively, postes of the Geman enemy featued caicatues of Adolph Hitle…… [Read More]
Trustworthy is something that can be trusted because it does not set out to deceive, lie, or manipulate. It is forthcoming, honest, and transparent. Trustworthiness is a quality that indicates openness and commitment to the truth.
News agency is something that brings to mind the propaganda forces of the State. While a news agency, in theory, is expected to be a source of information, most news agencies are promoting a specific take on information or presenting a one-sided perspective of a subject. Most news agencies are owned by umbrella corporations which control the manner in which information is published so as to create a narrative in society that fits the agenda of the umbrella corporation.
Give an example of a "trustworthy" news agency and explain your reasons for choosing it.
I cannot point to a single trustworthy news agency, though some provide more air time to independent reporters who want…… [Read More]
The National Park Service (NPS, 2008) explains that "Numerous scientific studies have reached a consensus: lead poisoning is the biggest threat facing the successful recovery of the California condor." The NPS asserts that "More than 500 scientific studies published since 1898 have documented that worldwide, 134 species of wildlife are negatively affected by lead," including condors.
Meanwhile, the leadership of the NRA -- an organization that indeed does a lot of good, and has millions of responsible hunters as members -- has attacked the science regarding lead poisoning and has taken the position that the law in California calling for non-lead ammunition in condor habitat areas is really an attempt to "ban firearms." That is ridiculous. This has always been the NRA mantra when gun safety advocates try to pass legislation: they're trying to take NRA members' guns away. This is a patently absurd but powerful piece of propaganda. As…… [Read More]
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…… [Read More]
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) has re-emerged among the list of most critical terrorist organizations fighting the federal government of the epublic of the Philippines (GP), America, and it is allies within Southeast Asia. Established in 1991 by Abdurrajak Janjalani, a veteran in the Afghan Mujiheddin as well as associate of Osama bin Laden, the gang rapidly rose to popularity as being a deadly terrorist group dedicated to the institution of a separate Islamic county. Together with cash from Saudi charitable organizations managed by bin Laden's relative, Mohammad Jamal Khalifa, the ASG progressed rapidly. The gang targeted its terrorist, killing, as well as kidnapping initiatives on sectarian targets. But, following a plot directed by amzi Yousef along with Khalid Sheikh Mohammed to explode Eleven U.S. airliners as well as assassinate the Pope, Khalifa's and also the ASG's functions had been exposed (Laude, 2004).
Khalifa had been struggling to go back to…… [Read More]
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]
Subversion: The Role of Politics and Pressure in the Nazi Rise to Power
Following the end of World War I, the people of Germany felt the consequences of their loss coupled with the reverberations of the American stock market crash. The effects of the Great Depression only trickled down slowly to the small German town of "Thalburg," the fictitious name of a real town whose privacy William Sheridan Allen wishes to protect throughout his work, The Nazi Seizure of Power. Attempting a democratic state in early twentieth century Germany was difficult at best, futile at worst. Using Thalburg as a microcosmic example of German social and political realities, Allen describes the Nazi rise to power as a function and result of divisions among the general populace. "In the wake of defeat came a revolution led by the working class which overthrew the Kaiser and established a republic in Germany," (p.…… [Read More]
Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences
The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…… [Read More]
Models of Media and Politics
A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).
The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. aker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…… [Read More]
But even as the memory of the terrors that inspired the work have come and gone, the figures in Goya's painting, to a contemporary viewer, come to represent all innocent persons who suffer at the hands of soldiers in wartime. In the face of the haunted, hunted man at the center of the work the viewer of today no longer sees a Spaniard of Goya's time but the face of a victim of any number of the atrocities on the front pages of the news.
Goya's work is propaganda because it was meant to change people's minds and spark anger at the actions of the French soldiers, just as David's work was supposed to encourage the worship of Napoleon. But like all great art, the work has taken on a new life beyond even the conscious intention of the artist in the ways the art acts on the subconscious of…… [Read More]
He turns some readers off with his vitriolic attacks. Further, his attacks are is blatant propaganda. hy? Because while Taibbi does mention that the Democrats already crafted legislation more than once - setting timetables for withdrawal and tying those timetables to funding, bills that Bush subsequently vetoed - he uses quotes from unnamed "congressional aides" to solidify his assertion that the Democrats just wanted to "score political points without ever being serious about bringing the troops home."
Taibbi does use evidence that there are anti-war leaders outside of ashington who are discouraged and bitter. But he fails to build a case for his most radical assertion, that the Democrats "hijacked the anti-war movement itself" in order to play to the voters, and that the Democrats filled the "ranks of peace groups with loyal party hacks." This is pure propaganda, and the evidence he provides is very thin. He doesn't name…… [Read More]
Alexander's Typology in Tertullian's De Spectaculis
In an attempt to classify the apologies of early Christian writers, scholar Loveday Alexander observed and defined five functions or "types" of apology, though multiple functions and types could be found in single texts. These five functions are labeled inner-church polemic, self-defense in relation to Judaism, propaganda or evangelism, political self-defense, and finally legitimization or self-definition. hile not as detailed or necessarily as comprehensive as it could be, this "rough working typology" of Alexander's provides a useful way for examining earl Christian writings; though not every function can be observed in every text, most of these apologies contain several and even the absence of a function can be somewhat telling as to the intent and environment of the author. The following pages will present a brief analysis of Tertullian's De Spectaculis through an application of Alexander's framework, revealing much about the apology…… [Read More]
Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.
After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…… [Read More]
Trash covers represent an excellent technique in the investigation of terrorist organizations. Begin by listing those items that might typically be found in your discarded trash that would provide details regarding you personally; your interests, lifestyle, associates, family, business, income, debts etc. Be honest and be thorough in your response. Follow your response by listing items that investigators might be interested in locating in the trash of suspect terrorists and follow with a discussion of how such items could be used to benefit the investigation.
Items that might typically be found in my discarded trash that would provide details regarding me personally are my cell phone statements, my bank account statements, discarded product packaging, receipts, medical bills, envelopes, defunct art supplies, sketches and discarded snippets of poems or stories.
Likewise, in the case of a suspected terrorist, investigators would essentially be interested in most, if not all of the things…… [Read More]
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…… [Read More]
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…… [Read More]
He believes wholeheartedly in ed Azalea even though he knows it is wrong and it will harm him in the end. He believes in Madame Mao, he believes in the power of her story, and so, even though he wants desperately to tell the truth, he will never have the chance.
For Madame Mao, the film becomes her undoing. She has taken too much power and used it at the expense of others. She begins to come under suspicion and so does her work, and that is why she becomes so critical of the film and of the cast. The story is actually her story, filled with her own fears and her own uncertainties that she felt, and the power that she has gained as she takes over the cultural ideals of the country. She is mad, therefore she can never be the "perfect" Communist woman, and that is why…… [Read More]
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…… [Read More]
Control and the Media
The media is an incredibly powerful force which has the ability to manipulate the minds and hearts of the American people. This type of "mind control" which is employed by news organizations in the United States is nothing less than propaganda.
Noam Chomsky writes that, "propaganda is to a democracy what violence is to a dictatorship." Indeed, nowhere is this more clear than in recent debates over the impending war with Iraq. On one side of the fence, the conservative Right argues that war is essential and that Iraq is in league with Al Qaeda. They argue that Saddam Hussein is developing weapons of mass destruction which he would like to unleash on the free world. On the other side of the fence, the liberal Left argues that such a preemptive war is "unjust," and that there is no definitive proof that Hussein was ever in…… [Read More]
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…… [Read More]
Power and the Use of Language, Orwell's 1984 And Beyond
George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel 1984 has become almost iconoclastic in its meaning for contemporary society. Almost like the term Machiavellianism, 1984 evokes images in popular culture, along with the author's name as an adjective, and phrases that were used in the book. Even the term "Orwellian" denotes a certain type of society; phrases like "Big Brother," "Newspeak," "Thought-Police," etc. are now part of the vocabulary when describing totalitarian regimes. The novel's premise has become part of a modern archetype, imitated on television, popular music, movies, and even one of the most popular advertisements ever made, the 1984 launch of Apple's Macintosh.
Nineteen Eighty-Four focuses on a new type of society -- repressive, totalitarian, staunch, all-powerful, all knowing, oligarchical, and pervasive. The novel's main character, Winston Smith, is a simple civil servant assigned to the daily task of perpetuating the…… [Read More]
Specifically, Heuer advocated the use of tools that help the thinker to "...clearly delineate their assumptions and chains of inference," and to "specify the degree and source of the uncertainty involved in the conclusions." Thus, Heuer advocated the use of analytic debate, devil's advocate arguments, brainstorming, competition between analyses, peer review and outside "points-of-view." Edward de ono, on the other hand, specifically emphasized the value of creativity in the development of a "new way" of thinking of problems from non-logical angles -- in effect, using the creative mind to compensate for its areas of deficiency in the logical or perceptional realm.
Unfortunately, however, there are some forms of mental "problems" or analytical fallacies that are famously resistant to even the best "tools" or creative thinking -- "learned" or no. Further, because both men consider the real issue at hand to be the problem presented by the "lenses" through which the…… [Read More]
Run Lola Run
The German new wave of cinema was a direct commentary of the nation's post-orld ar II disharmony. Instead of the ideal Germany portrayed in Nazi era propaganda, the modern Germans films show a dirtier, grungier, and far more realistic depiction of the nation in its current sensibility. In Tom Tykwer's Run Lola Run, the present Germany is one which has prevalent violence and severe repercussions for choices that are made. The thesis of the film Run Lola Run is that any moment can change the whole outcome of our lives, as well as the people who exist on the peripherals of our lives. Through the use of plot, alteration of film and cinema convention, visual iconography, color, and tribute to past films of the action and thriller genres, director Tom Tykwer creates a completely original story that transcends film movements and genre to make a point about…… [Read More]
Cold War Era
Many films about the cold war era, especially the early films, speak out against its ideals, while others support these ideals. elow is a consideration of selected Cold War era films, and how these were influenced by the Cold War.
Dr. Strangelove is subtitled "How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the omb." Its producer/director is Stanley Kubrick and the film was released during 1964. The film is a satire with the aim of exposing Cold War politics that could result in absurd accidents such as a nuclear attack. The more serious film Fail-Safe, released during the same year, has often been compared with Dr. Strangelove. This is discussed in more detail later.
Part of Dr. Strangelove's theme is the evils of technology. This is the culprit causing the disastrous accident. It is interesting that a disclaimer had to accompany the film's release shortly…… [Read More]
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
oth novels…… [Read More]
There appear to be no emotional arousing words or bias in the reading. Some new information was offered into the content I have previous read regarding rainwater collection and its many uses. The subject matter is well covered and clear in its direction and content. Various viewpoints and data are available in other readings regarding rainwater collection. This in turn afforded an opportunity for me to not just grasp the work of this author by analyzing and compare it to the work of others gave an opportunity to see the plethora of ways one may approach the subject matter.
This article is a secondary source; the article describes the finding of the author on his or her constituents supported by work done by others involved. The writing is well organized and easy to follow. All content flows and is associated with the previous content read in the article. The author's…… [Read More]
Why a]re the dearest friends and relations now... prevented from cheering the gloom of slavery with the small comfort of being together and mingling their sufferings and sorrows? Why are parents to lose their children, brothers their sisters, or husbands their wives? Surely this is a new refinement in cruelty, which, while it has no advantage to atone for it, thus aggravates distress, and adds fresh horrors even to the wretchedness of slavery... I have even known them gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old; and these abominations some of them practised to such scandalous excess, that one of our captains discharged the mate and others on that account." (Vol. 1 p. 206)
On the other hand, there is a paradoxical problem that probably undermines that hope: awareness of how much worse slaves were treated earlier in their lives could have also allowed some of…… [Read More]
Despite its being Christian in nature, the clandestine and sometimes considered deviant practices of the group made it assume a negative image, at least as projected to the public by the mass media and groups with vested interests. The label "cult" was given a negative connotation because of the prejudice that the mass media, special interest groups, and former Branch Davidians has provided the public. There was unequal dissemination of information from the part of the Davidians, having observed the image of exclusivity and non-interaction with non-members of the group. Thus, the negative image of it being an 'evil cult' prevailed, leading to the uncalled-for raid by the AFT that led to the group's abolishment and deaths of its members.
The propaganda model of the mass media offers an alternative explanation to the uncalled-for raid and image attack against the Branch Davidians. It may be the popular notion that the…… [Read More]
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws…… [Read More]
Note that inflated English has been more characteristic of the centuries preceding Orwell and of Orwell's own time than on the latter part of the 20th century. There has been a shift in linguistics. As linguists and historians of language have noted, the Western model of language follows the monological approach. The monological approach has roots reaching back to Aristotle who saw communication as one of rhetoric, namely persuasion, where communication was a strategy for influencing people and helping them see reason, or the truth. In this way, the 'other' became viewed as object, communication was one way (monological) and the objective was how to best seduce the other to one's way of thinking. According to some linguists, such as Alfred Taylor, this reduction culminated in reducing conversation, depersonalizing words, and converting them into ideas rather than seeing the complexity of the speaker behind the words. It also led to…… [Read More]
Roles of Japanese Emperors 1863-1945
An Analysis of the Respective Roles of Japanese Emperors: 1863-1945
Today, Japan stands side by side with many of the Western nations of the world in terms of its political philosophy and free market economy, but it has not always been thus. In fact, many contemporary observers would be surprised at just how much political intrigue and maneuvering took place over the past century and a half to arrive at this position today. The recent anniversary of the 60th anniversary of V-J Day only serves to reinforce just how far Japan has come in recent years, from a country than was virtually devastated to one that can compete on equal terms with any nation in the world. To determine how Japan has come to this phase in its history, this paper will provide an analysis of the respective roles played by the emperors Meiji, Taisho…… [Read More]
By showing the workers being treated cruelly by the authorities alongside of the scene showing the bull being slaughtered Eisenstein thus wants the audience to become actively involved in revealing the political message regarding how workers are nothing but animals being carried around a slaughterhouse.
The film is practically a paradox when considering that Eisenstein uses the intellectual montage technique and does not use concepts like reason or logic with the purpose of putting across his message to the audience. Instead, he makes use of ideas like farce and parody in an attempt to demonstrate the stupidity related to a capitalist system and its lackeys as they destroy people's lives. Eisenstein certainly loved drama and this is obvious when looking at the numerous tools that he uses with the purpose of dramatizing scenes throughout the motion picture. It appears that the director intended to address viewers from a psychological point-of-view…… [Read More]
The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…… [Read More]
It is through interviews and analysis; we will see how these individuals feel about the new cultures and regulations around them. Living in a new place, these individuals can very easily let go of the limitations they were under before. Therefore, their answers will give a sound idea of what sort of struggle they are experiencing with the new culture and how to retain their self and identity.
This study was only carried out on eight students and that is the major limitation of this research project. As stated before, half of the sample size is directly from Saudi Arabia and the other half has lived in countries such as well. Despite these differences, there are other factors such as economic class, religious sect, education and family structure that make each of these individuals different one from another. Due to these differences, the generalization created from this sample set…… [Read More]