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Psychologists and Jury Selection
Jury selection is basically a process that involves three stages which include voir dire, developing a list of eligible citizens and choosing those to call in a specific case. Voir dire is an Anglo-Norman phrase that means to speak the truth and is used for prospective jurors who are assessed under oath. In most cases, jury selection starts with venire i.e. The selection of a panel of prospective jurors. Once the panel of potential jurors is chosen from eligible citizens or other sources based on whether it's a federal or state court, another panel of 6-12 jurors is chosen for a particular case. This second selection process is basically conducted for the purpose of choosing a balanced and representative panel. During this process of examination by the judge and attorneys, the partial or prejudiced jurors are eliminated (Flowe, n.d.).
In addition to eliminating jurors related to…
Bayliss, P. (2010, December 7). The Role of a Forensic Psychologist. Retrieved July 29, 2011,
Cleary, A. (2005). Scientific Jury Selection: History, Practice, and Controversy. Retrieved from Villanova University website: http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2005/jury_selection.pdf
Decaire, M.W. (n.d.). The Faltering Common Law Jury System: A Psychological Perspective.
Conventional wisdom holds that a hostage negotiation team should include a police psychologist but that the psychologist should not actually be the team member who conducts negotiations with the alleged hostage-taker. Two articles take opposing sides on this issue. Hatcher et al. (1998) upholds this conventional wisdom, and argues for the value of a psychologist on the negotiation team, provided the psychologist does not serve as the one who conducts the negotiation. Ebert (1986) takes the opposing view, and argues against the conventional wisdom that the psychologist should not conduct the negotations. On consideration of the arguments presented, it is fairly easy to see why the conventional wisdom was established, and to see that Ebert's case for an expanded role is relatively specious.
Ebert claims that "most arguments against using psychologists as negotiators appear absurd when the characteristics of good negotiators as outlined by experts are examined" claiming that…
Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study
behavior and mental processes.
unconscious mental processes.
the meaning of dreams.
Cognitive psychology can best be described as
the study of higher mental processes.
the therapeutic applications of critical thinking.
the area of psychology which attempts to reduce judgmental thinking.
a subspecialty of psychology based exclusively on observation rather than experimentation.
Who was a leading proponent of behaviorism in the United States until his/her death in 1990?
Charles Darwin argued that ____ determines physical traits of survival.
5. With what psychological approach is Sigmund Freud associated?
6. Which of the following best describes a correlational study?
A. research that studies the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
B. research that explains the effects of one variable on…
The next day he got an a on the test. Can he conclude that eating lots of popcorn is a necessary condition for memorizing psychology information? Why or why not?
No, Todd cannot draw that conclusion from the limited experiment he conducted. First of all, Todd does not know how he would have performed on the test if he hadn't eaten the popcorn, and he hasn't considered all the other conditions that occurred and may be the necessary condition for getting an a on the test, such as: amount of studying, amount of sleep, type of food eaten, memory ability, learning ability, etc.
* Depict a scenario describing each of the three relationships with their required conditions as discussed earlier in the Analyzing Data section of this Journal Activity.
Necessary condition: If the child hears the English language spoken, the child may or may not learn to speak English.
psychologist, is to help people with developmental disabilities. Such as sex offenders, drug abuse, bipolar, depression. I feel that I have a compassion and a journey to help this population of people becuse I have been in the health care profession for several years. I have seen the this poulation get pushed through the judicial system and put in jail, because of not proper couseling. Once in jail, they hardly receive proper counseling there too, and it is therefore no wonder that the rate of recidivism in America is increasing with a Bureau of Justice Statistics study, for instance, finding that 67.5% of prisoners released in 1994 were rearrested within 3 years (http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/reentry/recidivism.cfm)).
My desire, therefore, is to help the developmentally challenged before they actually become worse in their behavior, drop out, and end off in jail when it may be too late and far more challenging to help them…
American Psychological Association (APA) (2010) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Butcher, J.N., Mineka, S., & Hooley (2009). Abnormal psychology (14th ed.) Boston: Allyn & Bacon
psychologists to study behaviors, are unique in that the studies use small groups of individuals, rather than large samples. Through the use of an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event, this method can lead to a deep understanding of why a certain event occurred. Further, the researcher can examine what possible issues he or she may need to examine extensively in future, larger studies (Miles, et al. 1984).
For example, a researcher could use case study examinations to determine possible reasons for increased anger behavior in elderly women recently admitted to hospitals. The process would begin with a careful selection of a small group of individuals who fit the above criteria. Generally, there small groups would include ten or less subjects (Miles, et al., 1984).
The researcher would then fully review the patients' histories. This would include conversations with hospital staff, interviews with family, written history from…
Glass, G.V. (1976). Primary, secondary and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher, 5(10), pp 3-8.
Light, R.J. & Pillemer, D.B. (1984). Summing Up: The Science of Review in Research. London: Harvard University Press.
Miles, M. & Huberman, A.M. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Staunton, N. (2003). Thesis defense: a meta-analysis of adventure therapy program outcomes. Retrieved July 14, 2005 from Wilderdom. Website: http://www.wilderdom.com/adventuretherapy/Staunton2003ATMeta-analysis_files/frame.htm#slide0001.htm.
psychology case presented.
Q1) What are Some Prominent Ethical Issues to Consider in the Evaluation of this Individual?
Ethics require that only the skills that one is competent in should be provided by psychologists, without crossing over to areas in which they lack expertise. Thus, lacking the skills of a neuropsychologist, the psychologist cannot perform his role. Competence in this context requires that the psychologist be up-to-date on new information that comes up in his/her field and in the techniques that are applied in the practice. Binder and Thomson (1995) reiterate this, stating that through the acquisition of new information and skills, the expert is able to hone his/her skills and knowledge, remaining relevant to the practice.
When procedures are performed by those who are not skilled in them, misdiagnosis may result. As Nagy (2011) puts it, passing over duties, such as administering tests and designating scores to the untrained,…
(n.d.). American Psychological Association (APA). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved November 8, 2015, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Binder, L., & Thompson, L. (1995). The ethics code and neuropsychological assessment practices. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology,10(1), 27-46. Retrieved, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0887617793E0004U
Nagy. (2011). Ethics in Psychological Assessment. Essential ethics for psychologists: A primer for understanding and mastering core issues. Washington, DC.
There were many rumors of an affair with Fromm during the period she was developing her theories on neurosis. "Horney is best known for her theory of neurosis, which she saw as much more continuous with normal life than previous theorists. Specifically, she saw neurosis as an attempt to make life bearable, as a way of "interpersonal control and coping." It might be argued that this is what we all try to do on a continuous basis, though only some of us are successful, whereas the neurotic are not." (Quinn, 2005)
She created the patterns of Neurotic Needs becauee she had a "... another way of looking at neurosis -- in terms of self-image. For Horney, the self is the core of your being, your potential. If you were healthy, you would have an accurate conception of who you are, and you would then be free to realize that potential…
Bumb, Jenn. (n.d.). Dorothea Dix. Retrieved on May 6, 2005, at http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/dorotheadix.html
DITTMANN, M. (2002). 99 of the 100 most eminent psycholgists of the 20th century. Review of General Psychology, Vol. 6, No. 2,. Retrieved May 6, 2005, from MOnitor on Pschology Web Site: http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug02/studyranks.html
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997 May). Carl Rogers. Retrieved on May 6, 2005, at http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/rogers.htm
Quinn, Susan. (n.d.). A Mind of Her Own: Karen Horney Lecture Notes. Retrieved on May 6, 2005, at http://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/Horneylect.html
The following abstract demonstrates the different aspects of the scientific method:
POBLEM STATEMENT: Study of relationship between folates-B-vitamins and Alzheimer's disease.
Adults who eat the daily recommended allowance of folates-B-vitamin nutrients found in oranges, legumes, leafy green vegetables and folic acid supplements significantly reduce their risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, according to results from a long-term study of diet and brain aging (SUPPOTED HYPOTHESIS EPOTED FINDINGS).
The study also found that folates appear to have more impact on reducing Alzheimer's risk than vitamin E, a noted antioxidant, and other nutrients considered for their effect as a brain-aging deterrent (SUPPOTED HYPOTHESIS EPOTED FINDINGS).
Maria Corrada and Dr. Claudia Kawas of University of California, Irvine led the effort, which analyzed the diets of non-demented men and women age 60 and older (DESIGN METHODOLOGY). They compared the food nutrient and supplement intake of those who later developed Alzheimer's disease to the intake of…
Descartes, R. 1970. "Rules for the direction of the mind." Eds. E. Haldane & G. Ross.
Philosophical works of Descartes. New York: Cambridge.
Franklin, R., D., Allison, and B. Gorman. 1997. Design and analysis of single-case research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Mason, E., and W. Bramble. 1978. Understanding and conducting research. NewYork: McGraw Hill.
Interview validity can be compromised by ignorance of potential ethnic, cultural, or class-based factors. For example, the interviewer may become blinded by self-fulfilling prophesies, and the interview questions themselves may be biased toward certain ethnic, cultural, or socio-economic groups. For example, if an interviewer holds deeply-rooted prejudice against African-Americans, he or she may prejudge the respondent's answers or filter the answers through a biased perspective. Furthermore, questions that are posed to the subject may not take into account the unique experiences and worldviews of the interview subject. For instance, some interview questions pose moral or ethical dilemmas that different cultural groups handle differently. Similarly, some interview questions assume that the respondent comes from a highly educated white upper-class background. Furthermore, interview techniques themselves: body language; role playing; and the overall attitude of the interviewer may be culturally, ethnically, or class-biased. Some respondents perform better when the interviewer takes on…
.....psychologists working in prisons in the United States, Boothby & Clements (2000) found some disturbing trends in corrections. Although the number of prison psychologists has doubled in the past twenty years, the vast majority of prison psychologists remain Caucasian males who may be unable to address the diverse needs of the incarcerated community. Biases and assumptions about inmates may also hinder the ability of inmates to seek and receive psychological treatment. Moreover, a full third of prison psychologist work time is spent on administrative duties -- more than the time spent on direct treatment. Only 26% of their work time is devoted to directly treating the inmates, meaning that structural and institutional variables are impeding the delivery of quality mental health care to the prison community.
Interestingly, the profession of clinical psychology was practically born in the prison context. As Magaletta, et al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with…
oles of a Police Psychologist in an Investigation
The following paper describes the roles played by a police psychologist in an investigation of a situation in which a former police officer has been killed. The police force constantly takes risks to save the lives and belongings of the people they serve. This force is known for its bravery and courage but when a situation involves the homicide of a former member of their own group, they are faced with extra trouble as their own safety becomes a concern for them. In addition to that, the pressure from media exacerbates the problem for the police force. In this case, the police force needs psychological support which is given to them by a police psychologist.
Police offers face severe stress in their day-to-day routine. They risk their lives and their families in order to fulfill the duty assigned to them. Their…
CR, V. (2010). Psychological Autopsy -- A Review. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 10 (2), 101 -- 103.
Mayhew, C. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Risks Faced by Police Officers. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. pp. 1-2. http://aic.gov.au/documents/E/D/9/%7BED946A67-E4C8-4C46-A294-9B982325EF4D%7Dti196.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
Mitchell, J. (n.d.). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. College Park: University of Maryland. pp. 1-3. www.info-trauma.org/flash/media-e/mitchellCriticalIncidentStressDebriefing.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
Scrivner, E. (1994). Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. pp. 1-10. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/150063NCJRS.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:
Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008
This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).
Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…
In Poland, a ritual exists by which a znajomy becomes a kolega: When the two parties-- regardless of gender -- give mutual permission to allow each other to drop the "Mr." And "Miss" and call each other by their first names. A celebration involving drinking frequently follows, frequently with the two drinking shots of alcohol with arms linked. The English terms closest to kolega are "buddy," "pal," and "companion."
The authors (McAndrew & ybak, 2006) hypothocized that since the Poles had more formalized and precise friendship words, they would differentiate more readily and consistently between different types of friends than Americans. They also looked at sex differences in judgments made about friendship, expecting that women in both America and Poland would probably make more discriminating judgments about relationships than would men.
Participants were either college students from the U.S. Or Poland. There were 56 Polish and 57 American participants. All…
Bell, S., & Coleman, S. (Eds.). (1999). The anthropology of friendship. Oxford: Berg.
Bond, M.H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 1009-1015.
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Greenberger, E., & Chen, C. (1996). Perceived family relationships and depressed mood in early and late adolescence:a comparison of European and Asian-Americans. Developmental Psychology, 32, 707-716.
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
Advise management concerning personnel, managerial, and marketing policies and practices and their potential effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Analyze data, using statistical methods and applications, to evaluate the outcomes and effectiveness of workplace programs.
Assess employee performance.
Observe and interview workers to obtain information about the physical, mental, and educational requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects such as job satisfaction.
Write reports on research findings and implications to contribute to general knowledge and to suggest potential changes in organizational functioning.
Facilitate organizational development and change.
Identify training and development needs.
Normal work activities for an Industrial Organizational psychologist might include: getting information, providing consultation and advice to others, interpreting the meaning of information to others, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, making decisions and solving problems.
In addition to those, an I/O psychologist would analyze data, organize, plan and prioritize work, interact with computers, judge…
Industrial psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from a2zpsychology.com: http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ARTICLES/industrial.htm
McCarthy, P. (2002). Brief outline of the history of I/O psychology. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Middle Tennessee State University: http://frank.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm
Morris, L. (2000). Careers in industrial organizational psychology. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Westchester university department of education: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Industrial/Career06.htm
O-net. (2008). Summary report for industrial organizational psychologists. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from o-net online: http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/19-3032.00
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…
Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html
Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html
Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm
Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963
Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
Many psychologists have put forward theories to advance the concept of motivation. Some of the psychological theories and models that explain motivation include incentive theory, drive theory, self-control model, push and pull model, intrinsic and extrinsic model, and rational motivations among others. Motivation stems from a number of sources, which dictate the way a person acts. It is paramount to note that motivation is one of the greatest determinants of motivation, and one can tell the level of motivation of a person through the way one behaves. The discussion below is an insight into this concept for a better understanding of motivation.
Motivation is a term in psychology that is hard to define; a number of theories have different views of motivation. These views of motivation include drive theories, incentive theories, and homeostasis, and one can draw a common definition of motivation from these views (Kalat, 2011). According to…
Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Psychology. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.
Dinibutun, S.R. (2012). Managing Effective Motivation. GSTF Journal on Business Review, 1(4). Retrieved from http://dl.globalstf.org/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_images.tpl&product_id=1671&category_id=73&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=4
Kalat, J.W. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Katzenbach, J.R. (2006). Motivation beyond money: Learning from peak performers. Leader to Leader, 2006(41), 59-62. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22223121&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Russian psychologist ygotsky's Sociocultural Theory, with Input and Interaction Theory. Beginning with a definition of both theories the paper will then note how the two theories differ and where they are similar in their approach as well as how they are applied to everyday issues such as teaching language.
Sociocultural theory was first conceived and developed by Russian psychologist Lev Semyonovich ygotsky's, (1896-1934). His most productive years were at the Institute of Psychology in Moscow (1924-34), where he expanded his ideas on cognitive development, particularly the relationship between language and thinking. His writings emphasized the roles of historical, cultural, and social factors in cognition and argued that language was the most important symbolic tool provided by society. His book, "Thought and Language" is a classic text in psycholinguistics' theoretical contributions to the development of curricula and teaching strategies. (Forman, Minick, Stone 1993)
ygotsky was interested in applying Marxist…
Vygotsky was interested in applying Marxist social theory to individual psychology. The approach he took to cognitive development is sociocultural, working on the assumption that 'action is mediated and cannot be separated from the milieu in which it is carried out' (Wertsch, 1991) He devised the sociocultural theory that subsequently influenced the development of the constructivist movement. (Jaramillo, 1996) Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning contends that intelligence in humans has its origins from within our society of culture. Individual cognitive advancement thus occurs first as interaction with one's social environment followed by interaction within oneself, e.g. internalization. (Brown, 1996) These two phases observed in classroom settings shows that the first phase of the cognitive process for students is when students encourage, support and guide each other while learning. This is followed by students forming their own conclusions based on the evidence they have observed and then resolve conflict by articulating their arguments. (Wertsch).
An important concept in Vygotsky's theory is that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the 'zone of proximal development (Kearsley 1994). The zone of proximal development is defined as having four learning stages. These stages range from the lower limit of what the student knows and the upper limits of what the student has the potential of accomplishing. This seems to be very roughly analogous to concepts of intelligent quotients and testing in modern education.
Vygotsky's zone of proximal development is the zone in which students can solve problems collaboratively and learn from one another. Or stated a different way, students may be able to complete some tasks independently; never the less, in order for them to increase their level of potential development, students need to work with others. This collaborative zone stems from the idea that learning is social and happens when speech and activity come together. Knowledge does not originate from within us, according to Vygotsky, but instead we learn from our environment: when a student learns arithmetic or writing, he or she is internalizing external knowledge (Brown).
Demise of Guys
Psychologist Philip Zimbardo shares some startling statistics about boys: they are 30% more likely than girls to drop out of school, they are outperformed academically by girls at every level from kindergarten to graduate school, they are less likely to earn a B.A., and more likely to be in Special Education or labeled as having Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). By the time he is twenty-one years of age, the average boy has spent 10,000 hours playing video games. Boys' brains, claims Zimbardo, have been digitally rewired so they are more engaged in the "asynchronous Internet world" than in classrooms and social relationships.
As Zimbardo stated at the end of his talk, it is not his job to provide solutions, only to sound the alarm. He paints the Millenial generation with too broad a brush. There are certainly boys who are scholars, athletes, musicians and thoughtful human…
Allen, R.L. (2005). Expert: Managers must set example for Gen Y 'kidployees.' Nation's
Restaurant News 39(41), p. 54.
Zimbardo, P. (2011). The demise of guys? Ted: Ideas worth spreading. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/zimchallenge.html
Ethical Awareness Inventory
"Psychologists need to be self-reflective ... engage in even-tempered observation and interpretation ... and increase the beneficial use of psychological knowledge" (Koocher, 2007).
This paper covers ethical issues and an ethical survey that was taken.
Results of the Survey / My Ethical Style
Role of Personal Ethics in Psychology / Development of Principle
hen it comes to my viewpoint about personal ethics for myself and personal ethics for a psychologist, I conduct research to see what scholars are saying, and then make up my mind as to my personal ideas. In fact, some of the literature I have found suggests it is okay for a psychologist to only apply all ethical values, but not necessarily outside the office. I disagree strongly to that. If you're in the field, you have an obligation to represent your profession wherever you are and whatever you do.
The literature I found…
American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved February 8, 2016, from http://www.pa.org .
Haeny, A.M. (2014). Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life. Ethics & Behavior, 24(4), 265-278.
Koocher, G. P. (2007). Ethics in Psychology and the Mental Health Professionals:
Standards and Cases; Standards and Cases. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
What do abies Think?
Psychologists and the rest of the world have always regarded babies as incomplete, merely forming adults whose thoughts can only be rudimental and purposeless. ut Alison Gopnik explored deeply into this issue and came out with the staggering finding that babies are actually smarter and meaningful than we all thought, even more intelligent than adults in essence. Gopnik is a psychology professor at the University of California at erkeley who published her discover in a book entitled, "The Philosophical aby: What Children's Minds Tell us about the Truth, Love and the Meaning of Life."
In totality, Gopnik (2010) discovered that babies and young children are designed by nature to learn but with a kind of intelligence far different from that of adults but very relevant to development and growth. abies and young children, first of all, do think and their minds develop in a way…
Brooks, C.N. (2012). What do babies think about? Family and Parenting: Examiner.com.
Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.examiner.com/article/what-do-abies-think.about
Catania, M. (200). What do babies think before thus start talking? Exploration:
Vanderbilt University. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.exploration.vanderbilt.edu/news/news.baby.htm
For many years psychologist have tried to piece apart how humans learn, evolve, and develop identities. Many theories have been observed and explained, but none can ever be perfect. For as long as the human mind has been a subject of study, psychologists who study it will always be asking certain questions, such as: do humans learn through observation or through experience? Which carries more weight, experiences in the environment, or being taught step-by-step procedures? For example, if a mother sees her child reach for a hot stove, she will probably slap the child's hand away telling him to not do that because he will be burned and it will hurt. The child then has two options: to not touch a hot stove because the mother told him not to, and the mother knows best, or to touch the hot stove and find out for himself that stove…
Brace, N, & Byford, J 2010, Discovering Psychology, The Open University, London.
Cialdini, RB 2005, 'TARGET ARTICLE: Basic Social Influence Is Underestimated', Psychological Inquiry, 16, 4, pp. 158-161, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.
Darnon, C, Butera, F, & Harackiewicz, J 2007, 'Achievement Goals in Social Interactions: Learning with Mastery vs. Performance Goals', Motivation & Emotion, 31, 1, pp. 61-70, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.
Kutnick, P, & Kington, A 2005, 'Children's friendships and learning in school: Cognitive enhancement through social interaction?', British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 4, pp. 521-538, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.'
Vision and Goals as a Practicing Psychologist
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a serious disorder that affects children, their families, teachers, and society in general. However, there are empirically -- validated interventions that can help these children. This paper outlines the vision and goals of a graduate student in psychology in the context of preparing to become a certified ADHD parent Coach/Consultant in order to make a difference in the lives of these children and their families.
There are many opportunities for those practicing in the field of psychology today. However, an undergraduate degree in psychology does not adequately prepare a person to practice in the field and a graduate degree is needed. While achieving an undergraduate degree in psychology requires a study of many different subspecialties in psychology, the attainment of a graduate degree is typically more specialized and career -- oriented. In this paper I outline my vision…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5. Washington DC: Author.
Lewin and the Personality
Kurt Lewin was a Jewish psychologist from Prussia, who immigrated to America following Hitler's rise to power in Germany. There Lewin developed what later became known as "sensitivity training" in America (Lasch-Quinn, 2001). This area of expertise allowed Lewin to focus his attention on subjects with extra attention and care and it was this insightulness into how personalities are shaped that helped him to realize that humans are shaped by a complex interaction of both nature and nurture and not simply one over the other. What Lewin realized was that humans are born with natural predispositions (personalities) but that those predispositions are also affected and influenced by the environment in which one is born and raised. So there is an interplay between the two.
This idea of Lewin's originate in, and is what also gave him the ability to write, A Dynamic Theory of Personality, which…
Haggbloom, S. et al. (2002). The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century.
Review of General Psychology, 6(2): 139-152.
Hall, C. (1988). Theories of Personality. NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Lasch-Quinn, E. (2001). Race Experts: How racial etiquette, sensitivity training, and new age therapy hijacked the civil rights revolution. NY: W. W. Norton.
A key role here would be that of the teacher, as most interactions at this age usually occur in school. Therefore, proper advice from a guiding counselor on issues referring to racial differences, to questions such as "What does it mean to be black?" could be of help in prompting further discussions on related subjects.
In analyzing the CNN pole, the role of the teacher is evident: he must help students answer their questions and address their fears, in order for each generation to be les inflicted by racial prejudices.
ut, as everly Tatum pointed out in one of her articles, "many educators are unskilled at talking about racial issues. Many teachers have had limited possibility to explore such issues in their own education, and they hesitate to lead discussions about racial tensions for fear that they will generate classroom conflicts." School counselors must be prepared to help students from…
Tatum, Beverly Daniel.1997. Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter; Oct, Vol. 13 Issue 10, p1, 3p
Tatum, Beverly Daniel.2003.Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?. Perseus Books Group
Cross, William.1992. Shades of Black: Diversity in African-American Identity. Temple University Press
Farley, Christopher, Fedarko, Kevin. 1997. Kids and race. Time. Vol. 150 Issue 22, p88, 4p, 4c
Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist
Psychology and Psychiatry are two often-confused fields. The two share a similarity in the sense that they deal with human behavior. The professionals in both fields also share a coordinated approach to work. Occasionally, we see the psychologists and psychiatrists sharing a common working platform. A psychologist can refer a patient to a psychiatrist and vice versa. The referral happens when one of them has managed to deal with all that he or she can but still faces a specific challenge. The following study identifies the significant differences that exist between the two fields.
The major differences
The avenues of differences between the two fields are in the areas of education and training, salary scale, practice and the reputation. For one to be a psychologist, he or she has to acquire academic training to the level of doctoral training. This starts with an undergraduate training in psychology.…
James, W. (2011). The Principles Of Psychology (Authorized Ed.). New York: Dover Publications.
Scully, J. (2012). Psychiatry (3rd Ed.). Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins.
Wallace, R.D. (2012). The Book of Psychological Truths: A Psychiatrist's Guide to Really Good Thinking for Really Great Living. New York: iUniverse
psychologists, especially Freudians, considered experiences undergone at the tender, early childhood age to be crucial to social, psychological and mental growth. Newer studies reveal that even late-childhood experiences are influential, capable of altering a child's developmental course. A majority of contemporary psychologists discuss sensitive, rather than critical, phases, which are phases when an individual is found to be particularly reactive towards or equipped to handle particular experiences. Hence, while childhood is deemed to be the ideal age to independently learn any second language (i.e., without direct teaching on others' part), adults also can and have effectively learnt second languages (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2012).
Different Individuals' Development Occurs at Different Paces
Within classroom settings, one can witness several examples demonstrating varied developmental rates of pupils. While some pupils will be better, faster, organized or more responsible and conscientious with regard to their social relationships and attitudes, others may be relatively slower…
oles in an Investigation
In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…
Durand & Barlow. (2007). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Mason, Ohio.: Cengage Learning.
Feldman, F. (2013). A PSYCHOLOGIST'S ADVENTURES, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(1), 119-124. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.1.0119
Hansen, M. (2000). Suicidal Missions: Psychological autopsies to uncover motivation in suspicious deaths are themselves now suspect. ABA Journal, 86(3), 28-29. doi: 10.2307/27841067
Hartwig, M., Granhag, P.A., Stromwall, L.A., & Kronkvist, O. (2006). Strategic Use of Evidence during Police Interviews: When Training to Detect Deception Works. Law and Human Behavior, 30(5), 603-619. doi: 10.2307/4499497
a) Changes in APA Public Policy
According to several changes made in APA Public policy with relation to the role of psychologists in the interrogations session, APA has prohibited its psychologists from taking part in the varied torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading interrogation techniques by stating, "No psychiatrist should participate directly in the interrogation of persons held in custody by military or civilian investigative or law enforcement authorities, whether in the United States or elsewhere. Direct participation includes being present in the interrogation room, asking or suggesting questions, or advising authorities on the use of specific techniques of interrogation with particular detainees (Pope, 2008, Psychologists at the Center of the Controversy)." urthermore, it was asserted through referendum which took place in 2008 that psychologists must not operate outside territories which are under the jurisdiction of international law such as Guantanamo, Bagram, or the CIA or JSOC "black site" prisons,…
Furthermore, since APA complies with United Nations definition of human rights, it can be implied that APA's definition of human rights includes universality and inalienability. The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions (UNHR, 1996). Hence, APA recognizes humans to have rights which cannot be taken away (APA, 1987).
Impact of U.S. Policies on Detainees
Where treaties like Geneva Convention and convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, prohibit any inhumane behavior resulting into physical and mental distress, there are no governing bodies to supervise the law and order agencies as an organization like APA has been
sit-down with an experience psychologist recently and a very enlightening and expansive conversation ensued. The psychologist in question did request that her name and her practice be excluded from being named within this report, but there is a bevy of great information that was gleaned during the interview and will be shared in this report. She said she wanted to be very candid and felt she should not do so if her name (or the name of her practice) are in play. At the request of the professor, topics to be mentioned in this summary include how long the psychologist has been working in the field, what orientation the psychologist was trained for and the time splits that the psychologist allocates her time to, the assessment tools she uses and the associated training engaged in to be able to use those tools, the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist has encountered…
Duties of a Correctional Psychologist
An increasing rate of violation of crimes characterizes the current global environment. Different forms of violence and aggression, including drug trafficking and abuse, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of violence necessitates the need for analyzing the roles of a correctional psychologist. he special roles played by the correctional psychologists such as providing environments that improve the safety of the staff and inmates, psychological services, inmate management, and conducting an evaluation of the inmate/prison population and its influence on inmates' health necessitated the study into the topic. In addition, the fact that the correctional psychology has numerous ethical dilemmas and conflicts makes it wanting to study the topic.
he working environment, professional and personal experiences made me interested in studying the duties and challenges facing correctional psychologist. he fact that correctional psychologists work in a simulative and challenging environment attracts my interests…
The study provides a variety of opportunities for future research. For example, it provides an avenue for conducting research on the organizational factors that influence decision-making of the correctional psychologists. Organizational factors such as structure have been predicted to affect the practicing of correctional psychologists. Therefore, this study will provide the basis for studies into the issue. In addition, the study provides opportunities for future research on the contributing factors to the transformation of the correctional psychologists and their roles. Other ways in which this study will provide opportunities for future research include studies that aim at criticizing legitimacy of studies conducted on the topic.
Corriea, K.M. (2009). A Handbook for Correctional Psychologists: Guidance for the Prison Practitioner. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Goals of Psychology
Psychologists in various areas of specialty put emphasis on different behavioral aspects though often with similar goals, that of getting acquainted to the human behavior. The paper will look at these four goals of psychology as well as an example of a study created that would help elaborate on each of these four goals of psychology. These four goals of psychology are to describe behavior, to explain behavior, to predict behavior and to control behavior.
This involves the naming and classification of a behavior that is displayed by an individual or a group of people. A description is normally based on careful, systematic procedure carried out which is a contrast to the haphazard description that may be put forth without backing of well researched data. Description is important as it clarifies the phenomenon under study and it is only after a description of the phenomena…
Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is psychology ? essentials. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
By delving into and categorizing the different treatments, ocial psychologists test and arrive at conclusions of socially helpful interventions and treatments. Other professionals such as social workers and therapists can then incorporate these treatments in their practices whilst policy makers can formulate laws (if applicable) incorporating them into the institution.
A) select one that makes use of the distinction between automatic cognitive-processes and controlled processing, and by using that article explain why that-distinction is important in current social psychological research. Are the methods-used to measure these two processes different? If so, how and why? (Do not-forget to cite the title of the article.)
Payne (2006) dwells on implicit and instinctive bias that compels people to make snap judgeship. These judgments can sometimes be dangerous and self if not socially destructive such as race stereotypes that can lead people to see a weapon where none exists and can result in faulty…
Brewer, M.B., Brown, R..J., Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (2003). The handbook of social psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Fiske, S.T., & Neuberg, S.L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 1-74.
Legault, L. et al. (2011) Ironic Effects of Antiprejudice Messages: How Motivational Interventions Can Reduce (but Also Increase) Prejudice Psychological Science 22(12) 1472
Oskamp, S. (2000). Multiple paths to reducing prejudice and discrimination, Psychology Press: U.S.
I will then contribute in coaching the new employee where necessary.
The criteria used in determining whether the newly created job was most effective in helping the company will address its rapid growth and how long you will wait to make this job
Performance evaluation forms will be effective in meeting the company's progress. After the new employees have settled in their new workstation, their production levels will need to be observed. The impact of the new employee in terms of productivity is vital here especially when the company is on a high growth. ome situations will be evident and open enough in case the new employee is heavily involved.
In circumstances where the company forms a new department, the audit, and the accounting department will undertake an analysis of the income brought forward (nell, 2012). The Audit Company and management will calculate the ROI for the new workers. ROI…
Snell, Scott a., & Bohlander, George W. (2012). Managing Human Resources. South-Western
Marriage and the Family
hen studying the dynamics of marriage, family, children, and all the interactions and psychological components that go along with being a family, there are decisions that must be made in that milieu that hold enormous importance. Those decisions should be based on a firm knowledge of what parents are supposed to do when it comes to children; what married people are supposed to do when it comes to their love and relationship; and what the family is supposed to do when it comes to being part of a neighborhood and of a community. This paper is a personal reflection on those dynamics but I zero in on the psychological needs of the child, no matter how successful the marriage is or isn't. In fact, when things are not going well in a marriage or a relationship that has produced a child -- or when the child…
DuPaul, G.J., Kern, L., Volpe, R., Caskie, G.I.L., Arbolino, L., Van Brake, J., and Pipan, M.
(2013). Comparison of Parent Education and Functional Assessment-Based Intervention
Across 24 Months for Young Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
School Psychology Review, 42(1), 56-75.
You are a police psychologist for a major metropolitan area. You are also a member of its hostage negotiation team. You have been called to a crisis incident at 3:15 P.M. On a Friday. It is in a residential area about three blocks from a middle school and a public library. The information you have at this time is that the subject is a 42-year-old male who is holed up in his house with his wife, son, and a family friend. He has murdered his next-door neighbor and is threatening to kill those in the house if his demands are not met. One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food. He wants his demands met or "something will happen."u
Alaxander, D., & Klein, S. (2010). Hostage-taking: motives, resolution, coping and effects. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 176-183.
Cooper, H. (1981). Hostage-takers. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=75936
Goldaber, I. (1979). Typology of Hostage-Takers. Police Chief, 21-23. Retrieved from Hughes, J. (2009). A Pilot Study of Naturally Occuring High-Probability Request Sequences in Hostage Negotiations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 491-496.
McMains, M., & Mullins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiation (4th ed.). New Providence: Lexis/Nexis/Anderson.
The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)
Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…
Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.
Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.52
Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
Ethics add to the beauty of profession whether medicine, healthcare, sociology, politics, education, business and even technology. Lack of ethics might not kill someone in most of cases but it certainly does affect the beauty of life. In psychology, ethics does play a role in developing trust between the client and the professional. Single parenting is a social psychology problem that also demands ethical practice since it deals with trust and confidence. Whatever is a different behavior from normal practices might need psychological guidance. Often there is a need to train people, couples, students, job candidates and single parents. The psychologists are bound by social contract. They do not only have to follow the job description but also have to meet the expectations of the clients and the industry in terms of ethical performance. While the dignity of the profession matters most in psychology. From decision…
Canadian Psychological Association, (2000), Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Retrieved
Complaints From Community Members
The fact that Officer Daniels has received complaints filed by multiple different members of the community in a relatively short period of time would raise immediate concerns. Whereas an isolated complaint could be the result of a misunderstanding, an unfounded act of retribution by someone for appropriate police action initiated by the officer, or the result of a single bad momentary decision, the fact that there are multiple such complaints suggests it is more likely that Officer Daniels may not be performing his duties optimally. Moreover, the fact that the complaints involve three different types of unrelated conduct suggests that there might be a common underlying issue such as psychological fatigue, burnout, or unresolved psychological trauma, as opposed to a an issue of poor or insufficient training (Miller, 2007). As a police psychologist, I would approach the situation as a possible unconscious request for help by…
Lindsey, D. (2007). Police Fatigue: An Accident Waiting to Happen. FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, 76(8): 1-8.
Malmin, M. (2012). Changing Police Subculture. FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, 81(4):
These hidden issues influence our conscious decisions. So, people may have both conscious and unconscious reasons for behaving as they do. People might be able to give what seem like rational reasons for behavior. Someone who sets fires might say he or she enjoys seeing the flames and likes watching the fire department put the fire out. Those may be the factors the individual is conscious of, but a psychologist might find that there were other reasons driving the person's behavior as well.
One of the things that often makes it hard for one person to understand another person's actions is that we have only observable behavior to go on. We can't examine the internal mental processes that take place. This makes it easy to judge people as acting in ways that suggest a moral flaw or lack of character. A woman who dresses very suggestively might be considered to…
journal is the Psychologist-Manager Journal.
Psychologists who are in management would receive the most benefit from the information and articles provided in the journal. The articles contained in it would generally not be of interest to anyone who was outside the field of academic psychology.
The title of the chosen article is Women "Take Care," Men "Take Charge": Managers' Stereotypic Perceptions of Women and Men Leaders. This article is interesting to me because it shows that there is sexism still alive in the workplace, and that many managers do not think women can lead as well as men, simply because some of their tactics may be different.
The article is 25 pages long, including title page and reference list.
The major sections of the article, according to the headings, are: Gender Stereotypes and Their Effects on Women Leaders, The Present Research, Method, Analyses, Results, Discussion, Limitations, Conclusion, Implications, Acknowledgements, and…
It is possible that my personality is a function of my mother's genes but it is impossible to know how much of the similarities between us are the result of my imitation and modeling of her behavior during my formative years. My older sister and I are very similar except that she is much more nervous than I am, just like my mother. According to my parents, they purposely tried to help me not become as nervous as my sister by correcting some of the mistakes they made in that regard with her. For example, she became very frightened of thunder storms and other loud noises as an infant. Therefore, when I was a baby, my parents pretended that thunder was a fun game and they made me laugh whenever there was thunder. They did the same thing with my younger brother. As a result, neither of us are nervous…
The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…
Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.
Brannon, L., & Fiest, J. (2004). Health Psychology: Vol.. An Introduction to Behavior and Health (Fifth ed.) Belmont CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.
DiMatteo, M. (2004). Social Support and Patient Adherence to Medical treatment: A Meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218.
Eitel, P., Hatchett, L., Friend, R., Griffin, K.W., & Wadhwa, N.K. (1995). Burden of Self-Care in Seriously Ill Patients Impact on Adjustment. Health Psychology, 14(5), 457-463.
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ebert (1986) believes "there is absolutely no justification for preventing mental health professionals from participating in virtually all facets of hostage negotiation," (p. 580). As Hatcher, Mohandie, Turner & Gelles (1998) point out, most mental health professionals that do participate in any aspect of hostage negotiation do so "by invitation only in police-established hostage negotiation schools," (p. 461). With this training, the mental health professional is thus theoretically prepared to engage the perpetrator directly. However, the mental health professional is only prepared when the training provided is thorough and consistent, and in accordance with the parameters and goals of each crisis situation.
The pros of employing a psychologist as a primary negotiator are clear. Most significantly, the psychologist has expertise in human behavior and cognition and can apply that knowledge to making quick decisions. The psychologist can also provide post-traumatic stress intervention services to the hostage victims and…
Ebert, B.W. (1986). The mental health response team: An expanding role for psychologists. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 17, 6, 580-585.
Hatcher, C., Mohandie, K., Turner, J. & Gelles, M.G. (1998). The role of psychologists in crisis/hostage negotiations.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 455-472.
Ethics in the Practice of Psychology
Identify the problem.
The therapist must decide how to respond to several potential ethics issues that the client has brought to the client-therapist relationship. The therapist is considering options for responding that will preserve the integrity of the client-therapist relationship and that will avoid communicating any disregard for the ethnic traditions that are most likely influencing the client's actions.
Identify the potential issues involved.
While it is probable that the psychologist has reviewed the ethical guidelines that govern her work, the client has stepped outside of those bounds in several ways. Most notably, the client has not complied with the processes and constraints associated with fee payment, and the client has introduced complexity into the client-therapist relationship by making arrangements for the provision of therapy services to another family member without first discussing the matter with the therapist. In addition, the client…
Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping profession (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks / Cole.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (1992, December 1).
American Psychological Association. Author. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/code-1992.aspx [Type text]
criminal justice. Each question must be 300 words long.
Identify the requirements for the insanity plea in your jurisdiction and contrast this with the M'Naghten standard, the Brawner standard, ALI standard, and the Durham rule. Identify similarities and differences. Support you response with examples from your research and reading assignment.
In the 1843 case of the United Kingdom House of Lords Decisions of Daniel M'Naghten's, the court determined that an insanity plea to would hinge on whether the defendant knew what he was doing, or, if he did know what he was doing, did he know that it was wrong. In 1972,the U.S. v. Brawner case in the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals determined not to involve the jury in the determination of the defendant's mental state. This decision was grounded in the ALI test of a Model Penal Code. The Brawner rule overturned the Durham Rule, which was overly…
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
Stress Among Police
Stress among the police
Stress among the police force
Police workforce remains an environment that is highly stressful being an occupation that a person has to deal with physical dangers and risking their lives any time they are working. esearch indicates that the prevalent stress warning signs that need to deal with immediately they appear are sudden behavior changes in behavior, erratic work behavior, increase of sick time because of minor problems, failure to preserve a train of thought, and extreme worrying. There are many ways, which departments in the police force can deal with stressing the police force. The first mechanism is provision of stress management initiatives to both offices and their spouses. There is a need for identification of officers under stress and offer them counseling to assist in alleviating their stress. Periodic screenings as well as training concentrating on stress management is necessary.
Territo, L., & Vetter, H.J. (2001). Stress and police personnel. Boston, Mass: Allyn and Bacon.
Toch, H., Bailey, F.Y., & Floss, M. (2002). Stress in policing. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
It is true that a LP is required to have a doctoral degree in order to meet one of the requirements for getting a license to practice psychology, while a LCW only needs to have a MC, but this is not a criterion to distinguish a LP from LCW as the former being more academically suited for a job in a health care setting than the other. "A psychology whose primary rationale is to promote social justice need not throw away its scientific aspirations. Indeed, the things it studies will be more rigorously arrived at. Hence its methods of solution will e more scientific than ever" (Bradley, 2005, p.3).
The globalization world is requiring disciplines to cooperate and help people in the twenty-first century cope with technological advances, scientific breakthroughs and new challenges that changed the pace of our society's development from one century to another. Walls between nations are…
Swann I.A. (1998) Grounded Encounter Therapy: its characteristics and process. Clinical Sociology Review 6, 76-87
Weiner I.B., et alii.2003. Handbook of Psychology: Clinical psychology. Hoboken. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
Weiten, W. 2008. Belmont. Psychology: Themes and Variations. Cengage Learning
One of the most important ethical standards for psychologists (as well as others in similar therapeutic relationships) is the avoidance of dual relationships. Put simply, a dual relationship is one in which the psychologist has any other relationship with a client. In the scenario that we are presented with, the nature of the potential dual relationship is fairly straightforward. The psychologist and the student have an established relationship with each other with clearly defined roles as student and instructor. Because this is an established, ongoing relationship, it would not be ethical for the psychologist to engage in a therapeutic relationship with the student.
If we consider the possible future direction of such a hypothetical relationship, we can see why it would be so problematic. For example, if the psychologist began to see the student as a client and the student/client then did not pay for a session, this…
Meyer, J. (n.d.). Fresh legal perspectives: Psychologists in dual relationships. http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/legalper.pdf .
One personality profile gives "a person who likes change" as one of its assessments. Scrutinizing the statement, one will see that this is likely to apply to almost everyone. First, it does not specify in what aspect in life the person likes change, making it open to personal interpretations. Second, possibility is huge that people are likely to favor change in at least one of the aspects of their lives, given that people are dynamic by nature. Check the tool's background and be not surprised if it is not rooted on solid research ground -- validity or reliability is low, sample used was not representative of the population and standardization was not strictly applied, among others.
Beware of selective perceptions. People fall for the trap of seeing vague descriptions as accurate because of the tendency to bring it down to the personal level. However, recall of personally-relevant information is subject…
MacDonald, D.J. & Standing, L.G. (2002). Does Self-Serving Bias Cancel the Barnum Effect? Social Behavior and Personality, 30 (6), 625-630.
Ulrich, C. (2004). Dissecting the Process of Reasoning. Human Ecology, 32 (2), 15-19.
Wittrock, D.A. & Foraker, S.L. (2001). Tension-Type Headache and Stressful Events: The Selective Memory in Reporting of Stressors. The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 41(5), 482-493.
Psychological Efficacy of Debriefing for Trauma & Stress
Author's Note with contact information and more details of collegiate affiliation, etc.
The paper will describe what debriefing is. The paper will discuss the nature and prevalence of trauma in American life and culture. The paper will go on to estimate what psychologists are doing to combat this epic rise in traumatic experience, which can lead to stress disorders affecting the daily lives of many. Thus, not only are people victims of trauma, but also, with improper or no treatment, these people can fall victim again to a trauma related disorder. The paper will talk about why and how psychologists are dealing with all these instances of trauma. The paper will summarize two scholarly articles that offer perspective on the issue of trauma and debriefing as treatment. After providing concise summaries of the articles, the paper will provide a comparative analysis of…
Raphael, B., Meldrum, L., & McFarlane, A.C. (June 10, 1995) Does debriefing after psychological trauma work?: Time for randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal. 310(1). 1479 -- 1480.
Rose, S.C., Bisson, J., & Wessely, S. (2009) Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1(1). 1 -- 46.
It also promotes research in the field and therefore the improvement of the research methods and applications. Other ways in which the Association improves the understanding and use of knowledge in the field is by means of meetings, contacts, reports, papers, discussion and publication (American Psychological Association, 2012).
The APA is governed by volunteer governance members, who are responsible for the direction of the advocacy, publishing, member service, and other functions of the APA. Specifically, the governance members include a Council of epresentatives, whose responsibility includes approving policy and the appropriation of revenues. The Board of Directors is elected by members and administers the functions of the Council of epresentatives. The APA president is an annual position that is filled by a person who is elected by the membership. The president provides a leadership contact for the Association. Other ruling parties include committees, boards and task forces with specific functions…
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. (2012). About ASPPB. Retrieved from: http://www.asppb.net/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3285
American Psychological Association Code of Ethics, Chapter 5.
American Psychological Association (2012). About APA. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/about/index.aspx
American Psychological Association (2010, Feb 20). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.
Careers in Psychology
Each person possesses his or her own field of preference in psychology specialization after the basic course. The desire emanates from personal experience, passion in life, desired goals to fulfill, and the rewards accompanying each specialization. All the specialization areas in psychology remain in high demand in the society. Concisely, all that matters is the innovativeness of the person in the profession, the skills, and the approach methods in use when in the practicum field. The result after the inputs determines how successful one becomes. The societal needs are at a rampant change, therefore as one chooses a certain profession to venture in, critical analysis in of utmost importance. After detailed evaluation of the various ventures that provide the best satisfaction to a psychologist, the three topmost specializations are forensic, biopsychology and social psychologists.
Social psychologists work in environments with close relation to hospitals, clinics, mental hospitals,…
Accredited Forensic Psychology Schools and Degrees Online. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/forensic-psychology/
Biopsychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/biological-psychology/
Kuther, T.L., & Morgan, R.D. (2013). Careers in psychology: Opportunities in a changing world. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Perception | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/perception/
This means that the decision I make in this scenario must be guided by sincere questions concerning the validity of my practice and the importance of alternate ambitions such as my desire to make a foray into the screenwriting profession. It is thus that I have decided the costs are simply too high to maintain the current relationship which I have with my patient.
Therefore, the only appropriate measure is for me to immediately cease my counseling relationship with the patient. In order to ensure that the patient does not lose his access to the treatment which he requires, he will be referred to one of my respected colleagues. It is believed that the necessary cost of breaking from this established doctor/patient relationship will be outweighed by the benefits of removing myself from a situation in which objectivity has been lost.
Upon separating form the patient thusly, I would make…
Fisher, C.B. (2008). Decoding the Ethics Code. Sage Publications.
Holcomb, W.R. (2006). Thinking Correctly About Ethics: A Review of Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology. Psychology Critiques, 51(48), 1554-1556.
Jordan, A.E. & Meara, N.M. (1990). Ethics and the Professional Practice of Psychologists: The Role of Virtues and Principles. Professional Psychology Resource Press, 21(2), 107-114.
Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1998). Ethics in Psychology. Oxford University Press.
Similarly, I have learned that counter-transference is also a risk within any relationship potentially prone to transference (Mitchell & Black, 2003). As a practical matter, I intend to maintain awareness of any tendencies on my part toward counter-transference by being aware of any tendency to think about clients in between sessions in any manner other than in direct connection to their clinical issues. At the first sign of any potential risk of counter-transference, I would consider discontinuing the relationship and referring the patient to a colleague.
What qualities do you have that will make you an effective psychologist?
I believe my most important personal quality that will make me an effective psychologist is empathy, because I genuinely care about other people. There is empirical evidence suggesting that this is, indeed, one of the most important qualities of good psychologists (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2009). I believe that I am conscientious and…
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Krasner, M., Epstein, R., Beckman, H., Suchman, a., Chapman, B., and Mooney, C. "Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 302, No. 12 (2009): 1284-1292.
McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.