1000 results for “Reading Skills”.
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
Curriculum and Instruction
Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment.
The top-down belief system related to curriculum centers on reading for meaning. Teachers who hold this philosophy of reading instruction stress engaging language arts activities that students find relevant and interesting. Indeed, teacher with this top-down perspective of reading curriculum are likely to encourage students to select their own reading materials in order to optimize the students' enjoyment of reading. The shift in this approach is definitely away from a focus on individual words, letters, and phonetics. Although teachers who embrace the top-down belief system want students to be proficient readers with robust skills that enable them to enjoy their reading, these teachers tend to believe that what motivates students to work hard on their reading skills is a strong appetite for story. Accordingly, their instruction targets…
Vacca, J. Vacca, R. Gove, M. Burkey, L. Lenhart, L. McKeon, C. (2012). Reading and learning to read. (8th ed.) Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River, N.J.
ESOL Learner's Language & Reading Skills
You are invited to participate in a research project being conducted by researchers from Western Governors University. The researchers are conducting research to determine the most effective ways to improve the English reading abilities of immigrant students.
The purpose of this research is to survey ESL teachers, students, and parents in order to identify how much time students spend speaking in their native languages and the impact this has on their fluency in reading English. This research project will require students to read sample chapters aloud on two different occasions. Students may also be asked to increase the amount of time spent using their English speaking skills. The research will be conducted over a week period, where parents, faculty, and students will be interviewed and provided with surveys. Students will be required to continue all of their routine classroom activities with two additions of…
Next door to where we live is a family with an 8-year-old boy who is in the third grade. He says that he does not like to read but that he has to for school and he hates it. “I don’t like reading in class. It’s hard to say the words and everybody laughs at me.” I asked him if there was anything he enjoyed about reading and he said, “Yeah, when we can stop.” I decided to try a different route to see if I could get his participation any better and introduced the topic of comic books. “Do you like Batman or Spiderman?” I asked. “Oh yeah!” So I offered him a few comic books to look at and he enjoyed them, but there was still the question of whether or not he was enjoying them because of the pictures or whether he was able to actually…
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…
Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
Diagnosing the Problem
As Palardy (2015) shows, first grade is where the achievement gap begins to develop among students. Ferrer et al. (2015) show that the achievement gap begins in first grade and persists well into adolescence: in order to address the achievement gap, the best step is to take preventive measures. This action research study plans to address the problem of the achievement gap by getting first graders to focus on reading and get them interested in reading by following the recommendation of Moses and Kelly (2018), which is to condition young learners to love reading by continuously promoting it in a favorable and positive light. In other words, by socializing reading and using child-centered teaching methods (Kikas, Pakarinen, Soodla, Peets & Lerkkanen, 2017; Moses & Kelly, 2018), first grade teachers can help to close the achievement gap.
The study setting is my first grade classroom. This setting was…
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.
Reading Profile of a Student
The student I selected is a 10-year-old 4th grade student who is a self-described “lover of books.” She views herself as a great reader and she is always carrying a book with her. I ask her if she thinks everyone should read more, and she says most emphatically, “Yes!” She maintains a very positive attitude toward reading—“Even when you don’t care for what you’re reading?” I ask. She says that she always finds something to like, no matter what she is reading. She says if someone took the time to write it, she can take the time to find something nice about it. “Sometimes I have to stop and think about what I read or I’ll think about a story for days wondering what I just read.” I ask what stories do that for her and she answers, “Poe! That guy is crazy!” I am…
Lawler and Ledford (1987) argued twenty-six years ago that skill-based pay was going to become an increasingly popular concept in compensation management. Ledford and Heneman (2011) define skill-based pay as "a compensation system that rewards employees with additional pay in exchange for formal certification of the employee's mastery of skills, knowledge and/or competencies." The authors juxtapose this against a "job-based pay system," defined as a system where employees are entitled to receive their pay even if they are not proficient in their position.
There are two issues with the concept from the outset. The first is that employees should be proficient in their position, since they have been given that position. It makes little sense for an employee to remain in a position with no skills. Trotter (2013) notes that a person's skills and competencies contribute to them receiving the position, at least in any company where merit…
Giancola, F. (2011). Skill-based pay: Fad or classic? Compensation Benefits Review. Vol. 43 (4) 220-226.
Lawler, Edward E., III, & Ledford, Gerald E., Jr. (1987). Skill-based pay: A concept that's catching on. Management Review, 76(2), 46-46. Retrieved May 30, 2013
Ledford, G. & Heneman, H. (2011). Skill-based pay. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://www.siop.org/userfiles/image/SIOP_SHRM_Skill_Based_Pay.pdf
Trotter. R. (2013). Skills-based pay structures vs. job-based pay structures. Rory Trotter.com. Retrieved December 6, 2013 from http://rorytrotter.com/2013/04/10/skill-based-pay-structures-versus-job-based-pay-structures/
In a world that favors early adopters and revolves around the latest technology, individuals will be better served if they continue to seek out learning opportunities after their formal education has ended. Local governments and communities should provide these opportunities through libraries, universities and community centers. The skills gap applies to all.
Although people are defined by their different skill sets and this diversity enhances the richness of life in America, it is also clear that some skills are more important than others. If young people aspire to be successful adults, they must gain the skills they need to succeed in higher education, and those higher education skills must then translate into useful skills for the workforce. Focusing on process and information application, rather than restricting curricula to the collection of facts and information, is a critical step for successful learning. Integrating business leaders in the effort of re-defining…
American Society for Training and Development 2006. 'Bridging the Skills Gap: How the Skills Shortage Threatens Growth and Competitiveness and What to do About It' Alexandria, VA.
Daggett, Willard R. 'Jobs and the Skills Gap. International Center for Leadership in Education' Rexford, N.Y. Available at: www.state.me.us/education/diploma/jobsandskills.pdf
'Job Skills Checklist', Purdue University. Available at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/626/01/
National Education Association 'Statement of Principles: 21st Century Skills and the Reauthorization of NCLB/ESEA'. Available at: http://www.nea.org/home/17154.htm
Skills and Knowledge Area
The ability to research and interpret and then apply various local and federal and State laws as well as ordinances related to Community Programs is an extremely important and demanding skill. One example of the demonstration of this ability is that explained by Thomas R. Suozzi, the County Executive of Nassau, and Lorna B. Goodman, County Attorney of Nassau County, in their Annual Report on their County presented in December 2004. Herein, it is stated that with the support of the people of the county, they have managed to indeed accomplish a great many things, and they then proceed to list out the various activities and accomplishments. The first one is, according to the Report that of managing to bring 'in-house' the remaining part of the more than $10 million of specified legal work that had actually been given to the private bar earlier. The reason…
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…
Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11
Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/
Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:aLFi5i1eLl4J:www.melroseschools.com/lincoln/MPS_Writing_Curriculum_K_5.pdf+writing+curriculum+for+elementary&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShGXpwCDU3mdB2rQVO2e3Dav6AgQn-3Ng2vDjsDa_f50Pd5k8wDn4zmQH2cTwV3P7kAA2v9zu
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test: http://www.riversidepublishing.com/products/gmrtOnline/index.html
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
Learning to read and write in English has been one of my most treasured accomplishments in the recent past. To begin with, learning to read and write in English is in my opinion the very first step towards becoming a fluent speaker of one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. In that regard therefore, I am convinced that fluency in English is a plus as I pursue my career of choice. Given that English is one of the most common languages, corporations and most organizations would ordinarily hire individuals who can relate well with their customers and clients. Being able to read, write, and speak English will therefore give me a distinct advantage in my future job seeking endeavors. It is also important to note that fully aware that the world is increasingly becoming interconnected; the relevance of learning an additional language cannot be overstated. It is…
Baldwin, James. Sonny's Blues. Stuttgart: Klett Sprachen, 2009. Print.
Brinton, Margaret. 100 Little Reading Comprehension Lessons. New York: Lorenz Educational Press, 2004. Print.
Cusipag, Maria, et al. Critical Thinking through Reading and Writing. Philippines: De La Salle University Press, 2007. Print.
What types of equipment, support, training, and resources are currently available to teachers of special-needs students at the site school to assist them in effectively using technology to help their students increase their academic skills; especially in reading and writing?
RQ5. What components (equipment, curriculum, resources, etc.) should be included in a technology plan to be recommended for implementation at the site school to increase the reading skills of the special-needs students?
RQ6. What impact does the implementation of the plan have on the reading skills of the special-needs students at the site school?
Procedures, Practices and Expectations
In addition to an extensive literature review using academic databases, the researcher will conduct a pre-test/post-test quantitative methodology to measure improvement levels in reading of an ESE class of middle school students at the selected site. This will be an experimental design in which one half of the class, selected randomly, will…
This is the goal of struggling readers. A dependent reader takes only a peripheral interest in the text. He gives it the minimum of his attention and approaches it only because he is forced. It is as though he is reading against his will and fighting all the way.
Beers provides an anticipation guide, but I don't necessarily agree that such a guide is very constructive or helpful. It deals solely with crass generalizations, and whether attitudes held before reading the text are still ascribed to after reading the text. For the most part, students' attitudes are going to be superficial and having them partake in an exercise of superficiality is likely to be counterproductive.
Beers argues that performing such activities will help to encourage students to become more involved with the reading. It will help them to engage their prior knowledge and challenge them to think. Beers recommends making…
While motivated students may exceed expectations based on their IQ, the greater relevance of the relationship between motivation and reading development is that poor motivation often results in unexpectedly low reading skill development relative to higher IQ scores.
To isolate instances of motivation-based poor reading performance in the study group, I intend to design an investigation using elements of hands-on, active learning study programs, such as the Full Option Science System (FOSS). While FOSS is not specifically designed as a diagnostic reading program, incorporating one or more of the learning exercises will help identify students whose unsatisfactory reading performance scores relate to motivational issues, rather than issues addressable by merely providing intensified reading instruction. Though science-based, the FOSS teaching materials use post-lesson tests that also measure module subject matter comprehension and lesson retention. I intend to administer grade-appropriate science lessons, because the nature of the FOSS materials relies more on…
If anything, Jessica's apparent equating of reading speed as an indication of reading well undermines her comprehension more than technical difficulty.
Jessica understood the main idea, in general but possibility too literally: she retitled the story "What Comes Around Goes Around," and incorrectly attributed a direct cause-and- effect relationship to Leonard's charity and Riley's fate. Instead of characterizing events as an unfortunate but coincidental relationship between a genuine act of charity and an accident,
Jessica apparently assumed that Riley's misfortune might have been related to Leonard's revenge.
Jessica reads and comprehends well above her grade level. This is likely a function of her enjoyment of reading. Jessica clearly enjoys reading about subjects of interest but is comparatively easily frustrated by assigned reading outside her intrinsic interests. Jessica possesses good reading mechanics that enable her to deduce pronunciation and contextual meaning of unfamiliar words, but her ability to make…
81). Ambrose and Corn (1997) further define "functional vision" as vision that can be used to derive input for planning and performing tasks; the extent to which one uses his or her available vision is referred to as "visual efficiency."
eading Skills. According to Carver (2002), "reading usually means to attempt to comprehend language in the form of printed words"; therefore, for the purposes of this study, the term "reading skills" will refer to an individual's ability to comprehend language in the form of printed words.
This chapter provided an introduction to the study, including the background and a statement of the problem of vision impairment on students' academic performance; a discussion of the purpose and significance of the study was followed by a description of the research questions that will guide the research process. An assessment of the study's limitations and delimitations was followed by a delineation…
Ambrose, G.V. & Corn, a.L. (1997). Impact of Low Vision on Orientation: an Exploratory Study. RE:view, 29(2), 81.
Balota, D.A., D'Arcais, G.B. & Rayner, K. (Eds.). (1990). Comprehension processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Becker, C.A. (1980). Semantic context effects in visual word recognition. An analysis of semantic strategies. Memory & Cognition, 8, 493-512.
Blachman, B.A. (1997). Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).
The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…
Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: http://arareading.org/doc/Susan_Abram_Reading_Fluency_Action_Research.pdf
Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.
Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.
Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/ch3.pdf
epeated eading Instruction a Powerful and Effective Alternative Teaching Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities?
This paper discusses how repeated reading instruction is a powerful and effective alternative for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities. When asked about reasonable adaptations that teachers can make to support learning from instructional materials, some of the most frequently cited adaptations are those involving peer support such as cooperative learning groups, student pairing. Studies show that students like working in small groups or being paired with a partner and appreciate it when teachers provide structure in teaching students how to work together and learn from each other. Teachers have utilized the phonics reading method and incorporated the Whole Language technique, but there are many educators in support of using the repeated reading technique as the favored instruction for students who have various learning disabilities.
It is the function of reading instruction to teach…
Boudah, D. & Weiss, M. (2002). Learning disabilities overview. (ERIC Document (Reproduction Service No. ED. 462808).
Cromwell, S. (1997). Whole language and phonics: Can they work together? Education World.
Accessed March 2, 2003 at www.educationworld.com.
Fitzsimmons, M. (1998). Beginning reading. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED.
Learning to Read
My earliest recollection of learning to read comes from watching television. As a young child, my parents thought it was best to leave me and my siblings in front of the television in order to serve as a babysitter. From these experiences is where I believe I taught myself to read.
Seasme Street and The Electric Company, two shows broadcasted on public television throughout the day served as a daily interjections of reading lessons that were most likely designed for that purpose. I can also recollect other educational television programs such as Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood and The Great Space Coaster as other sources of reading knowledge.
These experiences sitting in front of the television merely served as an impetus to my learning. To me, reading feels like a skill that needs to be practiced, and this skill can be honed or entropy depending on the frequency of…
hat can be done about this, Newkirk wonders in this article, published in 2004. Boys see libraries as a place for girls to go; boys go home and their dads are reading the sports page in newspapers while mom may be reading a novel. And boys are not encouraged to read action and adventure books (even though it is usually their preference), but they are urged to read novels with deep plots and sophisticated character development. Boys spend more time on video games and in computers than girls, and much of what they experience in those genres is action-oriented, and yet in school, they are asked to change, and be quiet, and be serious, like the girls.
These traditions lead to cynicism on the part of boys, Newkirk explains. hat can a teacher try to do about this problem? One thing Newkirk did was to stop trying to get boys…
Folks, Victoria. (2004). Middle School Masculinity: The Rejection of Reading. California English, 9(3), 24-25.
Moss, Gemma. (2000). Raising Boys' Attainment in Reading: some principles for intervention.
Reading, 34(3), 101-106.
Newkirk, Thomas. (2004). The Quiet Crisis in Boys' Literacy. California English, 9(3), 13-16.
learning how to read, and the development of language as well as language skills. Much of the book is descriptive and historical in nature, though ample space is also provided to contemporary empirical research and its findings concerning reading development and current issues being faced in teaching beginning readers. The conclusions in this regard are that the teaching of phonics is inconsistent both in terms of what is considered to fall under the umbrella of "phonics" and in the specific methodologies and perspectives brought to bear in trying to provide phonics instruction to beginning readers. The focus on mechanical understanding rather than critical understanding in later readers and budding writers is also discussed, with direct implications for beginning readers and on beginning reading instruction.
The research findings suggest that other modes of instruction and greater consistency and clarity in certain methodologies are necessary in order to achieve more effective beginning…
Brain Learns to ead
The human brain is an incredibly complex structure. It learns common actions and skills in an intensely intriguing manner that we often take for granted. Take for example the case of reading, an incredibly complicated process which is learned over time through repeated exposure and emulation that builds and strengthens knowledge about language in print.
The process of learning to read is incredibly complex yet is incredibly interesting. Interestingly, many fundamental skills involved with early reading learning are done before the child even beings on his or her journey. For example, phonetic learning helps establish a strong foundation for future reading capabilities. It is important that young readers focus on learning and recognizing phonemes that are at the base of the words they are seeing. Here, the research states that "Learning to read starts with the awareness that speech is composed of individual sounds," (Sousa 2005…
Sohn Design Studio. (2011). Give young readers books that sing and rhyme: Build confidence, motivation and reading stamina! Nellie Edge. Web. http://www.nellieedge.com/articles_resources/Resources_singRhyme.htm
Sousa, David A. (2005). How the Brain Learns to Read. Corwin Press.
I made standard cooing and crying noises as the situation warranted, but I never even appeared to be trying to sound out words even under encouragement (again, I have to take the word of my parents and siblings on this, as I was far too young to remember any of it). Urgings of "Say Mommy!" were rewarded, I am told, with smiles and coos, but no apparent understanding of what was being asked of me or any indication that I knew how to consciously produce sounds vocally that had any meaning to anyone else.
Then, pretty much overnight (as my mother tells it), I began speaking in complete sentences. I went from appearing developmentally challenged to speaking as well as or better than an average toddler without really going through any of the preliminary steps. One day, I couldn't be pressed into saying "mama," and the next I was lucidly…
standardized tests and there is math association with the results. On the other hand informal reading assessments do not have the same formal data requirements and is based more on performance. These two kinds of assessments will be critiqued in this paper.
Formal Reading Assessments
Parents should know and understand not only why their children are being accessed, but through which process the assessment is being conducted. The more parents are involved in the education of their children, the closer parents will be to opportunities to participate and contribute to those important years of education. Brenda eaver writes in Scholastic magazine that first of all, whether it is informal or formal, assessments need to match up with the purpose of assessing any particular student. Formal assessments are generally used to assess "overall achievement" and to "compare a student's performance with others at their age or grade."
Parents should be informed…
Nilsson, Nina L. (2008). A Critical Analysis of Eight Informal Reading Inventories. The Reading Teacher, 61(7), 526-536.
Ogle, Laurence T. (2007). The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): a description. Center for Public Education. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org.
Rosado, Luis A. (2006). TExES (103) Bilingual Generalist, EC-4 (REA) -- The Best Test Prep /
Best Test Preparation and Review Course Series. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education
Overall, this type of reading lesson on the part of the teacher may inspire students to explore other types of reading material, thus expanding their reading horizons and their ability to think creatively.
esides having the teacher read aloud passages from a text, one reading project which undoubtedly would benefit everyone involved would be to have the class read the text aloud, either as individuals or as Zullo suggests, as a whole class reading with the text enlarged to poster size on a screen which would enable the teacher to include comments on the text by the students. In this way, all of the students would be encouraged to verbalize their thoughts on the text, make new connections between one passage and another, listen and appreciate different perspectives on certain passages and come to a more fuller understanding of the text. In addition, this method would benefit those…
Zullo, Rebecca L. (2004). Literacy for Learning: Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum. Canton, OH: Communicate Institute.
However, forty percent, or 2.4 million of these students are enrolled in special education programs for the sole reason that they have not learned to read. According to Scholastic, "Read 180 is proven effective in accelerating reading achievement for all students- including those in Special Education."
Read 180 takes an approach to special needs students that focus on providing multi-functional support. These support systems include universal access provisions, multi-model approaches, individualized software and reports, pre-teaching methods in order to improve understanding, instructional routines that promote active participation of special education students, and an instructional model that sets a routine and repetitive structure for learning.
The question thus becomes whether this approach actually works for students with special needs? Although Scholastic argues that there is data that proves it does, this data has to be questioned in that it is provided by the company selling the product. Therefore, it is unknown…
Scholastic Homepage. Read 180 Product Information. www.scholastic.com.
Taberski, Sharon. On Solid Ground: Strategies for Teaching Reading K-3. New York: Heinemann, 2000.
Positive Effects of Reading
Mark Twain, a notorious writer and traveler, once said, "The man who doesn't read good books has no advantage over the man who can't read them." This statement is true on so many levels. The benefits of reading are incredible. Through reading, a greater interest is developed in many subjects, comprehension and memory are dramatically improved, analytical and critical skills are focused and one's ability to come to a conclusion about the information that is read is enhanced.
Many people get so caught up in their hectic, daily schedules that they forget or never discover the joys of reading. In my opinion, this is a terrible shame, as reading brings so many positive elements into my life. In some ways, reading can be light, fun and surprising; in other ways, it can be serious and highly informative.
In today's society, there are so many choices for…
2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic awareness, 2) Phonics, 3) Fluency, 4) Vocabulary, and
Comprehension (National eading Panel, 2012). Too, we must realize that not all children become phonemically aware at the same age or grade level. Some preschool children can segment and even understand multi-syllabic words, which some even in 2nd grade cannot. However, using the 5 basic steps, it is possible to provide a standards-based program that logically defines and emphasizes basic reading skills (Neuman and Dickinson, 2006). We can think of each portion of the 5 steps as building blocks towards fluency, with one logically contributing to the other through a series of exercises, drills, and finally mastery of each level.
Phonemic Awareness -- Is the ability to notice and cognate discreet sounds in…
Boost Vocabulary and Spelling. (2012). Learnthat.org. Retrieved from: http://www.learnthat.org/
Teaching Phonics. (2012). A to Z. Phonics.com. Retrieved from: http://www.atozphonics.com/teaching-phonics.html
What are the Five Essential Elements of Reading? (2009). Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University. Retrieved from: http://www.nhpirc.org/files/Five%20elements%20of%20Reading%20Tip%20Sheet.pdf
Cunningham, P. (2008). Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing. Allyn And Bacon.
children learn how to read at the same pace. However, the parent does have some cause for concern. As Kelly & Campbell (n.d.) points out, "studies indicate that when students get off to a poor start in reading, they rarely catch up," (p. 1). Therefore, I would first thank and congratulate the parent on being concerned and seeking assistance. According to the Oxford Owl (n.d.), "the best thing to do if you are worried about your child is to talk to your child's class teacher." The first question I would ask would be how old the child is, and if the child is young, to direct the parent to the Oxford Owl website. This website includes a wide range of resources, games, and tools that parents can use with their children. I would also tell the parent, possibly later in our conversation, that a range of formal programs are available…
Kelly, C. & Campbell, L. (n.d.). Helping struggling readers. Johns Hopkins. Retrieved online: http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/strategies/topics/literacy/articles/helping-struggling-readers/
Oxford Owl (n.d.). Helping struggling readers. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/welcome/for-home/reading-owl/expert-help/helping-struggling-readers
Integration of music and reading may help parents prepare their children for school. On the surface, music and literacy seem opposite of each other both in meaning and delivery. However, the two forms of learning go hand in hand. For example, lyrics and literacy are similar because lyrics are the words sung in a song. Often, they are poetic and can be understood as poetry that sometimes tells a story.
Many singer songwriters are also storytellers, weaving intricate and powerful stories into their songs. If one examines a music soundtrack and a story line/plot, one can see how music is used to help tell the story as much as the narrative itself. As technology advances, music is becoming readily interweaved with reading comprehension. One study examined the use of multimodal e-books that combined text with animation, images, and sounds. Children made academic gains in reading from using multimodal e-books (Morgan,…
Cauchard, F., Cane, J. E., & Weger, U. W. (2011). Influence of Background Speech and Music in Interrupted Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(3), 381-390. doi:10.1002/acp.1837
Chang, A. C., & Millett, S. (2015). Improving reading rates and comprehension through audio-assisted extensive reading for beginner learners. System, 52, 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.system.2015.05.003
Cogo-Moreira, H., Andriolo, R. B., Yazigi, L., Brandao de Avila, C. R., & Mari, J. (2012). Music education for improving reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009133
Cohn, N., Jackendoff, R., Holcomb, P. J., & Kuperberg, G. R. (2014). The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension. Neuropsychologia, 64, 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.018
ecent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). esults of the research point to programs that focus on corrective or accelerated learning have a positive consequence on student learning. There is significant evidence that summer school can help bring many struggling students up to grade level and prevents loss of learning with many others (Denton, 2001; Harrington-Lueker, 2000). While additional time is important, what is more important is what teachers accomplish with that time.
High-quality research-based curriculum and instruction
With a 90 minute block of time for reading instruction, teachers need to focus on the five essential elements of reading identified by The National eading Panel, (2001) as critical to successful reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is vital to define each of these important processes of reading using definitions from eading ockets…
Allington, R. 2002.What I've Learned About Effective Reading Instruction from a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers (Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 83, No. 10 (June 2002): 740-747)
Bond, Linda A. (1996). Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research
Evaluation, 5(2). Retrieved at http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=2.
Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.
From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…
Erickson, Lawrence.Jan. 11, 1998. "Informational literacy in the middle grades." The Clearing House.
Foley, Regina M. Winter, 2001. "Academic Charateristics of incarcerated youth and correctional educational programs: a literature review." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Gardill, M. Cathleen, and Jitendra, Asha K.April 15, 1999. "Advanced Story Map Instruction: Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities." Journal of Special Education: Vol.33.
Nourie, Barbara; Livingston, Lenski, and Davis, Susan.July 17, 1998. "The (in)effectiveness of content area literacy instruction for secondary preservice teachers." The Clearing House: 71: 372-375.
It is anticipated that there may be diminishing returns during the sessions where students will show sign of fatigue. Games, token system of food and video games will be used to reinforce the willingness of the participants to continue participating in the program. (Goodloe, Mentavlos & ose-Baele,2004).
After the six-week learning program using the SuccessMaker, students will be evaluated on their reading skills, and the evaluation will be carried out using 30-minutes test to determine the benefits of SuccessMaker. To determine the benefits of the SuccessMaker, both the experimental and the control group will be allowed to participate in the 30-minute tests. Quantitative techniques will be used to record and publish the test scores. The test scores for the experiment group and the control group will be made available in form of tables and graphs.
esearch instruments will consist of desktop computers, SuccessMaker software and headphones. The computers…
Given, B.K. Wasserman, J.D. Chari, S.A. et al. (2008). Controlled study and a randomized of computer-based intervention in middle school struggling readers. Brain and Language. 106: 83 -- 97.
Goodloe, M.L. Mentavlos, M & Rose-Baele, J.S. (2004). Evaluation of the Year Two Results: Implementation and Effectiveness of SuccessMaker During 2002-2003. Evaluation Report Charleston County School District.
Trochim, W. & Donnely, J.P. (2007). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, (3rd Edition).Atomic Dog Publishing.USA.
The five components of a reading program -- phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension -- build on one another to help students become readers. At a hypothetical all-African-American elementary school in Philadelphia's inner city, there would be similarities and differences in the way the five components would be taught in first grade, third grade, and fifth grade classrooms.
Phonemic awareness is the first stage in a comprehensive reading program. It is the foundation upon which other reading skills are built. The International eading Association (IA) defines phonemic awareness as "the ability to segment and manipulate the sounds of oral language" (2011). The IA points out research shows that a child's awareness of the sounds of spoken language are a strong predictor of success in learning to read. Language "play" helps children develop this awareness of sounds. ead-alouds, songs, riddles, poems, and rhyming activities are effective ways to…
Morris, D. (2011). Practicum training for teachers of struggling readers. Phi Delta Kappan 92(8),
Penner-Wilger, M. (2008). Reading fluency: A bridge from decoding to comprehension.
International Reading Association. Retrieved from http://eps.schoolspecialty.com
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin to lay the outlines if this thesis for a Master's degree.
I see the wonder in a child's eyes as he imagines a world unfolding in a grain of sand as I read a story to him; an hour reading in a class of children translates into infinity as the children in that class become readers themselves, changing the hours into infinity as they develop the habit of infinite reading.
Voluntary in-school free reading program - elementary level" is the subject of this thesis proposal, and the objective is to prove that voluntary in-school free reading programs result in positive effects on elementary students' attitudes toward reading.
Statement of the Problem
To be able to identify the strengths and…
Durrell, Donald. D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (New Edition).
Kottmeyer, William. Evaluation Handbook: Levels in English. Webster.
Kottmeyer, William. Guide for Remedial Reading. Webster Strang, Ruth, et. al. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Mc GrawHill.
Steiger, Ralph. New Directions in Reading. New York: Bantam Books.
common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.
There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.
Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…
Christie, J., Enz, B., Vukelich, C., & Roskos, K. (2013). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades, fifth edition. Pearson.
Children Should Be equired to ead More
Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart. This is why parents spend a lot of their time in trying to search for the best schools for their children and expect the teachers to be exceptionally outstanding. However, they forget the fact that their own attitudes and habits have a great effect on the personality of a child. Thus, the parents must realize that by making books an essential part of their children's lives, they can heighten the wisdom and learning potential of their child more than a school teacher can help to increase ("Early Moments sharing the gift of reading").
It is not by an accident, brainwave, infection or encouragement that children learn to read. They learn to read when they are taught to do so. eading cannot…
Copperman, Paul. Taking Books to Heart: How to Develop a Love of Reading in Your Child. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1986. 223-226. Web. 4 Nov 2011.
Trade Books and Content Literacy
The content are is English.
Tools to read
Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author's message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
(A) establish purposes for reading selected texts based upon own or others' desired outcome to enhance comprehension;
(B) ask literal, interpretive, evaluative, and universal questions of text;
(C) reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e.g., summarizing and synthesizing; making textual, personal, and world connections; creating sensory images);
(D) make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding;
(E) summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts; and make connections…
skills sets needed to be successful in the market place and whether discrimination of poverty, gender, and race may impede one's chances
There are those who argue along the lines of "if you will it, you can do it," and that as long as you present something that people need and you show them that you are the one who can best help them get it, you can be successful no matter what your external limitations.
On the other hand, there is a significant amount of social scientists that say that impeding factors such as poverty are real and stop you from getting where you want to be. The rags to riches story is a myth that happens infrequently to rare individuals. Much more common is the reality that states that money, class, and, to a lesser extent, gender are the factors that get you to, or impede you from…
Baron, RA & Markman, GD (2000). Beyond social capital: How socail skills can enhance entrepeneurs' success. Academy of Management Executive, 14, 1
Dearing, D. (2008). Psychological costs of growing up poor. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1136, 324-332.
Farah, M.J., Noble, K.G., & Hurt, H. (n.d.). Poverty, privilege, and brain development: Empirical findings and ethical implications.
Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html
skills development and levels of knowledge acquisition based on clinical experience. Nurses move from novice making decisions based on rules to expert who are able to see connections between actions and outcomes using critical thinking
Some claim that expert nursing comes from habituation in making decisions. Benner (2001), for instance, posits 5 different levels of development that the nurse moves through: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. Each one builds on the other as the nurse uses the reflection gained from her experience to improve her practice. Each of these five different levels constitute proficiency and skill not only in practical labor, but also in other components -- such as skilled communication and mentoring -- that are integral to the field of nursing. The novice nurse, for instance, tends to see the patient as an object made up of discrete pieces of information / data and specific tasks that…
Benner, P. Tanner, C., Chesla, C. (1996) Expertise in nursing practice: Caring, clinical judgement and Ethics, New York. Springer Carper, B.A. (1978), Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing Advances in Nursing Science, 1 (16), 13-23.
Sackett, D. (2009) Various Research Design Classifications In Clinical Research for Surgeons (Ed.. Mohit Bhandari, Anders Joensson, pp. 31-47). NY: Thieme
My dream job is to be a financial manager. I love the idea of managing the finances of individuals or organizations. Having a sharp interest in the micro- and macro-economic currents around the world, the various markets -- from bonds to equities to derivatives to currencies -- and the way in which events impact valuations, I enjoy the thought of being able to manage assets in a world where the risk-reward relationship is fraught with peril. It is a role the demands an executive level of commitment, foresight, caution, scope and care. My personality type, as indicated by 16 Personalities is ESTJ -- "The Executive" personality. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ESTJ stands for Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking and Judgment. In other words, my personality is such that I am an extravert (I am outgoing and expressive), I am able to sense what is going on around me, I am…
The value of journaling in the qualitative research process
When I first began this assignment, my immediate reaction was: why do I need to write down my thoughts and feelings in a journal when I have Facebook and Twitter? Don't I already have social media venues in which to vent a steady stream-of-consciousness? However, over the course of the journaling process, the value of the exercise became very clear: journaling is a unique form of self-expression. Unlike other types of writing, the main purpose of journaling is to better understand one's self, rather than to engage in direct communication with others. In other modes of writing, whether a research paper or an online blog, the writer is always aware that he or she is writing with an audience in mind. Because every audience is unique, the writer must engage in self-censorship, tailoring the content to meet that audience.…
ABI Inform was also very useful when queried on the topic of small business models and small business planning documents. It also had documents and dissertations on small business failure rates and empirically derived studies explaining the factors behind this occurring (Justis, Chan, 1993). ABI Inform also did not have coverage of the legal issues facing entrepreneurs in Australia, yet did have coverage of shared risk mitigation through global joint ventures. The content on ABI Inform from the legal standpoint of start-ups was strategic in scope than practical.
EBSCO Host was much more balanced in its content with regard to entrepreneurship vs. franchising, and had a greater breadth of industry profiles of small business by country. The revived interface from EBSCO Host, now just under a year old, made the parsing of queries much easier and intuitive. The use of a suitcase like feature also made the storage of documents…
(Buzza, Mosca, 2009)
Buzza, J., and J. Mosca. 2009. Create The Plan, Work The Plan: A Look At Why The Independent Business Owner Has Trouble Calling A Franchisee A True Entrepreneur. American Journal of Business Education 2, no. 7, (October 1): 113-118.
(Gaskill, Hyland, 1989)
Gaskill, Gary T., and Hyland, J. Michael. 1989. Starting And Managing A Small Business. Management Accounting 71, no. 6, (December 1): 28.
The bottom line that out of the many sources of information available on Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia there is a percentage that deserves the most trust and focus, and there is much that can be discarded and not used. In making this judgment the trustworthiness of the information needs to be assessed using the series of sources provided in this analysis (Cho, Jang, 2008). Appendix A, a mind map for planning extended travel provides an overview of the issues related to planning and traveling.
Location of esources
The CIA Factbook (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html) provided an excellent overview of the current cultural, economic, religious, demographic and political landscape of Malaysia in general and Kuala Lumpur specifically. In addition, the CIA Factbook provided insights into how the country is currently experiencing a recession and the political forces at work there that could potentially lead to protests or violence. Malaysia's political risk is well defined in…
Cho, M., and S. Jang. 2008. Information Value Structure for Vacation Travel. Journal of Travel Research 47, no. 1, (August 1): 72.
Ing, G., J. Liew-Tsonis, S. Cheuk, and I. Razli. 2010. An Examination Of The Challenges Involved In Distributing A Strong And Consistent Destination Image In The Marketing Of Tourism In Malaysia. The International Business & Economics Research Journal 9, no. 1, (January 1): 31-39.
Lee, J.. 2009. Mobilizing for Social Change in Muslim Societies Amidst Political Turmoil and Conservatism. Development: Special Issue for the 11th AWID International Forum on 52, no. 2, (June 1): 239-245.
Malaysia: Country Analysis Report. September, 2009 Malaysia Country Profile, 1-80.
elaboration upon my experience as an international student of University of Birmingham. At the time I compose this reflection, I have finished my first year as a Business Management student. My reflection will center with the difficulties encountered in a foreign country, language, and culture. The reader will gain insight as to my personal experience my first year. The reader will understand some of my greatest challenges, personal flaws, and sense of accomplish from completing one full year. By the reflections conclusion, readers will understand how obstacles and weakness transformed in to achievement and deep motivation.
At the beginning of the first semester, my most prominent obstacle was my deficiency in the English language. I could not effectively communicate with other people in a professional or informal context. This was not something I was prepared for. I knew it would be a challenge, but more than just the language made…
One counterargument to the practice of teaching vocabulary is that children learn the meanings of many words by experiencing those words in the actual world and in text without explicit instruction. Unfortunately, such incidental learning is filled with possible problems. The definitions learned range from richly contextualized and more than sufficient, to incomplete to wrong. Children do develop knowledge of vocabulary through incidental contact with new words they read. This is one of the many reasons to challenge students to read incessantly.
There is considerable evidence that readers who possess prior knowledge about the topic of a reading often comprehend the reading better than classmates with no, or lower prior knowledge. Nevertheless, even when students have knowledge relevant to the information they are reading they do not always relate their world knowledge to the content of a text. Unless inferences are absolutely necessary to make sense of the…
Armbruster, B.B. & Osborn, J., (2001) Put reading first: The building blocks for teaching chilren to read. National Institute or Literacy, Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: www.nifl.gov
Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., & McKeown, M.G., (1982) Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506-521.
Cordon, L.A., & Day, J.D. (1996) Stategy use on standardized reading comprehension tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 288-521.
Nation, K. & Snowling, M.J., (1998) Individual differences in contextual facilitation: Evedence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension. Child Development, V. 69 No. 4, p.996- 1011. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: http://C:UsersOwnerDesktop
Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: eading Comprehension and Written Expression
eading Comprehension and Written Expression subtests can be used to provide a composite score for Written Language.
Describe the age range: Ages 5-21
State the purpose of the instrument: The purpose is to provision an individual comprehensive measurement of writing and reading language skills for children.
Describe the examiner qualifications: Examiners need experience in "psycho-educational assessments for children" (de Fur, 2014)
List the types of scores (such as standard scores, percentile rank, etc.) that are available:
aw scores are convertible to standard scores for percentile ranks, confidence intervals and grade scores. There are also composite scores.
6. List the instrument's technical data regarding validity, reliability and standardization / normative process: Standardization data was based on 2,123 English speaking students aged 5-21. This data was gleaned from 31 states in all of the regions of the major regions of…
References (provide APA formatted reference based on test review found in the MMY)
Here is a sample of a correct APA reference for a pretend test review in the MMY
Smith. J. & Jones, A. (20xx). Review of the Something Achievement Test. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: #.
De Fur, S. H., Ward, S. (2014). Review of The Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: Reading Comprehension and Written Expression. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: 19.
Skills for Complex Concepts
Skills for Handling Complex Concepts
There are various kinds of skills needed for handling of jobs. The three essential skills are human skills, technical skills, and conceptual skills. Human skills entail interpersonal and communicational relation skills applied to finish the task. Technical skills include human knowledge and proficiency regarding the methods, tools, or practices to be utilized in the task. Conceptual skills, on the other hand, allow an individual to view the situation as an entity and exercise his analytical skills for the task's completion.
I was needed to seek and assess data and to communicate my understanding to others and this was when I was in a group of four individuals in the course of my final year project. I was responsible for gathering data and relevant project information from the internet and documenting it using my individual assessment. I had to communicate my understanding…
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
communications skills to solve problems they are likely to encounter in the workplace.
Communication is the process of sharing information, expression, feeling, and thought between two or more people. Effective communication plays an important role in the organizational development, and communication forms an important constituent of every aspect of an organization. To maintain good working relations, it critical for the entire workforce to communicate with one another to enhance coordination, as well maintaining good working relations.
Evidence of communication skills is the ability of an individual or business organization to persuade and negotiate within business environment. Persuading and negotiating is one of the important aspects within business environment. Arriving at a concrete agreement within a business environment involves using effective communication skills. Persuasion involves ability to convince others to reach appropriate course actions, while negotiating involves ability to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement.
Evidence of communication skills is…
Australian Computer Society (2011).Case Studies and their clauses in the Code. Australia.
Wheeler, S. (2003). Comparing Three IS Codes of Ethics -- ACM, ACS and BCS . 7th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, 10-13 July 2003, Adelaide, South Australia. 1576- 1587.
The curriculum should be research-based. They can collaborate and share viewpoints with stakeholders to diversify their knowledge. They should pose as leaders in designing, implementing and assessing professional advancement programs.
eading specialists can uptake numerous responsibilities in schools, depending on the requirements of the student populace and instructors in any dispensation. The reading specialist's role is on a continuum, with various specialists operating in a teaching position with learners while others utilize the bulk of their working time in practicing expert development with classroom instructors in an official leadership position. Specialists despite their roles should involve themselves in boosting the work of the class instructor. eading specialists ought to enhance the reading plan so that it is effectual for every student. The main responsibilities of reading specialists, each of which adds to the development of student reading, are instructive, evaluation, and leadership (Bean, 2009). They all add on to improved…
Bean, R.M. (2009). The Reading Specialist, Second Edition: Leadership for the Classroom, School, and Community. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Carlson, C.L. (2007). An Examination of Secondary Reading Specialists: Demographic, Training, and Employment Characteristics. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.
Dagen, S., & Bean, R.M. (2011). Best Practices of Literacy Leaders: Keys to School Improvement. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Gambrell, L.B., & Morrow, L.M. (2011). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, Fourth Edition. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation
Demonstrate effective communication skills
• I have expanded my vocabulary to include standard practical and theoretical business concepts and I have increased my proficiency with digital technology communications media. I have learned how to coordinate my vocabulary, language, and persuasion efforts to specific audiences depending on whether they are laypeople, professionals, colleagues, or strangers. This skill is extremely important within the military, in particular, because communications that are standard among service members are often incomprehensible to civilians and because civilian communications may be too imprecise to convey the minimum necessary information and distinctions typically communicated best through highly specialized terminology.
• I have improved my ability to use email and other forms of technology to communicate in a professional manner. That also includes a greater understanding of the manner in which different communications media typically require the communicator to consider how various communications efforts might…
Marital Intimacy Skills
This study examines marital intimacy skills and the impact that these skills have on the marriage in terms of marital failure or marital success. The work of Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) entitled "Transformative Processes in Marriage: An Analysis of Emerging Trends" reports that it has been argued by Stanley (2007) that we "are in a new stage of marital research that reflects a growing momentum toward larger meanings and deeper motivations about relationships, including a focus on constructs that are decidedly more positive." (p.276) Good marriage is noted as that which makes the provision to spouses of "a sense of meaning in their lives" and it is suggested by Fincham, Stanley, and Beach (2006) that this momentum "has set the stage for examination of transformative, rather than merely incremental changes in relationships. (p.276)
What is Intimacy?
Linaman (2006) writes that intimacy is something that every individual…
Boa, Kenneth (nd) Marriage: Intimates or Inmates. Bible.org. Retrieved from: http://bible.org/article/marriage-intimates-or-inmates
Chia, Hans (nd) Importance of Fidelity in Marital Intimacy. Ezine. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Importance-of-Fidelity-in-Marital-Intimacy&id=3444329
Condie Joann (nd ) Nothing to Hide: Hope for Marraiges Hurt by Pornography and infidelity. Retrieved from: http://www.renewingintimacy.com/Nothing%20to%20Hide_simple.pdf
Cordova, JV, Gee, CB, and Warren, LZ (2005) Emotional Skillfulness in Marriage: Intimacy As a Mediator of the Relationship Between Emotional Skillfulness and Marital Satisfaction. Journal of Social Change and Clinical Psychology: Vol. 24, No. 2. Pp. 218-235. Retrieved from:
When these children see that they can use the computer in the classroom to learn their phonetics and other reading issues during their free time, they begin to realize that they can do something on their own, which helps their self-esteem levels and also makes them more interested in the joys of learning, which can open up a whole new world for these children. This is especially true if these children are disadvantaged in many ways and do not have books in the home that they can use to continue their learning, as this is often the reason that these children are behind in reading ability when they get into school. If a simple computer program that teaches the alphabet, phonetics, pronunciation, and other reading issues can help with remedial reading education, it seems that it should be used in more schools and classrooms across the country.
Torgesen, J.K. & Barker, T.A. (1995). Computers as aids in the prevention and remediation of reading disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 18(2), 76-87.
Open communication is key to organizational success, and this openness can be demonstrated to employers through honesty and forthrightness (within the bounds of professionalism, of course) during the interview process.
In addition to these directly employment-related knowledge and skill areas, the course I took in Personal Finance will have a substantial positive impact on the way I approach my profession and my attractiveness to potential employers. Not only have I been provided with information on how to spend wisely, save appropriately, and even gauge investment opportunities in my personal life -- all of which will give me enhanced stability and security, which will be seen as a benefit by potential employers -- but these skills will also transfer to my profession in terms of assisting home health care recipients and practitioners alike in reducing their own expenses and thus providing additional value to expected services and relationships. In addition, appropriate…
Organizational Change and Personal Development Plan
Many organizations globally strive to achieve their desired growth and sustainability. Effective leadership and management promote the realization of the strategies by ensuring that organization's activities are executed in accordance with the development strategies. Therefore, this paper analyzes some of the strategies used by Judy Stockley in promoting the realization of the downsizing goals of the Advanced Medium ange Air-to-Air Missile Company in Eglin Air force Base, Florida. It also provides a personal leadership development plan for Judy Stockley.
Practices that successful project managers apply in exercising their leadership and management roles
The management strategies adopted in an organization influence the degree of success. Most project managers employ the effective use of their leadership and interpersonal skills to ensure success of their projects. This entails adopting strategies aiming at motivating their employees to work together effectively and work towards attaining a common goal. Project…
Richman, L.L. (2012). Improving your project management skills. New York: American Management Association
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class. Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups…Read Full Paper ❯
Curriculum and Instruction Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment. The top-down belief system related to…Read Full Paper ❯
ESOL Learner's Language & Reading Skills You are invited to participate in a research project being conducted by researchers from Western Governors University. The researchers are conducting research to…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction Next door to where we live is a family with an 8-year-old boy who is in the third grade. He says that he does not like to read…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Skill Building The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest…Read Full Paper ❯
Diagnosing the Problem As Palardy (2015) shows, first grade is where the achievement gap begins to develop among students. Ferrer et al. (2015) show that the achievement gap begins…Read Full Paper ❯
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray…Read Full Paper ❯
Reading Profile of a Student The student I selected is a 10-year-old 4th grade student who is a self-described “lover of books.” She views herself as a great reader…Read Full Paper ❯
Skills-Based Pay Lawler and Ledford (1987) argued twenty-six years ago that skill-based pay was going to become an increasingly popular concept in compensation management. Ledford and Heneman (2011) define…Read Full Paper ❯
In a world that favors early adopters and revolves around the latest technology, individuals will be better served if they continue to seek out learning opportunities after their formal…Read Full Paper ❯
Skills and Knowledge Area The ability to research and interpret and then apply various local and federal and State laws as well as ordinances related to Community Programs is…Read Full Paper ❯
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education Objectives: Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where…Read Full Paper ❯
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003).…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Learning to read and write in English has been one of my most treasured accomplishments in the recent past. To begin with, learning to read and write in English…Read Full Paper ❯
What types of equipment, support, training, and resources are currently available to teachers of special-needs students at the site school to assist them in effectively using technology to help…Read Full Paper ❯
This is the goal of struggling readers. A dependent reader takes only a peripheral interest in the text. He gives it the minimum of his attention and approaches it…Read Full Paper ❯
While motivated students may exceed expectations based on their IQ, the greater relevance of the relationship between motivation and reading development is that poor motivation often results in unexpectedly…Read Full Paper ❯
If anything, Jessica's apparent equating of reading speed as an indication of reading well undermines her comprehension more than technical difficulty. Jessica understood the main idea, in general but…Read Full Paper ❯
81). Ambrose and Corn (1997) further define "functional vision" as vision that can be used to derive input for planning and performing tasks; the extent to which one uses…Read Full Paper ❯
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not…Read Full Paper ❯
epeated eading Instruction a Powerful and Effective Alternative Teaching Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities? This paper discusses how repeated reading instruction is a powerful and effective alternative for…Read Full Paper ❯
Learning to Read My earliest recollection of learning to read comes from watching television. As a young child, my parents thought it was best to leave me and my…Read Full Paper ❯
hat can be done about this, Newkirk wonders in this article, published in 2004. Boys see libraries as a place for girls to go; boys go home and their…Read Full Paper ❯
learning how to read, and the development of language as well as language skills. Much of the book is descriptive and historical in nature, though ample space is also…Read Full Paper ❯
Brain Learns to ead The human brain is an incredibly complex structure. It learns common actions and skills in an intensely intriguing manner that we often take for granted.…Read Full Paper ❯
I made standard cooing and crying noises as the situation warranted, but I never even appeared to be trying to sound out words even under encouragement (again, I have…Read Full Paper ❯
standardized tests and there is math association with the results. On the other hand informal reading assessments do not have the same formal data requirements and is based more…Read Full Paper ❯
Overall, this type of reading lesson on the part of the teacher may inspire students to explore other types of reading material, thus expanding their reading horizons and their…Read Full Paper ❯
However, forty percent, or 2.4 million of these students are enrolled in special education programs for the sole reason that they have not learned to read. According to Scholastic,…Read Full Paper ❯
Positive Effects of Reading Mark Twain, a notorious writer and traveler, once said, "The man who doesn't read good books has no advantage over the man who can't read…Read Full Paper ❯
2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic…Read Full Paper ❯
children learn how to read at the same pace. However, the parent does have some cause for concern. As Kelly & Campbell (n.d.) points out, "studies indicate that when…Read Full Paper ❯
Integration of music and reading may help parents prepare their children for school. On the surface, music and literacy seem opposite of each other both in meaning and delivery.…Read Full Paper ❯
ecent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). esults of the research point to programs that…Read Full Paper ❯
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is…Read Full Paper ❯
It is anticipated that there may be diminishing returns during the sessions where students will show sign of fatigue. Games, token system of food and video games will be…Read Full Paper ❯
Philadelphia The five components of a reading program -- phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension -- build on one another to help students become readers. At a…Read Full Paper ❯
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004) 2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language…Read Full Paper ❯
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin…Read Full Paper ❯
common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide…Read Full Paper ❯
Children Should Be equired to ead More Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart.…Read Full Paper ❯
Teaching English Trade Books and Content Literacy The content are is English. E-Book Cost Where Tools to read TEK Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading…Read Full Paper ❯
skills sets needed to be successful in the market place and whether discrimination of poverty, gender, and race may impede one's chances There are those who argue along the…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
skills development and levels of knowledge acquisition based on clinical experience. Nurses move from novice making decisions based on rules to expert who are able to see connections between…Read Full Paper ❯
My dream job is to be a financial manager. I love the idea of managing the finances of individuals or organizations. Having a sharp interest in the micro- and…Read Full Paper ❯
Skills: Journaling The value of journaling in the qualitative research process When I first began this assignment, my immediate reaction was: why do I need to write down my…Read Full Paper ❯
ABI Inform was also very useful when queried on the topic of small business models and small business planning documents. It also had documents and dissertations on small business…Read Full Paper ❯
The bottom line that out of the many sources of information available on Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia there is a percentage that deserves the most trust and focus, and there…Read Full Paper ❯
elaboration upon my experience as an international student of University of Birmingham. At the time I compose this reflection, I have finished my first year as a Business Management…Read Full Paper ❯
One counterargument to the practice of teaching vocabulary is that children learn the meanings of many words by experiencing those words in the actual world and in text without…Read Full Paper ❯
Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: eading Comprehension and Written Expression eading Comprehension and Written Expression subtests can be used to provide a composite score for Written Language.…Read Full Paper ❯
Skills for Complex Concepts Skills for Handling Complex Concepts There are various kinds of skills needed for handling of jobs. The three essential skills are human skills, technical skills,…Read Full Paper ❯
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability…Read Full Paper ❯
communications skills to solve problems they are likely to encounter in the workplace. Communication is the process of sharing information, expression, feeling, and thought between two or more people.…Read Full Paper ❯
The curriculum should be research-based. They can collaborate and share viewpoints with stakeholders to diversify their knowledge. They should pose as leaders in designing, implementing and assessing professional advancement…Read Full Paper ❯
Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation Demonstrate effective communication skills • I have expanded my vocabulary to include standard practical and theoretical business concepts and I have increased my proficiency…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Marital Intimacy Skills This study examines marital intimacy skills and the impact that these skills have on the marriage in terms of marital failure or marital success. The work…Read Full Paper ❯
When these children see that they can use the computer in the classroom to learn their phonetics and other reading issues during their free time, they begin to realize…Read Full Paper ❯
Open communication is key to organizational success, and this openness can be demonstrated to employers through honesty and forthrightness (within the bounds of professionalism, of course) during the interview…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Organizational Change and Personal Development Plan Many organizations globally strive to achieve their desired growth and sustainability. Effective leadership and management promote the realization of the strategies by ensuring…Read Full Paper ❯