Research Process Essays (Examples)

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how worldview affects research and how to conduct research

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83752180

1. Discuss your process for conducting a search. What resources will you use to explore the literature in your field and how will you evaluate the quality of the articles selected?
My field of interest at the doctoral level is on how people with different personalities can work together to achieve organizational goals. Conducting research on my topic requires creative and critical thinking. I will be able to use the resources available at the university library, both digital or online sources, as well as print sources. All peer-reviewed sources that appear in academic or scholarly journals will be preferable to sources from websites, but occasionally I may initiate my academic inquiry with cursory online searches. Online searches can sometimes stimulate my creativity and show me what subject areas I can investigate later. For example, my research might lead me to articles in the field of personality psychology, trait theories of…… [Read More]

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Research Proposal for Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing

Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68579566

Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing

How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?

Sustainability Perspective

Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…… [Read More]

References

AUSPA 2012, Policy & Advocacy, Western Australian Council of Social Service Inc., viewed 10 June 2017,

Buckley, J & Seamus, T 2005, International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics, pp.127-141.

Hussein, A 2015, The Use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Be Combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4., no.1.

Lampard, R & Pole, C 2015. Practical social investigation: qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge: Abingdon, UK.
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Research Approaches in Education

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40594305

Education

Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.

In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm

Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website: http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm

Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from  https://explorable.com/different-research-methods
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Researching a Call for Action

Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24638629

com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec
2006 at


Fitday.com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec 2006
at
< http://fitday.com/>

Severson, Kim. (13 Dec 2003) "New York Gets Ready to Count Calories."
The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Dec 2006 at


Schlosser, Eric. (2005) Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Perennial.

"Supersize Me." (2004). Directed by Morgan Spurlock.

"Overweight and Obesity."(2006) CDC: Council for Disease Control.
Retrieved 13 Dec
2006 at… [Read More]

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Market Research Mini-Guide -- Health

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55961458

(as the survey is an intercept interview, the survey should not exceed more than 20 minutes, and the 15-minute interview length would be the recommended duration given that the survey is about customer satisfaction.)

III. Executive Summary

This document provides important information on Mercy Health System's market research plan and strategy: a mini-guide on the market research process and the research plan for the proposed Customer Satisfaction Study.

The market research process mini-guide provides a brief discussion of the important stages in research implementation. Brief descriptions are provided based mainly on the Consultant's experience in market research as conducted in the healthcare / health service setting. Key points discussed include the formulation of the research objectives, developing the research design and methodology (data collection), data analysis and interpretation, and report writing and presentation. While each stage is given its proper merit and importance, it is the Consultant's recommendation that to…… [Read More]

References

"April 2012 and Historical ACSI Scores." (2012) American Customer Satisfaction Index Website. Retrieved 18 August 2012. Available at: http://www.theacsi.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=245:acsi-scores-april&catid=14&Itemid=326

Balnaves, M. And P. Caputi. (2001). Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: An Investigative Approach. CA: Sage.

Kutney-Lee, a. (2009). "Nursing: A key to patient satisfaction." Health Affairs, Vol. 28, No. 4.

Mercy Health System Official Website. Retrieved 18 August 2012. Available at: http://www.mercyhealthsystem.org/
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Ethics in Research for Organizations of All

Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83305104

Ethics in esearch

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
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Undertaking Legal Research

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32129769

Legal research as Putman and Albright (2014, p. 335) point out "is the part of legal analysis that involves finding the law that applies to the legal question raised by the facts of a client's case." As the authors further point out, there is no magic formula when it comes to the conduction of legal research. There is no 'one best way' of conducting legal research. It is with this in mind that I develop my own three step legal research strategy.

My Three (3) Step Legal esearch Process

Analysis and Planning

As far as legal research is concerned, Elias (2012, p. 69) is of the opinion that one ought to have a clear idea of that which he or she would want to accomplish. In this particular stage, I would concern myself with not only the identification of the case's key facts, but also the establishment of the various…… [Read More]

References

Elias, S. (2012). Legal Research: How to Find & Understand the Law (16th ed.). Berkeley, California: Nolo.

Putman, W. & Albright, J. (2014). Legal Research. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Yelin, A.B. & Samborn, H.V. (2008). The Legal Research and Writing Handbook: A Basic Approach for Paralegals (5th ed.). New York, NY: Aspen Publishers Online.
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Formation of the Research Topic

Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48731615

It is helpful for oth the author and the readers. The literature review must identify works that have een pulished on the topic in case y accredited scholars and researchers (Taylor, 2010). Usually, the literature review is an introduction to the research project.

The purpose of the literature review consists in introducing the readers into the knowledge and ideas referring to the selected topic for the research project in case, and to help the readers adjust to the research topic. Also, a good literature review should not only list these issues, ut also identify and explain their strengths and weaknesses in order for the readers to e ale to develop a more clear idea on the researched topic.

As mentioned aove, conducing the literature review also helps the author of the research report to develop new directions that the research process can follow. This helps the author to develop more…… [Read More]

bibliography is more of a summary, focusing on presenting bibliographic information referring to each source used in the research project. Also, each source is briefly described, in order to provide the readers information on the issues they can find when accessing that source.

Reference list:

1. Sridhar, M.S. (2008). Research Methodology. ISRO Satellite Center. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/1016595/Research-Methodology-Part-3-Research-Design-Plan.

2. Taylor, D. (2010). The Literature Review: A few Tips on Conducing it. University of Toronto. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from  http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/literature-review .
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Experimental Research Design the Research

Words: 2184 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60790245

e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);

(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)

Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:

(1) Observation;

(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.

Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:

(1) Laboratory experiments;

(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)

Naslund states that analysis identifies…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Experimental Research (2009) Experimental Resources. Online available at: http://www.experiment-resources.com/experimental-research.html

Yin, Robert K. (1994), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 5, Sage Publications Inc.

Naslund, Dag (2005) the White Space of Logistics Research: A Look at the Role of Methods Usage. Journal of Business Logistics. 1 Jan 2005. Online available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/transportation-warehousing/1060164-1.html

Congdon, Justin D. And Dunham, Arthur E. (1999) Defining the Beginning: The Importance of Research Design. Research and Management Techniques. No. 4, 1999. Online available at: http://www.experiment-resources.com/experimental-research.htm
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Rick Houser's Book Counseling and Educational Research

Words: 6074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60383503

ICK HOUSE'S BOOK COUNSELING AND EDUCATIONAL ESEACH

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"

Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor?

Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues. Houser writes: "… but I believe acquiring the skill to evaluate how knowledge was generated is a key skill in functioning as a professional and dissociates those with advanced graduate degrees…… [Read More]

References

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Evidence-Based Research Problem in Nursing

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29177472

Still, the concept of guided imagery tends to stray far from traditional methods of pain management. Pharmaceuticals have long been a major method of treatment for pain, but have resulted in major backlashes in regards to patients becoming addicted, especially in long-term and chronic cases of pain. If guided imagery could be a successful method, it may reduce pain or increase pain tolerance, without the threat of chemical dependence.

There are a number of benefits which are seen in the ongoing discourse today. As such, the expected improvements include things like drops in blood high blood pressure, lower heart rates, and reduction of chronic pain symptoms, lessoning of headache pain, and increasing overall pain tolerance (Cornelius, 2010). In situations were patients going into a major surgery were coached with guided imagery, it was "shown to decrease stress and anxiety before and after surgery," thus helping reduce additional pain issues during…… [Read More]

References

Bresler, David E. (2012). Raising pain tolerance using guided imagery. Practical Pain Management. Web.  http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/treatments/psychological/raising-pain-tolerance-using-guided-imagery 

Cornelius, Debra. (2010). Guided imagery improves treatment options for various conditions. Health. Web. http://voices.yahoo.com/guided-imagery-improves-treatment-options-various-6299902.html

Davies, Karen Sue. (2011). formulating the evidence-based practice question: A review of the frameworks. Evidence-Based Library and Informative Practice, 6(2), 75-81.
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Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research

Words: 4846 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87946505

Experimental esearch Methods in Business

Experimental esearch Methods

The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.

Introduction

The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.

Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved  http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
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Mixing Methods Within Research Projects

Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84083495

(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at:  http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:  http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
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Engaging Students in Learning Through Action Research

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52904215

Education esearch

The problem being researched or evaluated

The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.

• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)

The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.

• ationale for the design based on the problem

The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…… [Read More]

References

Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

Sagor, R (2003). How to conduct collaborative action research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
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Higher Ed Action Research in

Words: 2859 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17119347

Indeed, it may be argued that action research is uniquely suited to the conditions within the classroom. So reports the text by Ferrance, which indicates that "action research is a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of research. It is based on the following assumption. . . teachers and principals work best on problems they have identified for themselves." (p. 1)

The implication here is that the constant state of flux revealed by day-to-day activities within a course and in interaction between professor, students, content and other entities justify the use of a research framework which is similarly mutable. As the source by Ferrance argues, the improvement of one's own practice of education may well be based on the ability of the instructor to evolve in harmony with an evolving understanding of the community systems, social networks, cultural inclinations and academic…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Dick, B. (2000). A Beginner's Guide to Action Research [Online]. Available at http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide.html

Ferrance, E. (2000). Action Research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
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Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research

Words: 4305 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85640226

Counseling Master Questionnaire

Counseling Questionnaire

Define research

A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.

In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…… [Read More]

References

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Loans Envisioned Research Methodology Association Loans Association

Words: 4859 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84889499

Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology

Envisioned research Methodology and Design

Methodologies Considered

Quantitative Methods

Correlation

Experimental Study

Qualitative Methods

Descriptive Research Methods

Interviewing

Focus Group

Mixed Method

Research Designs Considered

Convergent Design

Explanatory Sequential Design

Exploratory Sequential Design

The Embedded Design

Research Validity and Reliability

Strengths and weaknesses

Method of Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

Secondary Data Collection

Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs

Conclusion

ibliography

Introduction:

The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.

Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
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Market Research Assessment of Airlines'

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87591157

sevice (Huse, Evangelho 2007). What is needed is moe concentation fist on the objectives of the study in light of the planes' poposed econfiguations' inceasing full sevice elative to low cost. Once that hypothesis in conjunction with a picing analysis of how much those loyal business leade taveles on the ailine today ae willing to pay, then a moe accuate eseach design can be developed.

Following a claification of the eseach design and hypothesis, the eseach team needs to also conside attitudinal and psychogaphic eseach in addition to puely looking at the economics of picing as it elates to poviding geate sevices on thei jets in the fom of meeting aeas. Specifically looking at what business leades conside to be exceptional sevice offeings elative to thei baseline levels of expectations is citical to see if the inclusion of tables is even in thei set of pefeences o minimum expectations (Enquist,…… [Read More]

references (Ping, 2004). Unfortunately the questionnaire quickly grew to include many objectives, growing to several pages, which will inevitably introduce respondent fatigue and either a social desirability bias of merely responding quickly to appear done or giving up on the questionnaire and leaving it behind in the jet. Incenting the flight attendants to gain as many responses is possible introduces sampling bias and
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National Institute of Nursing Research NINR History

Words: 1877 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63067891

National Institute of Nursing esearch (NIN)

History of the organization

The National Institute of Nursing esearch is a body mandated with the principal responsibility of carrying out research that relates to the nursing and medical field in general. The institution dedicates its effort to improving the health and health care of Americans through funding of nursing research and research training. The involvement of the federal government led to the formation of the research institute as early as 1946. The federal government established a division of nursing within the office of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service. The NIN commenced its activities in 1955 when the institute established a Nursing esearch Study section, which was within the Division of esearch Grants. The purpose of this Study Section was to conduct a scientific review of the growing volume of applications in the nursing sector.

In 1960, a consolidation of the public health…… [Read More]

References

Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 3rd edition. New York:

Springer Publishing Company.

Miller, A.C. (2009). Nursing for Wellness in Older Adults. Printed in China: Lippincott Williams

and Wilkins.
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Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33133730

gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]

References

Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

 http://guides.temple.edu/groundedtheory 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

 http://www.jbhe.com/2012/03/the-gender-gap-in-african-american-degree-attainments/
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Developing and Implementing an Educational Action Research Study

Words: 2183 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71739434

Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting

One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…… [Read More]

References

Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.

Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.

Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
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Methodologies and Research Methods Used in School Advisory Systems

Words: 3715 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47796924

Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).

At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…… [Read More]

References

Abed, M. G. (2014-2015). A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, And How May These Be Addressed. i-manager's Journal on Educational Psychology, 8(3),1-14.

Comer, S. K. (2009). The Ethics of Conducting Educational Research on Your Own Students. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(4), 100-105. doi: 10.1891/1073-7472.13.4.100

Dooly, D. L. (2013). Academic Achievement in Arkansas High Schools Based on the Implementation Level of a Teacher Advisory Program. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/305027410?pq-origsite=summon

ESRC. (2015). ESRC Framework for Research Ethics. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from  http://www.esrc.ac.uk/files/funding/guidance-for-applicants/esrc-framework-for-research-ethics-2015/
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Conducting Research through Various Methods

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16978428

obtained from this course, there are several different ways for conducting research that a researcher can choose from. While the research question is the major factor that drives the research methodology, the selection of a research method for a specific study also requires consideration of other factors. This is a major issue in the research field because researchers continue to struggle in identifying the most suitable methodology for a study. In essence, one of the major questions when conducting a research is, "What is the most suitable research methodology for the study?" This question is significant because of the role research methodology plays in generating credible and accurate results. According to Holden (2004), research methodology affects the study results and how conclusions are derived from the research findings.

When making decisions regarding the most suitable methodology for the study, one of the most important considerations for the research is the…… [Read More]

References

Holden, M.T. (2004). Choosing the Appropriate Methodology: Understanding Research Philosophy. Retrieved from Waterford Institute of Technology website: http://repository.wit.ie/1466/1/Choosing_the_Appropriate_Methodology_Understanding_Research_Philosophy_(RIKON_Group).pdf

Williams, L. (2010, January 1). 7 Research Challenges (And How to Overcome Them). Retrieved from Walden University website:  https://www.waldenu.edu/connect/newsroom/publications/articles/2010/01-research-challenges
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Border Wall a Research Investigation

Words: 2853 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23821836

Accordingly, the Lower Rio Grande Valley National ildlife Refuge, the former Sabal Palms Audubon Sanctuary, and the Nature Conservancy's Southmost Preserve would all be subjected to direct environmental auditing. Comparative figures measuring current findings against archived findings will provide a quantifiable understanding of the impact being levied by the wall in these specific areas. The sanctuaries have been selected for a number of reasons, specifically owing to the claim that these have been directly impacted by the construction of the Border all and based on the assumption that these sanctuaries will already possess a significant set of archived data on environmental features such air, soil and water quality, wildlife migration habits and the environmental safety of human habitation.

It is thus that the proposed study here seeks to support the claim that the border wall constructed in the LRGV is a both a poor response to the immigration crisis and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Daily KOS. (2010). Walling off the Nature Conservancy. m.dailykos.com.

Mattei, E. (2009). Borderline: When it Comes to the Texas/Mexico Wall, No One's Sitting on the Fence. A Nation Divided. Online at http://blogs.swarthmore.edu/borderwall/?tag=rio-grande-valley

No Border Wall (NBW). (2010). Texas Politicians Ignoring the Danger That the Border Wall Poses to South Texas Levees. No Texas Border Wall. Online at
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Midwest Research a Music Downloading

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81982188

Vargas outlines a broader pattern in the consumer world which informs the proposal here, indicating that there is a splintering of all marketplaces between online and retail outlets which is changing the way that the latter must conduct business. These are ideas that direct the strategy here suggested for Midwest University.

Accordingly, key terms which will be considered in the proposal are those of 'file-sharing,' 'intellectual property,' and 'online piracy.' In the current online file-sharing context, everyday university students have essentially become bootleggers, according to legal research and assertion by both the music industry and the United States Congress. These are sources which appear to favor the music industry institutions, but in actuality, take a narrow perspective that is damaging to compromise for all parties. The program proposed here will be informed by a desire to overcome this hindrance to cooperation through a carefully constructed mediation whereby the university determines…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borland, J. (April 9, 2003). Music Industry: Piracy is choking sales. CNET News. Online at http://news.com.com/2100-1027-996205.html.

Vargas, M. (2005). Cyberspace vs. Parking Mall Space. About the Retail Industry. Online at http://retailindustry.about.com/library/weekly/aa001101b.htm.
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Business Research I Would Advise

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46819181

The interview setting was likely a poor choice because it not only reduces the perception of anonymity but it also gives the respondents more opportunity to be evasive. I would advise Mary conduct such research in a written format, which minimizes opportunities for evasion and maximizes the perception of anonymity.

3. I would suggest to Mary that part of the reason the HR manager is hostile is because part of the intent of the study is to question whether the Human Resources department is "aware of some of the gendered cultural processes at work in their companies." Thus, the research is attempting to show that HR is not doing its job, or not doing it well enough. That the research was not cleared with the HR Director first only exacerbates this problem. Mary's first step before conducting the surveys should have been to discuss the issue with the HR Director…… [Read More]

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Interest A Research in Human

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The data collection methods

Questionnaires effectively aid in data collection. To capture the right data, it must be well organised and prepared. The variables required in the result must be prepared well in advance for they guide the researcher on how to frame the questionnaire. The questions in it must be clear and simple to avert confusing the respondent. A time frame should set on the duration a respondent should stay with the questionnaire. The mode of its distribution should be established to ensure only the relevant responds receive it.

Another data collection method to be employed will be oral interviews. The interview question should be prepared in advance with reference to the variables required. Good interviewer training is necessary for it prepares him on how to ask the questions and manage the interviewee.

Possible methods of data analysis

A thorough data analysis process is crucial for effective data analysis.…… [Read More]

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HR Research Requirements There Are

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Without adapting both instruments and the analyses of responses based on some level of assessment of the cultural values and interpretations, results (especially from qualitative research instruments such as the proposed questionnaires and interviews that will be most effective in this research) are likely to be less accurate and are certain to be less meaningful to the organization in question (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006). Taking into account cultural diversity as well as other types of personal values and beliefs that might affect results is necessary to ensure that the information collected is reliable and remains meaningful through interpretation (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006).

There are also other more mundane factors that must be controlled in order to ensure that adequate amounts of reliable information are gathered in the research process. Proper foresight and knowledge regarding statistical techniques and demands during the gathering of data is necessary, such that reliable conclusions can…… [Read More]

References

Bharracharyya, D. (2007). Human resource research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.

HR Guide. (2001). Job analysis. Accessed 31 January 2011.  http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G012.htm 

Stahl, G. & Bjorkman, I. (2006). Handbook of research in international human resource management. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Marketing Research The Marketing Research Plan of

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Marketing esearch: The Marketing esearch Plan of Extreme Exposure ock Climbing Center

The need for marketing research

The marketing research problem

Information types and sources (primary and secondary)

Methods of accessing data

Methods of collecting Data

Design data collection forms (or scripts)

The sample plan and size

Analyze data

Marketing esearch: The Marketing esearch Plan Extreme Exposure ock Climbing Center.

The need for marketing research

With the climbing market exploding, the creation of a modern climbing centers necessitates an incredible amount of making sure that it is competitive. It is clear that modern climbing gyms are real businesses that are out there generating real proceeds. They provide specialized services like corporate team building and youth climbing programs, and they have to deal with real issues like taxes and workman's compensation audits. The best climbing facilities are run by experienced management professionals who appreciate their success depends as much on customer…… [Read More]

References

Crimp, M. a. (2011). The marketing research process, 4 thedition. London: Prentice Hall.

D'Alimonte, D. (2015, July 4). Approaching market entry strategy from a rock climbing perspective. Retrieved from International Business Training:  http://www.tradeready.ca/2014/global_trade_tales/approaching-market-entry-strategy-rock-climbing-perspective/ 

Ilieva, J.B. (2008). 'Online surveys in mar-keting research: Pros and cons'. International Journal of MarketResearch, 44(1), 361.

Imms, M. a. (2012). Introduction to qualitative marketresearch. London: Sage.
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Administrative and Policy Research Today

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18946421

According to Majchrzak (1984, p. 55), variables can have a range of focal points; from the very wide to the very narrow. Economic stability is an example of a variable with a wide focus, while preschool IQ scores is an example of a narrowly focused variable. The wider the focus, the greater the potential for specifying a number of indicators to measure them.

The operationalization of variables will then depend upon the research questions. The first stage of this process is then to define the variable in precise terms, while the second stage is to select indicators by means of which the variable can be measured (Majchrzak, 1984, p. 56).

When taking the example of teacher training, the variable can for example be operationalized in terms of the certification level of teachers as determined by their official credentials. Indicators towards this end could be elements such as number of years…… [Read More]

References

Dantzker, M.L. And Hunter, R.D. (2006). Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Primer. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Majchrzak, A. (1984). Methods for Policy Research. California: Sage Publications.

Steets, J. (2004). Developing a Framework: Concepts and Research Priorities for Partnership Accountability. Global Public Policy Institute: Research Paper Series No. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.gppi.net/fileadmin/gppi/Steets_Paper_1_04082005.pdf
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Strategic Planning Outline AMR Research

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Summary of ecommendations

1. Goals of the recommendations to the Board of Directors for AM esearch:

a. Seek to stabilize the firm during turbulent economic conditions

b. Capitalize on the growth potential of Web 2.0 technologies and social networking.

2. Starting with competitiveness

a. AM needs to create greater levels of process-based expertise that is relevant to enterprise accounts

b. Transform this expertise and use it in the context of assessing and evaluating vendor clients' strategies.

3. Learning and Knowledge Management Strategic Initiatives

a. Need for creating the role of a Chief Learning Officer

i. Duties include concentrating on unifying all the disparate sources of knowledge in the company into a single version of the truth, a single repository of knowledge that could easily be queried for unstructured content.

4. Managing employees to greater levels of creativity and innovation.

a. Creating more opportunities for individual growth

i. Use personal growth…… [Read More]

References:

David R. Firth, E Burton Swanson. (2005). How useful are IT research and analysis services? Business Horizons, 48(2), 151-159.

Robert P. Garrett, Jeffrey G. Covin, Dennis P. Slevin. (2009). Market responsiveness, top management risk taking, and the role of strategic learning as determinants of market pioneering. Journal of Business Research, 62(8), 782.

Larry Greenemeier, Paul McDougall. (2006, February). Credibility Of Analysts. InformationWeek,(1075), 32-36,38-39.

Maryfran Johnson. (2003, October). Ethics and influence. Computerworld,
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Hess Corporation Purchase Order Process

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99619648

Others, such as those which inquire as to current levels of usage and optimization of electronic purchase orderings, should help to appropriately guide findings toward process improvements that are directly attendant to vendor concerns.

The survey questions here respond to the primary ethical demands of the process, which require a focus on the research objective without inappropriate deviation into subjects of irrelevance or impropriety. Namely, this survey attempts not to deter from the path of proper behavior between company and clientele, with the surveyed vendors representing a population inherently entitled to privacy and protection from the exploitation of private information. The privileges between the two parties must remain intact through the research process, ensuring that the information used here is not employed to exploit specific accounts or to transfer the findings to other parties. Instead, all survey purposes relating to the interests of product improvement must be conveyed at the…… [Read More]

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Education Research the Scientific and

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At this stage also, a questionnaire or instrument is formulated and kinds of analysis to be conducted after data collection are determined.

These rigorous steps of developing the methodology for a research are culminated with the conduct of the data collection itself, which, in the example given earlier, the research collected data through the survey method. After collection, processing of the data would be next, followed by the analyses and interpretation of these processed survey data. After data analysis, the researcher uses his/her knowledge and experience as an expert in the field of health by interpreting the data results in the context of health and the social environment of the community. Both data analyses and interpretation are summarized and made easier to communicate through a formal report, both in oral and written modalities.

The outlines systematic approach to research inquiry, while they may appear to be very rigorous and scientific…… [Read More]

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Compiling Research Information Over the

Words: 3685 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38060018

This amount of flexibility helps to give them an edge, in adjusting with a host of challenges they are facing over the long-term. (Hanna, 2009, pp. 30 -- 53)

The article that was written by Gruber (2011) is showing how frontline employees play a vital role in addressing the needs of stakeholders. This is because they are directly working with customers, suppliers and third parties on a regular basis. Those firms that understand how to: address these requirements and motivate them will see an improvement in the way they are interacting with everyone. This is point that there will be a transformation in the operating environment of the firm (by addressing the specific needs of stakeholders). Over the course of time, this will have a positive impact on how they are interacting with everybody in achieving a host of objectives. The information from this source is useful, in highlighting how…… [Read More]

References

Barnes, B. (2010). Assessing the Contribution of Leading Mainstream Marketing Journals. International Marketing Review, 27 (5), 491 -- 518.

Brodie, R. (2008). Contemporary Marketing Practices. Journal of Business, 23 (2), 84 -- 94.

Brudan, a. (2011). Rediscovering Performance Management. Measuring Business Excellence, 14 (1), 109 -- 120.

Gruber, T. (2011). Analyzing the Preferred Characteristics. The TQM Journal, 23 (2), 128 -- 144.
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Social Science Research Are Qualitative and Quantitative

Words: 4883 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70439606

social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.

In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/

Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
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Justification for Mixed Methods Research

Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38490605

oles of Theory in Qualitative esearch & Application

Qualitative esearch

Write a two page Journal entry on how well you are understanding the roles of theory in qualitative research and how this applies to your Final Project and to your Dissertation.

Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness (which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches). When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More]

References

Dwyer, S. And Buckle, J. (2009). The space between: On being an insider-outsider in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(1), 54-63. Retreived https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewFile/2981/5198

Glaser, B. G and Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.

Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Research Methods Knowledge Base. {Web.] Independence, KY: Cengage Publishing Retreived  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.htm 

Xu, M.A. And Gail Blair Storr, G.B. (2012). Learning the concept of researcher as instrument in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 17(42), 1-18. Retreived  http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR17/storr.pdf
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Participatory Research An Approach With

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83659054

By taking this approach, not only will diabetes research be more ethical in its construction, but it will also help break down community barriers that create resistance and fear towards the health care systems, provide care to the economically disadvantaged, and thus act as a force for social change and good.

The example of diabetes treatment and research is an excellent example of research that is vital and important to a community, pertains to cultural acts and rituals like food are affected by social circumstances like the availability to exercise, and shows that a participatory approach is not merely theoretical but realistic in the field. Park's theoretical endorsement of research as a co-creative act with a potential to create social justice is not limited to health care education, but religious education as well. Elizabeth Conde-Frazier discusses how the participatory approach can bridge cultural differences even in the intractable field of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth. (Summer 2006). "Participatory Action Research: Practical

Theology for Social Justice." Religious Education.. Retrieved 24 Feb 2007 a t http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3783/is_200607/ai_n17187967

Park, P. (1993). "What is participatory research? A theoretical and methodological perspective." In P. Park, M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall and T. Jackson (Eds.). Voices of change (pp. 1-19). Westport. Conn: Bergin & Garvey.

The Role of Community-Based Participatory Research: Creating Partnerships, Improving
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Business Culture Decision Making Every Research Is

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Business Culture Decision Making

Every research is centered on the need to make a decision and the need to make a decision in any organization sprouts from a dilemma that the particular organization may be in. Some of these dilemmas may be in the form of complains within the organization, controversy over pay, competitors introduction of a new form of operation or technology, some looming major commitment of resources and more of such issues can effectively prompt a research in an organization.

The bottom line is that research draws its origins from decision making. There must be a dilemma that dominates the course of the research in pursuit of specific information to enable a manager to set objectives, define the tasks, and obtain the best strategy for completion of some tasks. It is at this time that it can be concluded that the research always comes 'just- in -- time'…… [Read More]

References

Martin Shutleworth, (2008). Research Variables. Retrieved May 26, 2011 from http://www.experiment-resources.com/research-variables.html

University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, (2011). Generating A Research Hypothesis. Retrieved May

26, 2011 from  http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/researchmethods/generating%20a%20research%20hypothesis/generating%20a%20research%20hypothesis%20index.htm
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Management-Research Question Hierarchy What Are

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95778916

It also requires conscious effort at objective because of the inherent of the method applied. Sampling plans narrows its frame to that particular sample, this to shows the group of people who are participating in the study. It samples can be selected through probability and non-probability (Mack & Woodsong, 2005).

esearch design

In most cases research design is used in the education sector and it takes different meaning depending with how it's applied. it's normally used interchangeable with the term research method. However, according to Berliner (2002) research design should reflect the whole process of research, starting from the conceptualizing main problem to the question of the research, methods and the conclusion. Identifying a study's research design is important because it communicates information about key features of the study, which can differ for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. However, one common feature across research designs is that at one or…… [Read More]

References

Berliner, D. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18 -- 20.

Harwell M, (2000). Research Design in Qualitative/Quantitative/MixedMethods

Morgan B, (2008). PTC 604 - Communication Theory and Research

Fritz K, (2008). Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research MPH Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of International Health
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Philosophical Groundings in Research

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theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…… [Read More]

References

Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

[Type text]
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Social Research There Are Several

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30715431

A disadvantage to interview research methods, on the other hand, include the potential for bias based on the respondents' desire to please the researcher, who will necessarily be directly involved in the research process.

7)

In the One-Group Pretest-Posttest experimental design, a single group of subjects is given a test that measures a certain variable or variables, then is exposed to the experimental condition, and then is tested again to measure the effects of this exposure. While this might seem valid, there are several threats to internal validity facing this design. Other intervening events could affect posttest scores, the simple passing of time could have an effect, different test conditions could lead to different results, and selection biases could also influence outcomes.

8)

There are a number of factors that influence the sample size needed for a given piece of research. The desired confidence level of the research outcomes, the…… [Read More]

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Gilbert Law's Legal Writing Research

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After reading the Gilbert Law Summary on legal writing and research, a law student would be much better prepared to begin his or her educational career in research and analysis. As previously stated, the student should feel more adequate to tackle the research portion of any legal project, but the actual writing and analysis would need further development as only actual experience may provide. Honigsberg's introduction into the vast world of legal study should help pave the way for a better knowledge of what exactly is entailed in researching the law. His outline source should be used as a basic guideline for organizing a study of legal cases, and is a must for any student's law collection. The definitions and insight into the U.S. legal system provided by Honigsberg should make the research process a little easier to understand. As most researchers know, finding a place to begin when there…… [Read More]

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Psychological Research It Is Difficult

Words: 1904 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91807125



We have also talked about the "blue print" of a study, or the logical model of proof which guides the researcher throughout the entire study -- i.e. The research design. It is by which the investigator determines the relationships between variables being tested. We have discussed true experiments, its nature and validity issues as well as quasi-experimental designs. We also provided a discussion of the difference between these two designs.

What is worth nothing, I believe, is the importance of a good research design. A good research design theoretically leads to good data. Hence, during the conceptualization of research design, careful thought needs to be employed.

Lastly, our research considerations, on which kind of statistical tool to use, whether to use sample or population, and/or which research design to employ, should always be anchored in our research objectives, on the things that we aim to know through the study.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association (2003). How To Be A Wise Consumer of Psychological

Research. Retrieved from http://www.psychologymatters.org/wiseconsumer.html on May 15, 2009.

Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E.J. (2006). Statistics for Psychology, 4th Edition.

New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Random Sampling in Research Classes

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Another instance in which random sampling is not important is when a researcher is conducting a qualitative study. In qualitative studies, depth of information from selected units of analysis is given more importance rather than the number and representativeness of the target group or population. Thus, for a researcher conducting in-depth interviews of household mothers (for example), the characteristics/selection criteria set in identifying the target group (household mothers) are more important than the randomly selecting participants/members of the target group, which could result to household mothers who do not fit the criteria or characteristics set by the researcher. In effect, the type of information that would be generated from randomly sampled household mothers would not be as insightful as it would have been to specifically-selected household mothers fitting the researcher's selection criteria.

Components of a research study such as the objectives, review of literature, framework, methodology and analysis all work…… [Read More]

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Marketing Audit a Market Research Plan Is

Words: 2256 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69551210

Marketing Audit

A market research plan is the systematic study that deals with the gathering and analysis of the concerned data to assess the role of a certain company in the market and persuade the customers to by their products. Marketing research assist the companies to design better strategies for future with respect to customer behavior (Pickett, 2010).

Marketing audit: It is a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of a company's activities and the results achieved due to its capabilities .In order to carry out marketing research one must understand the role of marketing audit in research.

PUPOSE OF THE AUDIT (Wal-Mart)

Marketing audit is necessary because the Wal-Mart has to compare its performance with the constantly changing market environment. There are certain micro and macro environmental factors that affect the business and marketing operations of the retail business of Wal-Mart largely. A detailed description of them is as under:

Microenvironment:…… [Read More]

References

Cangemi, M.P., & Singleton, T.W. (2003). Managing the Audit Function. New York: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

D'Souza, S. (2009). The Brain Audit. Chicago: Psychotactics.

Foxall, G.R. (1981). Strategic Marketing Management. London: Croom Helm.

Hayes, R.S., Dassen, R., Schilder, A., & Wallage, P. (2005). Principles Of Auditing. Harlow, U.K.: Pearson Education.
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Social Science Research Silver Roxane

Words: 429 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74008829

For this kind of research to be effective, researchers must gain the trust and confidence of these individuals. Careful planning, focus group research, and investigation may help to build this kind of trust, but all of those steps add time (and expenses) to the research process.

c) Use of untested assumptions. Researchers may have their own assumptions about how people react to trauma, and these assumptions may negatively affect their own neutrality. Those assumptions may also impact the design of the study, through the types of questions being asked in the research to the way the researcher interacts with the subjects. Misconceptions about trauma are rampant, and in fact people react very differently to stresses in their lives.

5.

Major Findings: Researchers discovered a great deal of variability in post-traumatic response among individuals in the immediate community where the trauma took place. Many of those closest to the trauma had…… [Read More]

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Framing the Research Problem Basic

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15521294



Step 3: Identify data types and sources: Sample size and collection methods

Data must be drawn from a representative population with a wide variety of norms that could influence the results. For example, in studying the effects of fast food restaurants near schools, the study population of children with many fast food restaurants near their school should be balanced in terms of BMI, gender, socio-economic status and other factors that could influence the results. So must the control group. Of course, some research studies might wish to study intervention techniques in the context of specific population groups, like the effects of a diabetes management program upon a low-income population with a quite limited population base, demographically.

If an ideally balanced sampling is not possible to achieve, nonparametric statistics must be used to allow for an uneven breakdown of demographic data (umsey 2007, p.262). Chi-square tests create a balanced group from…… [Read More]

References

Marketing research. (2009). Quick MBA. Retrieved January 2010 at  http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/research/ 

Nonparametric statistics. (2010). Stat Soft. Retrieved January 2010 at http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/nonparametric-statistics/

Rumsey, Deborah. (2007). Intermediate Statistics for Dummies. For Dummies.
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Ethics Human Research the Nuremberg

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80577995



Declaration of Helsinki

In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.

The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…… [Read More]

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Speaking of Research it Was Surprising to

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Speaking of esearch

It was surprising to read the details of everything that goes into research in order to get the final wanted product. It was also surprising to read about all of the statistics that are taken out of context in order to prove a particular point. However, as shocking as it was to read that most statistics are portrayed in an incorrect fashion, it was not that surprising to read that this is done so that readers could believe the point-of-view that the reporter of these statistics is attempting to make. The entire reasoning behind stating statistics is to convince the readers of a particular issue. Although the website was attempting to open people's eyes concerning the truth about how statistics can be reported in an incorrect manner, I also found that this website was in itself biased in the information that it was portraying (Lovell-Badge, 2013). However,…… [Read More]

References:

Federal Trade Commission. (2011). Reebok to pay $25 million in customer refunds to settle ftc charges of deceptive advertising of easytone and runtone shoes. Retrieved from http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2011/09/reebok.shtm

Lovell-Badge, R. (2013). Nine out of ten statistics are taken out of context. Retrieved from  http://speakingofresearch.com/2013/01/23/nine-out-of-ten-statistics-are-taken-out-of-context/ 

Majid, K.A. (2012). Statistics taken out of context may be misleading. Retrieved from http://www.btimes.com.my/Current_News/BTIMES/articles/noots/Article/index_html

McMullen, T. (2010). Dannon to pay $45m to settle yogurt lawsuit. Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/Business/dannon-settles-lawsuit/story?id=9950269
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Business Research Methods

Words: 943 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33875393

Business Methods

In order to study career aspirations, a survey of fifteen students was conducted to determine what level the student expected to achieve as their highest level. The students polled were all business students. The unit of analysis was scalar, with the options reflecting hierarchical levels within a corporation. The results of the survey were as follows:

Executive

Upper Management

Middle Management

Lower Management

Non-Management

These results show that business students have a wide range of aspirations and expectations for their careers. While some see themselves on a path to executive-level leadership, others see themselves slotting into middle- or upper-level managerial positions as their apex. None of the business students surveyed felt that they were likely to end up in a non-management role. Because of the desire to create scalar units of measurement, the question did not distinguish between these levels and entrepreneurship. So the size of the company…… [Read More]

References

Lund Research (2012). Stratified random sampling. Lund Research. Retrieved April 3, 2014 from  http://dissertation.laerd.com/stratified-random-sampling.php 

No author (2014). Business research process: An overview. EIS.HU.EDU. Retrieved April 3, 2014 from https://eis.hu.edu.jo/ACUploads/10643/Chapter%204.pdf
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Small Computer Systems Proposed Research

Words: 4808 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43109232

According to aul B. Mckimmy (2003), "The first consideration of wireless technology is bandwidth. 802.11b (one of four existing wireless Ethernet standards) is currently the most available and affordable specification. It allows a maximum of 11 megabits per second (Mbps)" (p. 111); the author adds that wired Ethernet LANs are typically 10 or 100 Mbps.

In 1997, when the IEEE 802.11 standard was first ratified, wireless LANs were incompatible and remained vendor specific; the 802.11 protocol representeded an important step towards standardization (assmore, 2000). Wireless local area network (LAN) technology, however, has actually been in use since the late 1980s; different proprietary approaches were commonly used, and the networks operated at lower speeds (e.g., 1-2 Mbps). In 1997, though, the standards setting body, IEEE, released the 802.(11) standard for wireless local area networking using the unlicensed 2.4 GHz frequency band (as opposed to the 900 MHz band used in the…… [Read More]

Passmore, D. (2000, March). Wireless LANs Come of Age. Business Communications Review, 30(3), 22.

Vance, a. (2002, August). Variations on 802.11: Here Are 802.11's a, B, G's, and Other Things You Never Learned in School about Wireless LANs. Business Communications Review, 32(8), 36.

Weiser, M. (1998). The future of ubiquitous computing on campus. Communications of the ACM, 41, 41-42.
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Development fo Research Questions

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87764104

tested with subsequent primary research. Yiridoe et al.[footnoteef:1], have found that consumers may choose organic food if they believe it to be safer, an issue associated with knowledge, or lack of knowledge, and stereotyping. Therefore, if assessing attitudes and intention to purchase organic food, these outcomes will be the dependent variables and influences that impact on those will be the independent variables. These may be used to frame the questions. The questions will guide the research process (Bryman & Bell, 2011). The following research questions are recommended. These breakdown the research topic different sub categories which may be assed with primary research. [1: Taken from the literature review, but not cited in the bibliography on that paper]

1. Do most consumers understand what is meant by the term organic, and does education impact on this?

2. How does the understanding of organic foods impact on the purchase decision-making process

3.…… [Read More]

References

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2011). Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students. London: Pearson.
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Complete an Evaluation of Personnel Practices Processes

Words: 2655 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55541706

HR Practices in Public Administration:

Performance Improvement Through Distributed Leadership

Managing personnel in a public administration context can be particularly challenging given the various economic, political and bureaucratic pressures which are often attendant to work in the public sector. These challenges are magnified when that public administration context is a school. Public schools are typically beset by a range of personnel obstacles that are unique to the field and which render the implementation of effective Human Resource strategies particularly complex. Indeed, the pressing realities of public education have to an extent created a context in which effective HR strategies have been relegated behind the often more apparent demands of parental contentment, administrative regulation and economic limitation. However, American public education is today suffering, as are many of the professionals who work within this context, due to a decline in quality and a diminishing experience as employees. This calls for a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Administration and Finance Division (AFD). (2006). Distributed Leadership. West Chester University.

Flash, P.; Froehlich, S; Hegeson, S; Jensen, J.T. & Biotti, J.S. (2006). Identifying Key Attributes of An Effective Transformational Change Model at the University of Minnesota. President's Emerging Leader Team.

Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed Leadership as a Unit of Analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), 423-451.

Harris, A. (2004). Distributed Leadership and School Improvement: Leading or Misleading. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 32(1), 11-24.