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Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
Pragmatic Linguistic Awareness Motivation
Research Study Outline on Pragmalinguistic Awareness
A helpful one-line summary of the research study, indicating the topic area and including all the key concepts to be studied.
Takahashi tested eighty Japanese students with a noticing-the-gap activity after administering a motivation questionnaire and an L2 proficiency test, finding that pragmalinguistic awareness was correlated with motivation subscales, but not with proficiency.
Link to previous research: What the author (SATOMI TAKAHASHI) had done on this topic area and what he had found; unanswered questions that your research study plans to answer.
The role of attention in pragmalinguistics was introduced in Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis, which claimed that learners have to notice L2 features in the input for subsequent development to occur in the L2. (Schmidt, 1990). Schmidt argues that noticing is central to SLA, and learners must first notice the surface structures of utterances inthe input to acquire virtually every…
For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.
The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…
North, Adrian C. & David J. Hargreaves. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28 (24):
Participation in a esearch Study
It is imperative that a subject understands the importance of his or her involvement in any research study. This is fundamental especially in researches that may involve full participation of an individual (which may affect his or her daily activities). As a result, every researcher must ensure that his or her subjects are fully informed about the research and are ready to follow through to the end. Every researcher must have a set strategy, to evaluate how informed his or her subjects are on the research at hand.
Interview: The participant in this case is interviewed on the subject matter at hand to ensure that he or she knows the research in depth. This way the key leaders in the research have an opportunity to evaluate the credibility of the individual to participate throughout the research without fill discretion (ichardson & Godfrey, 2010).
Dobson, C. (2008). Conducting research with people not having the capacity to consent to their participation. The British Psychological Society, 1-44.
Dresser, R. (2001). When science offers salvation: Patient advocacy and research ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
In Global Health Research, Is It Legitimate To Stop Clinical Trials Early on Account of Their Opportunity Costs?. (2009). PloS Med, 6(6).
Richardson, J.C., & Godfrey, B.S. (2010). Towards ethical practice in the use of archived transcripted interviews. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6(4), 347-355.
They discovered various anthropometric variables such as calculating body mass index, pediatric calculation capabilities, etc. They found that none of the computers used Internationale units, only English and/or metric. They compared user instruction booklets for ease of understanding and found that none of the five included a toll-free telephone number. They also found variations between the calculators when basal energy expenditure and ideal body weight were calculated, but could only speculate about causes of the variations.
Conclusions: The researchers conclude that there is no single "best" calculator. "Each user needs to determine whether the device is user-friendly and adaptable to his or her clinical situation" (p. 5). They also provide a complete list of features and functions for the nutritionist to consider before choosing a particular hand-held computer to buy and a systematic six-point strategy for making the decision.
Orta, J. And einarts, C.L. (1994). Comparison of handheld computers…
Orta, J. And Reinarts, C.L. (1994). Comparison of handheld computers for nutrition assessment and support. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 94 (12). Retrieved on 10 March 2007 from Expanded Academic ASAP database.
This is because "genetic, hormonal, and nutritional factors play a significant role in the development of stress fractures....Female runners with a history of stress fracture are more likely to have a history of irregular periods or lack of periods. A low body mass index is also a predictor of reduced bone mineral density in adolescents" ("Stress Fractures," 2006, Mass General Hospital for Children).
To gain a sense of the relative the bone density of the participants a DEXA bone scan pre -- and post-season will be required. (Pipenberg, 2005: 1). Athletes will be screened and questioned weekly regarding pain, performance, and to see if they exhibit other common symptoms of stress fractures.
Anticipated benefits and risks of taking part in the study
Low bone density and stress fractures, combined with irregular menstruation have long been the bane of long-distance runners, especially females. "The teenage years are the most important ones…
Calcium, vitamin D may reduce stress fracture risk." (2007). NutraIngredients. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007. http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/news/ng.asp?n=74103-calcium-vitamin-d-fracture
DeNoon, Daniel. (2006). "Weight Loss Can Mean Bone Loss: Dieters Who Don't
Exercise at Risk for Weaker Bones." WebMD Medical News Reviewed by Louise Chang 11 Dec 2006. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/content/article/130/117776.htm?src=AOLConditionWidget&ncid=cDaKHfNCCG
Pipenberg, Claudia. (Nov 2005). "Thin, Light... And Fragile: What all runners should know about bone health." The Running Times. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007 at http://runningtimes.com/rt/articles/?id=7376&c=375
A study published in 2007 suggested that "The ASCA National Model can help school counselors think proactively about how they can best serve the students in their schools, and it contains ideas and tools for developing comprehensive school counseling programs that use the current best practices in the field" (Dimmit, Carey, 2007, p. 227).This study will attempt to discern whether those standards have been met. If they have not, then perhaps modifications can be made. If they have then the study will have at least verified that the program was successful.
The perception in the 1980's as compared to the 1960's could be said that there were plenty of individuals during that particular time that felt that counselors had little, if anything to do with solving school education problems. Comparing this laisse faire attitude towards counselors then, with the far more intense attitude currently shown towards education in general, and…
ACES-ASCA Committee on the Elementary School Guidance Counselor (1966), Preliminary statement. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 44, 659-661.
American School Counselor Association (2003) the ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, Professional School Counseling, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 165-169
American School Counselor Association. (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA
ASCA. (2006). School Shooting Resources, American School Counselor Association, Retrieved November 14, 2007: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=524
Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting
One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…
Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.
Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.
Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
The questions started as more general about your feelings and gradually became so personal to the point that I was glad the study is anonymous. I noticed some repetition of questions, especially having to do with feelings, but I have noticed this in other studies before. I also understand that comparing the answers to similar questions is a way of studying the person's or groups overall reactions to specific issues.
I honestly enjoyed taking this study. The section that asks about how you've felt during the past week and today contained the most personal questions, I thought. I did try to answer the questions quickly as it was stated that is the most accurate way to conduct a study like this one.
I was surprised at some of my answers about my feelings regarding this past week. Answering the questions led to me being quite self-reflective during and after the…
"Social Psychology Network." Online Social Psychology Studies. University of Graz, Austria, 15 March 2011. Web. 15 Mar 2011. .
Nurse Lit eview
TYPE OF ESEACH STUDY - Quantitative or qualitative
Descriptive, correlational, experimental, quasi-experimental, phenomenological, grounded theory ethnographic, historical
SAMPLE METHOD & SAMPLE SIZE
Knoll, Lautenschlager & Lipp (2009). British Journal of Nursing.
Impact of workload on hygiene practices.
trials of nursing staff.
Enforcing hygiene practices has practical healing benefits for nurses.
Souweine, B. et al. (2009). Intensive Care Medical Journal.
Compared hygiene practices. Hand rubbing vs. hand washing.
person nursing staff.
Workers completed self report questionnaires.
Hand rubbing with alcohol is preferred to handwashing in some instances.
Creedon, S. (2006). International Journal of Nursing Technologies and Classifications.
Observe health worker compliance in handwashing guidelines.
73 doctors and nurses in an Irish ICU.
Knowledge of handwashing guidelines can lead to positive outcomes.
Allen, L. et al. (2014). Nevada Nformation.
Compared hand washing with hand sanitizer.
Allen, L., & et al. . (2014). Professionalism in Nursing. Nevada RNFormation, 18(1).
Creedon, S.A. (2005). Healthcare workers' hand decontamination practices: compliance with recommended guidelines. Journal of advanced nursing, 51(3), 208-216.
Evans, M.W., Breshears, J., Campbell, A., Husbands, C., & Rupert, R. (2007). Assessment and risk reduction of infectious pathogens on chiropractic treatment tables. Chiropractic & osteopathy, 15(1), 8.
Knoll, M., Lautenschlaeger, C., & Borneff-Lipp, M. (2010). The impact of workload on hygiene compliance in nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 19(16), S18-S22.
nursing because a solution to it directly impacts the level of quality care that staff can provide to patients.
The research is quantitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to test whether providing information from assessments about patient-caregiver hospice dyads to interdisciplinary teams is effective in improving hospice outcomes. The purpose does correspond to an EBP focus -- namely, therapy/treatment.
Greater awareness leads to a greater ability to provide care.
This study could have been undertaken as a qualitative study by conducting interviews with caregivers and/or patients to assess personal reactions to the issue at hand.
Example 2: Qualitative Research
The research problem is very relevant to the actual practice of nursing because it regards how patients deal with suffering, self-blame, guilt, etc., all of which nurses will encounter when treating them.
The research is qualitative.
The underlying purpose of the study is to provide description of a situation.…
For example, determining that police officers are more likely to divorce than the general population, if that is not true, might result in marital problems being attributed to the fact that one person is a police officer rather than addressing underlying issues.
I would set the significance level at .02 rather than at .05 to avoid having a Type I error, if my sample size was small enough for me to worry about the possibility of having a Type I error. However, with a sufficiently large population, I would keep my significance level at .05, because it is the standard for social science research.
3. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the groups being examined for the variable in question. The directional research hypothesis is that there is a difference and suggests the nature of the difference (generally, that one population is more or less…
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…
.....contemporary, there is a great deal of dynamism and competition, and therefore it is fundamental for organizations to produce newfangled ideas of high quality to develop or sustain their competitive edge. Customarily, an approach of generating ideas has been verbal brainstorming, which encompasses a practice where groups of individuals, commonly in the similar space, work in tandem to form and interchange notions (Stevens et al., 2009). The design of the user interface of a system is vital and fundamental to the success of the software. The presentation and unveiling of concepts through an information system interface can play a significant part in facilitating and encouraging the integration of conceptions in the electronic brainstorming system (EBS), which as a result can give rise to enhancing the level of productivity. In delineation, EBS is a computer-based system that simplifies and enables brainstorming between the group members. The aspect in this case is…
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…
Cloud Computing Technology
The research methods and design of this non-experimental qualitative study are all aligned to the goal of investigating the factors affecting cloud computing adoption by general user's perception of cloud technologies. The research questions, population and sample size definition which are essential to any effective methodology, are predicated on the observation that the associated technologies that comprise cloud computing have significant potential to provide humanitarian and accelerate educational attainment on a global scale. The technology components that comprise cloud computing including Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) must be tightly orchestrated together to deliver applications online that people can use. Performance and responsiveness of cloud computing applications, the majority of which are installed as SaaS-based software, will also need to be measured in this study, as their performance will be a predicator of general user's perception of this technology. The scalability of cloud-based applications will also…
Handwriting Skills on Compositional Quality
What is the background and context of your project? Is there a 'problem' you want to find out more about or a potential solution that you want to explore? Is there a gap in the literature or earlier research that you want to build on or extend? What is your aim? Why do you want to investigate this topic? What is the justification for researching this issue? Include a small number of in-text references in this section as well as a corresponding list of complete references in Section 8 using a consistent format (e.g. following the SHU referencing guidelines).
I teach English in class 2 and 3 which comprises of a comprehensive book, a workbook and a writing practice book. While teaching I observed that most of the kids in class 3 had quite bad handwriting, although they had been practising from class 1 onwards.…
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…
Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.
Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.
Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…
Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.
Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.
Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…
esearch instruments fall into two broad categories: those compiled by the researcher him or herself in the form of recorded observations, logs, and rating scales and those completed by the interview subject him or herself in the form of questionnaires and interviews. egardless of the instruments used, research studies should be guided by acceptable standards of validity and reliability. "Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. "External validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from a sample to a population" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample. An instrument may be…
Instrument, validity, reliability. (2014). Research Rundowns. Retrieved:
Korb, K. (2012). Select sampling technique. Conducting Educational Research.
Retrieved from: http://korbedpsych.com/R06Sample.html
daunting undertaking, in large part due to the statistical tests and complex language involved (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). Whatever the case, the results of the analysis must be presented in a clear, readable manner, often with the use of tables, graphs, and charts. In Hayes, Douglas & Bonner's (2015) article, data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), a common data analysis tool. The results were presented with the help of both descriptive and inferential statistics. Measures of central tendency such as frequency, mean, and standard deviation as well as tables and graphs were used to present data relating to demographic characteristics, work environments, job stress, job satisfaction, and burnout. T-tests, ANOVAs, and correlation analyses were then conducted to explore relationships between nurse and work environment characteristics, job stress, job satisfaction, and burnout.
The study found that there were high levels of burnout amongst the…
Ahanchian, M., Meshkinyazd, A., & Soudmand, P. (2015). Nurses burnout in psychiatric wards. Fundamentals of Mental Health, 260-264.
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), 658-663.
Hayes, B., Douglas, C., & Bonner, A. (2015). Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 588-598.
Lee, P. (2006). Understanding and critiquing qualitative research articles. Nursing Times, 102(29), 30-32.
unequivocal (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). Also, it should ideally be 10-15 words long. The title of the quantitative article is "Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses" (Hayes, Douglas & Bonner, 2015). The title clearly adheres to the recommended length of an article title. In addition, the title unambiguously identifies of the purpose of the study, which is to examine relationships between nurse characteristics, work environment attributes, job satisfaction, job stress, and burnout in nurses working in haemodialysis units.
The abstract should provide a succinct summary of the study, inclusive of the research problem, purpose of the research, methodology, sample size, findings, as well as conclusion and recommendations (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). The reader should judge from the abstract whether an article is worth further reading. Hayes, Douglas & Bonner's (2015) article provides a precise and straightforward overview of the study, clearly summing up the…
Ahanchian, M., Meshkinyazd, A., & Soudmand, P. (2015). Nurses burnout in psychiatric wards. Fundamentals of Mental Health, 260-264.
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), 658-663.
Hayes, B., Douglas, C., & Bonner, A. (2015). Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 588-598.
Lee, P. (2006). Understanding and critiquing qualitative research articles. Nursing Times, 102(29), 30-32.
statistics statistics and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).
Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…
Dormann, C. et al. (2012). Collinearity: a review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 35: 1-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07348.x Retrieved from http://www.biom.uni-freiburg.de/Dateien/PDF/dormann2012ecography_proofcorrections.pdf
Junco, R., Elavsky, M., Heibegger, G. (2012). Putting twitter to the test: Assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement and success. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Retrieved from http://blog.reyjunco.com/pdf/Juncoelavskyheibergertwittercollaboration.pdf
Some salient guidance concerning developing good note-taking skills from the literature include placing a date and the name of the class on the top of every page to make sorting class notes out later on easier. Likewise, many students with good typing skills will likely benefit from typing their notes after school, when the information is still fresh in their minds. Students can also learn how to improve their note-taking skills by reviewing the notes taken by students with known note-taking skills. For instance, according to Willis (2007), "Sharing notes is a valuable way for all students to hone their note-taking skills and gain metacognitive awareness of which content is crucial and which is not. Teachers can ask students who have clearly written notebook entries to share them verbally or post them on a bulletin board for the benefit of students who don't have adequate notes" (p. 157).
Snider, a. & Schnurer, M. (2006). Many sides: Debate across the curriculum. New York
International Debate Education Association.
Ware, M.E. & Millard, R.J. (1997). Handbook on student development: Advising, career development, and field placement. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Willis, J. (2007). Brain-friendly strategies for the inclusion classroom: Insights from a neurologist and classroom teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This also refers to the false impression that cramming is a successful learning technique. As this study notes; "…it is much better to create an interval between the times you study an item" ( Glenn, 2007, p. 2). Similarly, a study entitled Smart way to study (2009) also emphasizes that intervals between study session have been shown to improve retention and understanding of the material. This method also means that information is retained and can be utilized in a more interactive manner by the student.
3. Tips to improve study skills
Study preparations are an important part of developing useful and long-term study skills. As has been referred to, the organization and management of the correct study skills that are appropriate to each individual's predilections is an important aspect that should be borne in mind in the development of successful learning skills. This also includes significant aspects, such as choosing…
Fleming G. Would Group Study Improve Your Grades? College Professors Think So!
Retrieved July 16, 2009, from http://homeworktips.about.com/od/homeworkhelp/a/study.htm
Larson, S. (2005). Teaching for Transformation in Today's Challenging Youth.
Reclaiming Children and Youth, 14(1), 27+. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009565771
Designing a eseach study: Two scenaios
Lewisville Health Sevices, a family health clinic, has seen few people coming in to eceive the influenza vaccine. The bochue advocating getting the vaccine that is distibuted to clinic uses seems to be ineffective. The goal of the eseach is to encouage moe clients to eceive the vaccine.
Reseach method and souces of infomation
This quantitative study will distibute a suvey to clinic uses, asking them if they intend to get the vaccine, if they eceived the vaccine in the past and ask them vaious questions about why they did o did not eceive the vaccine. Thei peceptions of the clinic's cuent maketing of the vaccine will also be assessed.
Natue of data to be gatheed and analyzed
The data gatheed and analyzed will be quantitative in natue, as it will be based upon a distibuted suvey to all clinic paticipants. Client's demogaphic infomation…
references and given sample pizzas to taste-test. Then, they will answer a quantitative survey on their buying habits.
Nature of data to be gathered and analyzed
A mixed method approach will be used: testers will be interviewed and observed in a qualitative fashion. They will also answer a quantitatively analyzed questionnaire about their tastes, eating habits, and frozen food consumption.
Hypothesis or hypotheses to be proved or disproved
The new frozen pizzas will be popular amongst teenagers and working couples who need to put a hot meal quickly on the table every night.
Procedures. All patients, regardless of whether they were participating in the study or not, received treatment as usual (TAU) for the first six months of the study. Measurement for this initial six-month period followed this sequence: A standard suite of measurements was administered at session one, session 6 and session 12; OS and SS assessments occurred at every treatment session for identified patients (IP) only. During this initial six-month period, counselors only received training in the use of the OS and SS as instruments to be added to the standard suite of outcome measures.
In the second six-month period, training in the client-directed outcome-informed approach to therapy was provided to all the counselors. The training components included the following: (1) 16 hours of formal introduction to theory of change according to the Duncan and Miller framework; (2) in-depth training on the use of OS and SS for obtaining client feedback…
Ardelt, M. And Eccles, J.S. (2001, November). Effects of mothers' parental efficacy beliefs and promotive parenting strategies on inner-city youth. Journal of Family Issues, 22(8), 944-972.
Boeree, C.G. (2006) Carl Rogers: 1902-1987. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
Brann, P., Coleman, G., & Luk, E. (2001). Routine outcome in a child and adolescent mental health service: an evaluation of HoNOSCA. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 370-376.
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
esearch Caveat - esearch surrounding undocumented workers can often be problematic and unreliable. Primarily this is due to the nature of the subject matter -- individual on both sides of the issue are unwilling to talk because of the volaltility of the subject, language barriers, legal issues, access issues, fear of anything that even remotely feels governmental, and the validity of responses. Briefly, we can view these issues and the mitigating circumstances:
Language barriers -- Any viable research study will need to be dual language based; therefore it must be translated into the appropriate lanage and level (typically Spanish), with an emphasis on clarity, removal of hidden meanings or linguistic variations. In addition, the person or persons administering any research questionnaire would likewise need to be bilingual.
Mistrust -- Undocumented workers are often reluctant to particpate in any project that has a written component; they are mistrustful of the system,…
Effects of Immigration on Natives' Earnings. (1995, December 11). Retrieved from Immigration - the Demographic and Economic Facts: http://www.cato.org/pubs/policy_report/pr-immig.html#contents
Difficult Moral Questions Surounding Undocumented Workers. (2006, March). Retrieved January 2011, from twotj.org: http://www.twotlj.org/G-3-171.html
U.S. Immigration Debate. (2007, June 28). Retrieved from BBCNews.com: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4850634.stm
Immigration Act of 1924. (2009, December). Retrieved from United States History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1398.html
Poor Healthcare Leadership
The study will concern itself with "the impact of poor leadership in the healthcare industry on workers' morale and patient care."
Bad leadership has many negative consequences. In addition to being unable to offer followers a clear direction, an ineffective leader is prone to issuing inconsistent instructions that in most cases end up confusing the recipients. The end result in such a case is poor execution of tasks. It is also important to note that those with poor leadership skills and abilities fail to give direction that could see members of their team improve for fear of loosing their jobs to the said team members once they gain the necessary competence. In this project, I will explore the impact of bad leadership most particularly in the healthcare industry. In particular, I will explore the effect poor leadership has on the morale of workers and consequently, patient care.…
Blankenship, D.C. (2009). Applied Research and Evaluation Methods in Recreation. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Manning, G. & Curtis, K. (2003). The Art of Leadership. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
McCormack, B. & McCance T. (2011). Person-Centered Nursing: Theory and Practice. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
McConnell, C. (2007). The Effective Health Care Supervisor (6th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
group and the nature of the study population. Both may present limitations to the researcher that will be reflective in the study design. In a quasi-experimental study, for instance, the study design lacks a fundamental component of a customary experimental design, namely randomization of the participants into study groups. Geographic limitations or the specificity of the participation qualifications may hinder the researcher from randomizing the subjects. An ex post facto study investigates possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing an existing condition and looking back into the past for valid causal factors. A certain study bias, however, is inherent in this type of study design because the variables are separated by time. Meanwhile, a correlational study compares two or more variables concurrently in detailed bivariate regression analyses. A common objective of this type of study is to determine the correlation between certain defining characteristics of the subjects and the effectiveness of some…
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16, 11, 658-663.
Hielkema, M., Winter de, A.F., Meer de, G., Reijneveld, S.A. (2011). Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children: a quasi-experimental study. BioMed Central Public Health, 11, 636, 1-9.
Huang, C.Y., Perng, S.J., Chen, H.F., Lai, C.Y. (2008). The Impact of Learned Resourcefulness on Quality of Life in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study. Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 4, 264-273.
Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Stasik, S.M. (2011). Emotions and emotional disorders: A quantitative hierarchical perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 11, 3, 429-442.
ole of esearch in Social Work
esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.
Social Worker's need to understand research
The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…
Allen, R., & Earl, B. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. 2nd ed., Belmont, CA:
Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Leece, J., & Leece, D. (2010). Personalization: Perceptions of the Role of Social Work in a World of Brokers and Budgets. The British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 204-223.
Regnerus Mark. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research
Healthcare Master Case Study
Baum, C.M., et al. (2008). eliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility of the Executive Function Performance Test: A Measure of Executive Function in a Sample of People With Stroke The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 62 (4); pg 446.
Study rationale. The research study is designed to assess the validity and reliability of a test for executive function in post-stroke occupational therapy patients. Clinical tests of executive function may not be good predictors of a patient's ability to function in day-to-day life. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) employs ordinary daily living skills in which the post-stroke patients are likely to have engaged in the past, and are reasonable target behaviors for adaptation to independent or supported living arrangements. The test is particularly valuable in that it offers a convenient test for executive function using real-world tasks.
esearch design. An experimental design is employed in this study.…
Baum, C.M., Connor, L.T., Morrison, T., Hahn, M., Dromerick, A.W., Edwards, D.F. (2008). Reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the executive function performance test: A measure of executive function in a sample of people with stroke, The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 62 (4), 446. Retrieved http://www.practicechangefellows.org / documents/Baum_et_al.pdf
Chaytor, N., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2003). The ecological validity of neuropsychological tests: A review of the literature on everyday cognitive skills. Neuropsychology Review, 13, 181 -- 197. Retrieved http://www.dissertations.wsu.edu/Dissertations/
Nomothetic Study in Psychology and Social Science Data
In contrast to a social scientist doing an ideographic study, where one case in is studied, a nomothetic approach is to take a number of similar cases and to compare them. This particular research study concerns lynching in the Southern states of America, comparing the gender and race of individuals to determine which groups were the most persecuted between the period of 1882-1930 descriptive summary of your research:
This ideographic study was a historical approach to data, attempting to understand the psychology of a particular period of American history through a statistical lens was conducted by Stewart Tolnay and E.M. Beck in 1995 and recorded in their book A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930.
Thus, the reason for the study was to determine the primary identity of those who were the subject of lynchings with the purpose…
Ideographic vs. Nomothetic Explanations." Retrieved on April 25, 2004 at http://geography.unco.edu/department/faculty/DUNN/Social%20Science%20%20300/IDeo%20vs%20Nomo.pdf
Tolnay and E.M. Beck. 1995. A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings. 1882-1930
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).
Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…
Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.
Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.
Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology
Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
The locus in this study would be to take the concepts of what is perceived as the duties of the resource officers and using these to determine what it is they can do to alleviate some of the concerns that face middle schools today.
Both the focus and the locus help the researcher to formulate the questions that they hope to answer by doing the research that they are looking at. Devising good questions from the beginning will help ensure that the appropriate research is conducted and good results are obtained.
SUBJECT: Generating an analytic memo
A good analytic memo should focus on a single term or idea within the research that is being done. The memo should explore the concepts characteristics while exploring the ways in which these characteristics might vary within different contexts.
In the study regarding resource officers' perceptions of their duties in suburban middle schools one…
Conceptual. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
Empirical. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
(Health Insurance Coverage, 2009). This is just a little higher than what was reported in the state of Pennsylvania over the last two-year period, which was at 25% (Krawczeniuk, 2009). "The number of uninsured rose 2.2 million between 2005 and 2006 and has increased by almost 8 million people since 2000" (Health Insurance Coverage, 2009).
Most Americans are provided with health insurance coverage through their employers. But in today's society employment is no longer a guarantee of health insurance coverage. "As America continues to move from a manufacturing-based economy to a service economy, and employee working patterns continue to evolve, health insurance coverage has become less stable. The service sector tends to offer less access to health insurance than the manufacturing sector does. Further, an increasing reliance on part-time and contract workers who are not eligible for coverage means fewer workers have access to employer-sponsored health insurance" (Health Insurance Coverage,…
Descriptive Statistics. (2006). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Research Methods Knowledge Base
Web site: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
Health Insurance Coverage. (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from National Coalition on Healthcare Web site: http://www.nchc.org/facts/coverage.shtml
Krawczeniuk, Borys. (2009, March 26). Study Finds Health Care Gaps. Times-Tribune, The
A special part of the walk-through is the online shopping part, wherein the researcher will ask the participant on how he/she goes about with his/her online shopping activity.
Note on triangulation
The proposed three-method design for this exploratory study is the researcher's way of ensuring that research results are triangulated. Combining the general findings from the diary and FGDs and specific online shopping behavior from the in-depth interviews would create a more complete picture on the general landscape and specific aspects of consumers' attitudes towards and behavior on online marketing strategies for healthcare products.
Bughin, J., a. Shenkan, and M. Singer. October 2008. How poor metrics undermine digital marketing. The McKinsey Quarterly.
Elberse, a. July-August 2008. Should you invest in the long tail? Harvard Business eview.
James, W. April 2008. Exploring web language orientation in emerging markets: The case of Serbia and the Ukraine. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and…
Bughin, J., a. Shenkan, and M. Singer. October 2008. How poor metrics undermine digital marketing. The McKinsey Quarterly.
Elberse, a. July-August 2008. Should you invest in the long tail? Harvard Business Review.
James, W. April 2008. Exploring web language orientation in emerging markets: The case of Serbia and the Ukraine. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 3.
Malhotra, N. 1996. Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation. New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
attainment of a desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward the situation, event, occurrence, or phenomenon being investigated. As such no research question can be answered by way of gathering and analyzing data if first investigative issue is not stated in testable terms or form. Once a research investigator has established and properly formatted the specific research design to be used to investigate and test a desired phenomenon attention can be given to the required method of data collection. On the basis of the method chosen the researcher will be permitted to draw the necessary conclusions from the data statistically analyzed. Should a research investigator not choose the best-fit method of data collection then any inferences drawn from the data analysis are subject to a tremendous amount of error and inaccuracy. In order to avoid data error and inaccuracy the research investigator must give particular attention to…
Furguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs.
The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.
Causes of Fibromyalgia
While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.
Occurrence of Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…
Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Fibromyalgia - Fibromyositis; Fibrositis (2012) Summary of Cochrane Review. PubMed Health. Retrieved from:
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
Phytochemistry: Research on Isolation, Identification, and Purification of New Antimicrobial Compounds from Common and Available Herbs in the Mediterranean Area and in the UK
Since ancient times the healing powers of plants has been sought and plant derived substances "have recently become of great interest owing to their versatile applications." (Das, Tiwari, and Shrivastava, 2010, p.104) Medicinal plants have been used historically as remedies for human diseases and as such "offer a new source of biologically active chemical compound as antimicrobial agent." (Das, Tiwari, and Shrivastava, 2010, p.104) Estimates state that 14-28% of higher plant species are used medicinally and that 74$ of pharmacologically active plant derived components were discovered after following up on ethno medicinal use of the plants." (Das, Tiwari, and Shrivastava, 2010, p.104) The work of Duman et al. (2009) reports that one of the most edible of all fruits and one of the oldest known is…
Das, K., Tiwari, RKS, and Shrivastava, DK (2010) Techniques for Evaluation of Medicinal Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agent: Current Methods and Future Trends, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. Vol.4(2), pp.104-111. Retrieved from: http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/PDF/pdf2010/18Jan/Das%20et%20al.pdf
Duman, AD, et al. (2009) Antimicrobial Activity of Six Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. )Varieties and Their Relation to Some of Their Pomological and Phytonutrient Characteristics. Molecules 2009, 14 1808-1917. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/5/1808/pdf
The study conducted by William Balch and Benjamin Lewis is indented to analyze the extent to which music-dependent-memory fits into the overall and greater category of context-dependent-memory (CDM). The term is defined by the authors of the study as referring to "a change in context or environment that causes some of the material learned in the original context to be forgotten" (Balch and Lewis, 1996). This aspect of research is important because it places music-dependent-memory in context and provides a view on the role music may have in stocking information on the short and long run. Most importantly, though, the aim of the research included testing a variety of elements that would or would not influence the memory. These include context, tempo, type of music, and even the mood induced by the music. According to the researchers, these aspects can influence memory and be seen as factors that…
Balch, W. And Benjamin S. Lewis. "Music-Dependent Memory: The Roles of Tempo Change and Mood Mediation" in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 1996, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 1354-1363.
video games in the life of the student. The problem with the Likert Scale is that
I like video games.
I play video games everyday.
I play video games online
I play video games with friends online.
I play video games after school.
I play video games before doing homework.
I play video games while doing homework.
(Based on 7 Criteria Above)
Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 5 Item 6
The key to the Gutman scaling is the analysis. The table shows the respondents who Agree or Disagree, and we then use those percentages to make points about the criteria, and age vs. responsibility.
When conducting research with humans there are a…
Job Satisfaction Case Study
There remains a gap between what many human resource professionals see as practice and actual quantitative/qualitative research in the HR area. On numerous topics there is debate about facts -- what is hearsay and common knowledge, and what is provable and scholarly. In a recent research study, authors Saari and Judge (2004) identified three major gaps between HR practice and scientific research, specifically in the area of employee attitudes: 1) the causes of employee attitudes, 2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and 3) how to appropriately measure and influence employee attitudes.
The causes of employee attitudes- HR professionals in general understand that overriding importance of job satisfaction on employee productivity, and the general trends employees hold when approaching attitudes towards their job. However, the changing demographic and psychographic make-up of the United States means there is far more diversity in the modern workplace…
Huang, Y. And Li, S. (2010). Understanding quality perception gaps among executives,
Frontline employees and patients. Quality Management Health Care. 19 (2): 173-84.
Saari, L. And Judge, T. (2004). Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction. Human Resource
Management. 43 (4): 395-407.
authors used to evaluate their study rationale was a quasi-experimental, retrospective matching birth cohort. This study retrospectively analyzed demographic and immunization record data in 2006-2007. The data was gathered from 10,857 birth records of children born between April 1999 and September 2003. The researchers chose to study a Latino community located in New York City and sampled from four zip codes. Birth data was collected from the primary community hospital that serves these zip codes. The authors divided the birth study population into four groups, or cohorts. Each cohort represented birth data from children who were aged 19-35 months as of April 1st during 2002-2005. Each birth cohort was then divided into two groups: intervention and control. Demographic data was collected from the hospital database, and immunization data was collected from the New York Citywide Immunization egistry (CI). Outcome measures included immunization timelines such as being up-to-date for a specific…
1. Findley S, et al. Effectiveness of a Community Coalition for Improving Child Vaccination Rates in New York City. Am J. Public Health. 2008;98:1959-1962.
2. Peter J. Fos (2011). Epidemiology Foundations: The Science of Public Health. San Francisco, CA.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Irigoyen MM, et al. Challenges and successes of immunization registry reminders at inner-city practices. Ambul Pediatr. 2006;6(2):100-4.
4. Smith, AD. (2000). Myths and Memories of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press.
This research was permitted by the Human ights Committee, the institutional assessment board of the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. There was conduction of a chart evaluation of three thousand a seven health administration visits to the Children's Hospital during a constant three-month period, from December 1, 2001, to February 28, 2002. The Patient visits were not included when the child's age was less than three months or when the visit was afterward recognized as a follow-up. If the patient had more than one health supervision visit during the selected period of study, his second visit was not included in the analysis. Four hundred and ninety two visits were not included on the foundation of these criteria .this left 2515 visits that were used for analysis.
As one goes through the essay, he will totally be perplexed by it. Presented in clear, simple and grammatically correct English, it should be…
Barlow SE, Dietz WH (1998). Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. Pediatrics.1998; 102(3) . Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/102/3/e29
Houser, J (2007)Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence
Medical Dictionary (2009) 'Sampling Bias' Retrieved on September 23, 2009
Marcellus, L (2004) Are We Missing Anything? Pursuing Research on Attrition .
Multicultural Workplace esearch: Abstract eview
The research study entitled, "The impact on the cultural diversity to employees' job satisfaction between mainland China and Taiwan: a comparison of Taiwanese invested companies" by Chuan-Cheng Wu and Yu-Chen Chiang (2007) looked into the effect of cultural diversity to employees' satisfaction among mainland Chinese and Taiwanese employees. In the abstract of the research article, the authors shared key points about their research, although details provided were incomplete. Among the research details shared in the abstract were the research topic, research question, participant groups in the study and a summary of the key findings. However, among items not specifically included were the following: methodology, analyses used, and a conclusion that ultimately tells the readers the main result of the study.
eviewing the research article, these missing details about the research are identified. To develop a complete abstract for the study, these gaps must be addressed…
Wu, C. And Y. Chiang. (2007). "The impact on the cultural diversity to employees' job satisfaction between mainland China and Taiwan: a comparison of Taiwanese invested companies." International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 18, No. 4.
Experimental Research Argument
y examining Einstein's statement on research - "if we knew what we were doing, It would not be called research, would it?" - one can see that he means research is designed as a way to learn and experiment. It is used to find things out and discover things, which is why people spend so much time on it. They do not always know what they are doing, many believe, but they know what they want to discover. They have to use various methods to find what they want to know, and sometimes there is a great deal of trial and error involved in finding the answer to the question. Einstein believed that there were many ways in which people could discover the world around them, and it was clear by his life's work that he was dedicated to doing all he could to advance science and…
Cooperstock, F.I. 2009. General relativistic dynamics: Extending Einstein's legacy throughout the universe. World Scientific.
Freedman, D.A. 2009. Statistical models: Theory and practice, Second edition, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hinkelmann, K. & Kempthorne, O. 2008. Design and analysis of experiments, volume I: Introduction to experimental design, Second edition, New York: Wiley.
Kupelis, T., & Kuhn, K.F. 2007. In quest of the universe. New York: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
This amount of flexibility helps to give them an edge, in adjusting with a host of challenges they are facing over the long-term. (Hanna, 2009, pp. 30 -- 53)
The article that was written by Gruber (2011) is showing how frontline employees play a vital role in addressing the needs of stakeholders. This is because they are directly working with customers, suppliers and third parties on a regular basis. Those firms that understand how to: address these requirements and motivate them will see an improvement in the way they are interacting with everyone. This is point that there will be a transformation in the operating environment of the firm (by addressing the specific needs of stakeholders). Over the course of time, this will have a positive impact on how they are interacting with everybody in achieving a host of objectives. The information from this source is useful, in highlighting how…
Barnes, B. (2010). Assessing the Contribution of Leading Mainstream Marketing Journals. International Marketing Review, 27 (5), 491 -- 518.
Brodie, R. (2008). Contemporary Marketing Practices. Journal of Business, 23 (2), 84 -- 94.
Brudan, a. (2011). Rediscovering Performance Management. Measuring Business Excellence, 14 (1), 109 -- 120.
Gruber, T. (2011). Analyzing the Preferred Characteristics. The TQM Journal, 23 (2), 128 -- 144.
There is little incentive to fill in a written survey -- or fill them in accurately or in details, as there is no face-to-face contact. A personal survey is also brief, and might cause the speaker to wish to simply quickly please the survey's taker, and leave, rather than give thoughtful replies without being influenced by the taker's reactions.
DQ4. What are some examples of statistics used at your work place? What are they used for? How are they determined?
My place of business deploys statistics in the form of reports that record the increases and decrease in productivity in certain applications used by the organization. Quarterly reports record the organization's profits and loses with the aim of aiding the strategic management team in answering the questions of what the organization should do and where the organization should aspire to do in the…
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…
Sources of information . nd. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e03.htm#the%problems%20of%20secondary%20sources
The information gathered in this part of the study will be compiled in a written format and essay form.
The second method of research that will be used will be the interview of medical experts in the field. Those that agree to be in the study will be sent questions by email or interviewed by telephone. They will be able to choose the form of participation they want to provide. They will all be asked identical questions. Those questions will include:
1. Do you support stem cell research? Why or why not?
2. If you do please answer the following questions:
What field of medicine are you in? What is your specialty?
3. Do you believe that stem cell research is necessary to the advancement of the medical field?
4. What disorders or diseases do you believe it can be used to cure?
5. Do you believe it is…
Biology meets ethics: the controversy behind human embr yonic stem cell research.(Book review)
From: Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science | Date: July 1, 2005 | Author: Bradley, James T. | More results for: stem cell research history review of the National Institute of Health's "Guidelines for Research Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells." From: Issues in Law & Medicine | Date: March 22, 2002 | More results for: stem cell research future
The great stem cell race: scientists around the world are scrambling to unlock the potential of stem cells. Governments trying to balance research and ethics have quickly learned that they have little control. Competition for top researchers and private capital is pushing the pace -- and punishing those who stumble. From: Foreign Policy | Date: May 1, 2005 | Author: Paarlberg, Robert L. | More results for: stem cell research future review of pressing ethical issues relevant to stem cell transnational research.
From: Health Law Review | Date: March 22, 2006 | Author: Ogbogu, Ubaka | More results for: stem cell research future
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…
Borlaug, S. (2007). Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide.
Cambridge University Press.UK.
Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R. (2010). Data Collection Primary vs. Secondary. Utrecht University. The Nethertland.
Morrell, K. (2010). Quantitative Data Basic Introduction. USA.
They gossip with their partners and they should not return to work while they are disheveled. This suggests that they should come back as working professions because love may be blind, but workmates may not be blind. People who work together must avoid being involved in romance with company stakeholders such as vendors, suppliers and clients (Business Wire, 2000).
Employees should avoid engaging in activities such as dinner with their workmates. Such dinners are likely to continue smoothly and result into a relationship. Workmates might notice the potential in their companions vote for the partner's promotion. This might generate rumors within the organization, which might make employees divert their concentration because of jokes. Those being subject of the rumor might find t difficult to continue working because of the accusation. This may negatively the work production of employees especially if they were involved in a quarrel during the previous a…
Alderman, L. (2005). Surviving an office romance without jeopardizing your job. Michigan:
Business Wire. (2000). Office romances are common, survey finds. New York: Wiley
Copley News Service. (2000). Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Office romance can be a dicey proposition, 8K. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Active Performance Management Proposal: Case Study Evaluating Active Performance Measurement in Beechwood
The research examines the potential possibilities of active performance management in the modern workplace. It first examines the current literature as a way to set a foundation for the actual analytic portion of the project. Then, specific research questions are examined in order to provide a framework to test the actual efficiency of an active performance management style implemented in the field. Finally, a potential methodology is explored as well as the significance of the research as a whole.
In this vulnerable economic environment, many businesses are looking for an edge on their competition. One potentially lucrative strategy for increasing productivity and efficiency within implementation of future strategies is adopting an active performance measurement strategy. In this, managers focus on evaluating perfomance from a proactive standpoint. Essentially, "the purpose of performance analysis is to locate evidence and draw…
Abbey, Paul, 2009. Active performance management. Management Articles. Web. http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/management/active-performance-management.html
Armstrong, Michael, 2009. Armstrong's Handbook of Performance Management: An Evidence-Based Guide to Delivering High Performance. Kogan Page Publishers.
Beechwood, 2012. About Beechwood. Beechwood. Web. http://www.beechwoodps.co.uk/about
Ferri, Richard A., 2010. Active managers' market-beating claims debunked. Forbes. Web. http://www.forbes.com/2010/02/16/mutual-funds-active-management-debunked-personal-finance-indexer-ferri.html
Sampling Data Analyses the single-study critique paper 2 individual assignment. Develop individual response Single-Study Paper 2 IOM topic area. Use article Single Study Critiques 1-2. It a requirement a quantitative study paper.
Quantitative article analysis
The Nursing esearch article "Effectiveness of an Aspiration isk-eduction Protocol" addresses a proposed method to reduce the risk of aspiration in critically ill patients through a three-pronged intervention strategy. The intervention strategy components include "maintaining head-of-bed elevation at 30 degrees or higher, unless contraindicated; inserting feeding tubes into distal small bowel, when indicated; and using an algorithmic approach for high gastric residual volumes" (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). It used a two-group quasi-experimental design of critically ill, mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving tube feedings. 329 were in the control population, 145 in the experimental group (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). The patients were all drawn from the same five ICUs at a Level…
Metheny, Norma A., Jami Davis-Jackson & Barbara J. Stewart. (2010). Effectiveness of an Aspiration Risk-Reduction Protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1): 18 -- 25. Retrieved: doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181c3ba05.
Community esearch and Action
Organizations for Participatory esearch: Society for Community esearch and Action (SCA) and WK Kellogg Foundation (WKKF)
In this comparative analysis of two organizations that are involved in participatory research, a field I am particularly interested in, the Society for Community esearch and Action (SCA) and W.K. Kellogg Foundation (WKKF) can be considered at the forefront in promoting this kind of research in the academic and social communities they work with, respectively. The question-and-answer type of discussion below discusses the organizations' respective Code of Conduct or documents available in their websites that discusses how their members are expected to behave within the organization:
How extensive are the codes from the two organizations/associations?
SCA has published in its website a page dedicated to its Vision-Mission, Goals, and Guiding Concepts, while WKKF has a Code of Ethics that briefly states specific codes of conduct for its members and partners.…
Society for Community Research and Action Official Website: http://www.scra27.org/about
WK Kellogg Foundation Official Website: http://www.wkkf.org/who-we-are/code-of-ethics.aspx
Kellogg Company Official Website: http://www.kelloggs.com/en_US/home.html