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ules of Engagement
Importance of ule of Engagement
ules of Engagement can be described as key elements that regulates the use of force, incorporating them a cornerstone of the Operational Law discipline. Some of the legal factors forming the OE'S foundation are customary and conventional law principles based on the right of self-defense as well as the laws of war. Nevertheless, generally they do not stand alone; they also depend on non-legal issues like military mission limitations and political objectives in their construction and application. Every solder is obligated to fully abide by these rules even if sometimes the rules hinder the soldiers from implementing their job skills fully changing the outcome of the battle. Therefore it is important for reconsideration of the terms of OE to allow soldiers implement their job fully.
ules of Engagement should be guiding the military forces on the legal and non-legal activities they are…
Major General Paul E. (2013). Lingering Rules of Engagement for our War Fighters. Reterievd February 18, 2014 from http://beforeitsnews.com/opinion-conservative/2013/10/lingering-rules-of-engagement-for-our-war-fighters-2725384.html
ules of Engagement (OE) are necessary to a certain degree during wars and skirmishes in order to determine what actions military personnel can take when confronted with immediate and personal dangerous or violent situations.
Correct OE is the key to successfully address the overall mission and purpose for military interventions in the first place.
OE help Protect and espect: "these rules are in place for reasons that both protect the military and respect the international conventions of war" (Vallely, 2013).
However, "OE can be conveniently manipulated by the political objectives and military mission limitations essential to the construction and application of OE," (Vallely, 2013).
The thesis of this paper is that OE are being manipulated in the current situation in Afghanistan, to the detriment of American soldiers.
When OE are manipulated, soldiers are at risk.
A. "The ules of Engagement in Afghanistan created an unwanted psychology in our soldiers…
Dunlop's Web ules
The topic of industrial relations has been considerably important for both the employers as well as the employees. The topic is generally discussed in terms of relationship between both employer and the employees and moderating factors that govern outcomes of this relationship. John Dunlop was an eminent British economist who published his famous book called 'Industrial elation System' in 1958. In this book, Dunlop presented the theory called systems theory of industrial relations. Briefly, Dunlop's systems theory observed that industrial relation/s is a system composed of four main elements. Thus, industrial relation system is composed of certain actors, ideology that bonds the industrial system, contexts of the relationships, and certain rules that govern and moderate the relationship of governance of these actors. This also implied that an industrial relation system can be having distinct subsystem from economic or societal system in which the employer operates. Thus, four…
Australian Government. (2010). Overview: Fair Work Act 2009. Australian Government: Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations. Accessed 3 Sep 2013, < http://www.rcsa.com.au/documents/Fair_Work/DM2-552754%20-%20Final%20-%20Overview%20of%20the%20FW%20Act%20module.pdf >
Bisom-Rapp, S 2009. 'What We Learn in Troubled Times: Deregulation and Safe Work in the New Economy'. Wayne L. Rev., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1197-1250.
Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations. 2013. 'Fair Work Fact Sheets'. Australian Government. Accessed 3 Sep 2013,
Dunlop, JT 1984. Dispute resolution: Negotiation and consensus building'. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Chain of Command
In Vietnam, the rules of engagement were designed to limit the impact of operations in select areas (most notably: North Vietnam). This is because there were concerns that the conflict could escalate. If this were to happen, it was believed that the Soviet Union or China could be drawn into the war. To prevent this and destroy the North's ability to fight, the policy concentrated on: annihilating their supply lines, command / control centers and training South Vietnamese forces to defend themselves. To fully understand how this took place, there will be an emphasis on the limited war ideology and its various assumptions for the six levels of command. Together, these elements will highlight the impact of this policy and its long-term effects. ("Effects of estrictive ules," 1995) (Lewy, 1978)
Soldiers in the field: In the field, the OE became more restrictive as the war continued. This…
Effects of Restrictive Rules. (1995). Global Security. Retrieved from: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1995/DM.htm
Lewy, G. (1978). America in Vietnam. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rules of Engagement (ROE) are necessary to a certain degree during wars and skirmishes in order to determine what actions military personnel can take when confronted with immediate and personal dangerous or violent situations. Determining a correct ROE, however, is the key to successfully addressing the overall mission and purpose for military interventions in the first place. As one recent author states "these rules are in place for reasons that both protect the military and respect the international conventions of war" (Vallely, 2013). hat is interesting about this subject is the fact that in the same report, Vallely goes on to state "ROE can be conveniently manipulated by the political objectives and military mission limitations essential to the construction and application of ROE" (Vallely, 2013). That is what seems to be happening in the current war situation in Afghanistan if what experts are saying is to be believed.
Bobbitt, P.; (2010) The new rules of engagement, Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 2, pp. 42-43
Rules of Engagement: Video, Mobile Devices Key to Online Marketing (Lipke, 1) many excellent insights are shared with regard to marketing high-end products and services to affluent men. The article begins by citing recent research studies by iProspect and comScore indicating that the approximately 19 million men in the U.S. who are over 18 years of age and earning $100K a year or more are changing how they choose to learn about and purchase products. A study by Johnston & Murphy is also cited. The most significant findings from these studies include the finding from the iProspect and comScore studies that online video advertising, combined with a multichannel-based strategy, is the best platform for reaching these consumers. The iProspect and comScore studies predict that the compound annual growth rate of online video ad spending will be 38% from 2010 to 2015. The studies predict that these approaches to advertising will…
Lipke, David. "Rules of Engagement: Video, Mobile Devices Key to Online Marketing." WWD 203.92 (2012): b.1. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 May 2012.
Ground Rules With Your Learners
There are several effective ways for establishing ground rules for learners. The most useful methods involve both classroom participation in the germination of such guidelines, as well as mandates dictated from the teacher which serve to underpin his or her classroom authority. As an authority figure, the teacher should always have a number of ground rules in mind before entering the classroom, but the prudent pedagogue (with enough time at his disposal) will involve a classroom discussion of these matters, and with his or her gentle prodding, help students feel as though they have determined these rules on their own. Classroom participation in this critical component of determining in-class behavior often helps students to follow these guidelines themselves, since students take a sense of accomplishment in carrying out directives which they feel they have helped determine.
For younger students, ground rules are established with the…
1. Budden, Joe. 2010, Teaching English, viewed April 7, 2011. .
2. Gorski, Paul C. 2010, Guide For Setting Ground Rules, viewed April7, 2011.
3. Keeley-Brown, L. (2007) Training to Teach in the Learning and Skills Sector. Pearson Education Limited.
4. Reece, I. And Walker, S. (2006) Teacher, Training and Learning, 6th Revised Edition. Business Education Publishers.
0. Literature review on Differentiation and engagement in computer science classrooms
Computer science offers educators aiming towards differentiated teaching within the secondary schoolroom setting a distinctive series of challenges. In particular, coding may prove to be a rigorous, exacting field that calls for a demonstration of organization and precision on the part of students before they can effectively create even the simplest programs. Computer science classes will probably witness learners utterly unfamiliar with coding and fluent pupils, in addition to those who cannot even type or need other personalized academic plans (Gregory and Chapman 2012; Shah et al. 2014). Thus, how will an educator teach a particular topic in computer science to such a diversity of learners, providing additional help to certain learners and more challenging activities to others while ensuring all learners’ engagement and motivation for smooth movement together in one single class?
This discussion assumes differentiation forms the basis…
Baumgartner, T., Lipowski, M.B. and Rush, C., 2003. Increasing Reading Achievement of Primary and Middle School Students through Differentiated Instruction.
Benjamin, A. (2002). Differentiated instruction: a guide for middle and high school teachers. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Capel, S. and Blair, R., 2013. Why do physical education teachers adopt a particular way of teaching. Debates in physical education, pp.120-139.
Delisle, J.R., 2015. Differentiation doesn’t work. Education Week, 34(15), pp.28-36.
Gregory, G.H. and Chapman, C., 2012. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn?t Fit All. Corwin Press.
Gustiani, S., 2019. Challenges and Strategies in Teaching English to Heterogeneous Classes: A Case Study. Edukasi: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran, 6(2), pp.301-310.
Heacox, D. 2002. Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: how to reach and teach all learners. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Hess, K., 2006. Exploring cognitive demand in instruction and assessment. National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment, Dover NH. Retrieved from http://qualityassessment.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/45823115/DOK_ApplyingWebb_KH08.pdf .
super bowl commercials that came out this year and how they targeted different genders. It discusses the role of social media like twitter and websites in speaking out against these ads and criticizing them. The paper lays emphasis on how many companies target certain genders or stereotypes and eventually go on to incur a lot of damage due to the inappropriate advertisements.
The Go daddy commercial was yet another sexist addition to the super bowl line of commercials. Even though the add did manage to get the domain name a lot of business the next day, over all the company incurred a loss of more than seven million dollars for making the commercial (Grinberg, 2013) Surely enough, everyone is used to seeing the sexist commercials every now and then. Sexism and objectifying women has long been used as a media tactic. Apart from objectifying women, gender stereotyping and allotting certain…
Grinberg, Emanuella. "Sexist Super Bowl Ads? #Notbuyingit, Some Say." 2013. Web. 20 Feb 2013. .
Jenkins, Henry. Spreadable Media. New York: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2013. Print.
London, Bianca. "Harrods Forced To Apologise And Remove 'Non Gender-Neutral' Books After Twitter Users Scorn Luxury Department Store." Mail Online. 8th February. 2013. Web. 20th January 2013. [ Http://Www.Dailymail.Co.Uk/Femail/Article-2275678/Harrods-Forced-Apologise-Remove-Non-Gender-Neutral-Books-Twitter-Users-Blast-Luxury-Department-Store.Html#Ixzz2kky20s7d ].
H-1B visa is issued to a limited number of applicants per year, and is restricted to persons with specialized education and training. Individuals cannot apply for the H-1B visa; rather, employers must sponsor an applicant they feel is worthy of the visa, which allows an individual to stay in the United States as a temporary foreign worker for up to six years. The H-1B visa class theoretically boosts the economy by allowing corporations access to the global labor market of highly skilled and specially trained personnel. However, the visa class has the potential to encroach on the domestic American labor market by allowing employers to hire foreign workers at a significantly lower salary than their counterparts (Tuttle, 2015). In spite of this potential drawback, the H-1B visa parameters are designed well if the stimulation of the American economy is its primary purpose. I would not change anything significant about the…
"H-1B Visa," (2015). Work Permit. Retrieved online: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/421934/h-1b-visa-program-hurts-american-workers
Tuttle, I. (2015). The H-1B visa program gives American workers a raw deal. National Review. Retrieved online:
Vietnam War has gone down in history as one of the worst war efforts made by the United States for its sheer cost in human capital and the collective sanity of the nation. While many social and psychological issues can be cited as bearing the blame for the atrocity that was this war, one major challenge was the basic lack of communication and consistency among the levels of command. Individual soldiers, for example, were given commands and rules of engagement without really being informed of the rationale behind these (Close Air Support, 2014). Furthermore, there was no debate among the various levels of command regarding the best way forward in terms of rules of engagement. Those in the midst of battle were not free to proceed according to the demands of the situation; they were basically bound by the theories and ideals of those in command, including those in the…
Close Air Support (2014). Rules of Engagement. Retrieved from: http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~tpilsch/AirOps/cas-roe.html
WARFARE RULES OF ENGAGEENT (EDIT CUSTOER'S DRAFT)
One of the most contentious issues in contemporary warfare is the concept of rules of engagement (ROE). Just as the Vietnam War highlighted the concept in the 1960s, America's current involvement in Afghanistan provides the contextual background in the early 21st Century. In principle, ROI ensure that combat troops comply with the international conventions of warfare, even if our enemies are not. The Commander-in-Chief strongly supports ROI concept at both the philosophical and practical level, aiming to balance military objectives and politics. Nevertheless, problems have emerged, with the application of the primacy of rules of engagement in the field.
ost significantly, military leaders sometimes focus so much on ROE that soldiers in the field are handicapped operationally. Pausing to consider rules of engagement is less practical in the field than it is in theory. Sometimes, the cloud of ROE results in soldiers' become…
Michael Jenkins is a decorated combat veteran who has received the Department of the Army's highest award for his service. According to Jenkins (2013) "the Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan created an unwanted psychology in our soldiers (and) the fear of retribution and the fear of being court-martialed pre-destined the forces to lose against the nation's enemies." Jenkins understands what the ROE dilemma and how ROE-manipulation generates more of a hindrance than a help to the soldier in the field: "the ROE have become an enemy, soldiers are afraid to take risks" (Jenkins, 2013).
It can be argued that soldiers, under the duress of combat, need the ability to react in sometimes unstructured manners; they need authority and autonomy to take certain risks without fear of reprisal or retribution from superiors. At a minimum, they should have the right to protect themselves from direct threats to their lives instead of being burdened with guidelines that "can be entangled with political agendas and philosophies" (Vallely, 2013, para 3).
According to Zinke (2014), the ROE in Afghanistan seem to be making "Afghan dwellings virtual safe
Chain of Command and ROE
Levels of the Chain of Command
The objective of this study is to discuss the views of the six levels in the chain of command from the perspective of each during the Vietnam ar. The six levels of the chain of command includes: (1) the individual soldiers in the field; (2) battalion commanders; (3) division commanders; (4) General illiam estmoreland; Secretary Of Defense Robert McNamara; and (6) President Lyndon Johnson.
The Vietnam ar resulted in conflict in the forum of public opinion. Under the 'Rules of Engagement', the directives and orders are of a design that focus on mission accomplishment and a maintaining of the relations with the civilian population. The 'Rules of Engagement' set out how operations should proceed during crisis and are such that when followed serves in the accounting for "policy and political sensitivities." (The Chain of Command and NCO…
Cole, A, et al. (2008) Rules of Engagement Handbook. Nov, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.usnwc.edu/getattachment/7b0d0f70-bb07-48f2-af0a-7474e92d0bb0/San-Remo-ROE-Handbook
Palmer, DC (1993) Rules of Engagement as an Operational Tool. Naval War College, Newport, RI. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a264457.pdf
The Chain of Command and NCO Support Channel FM 7-21.13. (nd) Retrieved from: http://vadfmpco.org/downloads/NCO%20Support%20Channel.pdf
U.S. Military Chain of Command
The traditional wars that have followed the Europeans models developed by Napoleon basically incorporate the leadership in writing and training troops for rules of engagement. ules of Engagement (OE) is described as a management tool that help in keeping soldiers within control and aligned with the specific mission. This management tool has contributed to benefits and costs in which training OE in each leadership level down to the individual soldiers enables every participant to make responsible decisions and achieve the mission as stated by the battlefield commander. Notably, the chain of command basically consists of various levels since it links everyone in the uniformed service ranging from the senior ranks to the junior ranks as well as the United States President. An important example that correlates an understanding of rules of engagement with limited war ideology is the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War incorporates various…
Boot, M. (2011, October 4). The War Over the Vietnam War. Retrieved September 29, 2012,
Lester, R.E. (1990). Records of the U.S. Marine Corps in the Vietnam War. Retrieved September
29, 2012, from http://cisupa.proquest.com/ksc_assets/catalog/11199.pdf
These films. Swing Vote (2008), The Queen (2006) ules of Engagement (2000) The Quiet American (2002) and Jarhead (2005) clearly support this hypothesis and build on the idea that art reflects life and life reflects art.
Boggs, C. & Pollard, T. (2006) The Hollywood War Machine: U.S. Militarism and Popular Culture Boulder CO: Paradigm Publishers
Bellah, .N. Madsen, . Sullivan, W.M. Swidler, A. Tipton, S.M. (1991) Good Society
New York: andom House.
Fishman, J.M. Marvin, C. (March 2003) Portrayals of Violence and Group Difference in Newspaper Photographs: Nationalism and Media Journal of Communications
Gianos, P.L. (1999) Politics and Politicians in American Film. New York: Preager Publishing
Giglio, E. (2005) Here's Looking at You: Hollywood, Film & Politics. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Klenotic, J. (2007) Chapter 5 "Staying in the Moment: Hollywood, History, and the Politics of 9/11 Cinema." In Constructing America's War Culture, Conroy T. & Hanson, J.…
Boggs, C. & Pollard, T. (2006) The Hollywood War Machine: U.S. Militarism and Popular Culture Boulder CO: Paradigm Publishers
Bellah, R.N. Madsen, R. Sullivan, W.M. Swidler, A. Tipton, S.M. (1991) Good Society
New York: Random House.
Fishman, J.M. Marvin, C. (March 2003) Portrayals of Violence and Group Difference in Newspaper Photographs: Nationalism and Media Journal of Communications
Vietnamese History In the 20th Century
There has been much controversy regarding the Vietnam ar, considering that the general public has gradually come to acknowledge that it was unproductive for the American military as a result of a series of factors that prevented both leaders and soldiers from acting effectively. Taking this into account, one can observe how the Vietnam ar came to be one of the most debated conflicts in history because of the rules of engagement (ROE) employed in it. The ROE in the Vietnam ar were initially meant to ensure that the conduct of war took place in safe conditions and slowly but surely evolved into being a tool in the hands of politicians. Individuals such as George Donelson Moss got actively engaged in discussing regarding the topic, given that one of his books, "Vietnam: An American Ordeal, 6th Edition" goes at highlighting errors in management during…
Gross, Chuck, Rattler One-Seven: A Vietnam Helicopter Pilot's War Story (Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 2004)
Moss Donelson, George. Vietnam: An American Ordeal, 6th Edition, (Pearson, 2010)
"Free-Fire Zone," Retrieved May 30, 2011, from the Global Security Website: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/vietnam2-free-fire-zone.htm
Conflict Resolution in it Management
What is the importance of having rules of engagement to successfully support a virtual team when using collaborative technologies? Can you come up with any other rules that could be added?
Rules of engagement within a virtual team using collaborative technologies are crucial to the success of any major team project for several reasons. For example, business units and team members in different areas typically utilize very different systems and procedures to accomplish their component tasks and responsibilities. Changes made and commitments promised to clients by one business unit or team member without consulting other business units and team members can radically affect those business units or team members or even make it impossible for them to complete their respective contributions to the project.
Some other helpful types of rules of engagement that could be added might include:
The appointment of designated team or unit…
Within the context of war fighting, the idea of limited war and the rules of engagement within that paradigm can often conflict if not counter act each other. The purpose of this essay is to correlate the understanding the rules of engagement (OE) with limited war ideology as seen through the perspective and experiences of different levels of the chain of command.
The Vietnam War was mosty a guerilla style war fought between young and aggressive soldiers on all sides of the conflict. For soldiers at this level, all war is total war. The perspective of the individual soldier transcends mission and war objectives and resides mostly in the survival mode of living, escaping death or capture.
As one progresses higher upon the chain of command, the Battalion Commander begins to participate in the more strategic aspects of the conflict. Even though this medium…
Dallas, C. (1988). Vietnam War: Reassessing the Battles. Soical Politics, 3, 1988. Retrieved from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~tpilscAirOps/cas-roe.html
Hasty, H. (1999). How Leaders Can Understand Their Role In Conflict. Journal Of Warfighting and Social Control, March 199. 5, 22.
Robinson, Q. (2005). Evolution of the Army Officer Since Vietnam. Planning Politics and Outcomes, 4 April 2005. Retrieved from httpppac.com/alternative/2013/05/the-25-rules- of-officer roles-2667984.html
U.S. National Strategy
What three United States national interests do you think will be at great risk over the next five years? Describe those interests and identify which instruments of national power can be leveraged to protect or advance those national interests and how those instruments can be used.
As President Obama stated in his addresses to Congress in February 2009, the most important problem that the country faced was the economy, which was in the worst recession since the 1930s. This affected both domestic and foreign policy, since the country would probably have to reduce military spending and its commitments overseas as it did during the Great Depression, so for the Obama administration economic recovery was the primary goal. He did promise that "the weight of this crisis will not determine the destiny of this nation" (Obama Address, 2009, p. 1). He promised that the government would deal with…
Address to Joint Session of Congress. Remarks of President Barack Obama, As Prepared for Delivery, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Tuesday, February 24th, 2009.
Comprehensive Regional Strategy on Somalia: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement Report to Congress, February 2007.
JP 3-0 Chapter I.
JP 3 Extract Chapter 2.
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…
Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .
"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .
Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
globe has people of different backgrounds on basis of religion, culture, beliefs, economy and many other attributes, there is need to have some attributes that will help bind the globe. This is where the international laws come in, these are agreed upon treaties or conventions which nations look upon to bind them, often they have a universal attraction and entrusted into the hands of a global organization to ensure they are implemented. An example is the international law on basic human rights where each individual has the right to life and others that concern protection of women and children as the most vulnerable in times of war. I was aware that there are rules of engagement in war but I never knew of the Jus War Doctrine. This is a doctrine that indicates that war is philosophically based on morals, there is a just war and unjust war. According to…
BBC News Europe, (2014). Ukraine v Russia militaries - in 60 seconds. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26437359
Powell Assertion Number Two: In his Feb. 5, 2003 speech to the U.N., Powell said: "We have no indication that Saddam Hussein has ever abandoned his nuclear weapons program." But in October, 2002, in his memo to the White House, CIA Director George Tenet voiced "strong doubts about a claim President Bush" was about to make in the State of the Union address "that Iraq was trying to buy nuclear materials" from Africa. And on July 24, 2003, Spain's Foreign Minister, Ana Palacio, an ally of the U.S., said their was "no evidence" prior to the U.S. attack on Iraq of a nuclear bomb program by Saddam, according to the Hanley article in Editor & Publisher.
Powell Assertion Number Three: Powell told the U.N. he had proof that Saddam was deploying "Contamination Vehicles" associated with chemical weapons on at least two sites. Those alleged contamination vehicles turned out to be…
Barry, John; Hirsh, Michael & Isikoff, Michael. (2004). "The road to Abu Ghraib began after 9/11, when Washington wrote new rules to fight a new kind of war," Newsweek International.
CBSNEWS.com. (2004). "The Man Who Knew," 4 Feb. 2004. Available:
Dodds, Paisley. (2005). "Gitmo Soldier Details Sexual Tactics," Associated Press, Yahoo News, 27 January.
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov .
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
chain command links uniformed service senior junior, junior ranks President United States. There great levels
In some ways, the individual soldiers in the field have the greatest amount of responsibility in terms of understanding and actually actuating the rules of engagement (OE) within the limited war ideology of Vietnam. The others in the chain of command are responsible for determining their actions, as well as the overall military action of the United States in a martial encounter such as Vietnam. The individual soldiers are responsible for actually carrying them out. For instance, when it was decided that the president of one of the Vietnamese factions was to be assassinated, it was the individual soldiers in the U.S. military that were actually accountable for doing this deed. However, there are others in the chain of command that have a utilitarian role on the battlefield that can, at times, greatly resemble that…
Arendt, H. (1972). Crises of the Republic. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Friedman, H.A. (No date). "Psyop of the strategic hamlet in Vietnam." Retrieved from http://www.psywarrior.com/VNHamletPSYOP.html
Moore, H., Galloway, J. (2004). We were soldiers once, and we were young. San Francisco: Presidio Press.
There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.
Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…
Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920 .
Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128 .
Intelligence operation in cities will reveal, in addition to other things, the exact locations of the enemy. Once the locations have been pinpointed, the interagency task force can then besiege him with a combination of forces, surveillance, robotics, and media and combatants gas aimed at making the enemy's position untenable. With this in effect, the enemy is bound to be drawn out of their hideout and appropriate military action such as arrest or open fire taken.
In view of the suggestions presented, it is indeed a momentous time that military training be taken a notch higher. The reality of the 21st century leaves the defense forces with little choices, if any, as far as engaging terror groups in urban areas is concerned. The events in Mogadishu, where the U.S. military underperformed expectation, should serve as a revelation that the mighty of the forces does not necessarily guarantee success. Instead, intelligent…
Peters, R. (2001). Fighting for the Future: Will America Triumph? Washington, DC: Stackpole.
Leonhard, R.R. (2003). Sun Tzu's Bad Advice: Urban Warfare in the Information Age. ARMY Magazine - April 2003
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
In the 1999 report of William Cohen to the U.S. President and U.S. Congress reveals that the strategic vision sets out what the United States has on its agenda to accomplish in relation to technological and logistical strategies. Included in these strategies are modernization of intelligence processes as well as security, information operations, information assurance, and critical infrastructure protection. In a 2004 Department of Defense Submission - Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Inquiry into Australian-United States Defense Relations' report, it is stated that the alliance, now ongoing for approximately fifty-three years between the United States and Australia "has never been closer." (2004) it is stated that the ANZUS Treaty provides "shape, depth and weight to the Australia-U.S. alliance and remains today the foundation of a relationship that is one of our greatest national assets." (Cohen, 2004) the continued commitment of the United States to the Asia…
Transatlantic Interoperability in Defense Industries: How the U.S. And Europe Could Better Cooperate in Coalition Military Operations, September 2002.: http://www.europeaninstitute.org/pdf/IO.pdf
Engler, Alan; Glodowski, Al; and Lee, Rocky (2004) Coalition Operations: Politically Necessary Yet Operationally Challenging. 8 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.jfsc.ndu.edu/current_students/documents_policies/documents/jca_cca_awsp/Coalition_operations_4-5-04.doc
Cohen, William S. (1999) Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Secretary of Defense DOD report 1999. Online available at http://www.dod.mil/execsec/adr1999/index.html
Statement of Admiral Dennis C. Blair, U.S. Navy Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Command Before the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and Subcommittee on Middle East and South Asia on U.S. Pacific Command Posture (2002) 27 February 2002 Online available at http://www.fas.org/asmp/resources/govern/107_hircBlair.htm
Trade Flows Compare and Contrast the International Trade FlowsIntroductionMultiple factors determine international trade flows; among them are demand, supply, trade costs, cultural connections, and government policies. The influences of these factors vary based on the groupings that different nations have. For EU grouping, the principal objective is the promotion and facilitation of cooperation among the territorial members. EU members like France and Germany join the grouping with similar objectives of expanding their economic performance, such as enhancing imports and exports.For France, major exports from 2010 to 2018 have been to Germany with a value of US$ 82,989 million, representing a 16.22 percent partner share. The imports were equally from Germany, worth US$ 103,434 million, and 17.26 percent partner share. The major export for France between the years was Aircraft worth US$ 35,831,627.11 million, with a significant portion going to Germany and the United States. The major imports included petroleum and…
ReferencesStirbck, C., How strong is the impact of exports and other demand components on German import demand? Evidence from euro-area and non-euro-area imports. Available at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6386027.pdf [Accessed April 24, 2021]. Anon, 2018. France\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s booming aerospace sector creates demand for parts. WEDC. Available at: https://wedc.org/export/market-intelligence/posts/frances-booming-aerospace-sector-creates-demand-parts/ [Accessed April 24, 2021]. Anon, Germany Trade Summary. WITS. Available at: https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/DEU/Year/2010/Summarytext [Accessed April 23, 2021]. Edgington, T., 2020. Brexit: What are the key points of the deal? BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-55180293 [Accessed April 24, 2021]. Fernndez, G. et al., 2019. Cruising at Different Speeds: Similarities and Divergences between the German and the French Economies. EUROPEAN ECONOMY. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/economy-finance/dp103_en.pdf [Accessed April 25, 2021]. Meunier, S. & Nicoladis, K., 2017. 10. The European Union as a Trade Power. International Relations and the European Union.
Up until the point that the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Japanese citizens, World War II was a just war. However, dropping the second bomb, perhaps even the first bomb, on innocent civilians, removed the war out of traditional rules of warfare and brought the world into a new phase of combat. Up until that time, the general rules of war prohibited using civilian targets. In fact, Germany was the first one to break this rule and this unjust act was one of the reasons the United States entered the war.
At the time the second bomb was dropped, the war ceased being just. However, after the bomb was dropped, new rules and regulations were created to accommodate this new face of war, therefore changing the rules of the game and thus the definition of a just war.
ailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford:…
Bailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Childress, J. "Just War Theories." Theological Studies. 39 (1978), 427-45.
Martin, Glenn R. Prevailing Worldviews of Western Society Since 1500. New York: Triangle Publishing, 2006.
They worked with the FTC to define the following four Fair Information Practices, rules designed to prevent companies from abusing the information they receive through online profiling (Computer law tip of the week, 2000):
Rule 1 (Notice): A company must notify customers that it uses online profiling to track their online habits. If it collects personally identifiable information about customers, such as their names, addresses or telephone numbers, the company's website must clearly and unambiguously notify them of this fact before the company collects this information.
Rule 2 (Choice): Depending on the type of information a company collects, there must be opt-in and opt-out options. Opt-in, or obtaining the customer's permission, is required to link personally identifiable information that a company has about a customer such as name, address or telephone number with data acquired about Web surfing habits. Opt-out means that the customers have to be given the chance…
Arnis, D. (2000, Feburary 1). Online profiling: A threat or a benefit?. http://www.netfreedom.org/news.asp?item=106
Berman, J. (2000, May 25). Privacy online: Fair information practices in the electronic marketplace. http://www.cdt.org/testimony/000525berman.shtml
Clickstream concerns. http://cse.stanford.edu/class/cs201/projects-00-01/cookies/index.html
Computer law tip of the week (2000, August 14). http://www.mgrossmanlaw.com/articles/2000/online_profiling.htm
The use of private contractors to assist the U.S. military forces in times of conflict is not a new concept. According to author Gordon Campbell, ashington has "always" used contractors in times of war. There are many contemporary issues and potential problems when the U.S. military signs deals with private contractors, as it did in Iraq and is currently doing in Afghanistan. The main issue revolves around the concept of hiring 180,000 private contractors to support and in some cases substitute for U.S. service personnel in the war zone that was Iraq and is today Afghanistan. Is the hiring ethical, is it practical, and does it help the war effort? This paper reviews those issues and provides perspective from both sides of the issue using the available literature on this topic.
The Ethics of Paying Civilians to Enter Harm's way
The American military hired private contractors to pull…
Campbell, Gordon L. (2000). Contractors on the Battlefield: The Ethics of Paying Civilians to Enter Harm's Way and Requiring Soldiers to Depend upon Them. A paper prepared for Presentation to the Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics 2000. Retrieved June
17, 2012, from http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE00/campbell00.html.
Lardner, Richard. (2010). DynCorp, Other Private Contractors in Afghanistan Behaving
Badly. Huff Post. Retrieved June 17, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
U.S. war response
The United States, for better or worse, is fully engaged in a war like no other before war previously fought. Put simply, the rules have changed for armed combatants and, while treatises such as the Geneva Convention and the Law of Armed Conflict provide general guidelines, it is important to recognize that, with changing armed conflicts, so, too, must the rules of engagement change.
Fritschi (2010) observes that the principle of equality as expressed in the UN charter, the Geneva, Hague and Vienna conventions and the obligations implied by these treaties with respect to humanitarian law are challenged by the complicated circumstances that have emerged with the rise of asymmetric warfare and the internationalization of conflicts with non-state actors.
International humanitarian law distinguishes between international and non-international armed conflict. International armed conflicts are those in which at least two States are involved. They are subject to a…
The Program for Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University (2010), "Brief Primer on IHL," Retrieved from: http://ihl.ihlresearch.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.viewpage&pageid=2083
Fritschi, V. (2010). The Law of Armed Conflict and the Principle of Sovereign Equality of States. Retrieved from: http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ord184=Start+Date&ots591=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&lng=en&ots627=fce62fe0-528d-4884-9cdf-283c282cf0b2&id=30801
Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch
From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…
Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.
Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating with the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. (2012). Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
PIA and the British Government's esponse
The war between the Provisional Irish epublican Army (PIA) and the British State from 1969 to 1998 was a complex situation in which various entities pursued similar and dissimilar aims through various channels (political as well as militaristic/terroristic). Even in the midst of the most violent clashes, secret talks were held between leaders of the PIA and the British State, with the political face of epublican beliefs (Sinn Fein) gaining popular support over the years and to some degree undermining the aims, objectives and capacity of the PIA to operate effectively (O'Brien, 1999; Tonge, 2002). The PIA's strategic effectiveness, however, was also complicated by its own inability to overcome specific problematic features of its own organization -- such as the factors of security and territoriality. Likewise, the British State had enacted a program of using informants and infiltrators to undermine the PIA from within.…
Beggan, D. (2009). Understanding Insurgency Violence: A Quantitative Analysis of the Political Violence in Northern Ireland 1969-1999. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32: 705-725.
Bell, J. B. (2008). The Secret Army: The IRA. London: Transaction Publishers.
Bennett, H. (2010). From Direct Rule to Motorman: Adjusting British Military Strategy
for Northern Ireland in 1972. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33: 511-532.
shared vision allows for the fulfillment of common goals. Therefore, the first step in creating and maintaining a successful charter school will be to plan the vision with a common goals meeting and invite all stakeholders to the meeting in accordance with best practices ("Shared Vision and Common Goals," n.d.). The ELCC standard 1.1 clearly calls all educational leaders to "develop, articulate, implement, and steward a shared district vision of learning," (ELCC, 2011). This vision of learning is not limited to the confines of any one school or restricted to its building, its educators, and its students. ather, a comprehensive vision is one that takes into account the entire community. Other schools in the community may play a role in the evolution of our school's vision. Community stakeholders including parents and curriculum leaders need to attend the meeting to provide their input and feedback.
It should not be assumed that…
Beckner, W. (2004). Ethics for educational leaders. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Begley, P. T. & Johansson, O. (2003). The ethical dimensions of school leadership. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers
ELCC (2011). Education Leadership Program Standards. Retrieved online: http://www.ncate.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=tFmaPVlwMMo%3D&tabid=676
Firestone, W. A., & Martinez, C. (2009). Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice. In K. Leithwood, B. Mascall, & T. Strauss (Eds.). Distributed leadership according to the evidence (pp. 61-86). New York: Routledge.
Gottfredson, D.C. (n.d.). School-based crime prevention. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/works/chapter5.htm
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…
1. "Exxon, Mobil in $80B deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 1 Dec. 1998.
2. Beaudin, Guy. "Kraft- Cadbury: Making Acquisitions Work." BusinessWeek. 9 Feb. 2010.
3. "Mannesmann seals deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 3 Feb. 2000.
4. "$58B bank deal set: J.P. Morgan agrees to buy Bank One in a deal that would combine two of the nation's biggest banks." CNN Money.com. 15 Jan 2004.
Managing People. Module 5 Managing developing teams Module 6 Managing Performance. Develop a -page scenario a work team familiar. Describe work team organisational context operates. Include appendix.
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
The Bruce Tuckman model of team development
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
In my past place of employment (which will be known as company X), the members of the IT staff and members of other departments were forced to collaborate on a joint effort to create a corporate manual to explain the company's new computer operating system to all employees. Proper safety Internet 'hygiene;' dealing with the operating system on a daily basis, and orienting workers to the various new applications were all to be described. In other words, effective communication was…
Bacal, R (1999). Performance management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Chapman, A. (2013). Bruce Tuckman. Business Balls. Retrieved:
Cleland, D.I. (1996). Strategic management of teams. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
obert Merton was the brain behind Anomie Theory. This theory majors on deviance. The theory's major preoccupation is why rates of deviance differ from one society to the other and from one subgroup that come from one society to the other. Merton's work emphasizes cultures' unifying aspects and how it can create deviance and disunity within a society. Cultural norms, according to this theory, break down as a result of rapid changes that take place. The theory attributes occurrence of Anomic suicide to the occurrence of major economic depression that makes people not to achieve the goals they had learned to pursue (Siegel, 2008). Anomic suicide can also occur when there is an economic boom. In such circumstances people fail to limit their goals and be satisfied with their achievements. There can be lack of fit with regard to culture's norm about what constitute success in life and the…
Abadinsky, H. (2004). Organized Crime. Belmont, California: Thomson Wadsworth.
SAGE (n.d.). Major Sociological Theoretical Approaches in Criminology. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/50621_ch_7
Siegel, L.J. (2008). Criminology: The Core. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
However, according to aller, morality is founded on the concept of duty (64). Indeed, critical to deontological ethics is the ability of an individual to do his duty. Duty in this case may be regarded to as the general rule in regard to morality. In war time situations, this includes self-evident rules including protection of unarmed civilians.
Further, it is important to note that the jus in bello concept (morals adhered to at the time of war) which is rather deontological declares that war must be fought with the right intention. Hence in that regard, military tactics which are inherently immoral like the killing of civilians at the time of war are unacceptable.
In one of his lessons (part of the eleven lessons), McNamara states that "proportionality should be a guideline in war." In my opinion, the principle of proportionality which is largely embedded in not only the national but…
Ruggiero, Vincent. Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues. McGraw-Hill, 2007.
Waller, Bruce. Consider Ethics: Theory, Readings, and Contemporary Issues. Pearson Education, 2004.
The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the life of Robert S. McNamara. Dir. Morris Errol. Perf. Robert McNamara. Sony Pictures Classics, 2003. DVD.
Perkins - who had retired at the age of 70 but was coming back on the board - had by this time muscled his way into a powerful position within the HP community; he and his powerful board ally, George Keyworth, held special "technology committee" meetings with key HP people the day before each board meeting. Stewart writes that Perkins' little group actually became a "board within a board," and Perkins' power grew. His disenchantment with Fiorina also grew. Fiorina was apparently losing the confidence of the board, and Perkins was the central figure in that movement away from Fiorina. Prior to the retreat, which was alluded to earlier in this paper, there was a board meeting scheduled, and before that meeting, Keyworth and Dunn approached Fiorina and urged her to "express concerns about Hewlett-Packard's performance, stock price, unfavorable press, and need to reorganize," Stewart continues.
Although Fiorina showed resistance…
Bloomberg. "HP chief opposes board vote plan." Retrieved 12 March 2007 from Australian it
Broache, Anne. "HP execs: Spy scandal was ethical wake-up call." CNET News.com. Retrieved 13 March 2007 at http://www.news.com .
Fried, Ina. "HP denies pretexting former employee." CNET News.com (2007) Retrieved 13 March 2007 at
Part-Time Faculty Unionization Efforts
At the George Washington University, part-time unionization efforts were sped up when the matter was taken up to the National Labor elations Board by Service Employees International Union, Local 500 through filing a petition. The petition is for the Service Employees to represent most part-time and regular part-time faculty at the George Washington University after they were able to muster enough support and obtained sufficient signatures from the concerned part-time faculty. The minimum requirement for qualifying to hold elections was met with the Service Employees gathering about 30% support from the part-time faculty that was present and scheduled to teach in the Spring semester of 2004. The Service Employees demanded fair elections to be held for the concerned party and through a democratic way a decision should be obtained whether the part-time faculty wants the Service Employees to represent them or not.
(1) Donald R. Lehman, LETTER TO ACADEMIC DEANS: Unionization In The Classroom: GW's Response To Organizing Part-Time Faculty [online website] Available from: http://www.gwu.edu/~newsctr/newscenter/unionization/march04letter.cfm [Accessed on: 06/09/2005]
Stand Your Ground vs. Duty to etreat: Why the Former Should be epealed
Florida, Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, North Carolina and Nevada all have passed Stand Your Ground laws, whereas Maryland, New York, New Jersey, hode Island, Connecticut and Delaware all have Duty to etreat or Castle Doctrine laws. Just by simply acknowledging the geographical location of these states and their respective laws, one can see a common theme: the Northeastern states adopt a more pro-active approach to avoid conflicting (if one can retreat to a place of security, one must do so rather than impose violence on another); yet in the Southern states, there is a more defiant position in terms of if one is somewhere he/she has a right to be, then he/she has a right to fend off any attack and to use physical violence if physical violence is used against him/her. The difference between these two perspectives…
Cameron, D., Higgins, W. (2014). Florida's Stand Your Ground Law. Tampa Bay
Times. Retrieved from http://www.tampabay.com/stand-your-ground-law/
Collins, D. (2013). Lawmaker calls for stand your ground law in Maryland. WBALTV.
Retrieved from http://www.wbaltv.com/politics/lawmaker-calls-for-stand-your-ground-law-in-maryland/21581192
Bouncken and Winke (2008) explain that challenges include global innovation teams being confonted with the team membes' vaious national cultues.
National cultues, Bouncken and Winke point out (2008), influence the behavio, cognitive models and values of the individual. These same cultues, albeit may also contibute to challenges elating to the individual's undestanding, along with his/he woking elationship. Divesity on team membes' backgounds may incease ceativity. Nevetheless, team functioning and team pocesses constant significant factos that fom the outcome: Innovation. On the othe hand, when divesity stats to theaten goup pocesses, the ensuing actions may, in tun, spoil ceativity and the intended implementation of innovation. A manage who does not include all team membes in the decision making pocess o allows paticula individuals on a team to dominate discussions inceases the potential fo challenges with/in a multi-cultual team to incease. The cohesion connecting the team membes, as well as thei commitment…
references pertinent to those in the team and find the best fit for the group" (Mulkeen, 2008, ? 6). This process involves the manager identifying and understanding the impact individual's communication style makes. Mulkeen points out:
A principal difference in communication style is whether a culture is 'high' or 'low' context. Cultures vary in the extent to which the context of their communication is implicit or explicit, which also influences the value they place on their relationships or on rules. In a high-context culture (found in countries such as Spain, Mexico and France), communication relies on body language and assumed knowledge, and the context is left unsaid. Conversely, in a low-context culture (found in countries such as Germany, Canada, the UK and the USA), communication is much more direct and words are used to explain the context explicitly (Mulkeen, 2008, ?? 7- 8).
To avoid causing offence or misunderstanding when a person from a high-context culture communicates with another individual from a low-context culture, he/she needs a particular amount of accommodation or adaptation. A person from a low-context culture may feel he/she is not being caught up to speed by a team member from a high-context culture, who assumes all members share the same knowledge. A high-context individual, on the other hand, may feel he/she is being patronized or perhaps feel bored by the level of detail given his/her low-context counterpart give him/her. An international team manager needs to be cognizant of these and other challenges and also secure salient solutions to minimize conflict in the team and maximize successful group communication within the group (Mulkeen, 2008).
One primary difference in business practices across cultures involves the amount of emphasis the individual or the group or team as a whole merits. This type tension between individualism (noted in countries like the USA, the UK, Australia and Germany) and collectivism (noted in countries in the Middle East as well as Singapore and Mexico) may impact the way individuals perceive their roles in the team. To effectively counter this challenge, expectations regarding the team member needs to be mutually understood from the start (Mulkeen, 2008).
Mulkeen (2008) asserts that attitudes towards risk, hierarchy, collectivism and individualism, as well as communication styles, represent a few vital areas the competent multicultural team manager regularly addresses to counter the development or friction within the team and/or permitting it to flourish. Cross-cultural competency proves to be an essential characteristic for managers in multinational companies. Whether or not a manager possess this trait may make the difference between an organization succeeding or failing in today's global economy. With a myriad differences to consider in managing a multicultural team, the manager also has to determine which strategy for managing the diverse individuals works best, yet simultaneously creates an effective framework for running the team so each person feels comfortable in his/her environment.
Multi-Cultural Team Cohesion Benefits.
Luo & Shenkar point out a number of ways global language design benefits performance in an organization:
Global language design affects corporate performance via several channels. First, it improves inter-unit and intra-network communication, enhancing the accuracy, speed and effectiveness of intra-corporate information exchange. Second, global language design improves coordination and integration, which are compounded by the use of multiple languages and their cultural correlates When a language system is incorporated into a global information system, headquarters can better calibrate local feedback and integrate globally allocated activities. Coordination costs are reduced directly as a result of lower translation requirements and indirectly via minimization of the misinterpretations associated with linguistic barriers. Third, global language design improves inter-unit learning, which is essential to capturing synergies from inter-unit collaboration and knowledge transfer (Luo & Shenkar, 2006, Theory development section, ? 8).
Mulkeen (2008) concludes that currently, a number of significant opportunities exist for international collaboration between organizations. Along with the increasing number of individuals with international responsibility, cross-cultural teams will become more common throughout the world. Training help participants, particularly team members, understand both their own and their international counterparts' cultures prove vital. To develop strategies that will enable team members to work more effectively across cultures, managers must maximize teamwork, while they also strengthen the group's performance. When for
ladies and gentlemen! There is a saying that goes, "Vice seen is better than vice unseen." I mentioned this to relate to a problem we have had with regards to our major league sports players -- the use of performance enhancing drugs "such as anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, diuretics, creatine and stimulants (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010)." The problem is not new and has been a challenge because of the gravity of the situation. There is no lack of cases and statistics that show how many major league players have been caught using these performance enhancing drugs, which by the way is banned and illegal. ut my issue is how come these drugs are not allowed? Those who oppose the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs say that the athletes who use them are breaking the rules and getting an unfair advantage over others (Katz, 2008). In…
Balko, R. (2008, January 23). Should we allow performance enhancing drugs in sports? One argument in favor. Reason Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://reason.com/archives/2008/01/23/should-we-allow-performance-en
Katz, J. (2008, January 23). Should we accept steroid use in sports? NPR. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18299098
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010, November 5). Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/performance-enhancing-drugs/HQ01105
The Moral, Legal, Political, and Practical Dimensions of Assassination
Murder: The killing of a political leader or other public figure by a sudden violent attack. Destruction of something: the destruction of something such as somebody's reputation by malicious or treacherous means.
In the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the New York World
Trade Center and the Pentagon, some attention has been focused upon the assassination ban contained in Executive Order (E.O.) 12333, Section 2.11, and whether it would prohibit the United States from responding to the attacks by targeting those who orchestrated these acts of terrorism. In considering the challenges involved in effectively combating terrorism and protecting the United States from future terrorist attacks, there has been wide-ranging debate as to what approaches might be beneficial. Part of that discussion has centered around whether assassination of terrorist leaders is, or should be, one…
Bazan, E.B. 2002. Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary. CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service Web, Library of Congress.
Grossenbacher, R. 1993. Assassination in modern America: Political participation through a gun barrel? Western Michigan University: Kalamazoo, MI.
Johnson, F. 1903. Famous Assassinations of History: From Philip of Macedon, 336 B.C. To Alexandria of Servia, AD 1903. A.C. McClurg & Co.: Chicago.
Padover, S.K. 1943. Patterns of Assassination in Occupied Territory. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 7(4), 680 -- 693, Oxford University Press.
Leading Outside the Line
Book Summary of Katzenbach, J.H. And Z. Khan (2010). Leading Outside the Lines: How to Mobilize the (n)Formal Organization, Engage your Team, and Get Better Results. Booz & Company, nc.
What are the major theses of the book?
Katzenbach and Khan found that most organizations naturally fell into a formal or informal category, but the most successful integrated and merged aspects of both styles of management. Those that did this would have "a real and sustainable competitive advantage" and would ensure that strategies and values of change would permeate all levels of the organization and all aspects of its work. Formal organizations have the virtue of "efficiency and clarity" while informal ones have "the flexibility and speed of the social networks and peer interactions that connect people informally." People do not always act on a formal basis of pay, benefits and bonuses but also have "emotional…
In government bureaucracies over the last thirty years, the overall trend has been toward greater decentralization, deregulation and privatization, even in countries with strong welfare provisions and social democratic traditions like Sweden. Economic decline of the older manufacturing-based economy and rising costs led to these changes starting in the 1970s. This led to more decentralization and local autonomy in the provision of welfare services as well as increased cooperation and interaction between local governments, rather than simply receiving instruction from the centralized bureaucracy in Stockholm. As in the United States, this led to greater variations in spending and tax rates between different regions and municipalities, and wider discrepancies between the levels of service provided. This become so great by 1995 that the central government stepped in and imposed certain standards in taxation and spending levels on social welfare, below which no municipalities were allowed to fall.
6. Based on your reading of this book what areas of research still need to be examined around the theses.
In the Western nations, the trend toward economies-based or services and technology will certainly continue and intensify in the years ahead. Organizations that fail to adopt their structures to the new information technologies will certainly decline and disappear, just as the manufacturers of horse-drawn carriages did in the early-20th Century. There will be no escape these new trends in technology and globalized economics, and organizations will remain under pressure to 'flatten out', become more intelligent and decentralized. This will mean even greater freedom, creativity and incomes for employees with the skills and education to function in the new high technology economy, while those trained for Fordist mass production will continue to find their jobs disappearing to low-wage countries abroad. The majority of workers will be relegated to low-paying, dead-end service sector jobs ('McJobs'), and will be under tight surveillance and control through the new technologies. Their pay and benefits will be lower than in the older mass production industries and governments will provide even less funding for education and social welfare, while their jobs will still be at least as dull, repetitive and uncreative as they were for Fordist assembly line workers. Employees using the Internet and other new technologies are able to engage in "informal learning" rather than the older, top-down education model of bureaucratic organizations. Human Performance Technology (HPT) is one of the newer social science and management fields that came into being over the last twenty to thirty years that take an interdisciplinary approach. HPT borrows heavily from cognitive science, information technology, and systems theory, as well as biology, philosophy and psychology in an integrated approach to the 21st Century workplace. At present, many of its practitioners believe that it is insufficiently grounded in theory and still has a wide gap between research and actual practice.
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
During their inspection, they recovered over forty pounds of documents and maps, including maps that showed the locations of U.S. billets in Saigon, indicating heavy surveillance by the Vietcong. They encountered few Vietcong throughout the operation, and only small numbers of soldiers were killed. Ultimately, the tunnel rats who scoured these tunnels helped form a band of tunnel rats that were used throughout the country to infiltrate and destroy Vietcong tunnels throughout the war.
There were some Vietcong left inside the tunnels, and those that did not give up were shot on sight. There are some accounts that there were people in the hospital too, including nurses, when the tunnels were destroyed, but that has not been verified. Before entering the tunnels, the tunnel rats would spray them with machine gun fire, and usually the Vietcong left to guard them were killed in the barrage.
B-52 bombers and other aircraft…
Falk, Richard A., Gabriel Kolko, and Robert Jay Lifton, eds. Crimes of war: A legal, political-documentary, and psychological inquiry into the responsibility of leaders, citizens, and soldiers for criminal acts in wars. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1971.
Hunt, Richard A. Pacification: The American struggle for Vietnam's hearts and minds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.
Karnow, Stanley. 1997. Vietnam: A history. New York: Penguin Books.
Stanton, Shelby L. The rise and fall of an American Army: U.S. ground forces in Vietnam, 1965-1973. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1995.
Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…
1) Gerard J. Fitzgerald, (2008), 'Chemical Warfare and Medical Response during World War 1', Am J. Public Health 98(4): 611 -- 625 available online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376985/
2) IDPH, 'Hydrogen Cyanide', retrieved Sep 6th 2010 from, http://www.idph.state.il.us/Bioterrorism/factsheets/cyanide.htm
3) Johan de Wittlaan, (2010), 'Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) ', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/cwc.pdf
4) Geneva Protocol, (1925) 'Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or other gases, and of Bacteriological methods of Warfare', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/genev.pdf
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at
Third is a series of passwords and personal information chosen by the customer. On top of this they guarantee customers that if they are victims of fraudulent activity on their Egg accounts, any losses are covered in full. "This has never happened," says Andrew. "There has never been any breach of internet security." ("- -- : Safety Net for" 2001:44)
Again internet and bank security are largely overexagertated yet they are occurring more frequently all banks and many other institutions are taking daily active precautions to reduce risk to customers and they are largely successful in doing so Electronic banking can take many forms. A recent trend that is a direct threat to banks is the development of e-money which takes the jurisdiction of stored financial value away from banks. The trend is growing as an alternative way in which to do online commerce transactions without utilizing bank systems including…
Figure 5 Online Banking and Ecommerce in Europe (Meyer 2006: http://www.dbresearch.com/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD/PROD0000000000196129.pdf )
Figure 6 Security Breech Experience is Rare in Europe (Meyer 2006:
These are scripted roles with known dialogues that the audiences can understand. No improvisation is needed. At the same time, people idolize the line between good and evil is unbreakable. They are on the good side and kept from the others on the bad (Kawasaki, 2007).
However, such a view is deceptive. It is very possible and probable that the ordinary person can be encouraged to join the other side and no longer listen to or obey law, norms, conformity and responsibility. "That line between good and evil is not an abstraction but 'cuts through the center of every human heart,' according to poet and former Stalin era prisoner, Alexander Solzhenitsyn (as quoted Kawasaki, 2007). What must be done, argues Zimbardo, so that such situations as that in an Iraqi prison do not occur, is to inculcate children with the understanding that they have the power to be heroes, do…
Ablow, K. (December 23, 2008) "Shocking News about Human Behavior." http://health.blogs.foxnews.com/tag/electric-shock/
Haney, C. & Zimbardo, P.G. (1998) the Past and Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty- Five Years After the Stanford Prison Experiment American Psychologist 53(7): 709-727.
Haney, C., Banks, W.C. & Zimbardo, P.G. (1973) a study of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison. Naval Research Review, 30, 4-17.
Kawasaki, Guy (April 6, 2007) How to Change the World: Ten Questions with Dr. Philip Zimbardo. Retrieved on February 17, 2009. http://blog.guykawasaki.com/2007/04/ten_questions_w.html#ixzz07JupM0Th
Battle Analysis of the Battle of Hue City
The battle for Hue city took place over twenty-six days as part of the larger Tet Offensive, and examining this battle in particular will demonstrate some of the nine principles of war in great detail. In particular, by examining some of the problems presented to Marines in the Battle for Hue city and the ways in which they ultimately dealt with those problems will reveal how both sides of the battle enacted the nine principles of war to varying degrees of effect and success, and point out how the lack of certain principles resulted in the high rate of casualties and the length of the battle.
Before examining the particulars of the battle in more detail, it will be useful to note some aspects of Hue city itself, as a way of understanding the context of the battle. Nearly any critical work…
Cooling, Norman L. "Hue City, 1968: Winning a battle while losing a war." Marine Corps
Gazette. 85.7 (2001): 64-76. Print.
Lawler, Andrew. "The battle for Hue City." United States Naval Institute. 125.7 (1999): 92-93.
Ethical Dilemma in a Department of Veterans Affairs Tertiary Healthcare Facility
Selection of the environment.
Selected environment. The environment for the proposed study will be a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (hereinafter alternatively "VAMC") that provides the full complement of tertiary healthcare services. The pseudonym for the selected facility will be "Lincolnville VAMC" (because the VA's motto is derived from Lincoln's second inaugural address).
Description of environment and rationale for selection. The Lincolnville VAMC provides tertiary healthcare services for veterans living in a 25-county area in a midwestern state. Besides its operations in the main facility, the Lincolnville VAMC also operates two community-based outpatient clinics. Some of the primary services offered by the Lincolnville VAMC include:
Behavioral Health Service: This service provides consultation, evaluation, and treatment for a variety of issues that can impact emotional well-being.
2) Pharmacy: This service processes more than 80,000 prescriptions each month.
Gomulka, G.T. (2010). Saving military families. Military Review, 90(1), 111-112.
Hendin, H. & Foley, K. (2008). Physician-assisted suicide in Oregon: a medical perspective.
Issues in Law & Medicine, 24(2), 121-122.
Lighthall, A. (2010, November/December). The rules of engagement. Psychotherapy Networker,
As if to say scientific achievement and technological advancement work together with agriculture and mining to produce. Each complements and supports the other with Integrity watching over all. There was a speech given by Ayn Rand about the New York Stock Exchange about money from Atlas Shrugged?
The interpretation was if you think money is the "root of all evil," think again. hy would someone make such a statement. hy not say "what is the root of money" instead. Money is nothing of itself, it is a tool used by men in exchange for goods and services. Money cannot exists without man. It is the principles of man that determine how money is traded. They give money power or value based on the decisions they apply to the tool. He further states that "Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or of the…
Durante, Diane. "Integrity Protecting the Works of Man." < http://www.forgottendelights.com/NYCsculpture/salute/SalutesApril.htm#Integrity > April 2011.
Johnson, A. "Reviewing the Pediment of the NYSE." Reyte on Publishing. 2010.
"Museum Planet." NYSE. Federal Hall and Vicinity. < http://www.museumplanet.com/tour.php/nyc/fh/15 > 10 December 2011
"New York Stock Exchange." NYX.com. NYSE Euronext. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.
The man only says, "I need to see him now," and O'Donnell acquiesces. In this role he plays the role of "procedural technician," controlling access to the President rather than materials. O'Donnell gives the impression of knowing the people he works with very well, allowing him to make quick, decisive decisions. He comes to a stalemate with Jackie over the guest list for a party, but trusts that the person seeking to speak with the President has used good judgment in his request and admits him immediately.
He also recognizes his partial role as a functionary, and does not follow the man into the Presidential office, but waits until he's been invited. Once O'Connell is in the President's office, the President acts as gatekeeper. He immediately has O'Connell look at the photographs Bundy has brought in because of O'Connell's military background. This also serves to accelerate group consensus so that…
Holmes, Prue. 2004. "Negotiating differences in learning and intercultural communication: ethnic Chinese students in a New Zealand University." Business Communication Quarterly, September.
One study revealed Berry (2003) found that young children's retention of emotional information was greater in children viewing family sitcom than those who just watch an animated films or moppet program. This result justifies the fact that children are more likely to learn more due to the presence of human characters in family sitcoms as they find these characters more close to the reality than either cartoon or Muppet characters.
On investigating the type of family interaction shown in family sitcoms it was revealed that majority of family interactions were constructive or supportive in nature. Nonetheless, just about one fourth of these interactions were found to involve argument or negativity. Research shows that even though large amount of verbal and nonverbal interactions between siblings in family sitcoms were positive, nearly 40% of the examined behaviors were found to be negative (e.g., bullying, inappropriate remarks). (alma, Molen and Juliette, 171) As…
Berry, Gordon L., Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, ISSN 1099-9809, 11/2003, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2003, pp. 360-366
Bryant, J, A., Television and the American Family, Routledge, 2nd edition, 2000, 300- 350.
Corrigan, C, The impact of television viewing on young children, 2010, ISBN 9781124298979, 2010, 50- 70.
D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto. Attitudes toward TV advertising: A measure for children, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, 2009, Volume 30, Issue 4, 2009, pp. 409-418
Worst Faults a Military Leader Can Exhibit:
Incompetence, selfishness, and living in the past
"If America is to meet the multiple challenges of the 21st century, it is crucial that we develop a system that places the right people in the right places in government at the right moment."[footnoteRef:1] ut just as critical as being the 'right' type of leader is avoiding making some of the most typical mistakes of poor leaders of the past. Incompetence and disorganization; fighting the last war rather than the current conflict (i.e., living in the past); selfishness and a focus on the personal ego rather than the actual needs of the nation are the three worst faults a leader can exhibit. [1: J. McCausland, "Developing strategic leaders for the 21st century," Strategic Studies Institute, 2008. Available: http://www.StrategicStudiesInstitute.army.mil / (26 Sept 2013), xi]
On a very basic level, military leaders must have basic organizational skills.…
Bartone, P, Barry, C., & Armstrong, R. "To Build Resilience: Leader Influence on Mental
Hardiness. Defense Horizons, 69 (2009): 1-8.
Hermann, Margaret. "Assessing leadership style: A trait analysis." Social Science Automation
Joy of Love and Marriage
Small things are lots of fun. Hence, small things can be disaster too. It's a very common situation in one's marriage life that one of the couple gets bored just because of minor matters. oredom is intoxicating. No, it is not about boredom to one's being, it's the boredom when the lawn gets too high to ignore of cutting, when pets get too many (for another intensive and uncontrollable breeding season) to feed, when the family's favorite barbershop closes by and moves its location fifteen miles farther, then everyone will argue, "Somebody's got to drive us there, and who will that be?"
People in fact cannot neglect those little business. If possible, working out simple things can prevent from marriage catastrophe, and lead them to delicious spices.
usy couples often find troubles from trivial matters. My wife, Julie and I understand how they feel when…
Glover, Richard. Rules of Engagement. Reader's Digest. May 2000. Vol. 75 No. 446. Page 111.
Jim Killam. Conquer Clutter Fall. 2001. Christianity Today Magazine. 2001, Vol. 18, No. 3,-Page 22. December 4, 2002. Web site: http://www.christianitytoday.com/mp/2001/003/1.22.html