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ules of Engagement
Importance of ule of Engagement
ules of Engagement can be described as key elements that regulates the use of force, incorporating them a cornerstone of the Operational Law discipline. Some of the legal factors forming the OE'S foundation are customary and conventional law principles based on the right of self-defense as well as the laws of war. Nevertheless, generally they do not stand alone; they also depend on non-legal issues like military mission limitations and political objectives in their construction and application. Every solder is obligated to fully abide by these rules even if sometimes the rules hinder the soldiers from implementing their job skills fully changing the outcome of the battle. Therefore it is important for reconsideration of the terms of OE to allow soldiers implement their job fully.
ules of Engagement should be guiding the military forces on the legal and non-legal activities they are…… [Read More]
ules of Engagement (OE) are necessary to a certain degree during wars and skirmishes in order to determine what actions military personnel can take when confronted with immediate and personal dangerous or violent situations.
Correct OE is the key to successfully address the overall mission and purpose for military interventions in the first place.
OE help Protect and espect: "these rules are in place for reasons that both protect the military and respect the international conventions of war" (Vallely, 2013).
However, "OE can be conveniently manipulated by the political objectives and military mission limitations essential to the construction and application of OE," (Vallely, 2013).
The thesis of this paper is that OE are being manipulated in the current situation in Afghanistan, to the detriment of American soldiers.
When OE are manipulated, soldiers are at risk.
A. "The ules of Engagement in Afghanistan created an unwanted psychology in our soldiers…… [Read More]
Dunlop's Web ules
The topic of industrial relations has been considerably important for both the employers as well as the employees. The topic is generally discussed in terms of relationship between both employer and the employees and moderating factors that govern outcomes of this relationship. John Dunlop was an eminent British economist who published his famous book called 'Industrial elation System' in 1958. In this book, Dunlop presented the theory called systems theory of industrial relations. Briefly, Dunlop's systems theory observed that industrial relation/s is a system composed of four main elements. Thus, industrial relation system is composed of certain actors, ideology that bonds the industrial system, contexts of the relationships, and certain rules that govern and moderate the relationship of governance of these actors. This also implied that an industrial relation system can be having distinct subsystem from economic or societal system in which the employer operates. Thus, four…… [Read More]
Chain of Command
In Vietnam, the rules of engagement were designed to limit the impact of operations in select areas (most notably: North Vietnam). This is because there were concerns that the conflict could escalate. If this were to happen, it was believed that the Soviet Union or China could be drawn into the war. To prevent this and destroy the North's ability to fight, the policy concentrated on: annihilating their supply lines, command / control centers and training South Vietnamese forces to defend themselves. To fully understand how this took place, there will be an emphasis on the limited war ideology and its various assumptions for the six levels of command. Together, these elements will highlight the impact of this policy and its long-term effects. ("Effects of estrictive ules," 1995) (Lewy, 1978)
Soldiers in the field: In the field, the OE became more restrictive as the war continued. This…… [Read More]
Rules of Engagement (ROE) are necessary to a certain degree during wars and skirmishes in order to determine what actions military personnel can take when confronted with immediate and personal dangerous or violent situations. Determining a correct ROE, however, is the key to successfully addressing the overall mission and purpose for military interventions in the first place. As one recent author states "these rules are in place for reasons that both protect the military and respect the international conventions of war" (Vallely, 2013). hat is interesting about this subject is the fact that in the same report, Vallely goes on to state "ROE can be conveniently manipulated by the political objectives and military mission limitations essential to the construction and application of ROE" (Vallely, 2013). That is what seems to be happening in the current war situation in Afghanistan if what experts are saying is to be believed.
Michael Jenkins…… [Read More]
Rules of Engagement: Video, Mobile Devices Key to Online Marketing (Lipke, 1) many excellent insights are shared with regard to marketing high-end products and services to affluent men. The article begins by citing recent research studies by iProspect and comScore indicating that the approximately 19 million men in the U.S. who are over 18 years of age and earning $100K a year or more are changing how they choose to learn about and purchase products. A study by Johnston & Murphy is also cited. The most significant findings from these studies include the finding from the iProspect and comScore studies that online video advertising, combined with a multichannel-based strategy, is the best platform for reaching these consumers. The iProspect and comScore studies predict that the compound annual growth rate of online video ad spending will be 38% from 2010 to 2015. The studies predict that these approaches to advertising will…… [Read More]
student engagement within mathematics, create a set of dependent measures. Follow the rules for writing test items, and please include the correct answers, as well.
Five Multiple Choice Items
What is the square root of 49?
Which number is not a prime number?
How many degrees is a right angle?
A diagonal line cutting through two parallel lines creates angles which are?
What is 3 to the third power?
A composite engagement score would have to be tallied in order to total the average score of all of these variables so that one could assess how all of these variables interacted with one another, giving the researchers a sense of the total and complete interest, enjoyment, capability, and confusion that all students experienced when engaging with these problems, and to determine which variables were most often experienced simultaneously.
Five True-false items
The infinity…… [Read More]
Ground Rules With Your Learners
There are several effective ways for establishing ground rules for learners. The most useful methods involve both classroom participation in the germination of such guidelines, as well as mandates dictated from the teacher which serve to underpin his or her classroom authority. As an authority figure, the teacher should always have a number of ground rules in mind before entering the classroom, but the prudent pedagogue (with enough time at his disposal) will involve a classroom discussion of these matters, and with his or her gentle prodding, help students feel as though they have determined these rules on their own. Classroom participation in this critical component of determining in-class behavior often helps students to follow these guidelines themselves, since students take a sense of accomplishment in carrying out directives which they feel they have helped determine.
For younger students, ground rules are established with the…… [Read More]
super bowl commercials that came out this year and how they targeted different genders. It discusses the role of social media like twitter and websites in speaking out against these ads and criticizing them. The paper lays emphasis on how many companies target certain genders or stereotypes and eventually go on to incur a lot of damage due to the inappropriate advertisements.
The Go daddy commercial was yet another sexist addition to the super bowl line of commercials. Even though the add did manage to get the domain name a lot of business the next day, over all the company incurred a loss of more than seven million dollars for making the commercial (Grinberg, 2013) Surely enough, everyone is used to seeing the sexist commercials every now and then. Sexism and objectifying women has long been used as a media tactic. Apart from objectifying women, gender stereotyping and allotting certain…… [Read More]
H-1B visa is issued to a limited number of applicants per year, and is restricted to persons with specialized education and training. Individuals cannot apply for the H-1B visa; rather, employers must sponsor an applicant they feel is worthy of the visa, which allows an individual to stay in the United States as a temporary foreign worker for up to six years. The H-1B visa class theoretically boosts the economy by allowing corporations access to the global labor market of highly skilled and specially trained personnel. However, the visa class has the potential to encroach on the domestic American labor market by allowing employers to hire foreign workers at a significantly lower salary than their counterparts (Tuttle, 2015). In spite of this potential drawback, the H-1B visa parameters are designed well if the stimulation of the American economy is its primary purpose. I would not change anything significant about the…… [Read More]
Vietnam War has gone down in history as one of the worst war efforts made by the United States for its sheer cost in human capital and the collective sanity of the nation. While many social and psychological issues can be cited as bearing the blame for the atrocity that was this war, one major challenge was the basic lack of communication and consistency among the levels of command. Individual soldiers, for example, were given commands and rules of engagement without really being informed of the rationale behind these (Close Air Support, 2014). Furthermore, there was no debate among the various levels of command regarding the best way forward in terms of rules of engagement. Those in the midst of battle were not free to proceed according to the demands of the situation; they were basically bound by the theories and ideals of those in command, including those in the…… [Read More]
WARFARE RULES OF ENGAGEENT (EDIT CUSTOER'S DRAFT)
One of the most contentious issues in contemporary warfare is the concept of rules of engagement (ROE). Just as the Vietnam War highlighted the concept in the 1960s, America's current involvement in Afghanistan provides the contextual background in the early 21st Century. In principle, ROI ensure that combat troops comply with the international conventions of warfare, even if our enemies are not. The Commander-in-Chief strongly supports ROI concept at both the philosophical and practical level, aiming to balance military objectives and politics. Nevertheless, problems have emerged, with the application of the primacy of rules of engagement in the field.
ost significantly, military leaders sometimes focus so much on ROE that soldiers in the field are handicapped operationally. Pausing to consider rules of engagement is less practical in the field than it is in theory. Sometimes, the cloud of ROE results in soldiers' become…… [Read More]
Chain of Command and ROE
Levels of the Chain of Command
The objective of this study is to discuss the views of the six levels in the chain of command from the perspective of each during the Vietnam ar. The six levels of the chain of command includes: (1) the individual soldiers in the field; (2) battalion commanders; (3) division commanders; (4) General illiam estmoreland; Secretary Of Defense Robert McNamara; and (6) President Lyndon Johnson.
The Vietnam ar resulted in conflict in the forum of public opinion. Under the 'Rules of Engagement', the directives and orders are of a design that focus on mission accomplishment and a maintaining of the relations with the civilian population. The 'Rules of Engagement' set out how operations should proceed during crisis and are such that when followed serves in the accounting for "policy and political sensitivities." (The Chain of Command and NCO…… [Read More]
U.S. Military Chain of Command
The traditional wars that have followed the Europeans models developed by Napoleon basically incorporate the leadership in writing and training troops for rules of engagement. ules of Engagement (OE) is described as a management tool that help in keeping soldiers within control and aligned with the specific mission. This management tool has contributed to benefits and costs in which training OE in each leadership level down to the individual soldiers enables every participant to make responsible decisions and achieve the mission as stated by the battlefield commander. Notably, the chain of command basically consists of various levels since it links everyone in the uniformed service ranging from the senior ranks to the junior ranks as well as the United States President. An important example that correlates an understanding of rules of engagement with limited war ideology is the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War incorporates various…… [Read More]
These films. Swing Vote (2008), The Queen (2006) ules of Engagement (2000) The Quiet American (2002) and Jarhead (2005) clearly support this hypothesis and build on the idea that art reflects life and life reflects art.
Boggs, C. & Pollard, T. (2006) The Hollywood War Machine: U.S. Militarism and Popular Culture Boulder CO: Paradigm Publishers
Bellah, .N. Madsen, . Sullivan, W.M. Swidler, A. Tipton, S.M. (1991) Good Society
New York: andom House.
Fishman, J.M. Marvin, C. (March 2003) Portrayals of Violence and Group Difference in Newspaper Photographs: Nationalism and Media Journal of Communications
Gianos, P.L. (1999) Politics and Politicians in American Film. New York: Preager Publishing
Giglio, E. (2005) Here's Looking at You: Hollywood, Film & Politics. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Klenotic, J. (2007) Chapter 5 "Staying in the Moment: Hollywood, History, and the Politics of 9/11 Cinema." In Constructing America's War Culture, Conroy T. & Hanson, J.…… [Read More]
Vietnamese History In the 20th Century
There has been much controversy regarding the Vietnam ar, considering that the general public has gradually come to acknowledge that it was unproductive for the American military as a result of a series of factors that prevented both leaders and soldiers from acting effectively. Taking this into account, one can observe how the Vietnam ar came to be one of the most debated conflicts in history because of the rules of engagement (ROE) employed in it. The ROE in the Vietnam ar were initially meant to ensure that the conduct of war took place in safe conditions and slowly but surely evolved into being a tool in the hands of politicians. Individuals such as George Donelson Moss got actively engaged in discussing regarding the topic, given that one of his books, "Vietnam: An American Ordeal, 6th Edition" goes at highlighting errors in management during…… [Read More]
Conflict Resolution in it Management
What is the importance of having rules of engagement to successfully support a virtual team when using collaborative technologies? Can you come up with any other rules that could be added?
Rules of engagement within a virtual team using collaborative technologies are crucial to the success of any major team project for several reasons. For example, business units and team members in different areas typically utilize very different systems and procedures to accomplish their component tasks and responsibilities. Changes made and commitments promised to clients by one business unit or team member without consulting other business units and team members can radically affect those business units or team members or even make it impossible for them to complete their respective contributions to the project.
Some other helpful types of rules of engagement that could be added might include:
The appointment of designated team or unit…… [Read More]
Within the context of war fighting, the idea of limited war and the rules of engagement within that paradigm can often conflict if not counter act each other. The purpose of this essay is to correlate the understanding the rules of engagement (OE) with limited war ideology as seen through the perspective and experiences of different levels of the chain of command.
The Vietnam War was mosty a guerilla style war fought between young and aggressive soldiers on all sides of the conflict. For soldiers at this level, all war is total war. The perspective of the individual soldier transcends mission and war objectives and resides mostly in the survival mode of living, escaping death or capture.
As one progresses higher upon the chain of command, the Battalion Commander begins to participate in the more strategic aspects of the conflict. Even though this medium…… [Read More]
U.S. National Strategy
What three United States national interests do you think will be at great risk over the next five years? Describe those interests and identify which instruments of national power can be leveraged to protect or advance those national interests and how those instruments can be used.
As President Obama stated in his addresses to Congress in February 2009, the most important problem that the country faced was the economy, which was in the worst recession since the 1930s. This affected both domestic and foreign policy, since the country would probably have to reduce military spending and its commitments overseas as it did during the Great Depression, so for the Obama administration economic recovery was the primary goal. He did promise that "the weight of this crisis will not determine the destiny of this nation" (Obama Address, 2009, p. 1). He promised that the government would deal with…… [Read More]
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]
globe has people of different backgrounds on basis of religion, culture, beliefs, economy and many other attributes, there is need to have some attributes that will help bind the globe. This is where the international laws come in, these are agreed upon treaties or conventions which nations look upon to bind them, often they have a universal attraction and entrusted into the hands of a global organization to ensure they are implemented. An example is the international law on basic human rights where each individual has the right to life and others that concern protection of women and children as the most vulnerable in times of war. I was aware that there are rules of engagement in war but I never knew of the Jus War Doctrine. This is a doctrine that indicates that war is philosophically based on morals, there is a just war and unjust war. According to…… [Read More]
Powell Assertion Number Two: In his Feb. 5, 2003 speech to the U.N., Powell said: "We have no indication that Saddam Hussein has ever abandoned his nuclear weapons program." But in October, 2002, in his memo to the White House, CIA Director George Tenet voiced "strong doubts about a claim President Bush" was about to make in the State of the Union address "that Iraq was trying to buy nuclear materials" from Africa. And on July 24, 2003, Spain's Foreign Minister, Ana Palacio, an ally of the U.S., said their was "no evidence" prior to the U.S. attack on Iraq of a nuclear bomb program by Saddam, according to the Hanley article in Editor & Publisher.
Powell Assertion Number Three: Powell told the U.N. he had proof that Saddam was deploying "Contamination Vehicles" associated with chemical weapons on at least two sites. Those alleged contamination vehicles turned out to be…… [Read More]
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…… [Read More]
chain command links uniformed service senior junior, junior ranks President United States. There great levels
In some ways, the individual soldiers in the field have the greatest amount of responsibility in terms of understanding and actually actuating the rules of engagement (OE) within the limited war ideology of Vietnam. The others in the chain of command are responsible for determining their actions, as well as the overall military action of the United States in a martial encounter such as Vietnam. The individual soldiers are responsible for actually carrying them out. For instance, when it was decided that the president of one of the Vietnamese factions was to be assassinated, it was the individual soldiers in the U.S. military that were actually accountable for doing this deed. However, there are others in the chain of command that have a utilitarian role on the battlefield that can, at times, greatly resemble that…… [Read More]
There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.
Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…… [Read More]
Intelligence operation in cities will reveal, in addition to other things, the exact locations of the enemy. Once the locations have been pinpointed, the interagency task force can then besiege him with a combination of forces, surveillance, robotics, and media and combatants gas aimed at making the enemy's position untenable. With this in effect, the enemy is bound to be drawn out of their hideout and appropriate military action such as arrest or open fire taken.
In view of the suggestions presented, it is indeed a momentous time that military training be taken a notch higher. The reality of the 21st century leaves the defense forces with little choices, if any, as far as engaging terror groups in urban areas is concerned. The events in Mogadishu, where the U.S. military underperformed expectation, should serve as a revelation that the mighty of the forces does not necessarily guarantee success. Instead, intelligent…… [Read More]
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…… [Read More]
In the 1999 report of William Cohen to the U.S. President and U.S. Congress reveals that the strategic vision sets out what the United States has on its agenda to accomplish in relation to technological and logistical strategies. Included in these strategies are modernization of intelligence processes as well as security, information operations, information assurance, and critical infrastructure protection. In a 2004 Department of Defense Submission - Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Inquiry into Australian-United States Defense Relations' report, it is stated that the alliance, now ongoing for approximately fifty-three years between the United States and Australia "has never been closer." (2004) it is stated that the ANZUS Treaty provides "shape, depth and weight to the Australia-U.S. alliance and remains today the foundation of a relationship that is one of our greatest national assets." (Cohen, 2004) the continued commitment of the United States to the Asia…… [Read More]
They worked with the FTC to define the following four Fair Information Practices, rules designed to prevent companies from abusing the information they receive through online profiling (Computer law tip of the week, 2000):
Rule 1 (Notice): A company must notify customers that it uses online profiling to track their online habits. If it collects personally identifiable information about customers, such as their names, addresses or telephone numbers, the company's website must clearly and unambiguously notify them of this fact before the company collects this information.
Rule 2 (Choice): Depending on the type of information a company collects, there must be opt-in and opt-out options. Opt-in, or obtaining the customer's permission, is required to link personally identifiable information that a company has about a customer such as name, address or telephone number with data acquired about Web surfing habits. Opt-out means that the customers have to be given the chance…… [Read More]
Up until the point that the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Japanese citizens, World War II was a just war. However, dropping the second bomb, perhaps even the first bomb, on innocent civilians, removed the war out of traditional rules of warfare and brought the world into a new phase of combat. Up until that time, the general rules of war prohibited using civilian targets. In fact, Germany was the first one to break this rule and this unjust act was one of the reasons the United States entered the war.
At the time the second bomb was dropped, the war ceased being just. However, after the bomb was dropped, new rules and regulations were created to accommodate this new face of war, therefore changing the rules of the game and thus the definition of a just war.
ailey, S. Prohibitions and Restraints in war. Oxford:…… [Read More]
PIA and the British Government's esponse
The war between the Provisional Irish epublican Army (PIA) and the British State from 1969 to 1998 was a complex situation in which various entities pursued similar and dissimilar aims through various channels (political as well as militaristic/terroristic). Even in the midst of the most violent clashes, secret talks were held between leaders of the PIA and the British State, with the political face of epublican beliefs (Sinn Fein) gaining popular support over the years and to some degree undermining the aims, objectives and capacity of the PIA to operate effectively (O'Brien, 1999; Tonge, 2002). The PIA's strategic effectiveness, however, was also complicated by its own inability to overcome specific problematic features of its own organization -- such as the factors of security and territoriality. Likewise, the British State had enacted a program of using informants and infiltrators to undermine the PIA from within.…… [Read More]
The use of private contractors to assist the U.S. military forces in times of conflict is not a new concept. According to author Gordon Campbell, ashington has "always" used contractors in times of war. There are many contemporary issues and potential problems when the U.S. military signs deals with private contractors, as it did in Iraq and is currently doing in Afghanistan. The main issue revolves around the concept of hiring 180,000 private contractors to support and in some cases substitute for U.S. service personnel in the war zone that was Iraq and is today Afghanistan. Is the hiring ethical, is it practical, and does it help the war effort? This paper reviews those issues and provides perspective from both sides of the issue using the available literature on this topic.
The Ethics of Paying Civilians to Enter Harm's way
The American military hired private contractors to pull…… [Read More]
U.S. war response
The United States, for better or worse, is fully engaged in a war like no other before war previously fought. Put simply, the rules have changed for armed combatants and, while treatises such as the Geneva Convention and the Law of Armed Conflict provide general guidelines, it is important to recognize that, with changing armed conflicts, so, too, must the rules of engagement change.
Fritschi (2010) observes that the principle of equality as expressed in the UN charter, the Geneva, Hague and Vienna conventions and the obligations implied by these treaties with respect to humanitarian law are challenged by the complicated circumstances that have emerged with the rise of asymmetric warfare and the internationalization of conflicts with non-state actors.
International humanitarian law distinguishes between international and non-international armed conflict. International armed conflicts are those in which at least two States are involved. They are subject to a…… [Read More]
Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch
From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…… [Read More]
shared vision allows for the fulfillment of common goals. Therefore, the first step in creating and maintaining a successful charter school will be to plan the vision with a common goals meeting and invite all stakeholders to the meeting in accordance with best practices ("Shared Vision and Common Goals," n.d.). The ELCC standard 1.1 clearly calls all educational leaders to "develop, articulate, implement, and steward a shared district vision of learning," (ELCC, 2011). This vision of learning is not limited to the confines of any one school or restricted to its building, its educators, and its students. ather, a comprehensive vision is one that takes into account the entire community. Other schools in the community may play a role in the evolution of our school's vision. Community stakeholders including parents and curriculum leaders need to attend the meeting to provide their input and feedback.
It should not be assumed that…… [Read More]
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…… [Read More]
Managing People. Module 5 Managing developing teams Module 6 Managing Performance. Develop a -page scenario a work team familiar. Describe work team organisational context operates. Include appendix.
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
The Bruce Tuckman model of team development
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
In my past place of employment (which will be known as company X), the members of the IT staff and members of other departments were forced to collaborate on a joint effort to create a corporate manual to explain the company's new computer operating system to all employees. Proper safety Internet 'hygiene;' dealing with the operating system on a daily basis, and orienting workers to the various new applications were all to be described. In other words, effective communication was…… [Read More]
obert Merton was the brain behind Anomie Theory. This theory majors on deviance. The theory's major preoccupation is why rates of deviance differ from one society to the other and from one subgroup that come from one society to the other. Merton's work emphasizes cultures' unifying aspects and how it can create deviance and disunity within a society. Cultural norms, according to this theory, break down as a result of rapid changes that take place. The theory attributes occurrence of Anomic suicide to the occurrence of major economic depression that makes people not to achieve the goals they had learned to pursue (Siegel, 2008). Anomic suicide can also occur when there is an economic boom. In such circumstances people fail to limit their goals and be satisfied with their achievements. There can be lack of fit with regard to culture's norm about what constitute success in life and the…… [Read More]
However, according to aller, morality is founded on the concept of duty (64). Indeed, critical to deontological ethics is the ability of an individual to do his duty. Duty in this case may be regarded to as the general rule in regard to morality. In war time situations, this includes self-evident rules including protection of unarmed civilians.
Further, it is important to note that the jus in bello concept (morals adhered to at the time of war) which is rather deontological declares that war must be fought with the right intention. Hence in that regard, military tactics which are inherently immoral like the killing of civilians at the time of war are unacceptable.
In one of his lessons (part of the eleven lessons), McNamara states that "proportionality should be a guideline in war." In my opinion, the principle of proportionality which is largely embedded in not only the national but…… [Read More]
Perkins - who had retired at the age of 70 but was coming back on the board - had by this time muscled his way into a powerful position within the HP community; he and his powerful board ally, George Keyworth, held special "technology committee" meetings with key HP people the day before each board meeting. Stewart writes that Perkins' little group actually became a "board within a board," and Perkins' power grew. His disenchantment with Fiorina also grew. Fiorina was apparently losing the confidence of the board, and Perkins was the central figure in that movement away from Fiorina. Prior to the retreat, which was alluded to earlier in this paper, there was a board meeting scheduled, and before that meeting, Keyworth and Dunn approached Fiorina and urged her to "express concerns about Hewlett-Packard's performance, stock price, unfavorable press, and need to reorganize," Stewart continues.
Although Fiorina showed resistance…… [Read More]
Part-Time Faculty Unionization Efforts
At the George Washington University, part-time unionization efforts were sped up when the matter was taken up to the National Labor elations Board by Service Employees International Union, Local 500 through filing a petition. The petition is for the Service Employees to represent most part-time and regular part-time faculty at the George Washington University after they were able to muster enough support and obtained sufficient signatures from the concerned part-time faculty. The minimum requirement for qualifying to hold elections was met with the Service Employees gathering about 30% support from the part-time faculty that was present and scheduled to teach in the Spring semester of 2004. The Service Employees demanded fair elections to be held for the concerned party and through a democratic way a decision should be obtained whether the part-time faculty wants the Service Employees to represent them or not.
For the…… [Read More]
Stand Your Ground vs. Duty to etreat: Why the Former Should be epealed
Florida, Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, North Carolina and Nevada all have passed Stand Your Ground laws, whereas Maryland, New York, New Jersey, hode Island, Connecticut and Delaware all have Duty to etreat or Castle Doctrine laws. Just by simply acknowledging the geographical location of these states and their respective laws, one can see a common theme: the Northeastern states adopt a more pro-active approach to avoid conflicting (if one can retreat to a place of security, one must do so rather than impose violence on another); yet in the Southern states, there is a more defiant position in terms of if one is somewhere he/she has a right to be, then he/she has a right to fend off any attack and to use physical violence if physical violence is used against him/her. The difference between these two perspectives…… [Read More]
Bouncken and Winke (2008) explain that challenges include global innovation teams being confonted with the team membes' vaious national cultues.
National cultues, Bouncken and Winke point out (2008), influence the behavio, cognitive models and values of the individual. These same cultues, albeit may also contibute to challenges elating to the individual's undestanding, along with his/he woking elationship. Divesity on team membes' backgounds may incease ceativity. Nevetheless, team functioning and team pocesses constant significant factos that fom the outcome: Innovation. On the othe hand, when divesity stats to theaten goup pocesses, the ensuing actions may, in tun, spoil ceativity and the intended implementation of innovation. A manage who does not include all team membes in the decision making pocess o allows paticula individuals on a team to dominate discussions inceases the potential fo challenges with/in a multi-cultual team to incease. The cohesion connecting the team membes, as well as thei commitment…… [Read More]
ladies and gentlemen! There is a saying that goes, "Vice seen is better than vice unseen." I mentioned this to relate to a problem we have had with regards to our major league sports players -- the use of performance enhancing drugs "such as anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, diuretics, creatine and stimulants (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010)." The problem is not new and has been a challenge because of the gravity of the situation. There is no lack of cases and statistics that show how many major league players have been caught using these performance enhancing drugs, which by the way is banned and illegal. ut my issue is how come these drugs are not allowed? Those who oppose the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs say that the athletes who use them are breaking the rules and getting an unfair advantage over others (Katz, 2008). In…… [Read More]
The Moral, Legal, Political, and Practical Dimensions of Assassination
Murder: The killing of a political leader or other public figure by a sudden violent attack. Destruction of something: the destruction of something such as somebody's reputation by malicious or treacherous means.
In the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the New York World
Trade Center and the Pentagon, some attention has been focused upon the assassination ban contained in Executive Order (E.O.) 12333, Section 2.11, and whether it would prohibit the United States from responding to the attacks by targeting those who orchestrated these acts of terrorism. In considering the challenges involved in effectively combating terrorism and protecting the United States from future terrorist attacks, there has been wide-ranging debate as to what approaches might be beneficial. Part of that discussion has centered around whether assassination of terrorist leaders is, or should be, one…… [Read More]
Leading Outside the Line
Book Summary of Katzenbach, J.H. And Z. Khan (2010). Leading Outside the Lines: How to Mobilize the (n)Formal Organization, Engage your Team, and Get Better Results. Booz & Company, nc.
What are the major theses of the book?
Katzenbach and Khan found that most organizations naturally fell into a formal or informal category, but the most successful integrated and merged aspects of both styles of management. Those that did this would have "a real and sustainable competitive advantage" and would ensure that strategies and values of change would permeate all levels of the organization and all aspects of its work. Formal organizations have the virtue of "efficiency and clarity" while informal ones have "the flexibility and speed of the social networks and peer interactions that connect people informally." People do not always act on a formal basis of pay, benefits and bonuses but also have "emotional…… [Read More]
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…… [Read More]
During their inspection, they recovered over forty pounds of documents and maps, including maps that showed the locations of U.S. billets in Saigon, indicating heavy surveillance by the Vietcong. They encountered few Vietcong throughout the operation, and only small numbers of soldiers were killed. Ultimately, the tunnel rats who scoured these tunnels helped form a band of tunnel rats that were used throughout the country to infiltrate and destroy Vietcong tunnels throughout the war.
There were some Vietcong left inside the tunnels, and those that did not give up were shot on sight. There are some accounts that there were people in the hospital too, including nurses, when the tunnels were destroyed, but that has not been verified. Before entering the tunnels, the tunnel rats would spray them with machine gun fire, and usually the Vietcong left to guard them were killed in the barrage.
B-52 bombers and other aircraft…… [Read More]
Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…… [Read More]
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…… [Read More]
Third is a series of passwords and personal information chosen by the customer. On top of this they guarantee customers that if they are victims of fraudulent activity on their Egg accounts, any losses are covered in full. "This has never happened," says Andrew. "There has never been any breach of internet security." ("- -- : Safety Net for" 2001:44)
Again internet and bank security are largely overexagertated yet they are occurring more frequently all banks and many other institutions are taking daily active precautions to reduce risk to customers and they are largely successful in doing so Electronic banking can take many forms. A recent trend that is a direct threat to banks is the development of e-money which takes the jurisdiction of stored financial value away from banks. The trend is growing as an alternative way in which to do online commerce transactions without utilizing bank systems including…… [Read More]
These are scripted roles with known dialogues that the audiences can understand. No improvisation is needed. At the same time, people idolize the line between good and evil is unbreakable. They are on the good side and kept from the others on the bad (Kawasaki, 2007).
However, such a view is deceptive. It is very possible and probable that the ordinary person can be encouraged to join the other side and no longer listen to or obey law, norms, conformity and responsibility. "That line between good and evil is not an abstraction but 'cuts through the center of every human heart,' according to poet and former Stalin era prisoner, Alexander Solzhenitsyn (as quoted Kawasaki, 2007). What must be done, argues Zimbardo, so that such situations as that in an Iraqi prison do not occur, is to inculcate children with the understanding that they have the power to be heroes, do…… [Read More]
Thus, paramount American interests were to be presented as being really the interests of the Europeans themselves. It would be a situation wherein America was simply helping along people who were, at present, unable to adequately help themselves. The concept had much in common with the goals of many charity or self-help organizations - people grow and are transformed by learning to help themselves. They are given assistance so as to be enabled to learn the skills and life ways necessary to improve their own conditions. Naturally, everything that was in the "real" interests of Europeans would also be in the interests of the United States. The more similar the peoples of the two continents could become, the more readily Europeans could identify their own aspirations with those of the American people, the closer would be the bond between the two sides. In effect, the new post-ar Europe would be…… [Read More]
Battle Analysis of the Battle of Hue City
The battle for Hue city took place over twenty-six days as part of the larger Tet Offensive, and examining this battle in particular will demonstrate some of the nine principles of war in great detail. In particular, by examining some of the problems presented to Marines in the Battle for Hue city and the ways in which they ultimately dealt with those problems will reveal how both sides of the battle enacted the nine principles of war to varying degrees of effect and success, and point out how the lack of certain principles resulted in the high rate of casualties and the length of the battle.
Before examining the particulars of the battle in more detail, it will be useful to note some aspects of Hue city itself, as a way of understanding the context of the battle. Nearly any critical work…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemma in a Department of Veterans Affairs Tertiary Healthcare Facility
Selection of the environment.
Selected environment. The environment for the proposed study will be a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (hereinafter alternatively "VAMC") that provides the full complement of tertiary healthcare services. The pseudonym for the selected facility will be "Lincolnville VAMC" (because the VA's motto is derived from Lincoln's second inaugural address).
Description of environment and rationale for selection. The Lincolnville VAMC provides tertiary healthcare services for veterans living in a 25-county area in a midwestern state. Besides its operations in the main facility, the Lincolnville VAMC also operates two community-based outpatient clinics. Some of the primary services offered by the Lincolnville VAMC include:
Behavioral Health Service: This service provides consultation, evaluation, and treatment for a variety of issues that can impact emotional well-being.
2) Pharmacy: This service processes more than 80,000 prescriptions each month.
3)…… [Read More]
As if to say scientific achievement and technological advancement work together with agriculture and mining to produce. Each complements and supports the other with Integrity watching over all. There was a speech given by Ayn Rand about the New York Stock Exchange about money from Atlas Shrugged?
The interpretation was if you think money is the "root of all evil," think again. hy would someone make such a statement. hy not say "what is the root of money" instead. Money is nothing of itself, it is a tool used by men in exchange for goods and services. Money cannot exists without man. It is the principles of man that determine how money is traded. They give money power or value based on the decisions they apply to the tool. He further states that "Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or of the…… [Read More]
The man only says, "I need to see him now," and O'Donnell acquiesces. In this role he plays the role of "procedural technician," controlling access to the President rather than materials. O'Donnell gives the impression of knowing the people he works with very well, allowing him to make quick, decisive decisions. He comes to a stalemate with Jackie over the guest list for a party, but trusts that the person seeking to speak with the President has used good judgment in his request and admits him immediately.
He also recognizes his partial role as a functionary, and does not follow the man into the Presidential office, but waits until he's been invited. Once O'Connell is in the President's office, the President acts as gatekeeper. He immediately has O'Connell look at the photographs Bundy has brought in because of O'Connell's military background. This also serves to accelerate group consensus so that…… [Read More]
One study revealed Berry (2003) found that young children's retention of emotional information was greater in children viewing family sitcom than those who just watch an animated films or moppet program. This result justifies the fact that children are more likely to learn more due to the presence of human characters in family sitcoms as they find these characters more close to the reality than either cartoon or Muppet characters.
On investigating the type of family interaction shown in family sitcoms it was revealed that majority of family interactions were constructive or supportive in nature. Nonetheless, just about one fourth of these interactions were found to involve argument or negativity. Research shows that even though large amount of verbal and nonverbal interactions between siblings in family sitcoms were positive, nearly 40% of the examined behaviors were found to be negative (e.g., bullying, inappropriate remarks). (alma, Molen and Juliette, 171) As…… [Read More]
Worst Faults a Military Leader Can Exhibit:
Incompetence, selfishness, and living in the past
"If America is to meet the multiple challenges of the 21st century, it is crucial that we develop a system that places the right people in the right places in government at the right moment."[footnoteRef:1] ut just as critical as being the 'right' type of leader is avoiding making some of the most typical mistakes of poor leaders of the past. Incompetence and disorganization; fighting the last war rather than the current conflict (i.e., living in the past); selfishness and a focus on the personal ego rather than the actual needs of the nation are the three worst faults a leader can exhibit. [1: J. McCausland, "Developing strategic leaders for the 21st century," Strategic Studies Institute, 2008. Available: http://www.StrategicStudiesInstitute.army.mil / (26 Sept 2013), xi]
On a very basic level, military leaders must have basic organizational skills.…… [Read More]
Joy of Love and Marriage
Small things are lots of fun. Hence, small things can be disaster too. It's a very common situation in one's marriage life that one of the couple gets bored just because of minor matters. oredom is intoxicating. No, it is not about boredom to one's being, it's the boredom when the lawn gets too high to ignore of cutting, when pets get too many (for another intensive and uncontrollable breeding season) to feed, when the family's favorite barbershop closes by and moves its location fifteen miles farther, then everyone will argue, "Somebody's got to drive us there, and who will that be?"
People in fact cannot neglect those little business. If possible, working out simple things can prevent from marriage catastrophe, and lead them to delicious spices.
usy couples often find troubles from trivial matters. My wife, Julie and I understand how they feel when…… [Read More]