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The Roughnecks and the Saints: A Research Overview
The essential problem that the researcher set out to address in this article was the perception of and reaction to delinquency amongst teenagers in a specific town. more specifically, the researcher ended up identifying a difference in the way teenage boys of different socioeconomic backgrounds were viewed by teachers, the police, and other community members in light of their delinquency, though it is not clear that the research understood this to be the central problem when the research was initiated. As currently published, however, it is clear that the central identified problem is the lack of consistency with which rules and laws are applied, a lack of coherence in the perception of these boys based solely on their behavior, and a lack of equal treatment based on these self-reinforcing perceptions.
Again, it is not clear that the author/researcher had…… [Read More]
Critic Bloom notes, "The certainty and resolution of Joan's faith were central for Shaw. As a result, he could not really render the moving sense of humility expressed in the phrase Jeanne used so frequently in the trial: 'I wait on Our Lord'" (Bloom 133). As the play progresses, more people begin to see Joan as a "miracle," and in Shaw's definition of a miracle, faith is intertwined. He writes, "A miracle, my friend, is an event which creates faith. That is the purpose and nature of miracles" (Shaw). Thus, another aspect of Joan's faith is her ability to perform miracles. She can convince others of her faith, but her faith creates miracles, as well, such as the Captain's hens not laying eggs, and then beginning to lay again as soon as he outfits her in armor and sends her off with some of his men or the miracle of…… [Read More]
uring the Mexican-American War a number of Irish-American deserters from the U.S. Army fought on the side of Mexico. These men called themselves the "Saint Patrick's Brigade," but are more commonly referred to as the "San Patricios." Originally Catholic immigrants from Ireland, the 1840's were a rough time for Irish-Catholics who were resented and discriminated against by the Protestant Native-born Americans. The same type of prejudice followed one such immigrant into the U.S. Army, John Riley. After experiencing anti-Catholic prejudice by the majority Native Protestant officer class, Riley and a number of others deserted the U.S. Army and made their way to the Mexican side where they volunteered to fight for Mexico. When war as declared between the two nations, Riley and the San Patricios fought valiantly for Mexico, but were eventually defeated and captured at the Battle of Churubusco in 1847. Because Riley and his original deserters…… [Read More]
However, due to changes in the cultural landscape, Foucault also argues that certain texts inspire more of a sense of attachment to notions of authorship. Recently, culture has ascribed more importance to the personal psychology of authors of poetry and novels, for example, more so than scientific texts, even though in the ancient world claiming authorship of scientific works was deemed important. This indicates that how we understand an author is a social production, not something inherent to the notion of 'the text.'
Foucault's point is manifested in the fact that it is only relatively recent in Western culture that texts have not been anonymously created, as they were during the era of Beowulf. Additionally, only since the enforcement of stricter copyright laws have texts become legally 'guarded' products. Another shift in the notion of authorship may be likewise occurring in the era of the Internet, after Foucault wrote, where…… [Read More]
Saint Denis was the first cathedral that was constructed in Gothic form and consequently became the prototype of Salish, Chartres and many other cathedrals. [footnoteef:1] The cathedral is basically a huge medieval abbey church in the city of Saint Denis which is now a prominent suburb in Paris. In the early times, the church was merely a place of pilgrimage and a place where the French Kings would be buried. It was in the 12th century that Abbot Suger developed in further and made it resemble gothic art. Thus, it can be stated that the gothic touch to Saint Denis was added after the 12th century. It was after the 15th and 16th century that the status of the cathedral was returned to Gothic level.1 This piece of art was converted from a simple shrine to a much respected Cathedral Basilica of Saint Denis. Suger tried…… [Read More]
Hero and Saint
An Analysis of the Hero and the Saint from St. Francis to Kierkegaard's Abraham
Francis of Assisi is one of the most famous saints of the Church and Dante is one its most famous literary heroes. St. Francis received his vocation at the beginning of the 13th century, while Dante had his celestial vision roughly some hundred years later. One was a friar, the other a poet. Yet both grow out of a vision of the Church, the world, and man's place in it and his relation to God. St. Francis was officially declared a saint two years after his death; Dante has been revered ever since his Comedy appeared. St. Francis was recognized as a saint because he embodied all the virtues of sanctity -- perfect humility, perfect charity, perfect love of God; and Dante was recognized as a literary hero because of his epic journey,…… [Read More]
Confessions of Saint Augustine
Carefully reviewing Saint Augustine's Confessions is a fascinating historical excursion to what it was like to be a believer -- four hundred years after the death of Christ -- who had lived a sinful life but was greatly moved by the example of Jesus Christ and converted to Christianity. In this book review, the writing of Saint Augustine will be critically analyzed by looking at the intent of the author, the themes he presents, and the impact of the narrative on a person living in 2012.
In Book I Augustine begins with strong praise for the Lord, but he also is asking questions that are common to people who have been raised under pagan beliefs but have recently come to believe in Him; perhaps he isn't truly sure of his standing with God. He wonders, is there any particular room in which it would be easier…… [Read More]
However, the Mont Saint Michel monastery also exhibited many of the pre-Romanesque characteristics that were seen in the other grand Benedictine structures, such as the one in de Volpaino's native Italy (Adams 125). Before the grand cathedral and monastery could be realized, the Notre Dame sous-Terre was its predecessor. Among its pre-Romanesque features include a polygonal dome structure forming a central core as well as decorations or spoils that were copied from Roman structures.
Like many orders, the Benedictine monks had strong hierarchies, and these were reinforced in the construction of the new monastery. The Benedictine abbey therefore incorporated Romanesque elements, such as multistory entrances to reflect the differing social status of the monks and pilgrims. The Romanesque elements of the Benedictine Abbey were also seen in the dome structure. Unlike the pre-Romanesque domes, the Romanesque vaults utilized masonry vaulting, to replace the flammable wooden structures of previous churches. Barrel…… [Read More]
Whistle-lowers:Saints or Sinners
Whistle-lowers: Are They Saints or Sinners?
Whistle-blowing is the professional form of playground tattling, jail house snitching, breaking the code of Omerta by a mafia kingpin. It is a socially discouraged practice and carries heavy sanctions - "unemployment, and often-times ridicule from [the] company." (Weinberg, March 14, 2005) Weinberg quotes David Stetler, a defense attorney who was part of the defense team for TAP, a pharmaceutical company whose prosecution was initiated by a whistle-blower. Stetler makes the claim that whistle-blowing is bad for a company as "just another form of extortion." (Weinberg, March 14, 2005) One must consider the source when deconstructing such a claim. Of course an attorney who is taking part in the defense of such a lawsuit will make the charge that whistle-blowing is an iniquitous practice; in fact, if one did not hear such statements from such an attorney, his commitment to his…… [Read More]
Christian Louboutin vs. Yves Saint Laurent
Identify Yves Saint Laurent's defense to their use of red soles in their collections (in other words, what do they claim makes their look or placement of color different from Louboutin's signature look?).
A New York federal court of appeals granted Christian Louboutin "trademark protection over its signature red sole" when Yves Saint Laurent produced a fashion line with a similarly-colored red shoe ("Christian Louboutin vs. YSL 'Red Soles' Court Case Takes A New Twist," The Huffington Post, 2012). The decision was then appealed and the appellate judge ruled "that Louboutin is entitled to its trademark on red soles, except when the entire shoe is red. Except that the YSL shoes were entirely red," thus giving YSL the ability to make red-soled shoes under very specific conditions ("Christian Louboutin vs. YSL 'Red Soles' Court Case Takes A New Twist," The Huffington Post, 2012). YSL…… [Read More]
Saint Teresa of Avila - Eros, Agape en her poetry
The subject of love continues to raise heated debates when in discussion. Scholars and theologians differ on the process of expressing love. There are different forms of love as most writers and speakers in the literature indicate. Above all, there is the love that God shares with His people, and the love that people express towards each other. These two have a cordial difference as revealed in many expressions by exemplified literatures and persons studying human relations. It is common to find arguments on the way these different angles of love exist, and procedures to reveal they exist, and the process of projecting them to the recipients (ard 22). Love is a vast subject when discussed openly and draws many mixed attentions and opinions. It is also difficult to discuss as it has several different meanings in the English language.…… [Read More]
Saints and Roughnecks was the title given to Chambliss' 197 study in which he found that class and not crime often determines a person's reputation in the society and his fate with the police. The author, William Chambliss' selected two different groups of teenagers for his study, one coming from affluent part of the metropolitan area and are labeled Saints for the study, while the other group came from lower-income section of the society and were thus termed 'Roughnecks'. The study sought to find out just why the lower-income group was more often clashing with the police and ending up in jail for petty crimes, while the other group usually escaped police even though they were just about as delinquent as roughnecks. "In terms of the sheer number of illegal acts, the high-SES [socioeconomic status] boys were more delinquent. However, they were perceived as "sowing their wild oats" and were…… [Read More]
The man we know as St. Paul was Paul of Tarsus. He is not a saint that everyone has felt comfortable. Many find him harsh, difficult and uncompromising. This is true not only, now but was so in the case of his early associates and later with the other saints of the Catholic Church including St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. Barnabas. The gentle St. James once even advised him to be more diplomatic and tactful. Still at the end of it all the other saints came to look upon him with reverence and affection and so is the case with anyone who gets to know him by the study of his epistles and the Acts of the Apostles. He is a person with an indomitable spirit, filled with so much of loyalty and affection for his friends that finally he removes all criticism and his tough exterior…… [Read More]
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas lived and died between 1225-74. He was an Italian philosopher and theologian. He was the Doctor of the Church, also acknowledged as the Angelic Doctor. He is the supreme stature of scholasticism, one of the most important saints of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as, originator of the system acknowledged by Pope Leo XIII to be the legitimate Catholic philosophy (1).
This article argues that Thomas Aquinas's political philosophy is un-egalitarian. Not only does Aquinas disappoints to give his support to an egalitarian outlook of political impartiality, but so as to explain his political philosophy properly one has got to ascribe to him an idea intensely undemocratic in its repercussions. This paper proposes, consequently, that by means of Aquinas's thought, as a rational foundation for democracy would need a considerable reconsideration of his own point-of-view.
The purpose of this paper is neither to call…… [Read More]
Saints and the Roughnecks - William J. Chambliss
In his seminal essay "The Saints and the Roughnecks," William J. Chambliss studied how a community's differential perceptions led to preferential treatment of a group of juvenile delinquents from upper-middle class families over another gang of delinquents from lower-class families. The main determinant for a community's reaction to a juvenile's deviant behavior was socioeconomic class.
Since this essay's publication in 1973, the idea that people get treated differently according to their class has become widely accepted. Based on Chambliss's thesis, poor people who engage in deviant behavior - ranging from shoplifting to murder - are still more likely to be prosecuted and to receive harsher punishment. They are also more likely to be perceived as guilty by the public.
The more recent research on other determinants of social stratification allows us to expand on Chambliss's original thesis. Thus, in addition to class,…… [Read More]
Additional key architectural traits found in St. Patrick's include pointed-arch windows, the building's Gothic shape, the details of the clear vertical presence, and sharply pointed finials.
How does it differ from the Other Gothic-Style Buildings?
Though Saint Patrick's was built in Gothic style, its design is original and distinct. The cathedral is a mixture of the German, French, and English Gothic influences and the inside has more of a feel of English and French Gothic style.
Some Gothic buildings have rounded arches - which appears in their portals, windows, arcades, and the giant stone vaulting of their roofs. The massive downward and outward force of these heavy stone roofs required substantial pillars and broad supporting walls. St. Patrick's ceiling vaulting is not made of stone, but brick and plaster. This style of vaulting is lighter in weight and is predominantly English in design.
St. Patrick's Cathedral, due to its superior…… [Read More]
In his concluding questions, Chambliss notes these reactions, questioning how the meanings that were assigned to both groups by the townspeople, school officials, and police affected their futures. For this reason, Symbolic Interaction theory can be applied to the case of the Saints and the Roughnecks. In assigning values to both groups, members outside of these groups most likely impacted the groups' futures, according to Chambliss.
The decisions of the Saints and the Roughnecks to engage in delinquent behavior can also be explained in part by Symbolic Interaction Theory. In her book Violent Criminal Acts and Actors Revisited, author Lonnie Athens describes a situation in which a troubled, young man is riding in a taxi, listening to the taxi driver describe how much trouble has come his way. The young man begins to consider his own troubles, which he believes are worse than the driver's, and threatens the driver with…… [Read More]
Saints and the oughnecks by William Chambliss is a masterpiece study in Seattle suburb in the 1970s and it demonstrates the significance of connecting the macro and micro factors together. (Conformity, deviance and Crime) The Saints and the oughnecks were two clusters of boys from the same Hanibal High School, who got involved in the same kinds of abnormal behaviors but were branded differently by the public. (Violence; Disease or Attitude) The Saints belonged to upper-middle-class families, while the oughnecks belonged to a lower socioeconomic setting. (Conformity, deviance and Crime) The saints were a cluster of eight young men of fine, steady, white upper-middle class families on the pre-college track in high school, who were vigorous in school affairs, who associate in unbelievably large amounts of absenteeism, much of drinking and driving, quite a bit of little stealing and vandalism, and loads of deceiving in school, but cope up to…… [Read More]
Education is one of the most important tools one can use to change their lives. It is an efficient and fast way to initiate change since making progress often begins with one knowing more. As the population of the world increases, the demand for education is also increasing. The growing demand for education has led to several educational facilities being started all over the world. The level of access to education the world's population has right now is unparalleled in history. Save for financial constraints, there aren't many insurmountable barriers that people have to deal with to get access to an education. Nonetheless, some schools' curriculums do not meet the required standards set by educational authorities. Students graduating from such an institution may not be well equipped to deliver value in the market place. This is why it is very important to join a reputable institution with a solid track…… [Read More]
When speaking of visibility and demeanor, he refers to the fact that the Saints had access to vehicles to take them out of the eyes of their regular neighborhood, where as the boys did not have this privilege and therefore had to commit their delinquent acts directly under the eyes of the community. When discussing bias, he refers to the class structure and how the elite tend to view the poor as naturally more inclined to deviant and criminal behavior. Although he does not mention strain theory specifically, his suppositions are very much in alignment with Merton's.
Ultimately, the Saints and the oughnecks provide an intriguing scenario upon which to make numerous sociological speculations. Labeling theory, Social Control Theory and Strain theory are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to applicable models which are fitting to this all too familiar societal vignette. While no single theory can…… [Read More]
Saint Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, Paul is continuing the overall castigation of the Galatian churches which is the overarching subject of the letter as a whole. Indeed, Paul's fierce tone in Galatians is the first thing that strikes the reader: Longenecker (2003) describes Galatians as "teem[ing] with impassioned fervor unequalled in any other Pauline letter" (p.64). The subject is the "backsliding" (so to speak) of the individual congregations in Galatia: Paul indicates at Galatians 4:8 that they had previously been Gentiles, and the third chapter will make repeated reference (as we shall see) to Paul's ministry among them, but it seems that more recently they were accepting missionaries from a Jewish sect that was not Christian in any sense that Paul is prepared to recognize: they have attempted to convert the Galatian congregations
begins with Paul's question (presumably rhetorical) of whether the churches have been subject to some kind…… [Read More]
Women identified their hrist Jesus who was food during mass as the redemption of humanity. The women believed reaching spirituality was through food, since naturally they were food from their ability to breastfeed. The Medieval women associated the breast as seen in Holy mother, Mary's own breastfeeding as a Eucharistic feeding of the soul.
The painting also indicates that to the Female saints of the Middle Ages, prayer was an important element in their connection to God. In the "The life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve," Godelieve makes prayer requests and offerings of food to God, that are answered by angels who bring delicacies for the poor.
Amy Hollywood. "Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History (Religion and Postmodernism)," University of hicago Press, (2002).
This article carries out an analysis of anthropological studies of the medieval times, and looks into the connection of the body,…… [Read More]
Lives of the Saints: Vittorio's Grandfather's Self-Marginalization
Nino icci's novel, Lives of the Saints, centers on the scandal occurring in the small Italian village of Valle De Sole, an area which houses a society dominated by the notions of religion and superstition. Cristina Innocente, a local woman whose husband has left for the United States years before finds herself pregnant from an encounter with a mysterious blue-eyed stranger, and her seven-year-old son Vittorio is left to face the narrow-mindedness and judgment his family faces from both their own relatives and the inhabitants of the small town they live in.
One character who deals directly with the scandal within the Innocent family is Vittorio's grandfather. In living with the now societally-scorned Christina, Vittorio's grandfather, torn between his family duties and his position as the town's mayor, is forced into a powerless position despite his high political status. Christina's actions have not…… [Read More]
On one hand, Esperanza has just been badly wounded. Her beloved Angel, however, is an expert at healing, not because he is a holy angel, but because he is a wrestler who frequently gets injured himself and has blue ointment in his truck. He explains that red meat is better than white meat to treat a bruise, but chicken must suffice. His ointment, he says helpfully, is "the closest you can get this ointment is near a race track in Tijuana, just ask horse," and the ointment does heal Esperanza's wound, even though it is not offered to her in a romantic way -- just like the raw chicken (224).
Esperanza feels guilty for falling in love with Angel because she feels that she should only act like a mother, living only for her daughter, rather than thinking of herself. She does not think that she should take delight in…… [Read More]
Such a big funeral, so much crying, so much pain, and I buried nothing" (70). Esperanza is in a state of extreme grief, so she expresses her doubt at the ability of the rituals of the Catholic Church to heal her emotional wounds. She believes her daughter, against all physical odds and evidence is still alive, so the funeral seems futile -- hence the sense that she has buried nothing. There is a gentle humor in her frustration at the size of the funeral, as if the bigger the funeral and the more gaudy the accoutrements of mourning, the more effective it will be.
There is an evident sexual tension between Father Salvador and Esperanza, or at least, in Father Salvador's perception of the woman. Father Salvador is attempting to comfort the woman. His hand is "trembling" like "an adolescent boy "about to kiss a girl for the first…… [Read More]
Even another Free Person of Color, Richard is said to be repelled by Anna Bella's African appearance because it represents to him the degraded condition of slavery that, in Richard's mind, threatens all peoples with Black blood and especially a Black appearance. As Marcel's father expresses concern early on, those like Marcel who stand on the borders of Black and White most evidently in their appearance must spurn those who evidence Blackness, like Anna Bella and Marcel's later mistress, Cecile.
Marcel's spirit is immune to such racism, in contrast to Richard who "would never have considered for an instant infusing by marriage into his own line those strong indications of Negro blood which had proved so obvious and profound a disadvantage." (160) Society will never be equal, because the people still are not White, thus it seems foolish to Richard to lower himself. Richard is practical, but in contrast, Marcel…… [Read More]
Pages 159-160: "Things like this didn't happen to him. Not even in court" (Escandon 159). Scott's decision to bring Esperanza over the border with him is a big decision for him, and the author makes that clear by his reactions. Sweaty palms, memories, and unreality show he is uncertain and yet excited about this adventure, and that he has real feelings for Esperanza that he does not quite understand.
Then again, he had never helped a prostitute enter the United States illegally" (160). The author makes the situation funny so it does not seem so serious or important. Scott is in love, and that is all that matters. Escandon shows the impossibility and improbability of the situation with Scott's nervous reaction. He is wary, because getting caught could mean the end of his career, but it is like he is addicted, and he cannot turn back. The situations and descriptions…… [Read More]
Esperanza's Box of Saints pp. 106-129
By the way Esperanza, you are only allowed to be in your room and the common areas of the house" (128). As she speaks to Esperanza, issuing this brusque command, Dona Trini's face is like "an old male" mackerel and Dona Trini seems like a tough emotional nut to crack. But Esperanza, just as she took Father Salvador off guard, makes people like her character and quest (128). She wins affection, even of a tough, masculine woman like Dona Trini: "I like her," Dona Trini later confesses to another person (128). Dona Trini is initially mistrustful of Esperanza, because of the glow of goodness Esperanza gives off. Esperanza is initially mistrustful of Dona Trini, because of Dona Trini's harshness, and because of the woman's strange appearance. But Esperanza, over the course of her quest to find her daughter Blanca, has learned not to trust…… [Read More]
Origin of Evil
The origin of evil has been a controversial issue not only in the contemporary Christian circles but also among the ancient Greek Christians. The point of contention in the discussion about the origin of evil is why a good God would have created evil. The Judeo-Christians struggled to understand how a good, powerful, and all-knowing God could allow evil to exist. The logical conclusions were that either God did not exist or God was not good[footnoteRef:1]. However, Augustine sought to clarify this erroneous notion about the existence of God. Saint Augustine believed that the discussion on the origin of evil and whether a good God has a role in its creation and existence must first begin with the understanding of evil and God. He explained that if evil was not necessarily a thing, then it may not have been created although it negates the notion that God…… [Read More]
Brown’s Cult of Saints
The Author’s Argument
The argument that Peter Brown makes in The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity is that the “cult of saints” was essentially promoted by the cultural leaders of the time—the bishops and elites of society who had a hand in shaping the perceptions of others. Through them, the Church expressed the idea that Heaven and Earth could be joined through the intercession of the saints,[footnoteRef:2] whose bodies were vestiges of grace and holiness, conduits through which Heaven could bridge the fault above the earth and reach out for Christians interested in making it to the other side, in holiness. As Brown notes, “the joining of Heaven and Earth was made plain even by the manner in which contemporaries designed and described the shrines of the saints.”[footnoteRef:3] The saints and their resting places represented the jointure—the point where the…… [Read More]
Lives of Saints
In Nino Ricci's novel The Lives of Saints, one of the most important themes is that of innocence and naivete. The last name of the family, Innocente, proves that the author wants to emphasize this theme in the series. There are many ways that innocence and naivete play themselves out in the lives and identities of the main characters. For one, being naive means being unaware of the social conventions and social norms that one is expected to conform to in order to be an accepted member of the community. Second, naivete and innocence are qualities of saints, the primary motif and reason for the title of Nino Ricci's novel. Finally, innocence is depicted as something that one possesses in childhood but which can be "lost" upon learning about issues like temptation, sexuality, and greed. Vittorio's naivete about his mother and her role in the community is…… [Read More]
Fortunately for me, these things do not occur regularly enough for me to consider them a habit.
A do, however, habitually pray when I am confronted with difficulties in my life. These prayers differ from the ones for trivial problems like the ones listed above; those prayers are more recriminations about my own bad-behavior. The prayers when I face real difficulties in my life are real prayers. I do have a deep and abiding faith in God, and I believe that He desires to help people with their problems. When confronted with something that I cannot resolve on my own, such as a family member's illness, I call upon Him for assistance. I also have enough faith to believe that God does answer prayers, even if those answers are not always favorable. I do not believe that God is like a friend to whom I should stop speaking, when He…… [Read More]
Saint Anselm, the Duke of Canturbury, was "one of the most important Christian thinkers of the eleventh century," (Sadler). This is because Anselm used a reasoned philosophical argument to address theological questions. In Cur Deus Homo, or hy God Became Man, the author addresses the Incarnation of Christ and the theme of Atonement for sin from this philosophical perspective. Anselm distinguishes between "different ways in which an action or state can be just or unjust, specifically just and unjust at the same time," (Sadler).
hy God Became Man is divided into two sections. The first part addresses sin and redemption in a general fashion. Anselm outlines the concept of sin as fulfilling the satisfaction of God, which is related the concept of being indebted to God. This is outlined best in Chapter 11 of Book 1. The author states, "To sin is nothing else than not to render to…… [Read More]
In conclusion, Saint Leo the Great has been called the first true oman Catholic Pope. His reign lasted twenty-one years, and they were some of the most influential years in Church history. Leo earned the title "Saint," and was named a Doctor of the Church as well. Saint Leo was one of the greatest Pope's to lead the Catholic Church, and he created doctrine and ideas that are still used today. He was a great theologian and writer, and had far-reaching ideas that helped define doctrine and unify the Catholic Church. He helped save ome from invaders and literally acted as the leader of ome when the Church split into an eastern and western movement. Saint Leo's feast day was celebrated on November 10, and is now celebrated on April 11 of the oman calendar.
Daniel-ops, H. (1959). The Church in the Dark Ages (Butler, a., Trans.). London J.M.…… [Read More]
Chaucer and Dryden dedicated odes to Saint Cecilia, who was revered as the patron saint of music. As a poetic muse, Cecilia is credited with inventing the organ and using that instrument to praise God. Legend has it that through a devotional song Cecilia played on the organ, God spared Cecilia her virginity after she was married. A feast-day of Saint Cecilia was held on November 22 and John Dryden's "Ode to St. Cecilia's Day" celebrates that day and the majesty of music. Music is a heavenly treat that leads to celestial harmony; the mystery of music is clarified through Dryden's use of metaphor and personification. In different stanzas, Dryden lends various instruments individual qualities according to their particular sounds. These instruments become metaphors for human passions and for the wonders of nature. The trumpet, a common military instrument, "excites us to arms," (line 26). A morose-sounding flute Dryden describes…… [Read More]
One may consider the experience of reading a book the same way, as many adults likely have been trained to read quickly, searching for the relevant plot points without considering the merits of a book's particular language or illustrations. In the same way that adult's preoccupations with standards of appearance cause them to ignore an exciting discovery, so too does a learned preoccupation with the elements of a story deemed "important" cause one to miss the depth and humor in an ostensibly "silly" little story about a Prince who lives on an asteroid.
The novella seems to suggest that the adult reading The Little Prince will ultimately fail to recognize the beauty of the story by focusing only on the ending, which is admittedly somewhat melancholic. A child, on the other hand, will be able to enjoy and celebrate the Prince's adventure of discovery in spite of the fact that…… [Read More]
Eggleston, W. (1961). The Queen's Choice. Ottawa, Ontario: The National Capital Commission.
The city of St. John's can also borrow a leaf from the City of Ottawa's Greenbelt that was put in place to avoid urban sprawl and provide open space for future development of natural areas. According to Eggleston (1961), the Greenbelt currently covers forests, wetland, and fields used for recreation conservation, farming, research, and forestry. The greenbelt has a variety of wildlife that fall under the category of mammals, birds, insects, reptiles and amphibians. Wildlife is a source of revenue especially when tourists come to watch them. The revenue earned from such activities can be used in bettering service delivery to the city residents. This is an economic benefit that the authorities of the City of St. John's stand to benefit from if they put in place nature and wildlife reserves within the city's vicinity. The…… [Read More]
The first ten books are mostly autobiographical, as Augustine describes in them episodes from his earlier life, and how his position concerning religion and philosophy had changed throughout his existence.
All across the book, Augustine refrains from portraying himself in a way that would glorify him. Instead, he chooses to present himself as the worst individual possible, emphasizing the sins he committed until eventually being saved by Christianity and Neoplatonistic philosophy.
The fact that Augustine insists on how his entourage was mostly responsible for his immoral behavior strengthens the theory that he tended to overestimate himself through considering that he was much better than anyone he came in contact with. Nonetheless, he admits his faults and does not attempt to claim that he is innocent. One can be inclined to believe that the author was actually determined to highlight his character as a Christian and as an intellectual.
While it…… [Read More]
St. Patrick of Ireland: A Biography. Philip Freeman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.
The book by Philip Freeman takes the reader deeper into the life and times of St. Patrick of Ireland than any previous publication has been able to do. Freeman's thesis is that there have previously been many unknowns about St. Patrick and the author was determined to solve those mysteries as thoroughly as he could. The work was written based on Freeman's passion to truly understand and share his knowledge of St. Patrick to readers around the world. Bringing St. Patrick's fascinating life into a well-thought-out narrative was a valuable historical service for Freeman. The purpose of this book review is to present a realistic portrait of St. Patrick, the saint after whom a special day is designated -- and while millions of people celebrate St. Patrick's Day, very few are likely to know anything at…… [Read More]
St. Augustine's autobiography Confessions is an honest, if not severe, work of introspection. Although many of its themes and motifs are outmoded, there are core elements that remain relevant to modern readers, which is why Confessions remains critical reading as literature and religious studies. The primary focus of Confessions is on the transformation of a sinful boy into a devout Christian man. Because St. Augustine's Confessions is so compelling, the themes in the autobiography have inextricably woven themselves into the life and evolution of the Catholic Church. In particular, the theme of guilt is one that the Catholic Church may have derived from its internalization of St. Augustine's Confessions. However, there is more to Confessions than the self-lamentations of a guilt-ridden man and there is much in the autobiography that I can relate to. St. Augustine discusses morality at great length, for instance. He talks about the fact that he…… [Read More]
Saint Francis of Assisi was born at Assisi in Umbria in either 1181 or 1182, the exact year of his birth is uncertain, and died there October 3, 1226 (Saint pp). One of several children, he was born into a wealthy family (Saint pp). His father, Pietro Bernardone, was a successful cloth merchant and his mother, Pica is said to have come from a noble family of Provence (Saint pp). Francis was baptized Giovanni, later however, his father altered his name to Francesco (Saint pp). Francis grew up as a privileged citizen by indulgent parents who satisfied his every whim (Saint pp). He was handsome and gallant and so enjoyed the finer offerings in life that one biographer referred to him as "the very king of frolic" (Saint pp).
Francis was around twenty years of age when he was captured prisoner during a skirmish with the Perugians, and while held…… [Read More]
Augustine's main problem when it came to conceiving of the spiritual nature of God? What solution did he find?
Before answering this question, it is important to clarify what exactly is meant by "spiritual nature of God." Many things could be meant by this phrase, but for the purposes of this essay, I stipulate that it refers to "any substance... other than that which the eyes normally perceive" (Conf., VII.i.1). In many senses, Augustine was rather positivistic in his inability to imagine that things existed beyond what his physical eyes could see. He relied completely on his physical senses for information concerning the nature of reality, and was intent on describing the world around him strictly in human terms. Thus his difficulties with understanding what people meant when they portrayed God in ways that were not readily evident to his five senses:
was becoming a grown man. But the older…… [Read More]
St. Augustine's "Confessions"
The idea that sex should be equated with sin is a Catholic tradition that has its roots in the writings of Saint Augustine. Prior to this there was little opposition or shame associated with sexual activity, especially in the Classical world. Augustine's Confessions is a book that detailed the early part of his life, his paganism, his obsession with sex, and his ultimate conversion to Christianity. Although born into a world where sex was a common and open part of life, Augustine seemed to transfer his obsession with sexual activity into an equally vehement campaign for celibacy. To Augustine, sex had been the focus of his pagan life but upon his conversion to Christianity sex became equated with the sinfulness of paganism and the corruptibility of humankind. In this role sex plays an important part in the Confessions and Augustine's Christian philosophy.
Augustine was born into a…… [Read More]
Again, this feminine passivity outshines masculine action in its ability to experience divine and even human love.
As Crashaw continues, the erotic imagery becomes more emboldened and perhaps slightly more ambiguous, not clouding or confounding interpretation but suggesting several alternatives that work towards the same end of demonstrating the purity of passivity in its relation to the divine. After setting up the concept of virginity, love, and an active passivity with the juxtaposition of love with blood, Crashaw either extends or shifts this image further with the lines, "Scarse has she Blood enough to make / a guilty sword blush for her sake" (25-6). There is the clear surface image that juxtaposes the child with the soldier; the child is so small that she would scarcely stain the sword of a soldier that slays her, and already the grotesque nature of this image emerges as a means of shocking the…… [Read More]
In that regard, the university strives to ensure that it creates an environment conducive to the exchange of meaningful information.
The Declaration's Article 26 clearly points out that "everyone has a right to education" (UDHR). In this case, the Declaration recommends that the accessibility of higher education be enhanced. Further, in the second part of Article 26, the Declaration states in no uncertain terms that:
Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups… (UDHR)
Saint Leo's core value of community attempts to establish a spirit of interdependence, unity as well as belonging. By ensuring that the relations between people are based on respect and mutual trust, the University succeeds in promoting tolerance. This in my opinion is in line with…… [Read More]
The cases only took approximately four to five minutes implying to an unseen assembly line of justice. The study also brought to light the fact that minority cases from outside New York were listened to by an all white jury (Ingram, 2009).
The other part of the criminal justice system that witnessed high levels of racial prejudice is the correctional departments. Discrimination has been witnessed in the way prisoners of colour have been treated. Black inmates are less likely to get early release date compared to the white prisoners as they find it hard to find acceptable addresses that is crime and drug free. Whites have several options of where to stay compared to blacks thus a black prisoner is forced to stay longer in prison waiting for final release date. Convicts from minority groups have stiffer penalties for having conflicts with white convicts than with fellow blacks. This is…… [Read More]
7. Esperanza was being asked (or told) by Dona Trini that she was going to have to service more clients than just Mr. Haynes, and Esperanza told Dona that maybe an enemy was using a spell against her. Dona told Esperanza that she could think of eight enemies already.
8. Haynes was smuggling Esperanza across the border, and was sweating profusely. The immigration officer at first waved him through, but then yelled at him to stop. He recognized Haynes as the judge that had let his brother off with parole when accused of smuggling pot across the border.
9. This quote concerns the priest whom Esperanza has been contacting long distance in order to 'confess'. By his words, he has fallen madly in love with her (or at least in lust) and wishes for her to return posthaste, or perhaps never at all.
10. Esperanza met a man at a…… [Read More]
Sociology as a field of study entails examining and understanding the behavior of human groups and associated social behavior. In understanding these aspects, the sociologists have, their focus primarily concentrated on the human interactions. These human interactions revolve around how the different social relations influence the behavior and attitudes of the people and how the societies originate, form and change. Human interactions are vast, and so is the field of sociology. It covers virtually all the topics of human life, from gender, race, religion, education, politics, health, group behavior and conformity among others. Sociologist focus on how the society and people influence other people since most personal experiences has their origin from external or social forces.
The social and external forces exist within the society in the form of interpersonal relationships between families and friends. Additionally, these relations form from the encounters in the academic, religious,…… [Read More]
And yet what they are looking for could be found in one single rose, or in a little water" (96-7). I have learned to look beneath the surface of things to understand what they actually mean. The sad truth is that people do spend a lot of time running around and not getting very much done. e get caught up in routine and forget to look for the simple things in life that make us happy.
3. One idea I did not know about before reading this book was that it was about space travel. I think it is interesting that the narrator finds all kinds of characters doing all kinds of things and yet, through all of his journeys, his lessons are simple. Men, wherever they are, are not so different. hen they grow up, they lose the kind of magic that they used to see the world with.…… [Read More]
According to Harvard's student handbook, people who conduct the hazing practice will be held responsible for what happens even though it happens to a lot of people, which indicates it id a standard process (Preventing Hazing at Harvard).
People will argue that others want to be victims of hazing because it is apart of the educational culture and most individuals had been through it (the Hazing eader). Furthermore, some believe that it is no big deal until someone becomes seriously injured or found dead especially when they can buy their way out of trouble, which makes them sinners.
Throughout history, rich people have proven that they are sinners because they tried to stop others' religious beliefs. For example, Hitler was a powerful and rich man who created the Holocaust because he did not want people to be different from him. It is unfortunate that people are often mistreated for…… [Read More]
Another main factor that has also been mentioned above is the factor of Personal Development that is held highly important at Saint Leo University. The administration and education board at the university feels that it is essential for every educational institution to have the kind of educational setup that will promote the progress of every individual's mental, physical and spiritual being in an appropriate and composed way (ALA/ACL, 2008).
esponsible Stewardship is another important factor in the educational setup of the university as the administration feels that an individual's capability and service spectrum can not be fully utilized without his or her ability to truly use the resources available to him or her. The administration feels that they, as an institution, can use all the resources available to them and their students towards not only developing their university but also their community as well as the neighboring communities (ALA/ACL, 2008).…… [Read More]
This stream-of-consciousness writing is in a secret journal, for the writer will get into trouble if what she writes is found by Sister Theo, who "checks our letters home. e're not allowed to say anything about the school" (Sterling 12). If the journal is discovered, the girl may suffer abuse at the hands of the teachers. riting is an act of defiance that the girl sees to be worth the risk.
The time of the story was a disturbing part of Canada's history. The use of Residential Schools actually predates Canada's existence as a country (meaning before Confederation in 1867, and the system served as a means of containment and control if the Indian population. As the Europeans acted out the myth of the New orld as an undiscovered and undeveloped land, the existence of the Aboriginal peoples complicated the myth and challenged the government that was instituted. Policies were…… [Read More]
National Incident Management System issued by the federal government and the St. Leo University's synthesis of this proposal. In this essay, critical definitions of key terms are explored to understand the specific context of their usage. Once a common understanding of these terms are explored, the paper will delve into the specific ways the system correlates to the core value of "Community" St. Leo University wishes to espouse. Next the paper will explore the more relevant points dealing with the economic, social and legal implications of this relationship. The essay will conclude with a summary and generalization of the past performance of this relationship and speculate on future endeavors related to the topic.
The 21st century was ushered in the estern hemisphere with violence, confusion and anxiety as seen in the events and aftermath of the violent attacks occurring on September, 11 2001. The military tactic known as "…… [Read More]
How Does a Person Live a Meaningful Life?
One of the questions which have perplexed humankind is how to live a meaningful life. This is because there have been a number of theorists and philosophers, who provided insights about the best ways to achieve these objectives. Over the centuries, these views are constantly shifting. This is because experiences and social attitudes will shape a person's insights.
To fully understand the meaning of life requires focusing on key ideas from the different philosophers. This will be accomplished by discussing central figures from each module in terms of their contribution, the pros / cons of their ideas and how this relates to their understanding of life. Together, these different elements will illustrate how each one of these theories is influencing the way someone can live a fulfilling life.
Epictetus -- Freedom
Epictetus is focused on several different areas to provide a…… [Read More]
They are draped in white with gold frills around their neck and arms. Their long wings are white, red, and yellow. Similar to the saints of Cimabue, we see that the angels have halos surrounding their heads.
The next area we will explore is the mid-ground of both paintings. In Madonna and Child Enthroned with Angels, the mid-ground consists of the Madonna and child. The child resembles a small man.
In Giotto's painting, the mid-ground consists of the Madonna on her throne. Unlike the castle-like structure in Cimabue's painting, this throne looks more like a church.
The last area we will look at is the background of the paintings. In Cimabue, we find a gold and black panel, whereas in Giotto, we are confronted by square like bricks of gold.
oth paintings, in their exquisite detail, are accomplished works of art, and thus deserve their status as masterpieces of the…… [Read More]
On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).
At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…… [Read More]
Montanism / Theology
Like many early heresies, Montanism has not left behind much in the way of written testimony: only one Montanist writer, Tertullian, has works that survive, and it is primarily in his work that the statements of the Montanist movement (Montanus, Prisca and Maximilia) survive in quotation. Gonzales notes that, among many differing interpretations of Montanism, one view sees them as something like "an early Pentecostal group." [footnoteRef:0] It is clear from accounts of Montanism that it included the emphasis on the Holy Spirit, including manifestations of glossolalia, that are seen in contemporary Pentecostals. ut overall, Montanus seems to have combined several contradictory impulses into his schismatic movement. The first hinged upon greater involvement of women in ministry: the heresy of Montanus is seldom mentioned without reference to "those demented women Prisca and Maximilia," as Saint Jerome calls them in his letter to Marcella refuting the Montanist heresy.[footnoteRef:1]…… [Read More]
A devil with wings outstretched stands ready to catch the viewer in its teeth, and if one is not careful his eyes are directed upward to the circling demons who parade in the air on their beasts, creating an uproar and ruckus. (These demons are of a unique variety as well -- like witches they reverse the order of nature and these beasts fly on fish, disrupting the senses, but in a weirdly humorous and fascinating way. Teniers' depiction of temptations achieves exactly what temptations set out to do -- distract.)
Line and Texture
The manner in which these demons distract is playful too: they disrupt, yet reinforce. They move in a circle, but the circle is hampered by the lines they effect. For example, one devil pierces another with a long shaft, while the flying fish add an aspect of horizontality to the circular motion of their flight. These…… [Read More]
Desire to Attend MIT
Why I Desire To Attend MIT
"Life's challenges are not supposed to paralyze you, they're supposed to help you discover who you are" (eagon, 2010, ¶ 1).
Challenges in life have helped me not only discover who I am, as the introductory quote by eagon (2010), an American historian and musician, asserts. They also strengthen and help me realize who I can become; a person who actively approaches life with a positive, optimistic attitude: an individual who discovers opportunities in life's challenges. During this essay, I recount a number of my life's challenges and the ensuing lessons that have helped shaped me and my life. I also relate reasons as well as the rationale for my desire to attend MIT. Growing up as a Palestinian in Jerusalem, challenging opportunities regularly presented experiences which helped me to change for the better as I learned more about myself.…… [Read More]
Clare of Assisi
Saint Clare of Assisi was not a feminist in the modern sense, but then again no such ideas existed at all in the 13th Century. By all accounts, though, she was a formidable and powerful woman who was the first in history to found a religious order. In the society in which she was born, women were politically, socially and economically powerless, and quite literally the property of their fathers and husbands. This was a feudal, authoritarian and patriarchal society, and even aristocratic women like Clare and her friend St. Agnes of Prague were forced into arranged marriages by their fathers. Indeed, both Clare and Agnes defied their fathers when they insisted on entering religious life as followers of St. Francis of Assisi, and Clare's family disowned her. She was not a political rebel or revolutionary, but she did have a utopian vision of society that was…… [Read More]