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However, the Wahhabis subscribe to the view that Muslims should be complete
(kaffah) because Islam encompasses all aspects of life and a totally Islamic outlook is required. They advocate the establishment of an Islamic state, the implementation of sharia law and the imposition of state-sponsored codes of dress and public behaviour"(Desker 2002, p.386). Because Islam encompasses a wide range of beliefs, influenced by cultural norms as well as religious beliefs, Muslims clearly are going to differ in what type of behavior is considered moral and what behavior is considered immoral. However, the majority of them still believe that their life will be examined and their good and bad deeds will be evaluated in order to determine whether they have been found worthy of salvation.
The Hindu tradition is very different from the Muslim tradition because good and bad deeds in one's lifetime has one minimal bearing on whether the individual…
Desker, B. 2002, 'Islam and society in South- East Asia after 11 September" Australian Journal
of International Affairs 56(3), 383-394.
Gottschalk, P. 2006, 'Indian Muslim tradition' in Mittal, S. And Thursby, G.R., eds., Religions of South Asia: an introduction, Routledge, London, pp.201-245.
Hawkins, B.K. 2004, 'The beginnings of South Asian religions' in Introduction to Asian
On Mount Sinai, God forgives all but those who have gone against Him (Exodus 32). The implication of this is that salvation comes to those who refuse, like Moses and the Levites, to stray from the path of God.
The Christian New Testament describes salvation, according to the word of God, through his Son Jesus (Christians believe Jesus was the son of God, who came to earth to save humanity; the Jews do not). One example of this may be found within the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7). In the Sermon of the Mount, Jesus preaches the way to salvation, beginning by saying "Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven" (Matthew 5, p. 1209). The content of Jesus' Sermon on the Mount in many ways reinforces that of Moses' Ten Commandments and other teachings of the Old Testament, but also contains some key…
However, when referring to what is God's will and what behavior and actions are considered pleasing to God's eyes, St. Augustine did not specifically enumerate or identify these. Consistent in his arguments, however, is to live life in accordance to His will, among which he recommended acquainting one's self with the Christian doctrine (as he did so himself when he sought the Christian faith).
In this section, salvation from sin is achieved by seeking God's forgiveness and will for humankind. While St. Augustine did not specifically identified good works as one of the criterion in following God's will, this inevitably became the Christian value in making one's self pleasing in God's eyes. y committing good works and observing good behavior, one inevitably makes himself/herself "good" in the eyes of others, and similarly, to God as well. Thus, goodness -- recognizing God's regard and love for humanity -- is the best…
St. Augustine. (1994). Confessions of St. Augustine. a. Outler (Ed.). Dallas: Southern Methodist UP.
Vashum, a. (2005). "Liberation as a Theological Theme: Exploring the Theme of Liberation in the Works of Some Selected Theologians." Asia Journal of Theology, Vol. 19, Issue 2.
Salvation in the Modern World
From a historical perspective, Christianity as a religion had relatively humble beginnings. Based within the Jewish tradition, the birth of Christ signifies the start of a religion that would later become the spiritual choice of so many that it would become known as one of the "world religions." As such, the religion has evolved to take many different forms in terms of thousands of denominations and traditions. One might argue that this is the result of cultural and evolutionary forces, where each specific culture or time period believes in a way that suits the concerns of the time. Indeed, many today are faced with questions around how Christianity, a religion starting during a time of oman oppression and elitist Jewish religious leaders, applies to the faithful individual of today. What is the salvation message for today's Christian? How is the congregation of today to carry…
Hill, B.R. (1989). Jesus, the Christ: Contemporary Perspectives. Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications
Johnson, E.A. (2000). Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology. New York: Crossroad.
Many people define salvation as deliverance, and the Bible looks at it from a physical and spiritual point-of-view. In Exodus 14:13, the Bible states "Do not be afraid. Stand still, and see the salvation of the LOD, which he accomplishes for you." Here, God is talking about the physical deliverance of the people of Israel from Egyptian armies. Also, Hebrews 2:3 it is the liberation of individuals from the penalty of sin and here the salvation is "so great." In essence, we are saved from God's wrath due to his judgment of sin and this very sin has been seen to separate us from the love of God. When a person sins, it is evident in the Bible that "the wages of sin is death" (omans 6:23). Hence we need this salvation to remove our sin. Practically, the pardon we get from God when he redeems us from sin…
Davis, J. J. (2015). Practicing Ministry in the Presence Of God: Theological Reflections on Ministry and Christian Life. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers.
Graham, B. (2013). The Reason for My Hope: Salvation. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Inc.,
Salvation" is about himself as a boy who eventually stands up in church to be saved, not because he has seen Jesus, but because he is tired of sitting there and holding up the group of people who want him to be saved so that the service can come to an end. What impressed me most about this essay was the depth of feeling that Hughes' expressed later that night, when he cries because he has lied to everyone and cannot tell them. He says at that time that he does not believe in Jesus, but if this is the case, it is odd that he would feel guilty about lying. He seems to believe that lying is wrong, so he does believe in Jesus, or at least in the teaching of God, in some way. The rest of what he needs will come to him as he grows older.…
The Salvation Army has essentially operated with the same strategic plan for the past 140 years, but it is never too late to become an innovative learning organization. The Army has an established brand, an international presence and a loyal volunteer base. But it relies fairly heavily on donations for its financing. The Salvation Army needs to improve its ability to earn money, so that it can pursue its mission further. The strategic plan that the Salvation Army needs for the future is therefore to continue its current good work while adding new revenue-generation capacity, as this will give it greater ability to fulfill its mandate.
There are several opportunities that the Salvation Army can pursue in order to improve revenue. The first is social media. While the static nature of the Salvation Army is charming, there is ample evidence to support the idea that charitable fundraising is…
Salvation in the Bible
The author of this response has been asked to speak on what the Bible says about salvation. Of course, the subject is absolutely mentioned and the author of this response shall go into great detail. One verse that has great bearing on salvation would be Matthew 19:25-26. In those two verses, the disciples ask Jesus who can be saved. Jesus simply replies by saying that "with man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible" (Cisneros & Wilson, 2015). In omans 3:23, it is made clear that all have sinned and fall short of God. This would obviously imply that everyone needs salvation and absolutely no one exempt from this (Cisneros & Wilson, 2015).
Things get specific in omans 10:9-10 when it says "Then if you confess with your mouth, 'Jesus is Lord,' and believe in your heart that God raised him from the…
Bible.org. (2004). God's Plan of Salvation. Bible.org. Retrieved 26 October 2015, from https://bible.org/article/gods-plan-salvation
Cisneros, J., & Wilson, J. (2015). Bible verses about salvation - Being saved though Christ Jesus. Bible Study Tools. Retrieved 26 October 2015, from http://www.biblestudytools.com/topical-verses/salvation-bible-verses/
Anthropology -- Salvation on Sand Mountain: snake handling and redemption in southern Appalachia by Dennis Covington
Salvation on Sand Mountain: Snake handling and redemption in southern Appalachia by Dennis Covington tells the story of religious snake handling and strychnine-drinking in Appalachia. Though the author was a journalist covering the 1992 attempted murder trial of a snake handling preacher, the author's Southern background and religious search drew him to these dangerous religious practices. Beginning as an observer, the author eventually became a snake handler and write about the background, meaning and his own experience of religious snake handling. The result was a book that was good in some aspects but bad in other aspects.
Dennis Covington's Salvation on Sand Mountain: Snake handling and redemption in southern Appalachia is a story of the author's spiritual journey in the early 1990's. Covington was a writer for the New York Times who was…
Covington, D. (2009). Salvation on Sand Mountain: Snake handling and redemption in southern Appalachia. Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press.
hen we are feeling low, we can take comfort in the words of Paul: "For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us" (Romans 8:18). hen we are pleased with how we are faring in the world, we must still proceed with humility, knowing that whatever we win in the body, it is of limited value in the grand scheme of things, and only the Spirit redeems. As Paul stresses in his letter to the Christian community of the Ephesians, that trust and faith in God is essential, regardless of one's positive or negative circumstances. At times, it can seem as if God has abandoned Christians on earth, as He seemed to abandon His son upon the cross. But one must have faith in the ultimate redemption and glory of God at the end…
Ephesians 1." New King James Version. (NKJV). Biblegateway.org. 15 Mar 2008. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ephesians%201;&version=50 ;
Romans 8." New King James Version. (NKJV). Biblegateway.org. 15 Mar 2008. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=romans%208;&version=50
Calvin Luther and Zane Hodges on Sola Fide
Absolutely Free Critical Analysis
In Absolutely Free by Zane Hodges, the author argues that the Evangelical church should return to a faith alone orientation. By using the New Testament as a basis for argumentation, Hodges posits that salvation is a free gift, unearned but by an act of faith. Throughout the book, Hodges contrasts the salvation by faith alone perspective with the salvation via surrender/repentance perspective. He uses the theology of Calvin and Luther to support his view and suggests that lordship salvation is a departure both from the bible and from the Protestant theologians of the Reformation.
One of the problems with Hodges’ argument is that it relies on Lutheran theology, itself problematic and somewhat inconsistent. Luther himself struggled with the meaning of faith and what it meant to be saved, and this is evident throughout much of his writings. While…
Hodges, Zane. Absolutely Free. Zondervan, 1989.
The model that most appealed to me was the model of Jesus as Moral Example and Influence. This model shows how Jesus teaches us to love one another. It is similar to the first model in that Jesus is a teacher but instead of focusing on the wisdom of Our Lord's doctrine, this second model focuses on the greatness of love that Jesus has for us and that He inspires in us through His moral example and goodly influence. Jesus is the model of what it means to love. As Peters (2006) notes, "Jesus models for us the life of unselfish love. He models the life of self-sacrificial love or agape" (p. 226). This model gives us the blueprint for how to "copy Jesus" -- and while the teachings of Jesus can be enlightening and uplifting, it is really his example in action that seals the deal, so to…
The Epistle to the Hebrews reflects the contentious nature of the debate within the Christian community of how to define the role and nature of Jesus in the evolving tradition. Regardless of the nature of its authorship, the epistle establishes Christ as the Son of God and part of the Godhead but also a kind of high priest within the Jewish tradition. Its Christology is uniquely Jewish in its orientation and metaphors, which is one reason why it might be commonly attributed to Paul. But it suggests a new, sacrificial role for Jesus as the Son of God and a new kind of high priest.
The Epistle to the Hebrews first calls Jesus a paradoxical figure, made lower than the angels so he could ultimately elevate humanity. “But we do see Jesus, who was made lower than the angels for a little while, now crowned with glory and honor because…
Jesus the Only Savior?
Part I Pluralism
It must first be noted that the author, Ronald H. Nash, was a Calvinist/aptist philosopher and apologist and a professor on theology and history for more than four decades. He earned many more honors and occupied more positions than will open him to questioning as to his vast knowledge of the theological discipline.
His book introduces the philosophies surrounding salvation, i.e., exclusivism, inclusivism and pluralism. The first Part of the book discusses pluralism, which argues that all religions offer all men a way to salvation. Nash replies most adequately to the repudiation of pluralism, as presented by John Hicks, its most influential proponent, and inclusivism. Pluralists, like Hicks, and inclusivists wage ferocious attacks against the long-held iblical doctrine of Christianity that Jesus Christ is the only way to salvation, as explicitly stated in John 14:6. Pluralism holds that there are many paths to…
Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology, 2008
Nash, Ronald H. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Paperback. Michigan: Zondervan Publishing
Nash, Ronald H. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Kindle Edition. Amazon Digital Services,
John Wesley's understanding of the via salutis, identifying each component. Does John Wesley successfully maintain his emphasis both on God's goodness and on humanity's responsibility throughout this entire process?
The term "via salutis" translates into the "path of salvation." In the view of John Wesley, the path of salvation consisted of two distinct components, that of justification and sanctification (Wesley, 1980, p.271). Justification was an act of God's forgiveness and the human being accepting God into his or her heart. Although this fundamentally changed the believer from his or her previously sinful state, it still required active responsibility on the part of the believer to accept God's forgiveness and goodness. Thus, in this first stage of the path of salvation, there was a simultaneous action on God's part in God's willingness to forgive but also a conscious change on the part of the believer to recognize and accept that goodness.…
Outler, A. C. (1980). "Introduction." In John Wesley (Library of Protestant Thought). A. C.
Outler (Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wesley, J. (1980). John Wesley (Library of Protestant Thought). A. C. Outler (Ed.). Oxford:
It increasingly seems unlikely that Christ will show up on a white horse to purge the world of sin. If this is necessary to the ideology of salvation, then one might do well to scoff at it. It does not seem to be legitimate to project that Christ will save the world from the evil which is wrecked upon it by humans or by nature. Indeed, it seems remarkably irresponsible for a modern human to merely sit waiting for Christ to save the world rather than take active steps as part of the social community to assure that the world is preserved. (for example, it has been suggested that ush's radical policy in the Middle East is "literally and determinedly drawn, consciously and unconsciously, toward the enactment of such a [endtimes] scenario, as he believes, for God's sake" [Hill] if this were true, it would be a perfect example of…
Branick, Vincent. Understanding the New Testament and Its Message: An Introduction. Paulist Press: New York, 1998.
Hill, Michael. "Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: Bush's Armageddon Obsession, Revisited" CounterPunch, Jan 4, 2003. http://www.counterpunch.org/hill01042003.html
Hughes and Orwell
hen looking for similarities between authors, it is not immediately brought to mind to look at Langston Hughes and George Orwell. The former was a major writer during the Harlem Renaissance. Most of his work focused on explorations of the black experience in the United States and how African-Americans were mistreated by the white majority. Orwell was an English writer and most of his writing dealt with social commentary on the dangers of fascism and totalitarian governments. However, in two works by these very different men, a parallel can be viewed. Langston Hughes' "Salvation" and George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" both deal with a first-person narrator who is forced by those around him into becoming an outsider, someone outside of the group opinion, and is forced to lie about his true self and his own beliefs in order to fulfill the desires of those who surround him.…
Hughes, Langston. "Salvation." 50 Essays. Ed. Samuel Cohen. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Bedford,
2011. 179-81. Print.
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." 50 Essays. Ed. Samuel Cohen. 3rd ed. Boston, MA:
Bedford, 2011. 284-91. Print.
Christianity claims to be unique and this work in writing will demonstrate the uniqueness in research and show why other religions could not be considered as the way to salvation. The work of J. Hampton Keathley, III discusses the uniqueness of Christianity and states that Christianity is unique "because it stems from the uniqueness of Jesus Christ, the greatest man who ever lived. In Jesus, we have One who has virtually changed every aspect of human life, but sadly, most people are completely oblivious to the reality of how He has so completely impacted the world." (Keathley, 2012)
The uniqueness of Jesus Christ is examined by Keathley from the view of the uniqueness of Christianity as a religion and states of Christianity that "alone of all the beliefs of mankind, be they religious or political or philosophical…" Christianity is the one religion founded upon the bases of "historical acts and…
D. James Kennedy and Jerry Newcombe, What If Jesus Had Never Been Born?, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, 1994,
Henry Morris, Many Infallible Proofs, Creation Life Publishers, 1974, p. 10 in Keathley (2012)
Keathley, J. Hampton (2012) The Uniqueness of Jesus Christ. Bible.org. Retrieved from: http://bible.org/article/uniqueness-jesus-christ#P35_5584
" When these words of mine were repeated in Pelagius' presence at ome by a certain brother of mine (an Episcopal colleague), he could not bear them and contradicted him so excitedly that they nearly came to a quarrel. Now what, indeed, does God command, first and foremost, except that we believe in him? This faith, therefore, he himself gives; so that it is well said to him, "Give what thou commandest." Moreover, in those same books, concerning my account of my conversion when God turned me to that faith which I was laying waste with a very wretched and wild verbal assault, do you not remember how the narration shows that I was given as a gift to the faithful and daily tears of my mother, who had been promised that I should not perish? I certainly declared there that God by his grace turns men's wills to the…
Charles Eadward Pratt., A Reviewed: The Quaker Doctrine of the Inward Light Vindicated.
John Tulloch., the Christian Doctrine of Sin
Augustine, Edward Bouverier Pusey., Confessions of S. Augustine: Revised from a Former Translation by E.B. Pusey: with illustrations.
Edward Bouverie., The Doctrine of the Real Presence: As Contained in the Fathers from the Death of S. John.
Salvation will come based on one's deeds rather than on his capacity to achieve a high spiritual level, as in the Hindu faith and others.
Christianity does not necessarily provide all the answers. Christian believers will still have doubts about their existence, about their role on Earth and about their lives, as well as about their capacity of attaining salvation. However, Christianity provides the means by which one can integrate successfully into his or her life, enjoy the life here, while committing to a life within the Church and doing the good deeds that can help an individual attain eternal salvation. The idea of salvation puts things into perspective, but with a direct impact on the present, because it is the acts of the individual here that will get the salvation or not.
Christianity can be considered, from all these perspectives, the most complete religion in existence and a way…
1. Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
2. Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13407a.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
hile it is commanded to do good, this is not a requirement for salvation.
Essentially, the Sikh religion believes that after death, the soul returns to God. This God is universal and salvation is acquired through good works, states Raj. (Raj 177). This does not happen with just one life, Raj explains. Salvation is attained after several reincarnations. Mansukhani asserts, "some people are busy in good works, while others are busy in crime and sin" (Mansukhani 116). On the other hand, Christian salvation does not require the seeker to be cleansed. In fact, the seeker's life can be as "dirty" and evil as it can be but as long as the seeker accepts Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior, salvation is his. Jesus is perhaps the biggest and most problematic difference between the religions. Christians believe that salvation comes through believing in Christ -- there is nothing to take…
Vensus, George. Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian. Washington: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. 2008. Print.
Raj, Joshua. A Biblical Approach to Indian Traditions and Beliefs
Singapore: Genesis Books. 2008. Print.
Mansukhani, Gobind Singh Introduction to Sikhism. New Delhi: Hemkunt Publishers. 1975.
Part Two of onald Nash's book Is Jesus the Only Savior? deals with the topic of religious inclusivism. Inclusivists "insist that all people must have a chance to be saved," regardless of their belief in Christ.[footnoteef:1] Not quite the opposite of exclusivism, inclusivism does allow for the potential ability of non-believers to be saved, but just emphasizes the unlikeliness of that actually occurring.[footnoteef:2] Kanno presents inclusivism as a view that tacitly approves religions other than one's own but " as a preparatory stage to one's own religion."[footnoteef:3] Hick's stance on inclusivism is that it is just a "soft form of exclusivism."[footnoteef:4] Because Nash is a hard exclusivist, the author finds certain problems with the inclusivism stance. [1: Nash, onald H, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? p. 104.] [2: obinson, B.A, 2011. "How People View the Status of eligions Other than Their Own." etrieved: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm] [3: Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d.…
Bible: New International Version
Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d. Inclusivism and Religious Tolerance in the Lotus Sutra. Retrieved online: http://www.iop.or.jp/0515/kanno.pdf
Nash, Ronald, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Robinson, B.A., 2011. How people view the status of religions other than their own. Retrieved online: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm
Luther's concept of the "liberated Christian" allows for both an almost existential responsibility and an odd passivity on the other hand. Humans are responsible for creating faith within themselves, but having once accomplished the achievement of faith, they can simply allow themselves to exist in the cocoon of divine love. Christ has done the work for others through his life and death. (Countering this is the idea of Luther's that all Christians serve as a communal priesthood, although it is not entirely clear to what extent he means this to be literal and to what extent he may be allowing for the metaphorical.) This tension between the active and the passive (or perhaps "accepting" might be a better translation of Luther's ideas than "passive") brings us back to the seeming contradiction posed in Luther's opening statements. It allows us to see another level of complexity in Luther's understanding of the…
Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.
The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…
Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the west - (Religion and spirituality in the modern world). Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing, Ltd.
Stepan, a.C. (October 2000). Religion, democracy, and the "twin tolerations." Journal of Democracy, 11(4), 37-57.
Weber, M.A. (2003). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
Apuleius' "The Golden Ass" is also known as Metamorphoses in the English-speaking world. This magnum opus is extremely popular for various reasons including its refreshing humor, its highly engrossing stories, and its connection with the world of magic. The long epic contains an important message, which can be easily unearthed if one reads between the lines. That message is universal in nature and thus was able to transcend the restrictions of time and space to touch the hearts of readers in all time periods. The basic storyline is simple. A man Lucius is transformed into a donkey by Fortune's magic and he goes through various trials and tribulations till goddess Isis saves him.
Summing up the central message of The Golden Ass, William Adlington wrote, "Although the matter therein seemed very light and merry, yet the effect thereof tendeth to a good and virtuous moral...under the wrap of this transformation…
Apuleius. The Golden Asse. translation, notes by William Adlington. London: John Lane - The Bodley Head, 1923
Apuleius. The Golden Ass. translation, notes, preface by Jack Lindsay New York: The Limited Editions Club, 1932.
Jesus describes his relationship both to the Father, and also to all Christian believers in John 15:1-8. The passage relies on a central, extended metaphor of Jesus as the Vine of Life. Jesus is the "true vine," tended by the Father as the supreme gardener. God the Father tends to the vine, carefully pruning it and ensuring long-term growth and healthy development of fruit and future branches. Pruning the vine implies removing sin, offering a method of spiritual purification for those who dwell within Jesus. Jesus as vine represents Jesus as Son, for "Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit," (John 15:8). The vine is an extension of the Father, and the Father provides the vine with the sun and nourishment needed for spiritual growth. Moreover, the fruit on the vine symbolizes the disciples: "Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so…
The Hasidic Jews are extremely pious and their numbers are small around the world. Each of these sects has relatively different views of their faith and values, but they all consider themselves bound as Jews beyond their specific beliefs.
It is also important to note that Jews have been some of the most persecuted and hated of religions of all times. They were thrown out of Babylon in their early history, they were consistently banned from European cities and countries, Hitler exterminated millions of them during the Holocaust, and when Israel was created in 1948, the Arab neighbors immediately attacked and tension continues in the region. Jews have maintained their beliefs despite all these setbacks, which points to the strength of their religion and beliefs.
In conclusion, Judaism is quite different from Christianity in its philosophy and beliefs, but that does not mean it is "wrong" or "bad." There are…
Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003
Rosen, Jeremy. Understanding Judaism. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2003.
Marc Lee Raphael, Judaism in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 16.
Personal behavior is essential for salvation and no religions can guarantee it just as none can take it away. The person should stand alone before their God and their behavior will trump their religion.
It should also be considered that those who believe in a Holy Spirit, or God, should give that spirit some freedom in reaching others. Perhaps the Great Spirit moves in different religions according to customs and cultures. Many may think this idea is far-fetched but it is the human mind that cannot grasp the notion. If there is a Great Spirit or Eternal One, can that being not move in ways that humanity cannot grasp because of its limited scope of imagination? Perhaps the Almighty has a clear understanding of how to reach billions of people in ways that most appeals to them and their culture. Humankind would certainly be the last to understand this theory…
Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless.
The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…
Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.
Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
ut religions aren't the most important in Montgomery county. There also are other things which are very important too. For example, the Montgomery County Archives which collects, preserves, and makes available for public use historical and evidential materials relating to Montgomery County. Its holdings consist of official records of county, and local governmental units, and copies of federal and foreign government materials. esides the official records, we can also mention "private collections, organization records, maps, pamphlets, sound recordings, photographs, motion picture film, and a small reference library" among other sources of information.
There also are a lot of interesting and beautiful places to visit in Montgomery County, a lot of places where one can find precious things to see. Some of them are: Trinity Music Academy, The Montgomery Community Theatre, Montgomery Arts and History Club. All these are important for the county because they kind of represent its pride.
1. Sweet, William Warren.(1952), Religion in the Development of American Culture 1765-1840, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons
2. Citro, Constance F.,(2004). The 2000 Census, Natl Academy Print
3. Smith, Joseph, (2004) The Book of Mormon, NuVision Publications
4." Presbyterianism," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2006
Modern Protestantism tends more to suggest that salvation is purely the work of God, and that the human need only accept salvation and all past and present sins will be forgiven, requiring them to do nothing more to be saved. In this schema, good works are merely acts of devotion. In either case, the death of Christ provides forgiveness for sins, and the soul which has been forgiven is upon death taken into heaven where it is purified and allowed to live eternally in luxury thereafter. The only downside, here, is that one has only one life in which to accept Christ. Anyone failing to do so in that time, is sentenced to never-ending punishment and pain.
The uddhist idea or Enlightenment, on the other hand, leads to a Nirvana which is the cessation of pain and suffering and one-ness with the universe. This enlightenment comes from the individual learning…
Chandra, Summet. "Allah and Krishna are the Same Person." Prabhupada Hare Krishna News Network, http://religion.krishna.org/Articles/2000/10/00184.html
Names of Paradise," Al-Islam. http://dictionary.al-islam.com/
Robinson, B.A. "Introduction to Islam" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr.htm & http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr1.htm
Robinson, B.A. "BUDDHISM: Comparison of Buddhism & Christianity" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
Once his word is accepted as truth, he promises eternal salvation, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die," (John 11:25-26). Despite believing in the Lord and observing his rules by his rules, the Jewish people are still in danger for they do not accept Jesus to truly be God's messenger. If God's word is truth and is honestly recorded in the Bible, how can one ignore Jesus Christ as the Messiah? For he is "the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but through Me," (John 14:6).
Accepting Jesus' message as truth is "being justified before God," (Halverson 2). Christianity, through Jesus is a fulfillment of the old prophecies and brings God to mankind in a personal way where each individual can accept…
Giesler, Norman L. "How Can We Know the Bible is the Word of God?" International
Students, Inc. 1995.
Halverson, Dean. "World's Religions Overview." International Students, Inc. 2004.
Robinson, Rick. "Judaism and the Jewish People." International Students, Inc. 2004.
Luther / Bossuet/Hobbes
Martin Luther's adical eligion Vision
When Martin Luther nailed his infamous 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517, he could hardly have foreseen that the consequences of his declarations would shake the Western world for centuries. While Luther was certainly not working in a vacuum and absorbed many of his attitudes towards the Catholic Church from the growing mistrust of the papacy in Germany at the time, his elegant theological arguments against the power of the pope and the rituals of Catholicism provided a strong religious alternative to the oman Catholic faith.
The instigation for the 95 Theses and one of the issues at the heart of Luther's argument against the Church was the practice of the selling of indulgences. Indulgences were essentially letters of forgiveness from the Church that could be bought in lieu of the traditional good works that…
Carsten, Francis. The New Cambridge Modern History: The Ascendency of France: 1648-88. London: Cambridge University Press, 1961. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Forgotten Books.org, 2008. Web.
ay and Joan Kroc Community Center of Chicago
The ay and Joan Kroc Corps Community Center is more than just an aquatic or fitness center. It's a holistic approach to bringing the community together to change lives, and help to end the violence in Chicago. -- The Salvation Army Metropolitan Division, 2012
Studies have shown time and again that the earlier children are introduced to meaningful learning environments, the better they tend to perform academically in later years. The research to date also suggests that because philanthropic resources are scarce, it is important to use these funding resources to their maximum advantage in delivering the wide range of social and educational services needed by many inner-city and lower socioeconomic populations today. Therefore, by identifying and comparing the types and quality of services provided by such organizations represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, this paper provides an examination…
Billups, A. (2009, May 13). Record 36 students killed this school year across Chicago. The Washington Times (Washington, DC), 11.
About Kids Off the Block. (2012). Kids Off the Block. Retrieved from http://www.kidsoffthe block.bbnow.org/.
Kroc Center. (2012). Kroc Center: Chicago. Retrieved from http://www.kroccenterchicago.org/ .
Lewis, R. (2008). Chicago made: Factory networks in the industrial metropolis. Chicago:
At the same time, Jesus offered human beings hope for salvation. It was not just through his miracles and his teachings that Jesus proved he was the true son of God. Through his death and resurrection, Jesus illustrated that mankind is in dire need of divine assistance in overcoming evil. I look to Jesus as both role model and as symbol of hope, especially in times of darkness and despair. Jesus is all that is good in humanity: unconditional love, compassion, and kindness.
I have found that if I look to Jesus and take Him into my heart, I can overcome temptation and ill will and experience a taste of salvation. Salvation involves as much grace as it does hard work. Salvation always entails faith and unwavering belief. I believe that some suffering is essential for all human beings and that if we are willing to endure our suffering and…
.....sacrament of the Eucharist epitomizes the concept of transubstantiation, in which the spirit and presence of Christ is revealed to believers in the recognizable and tangible form. God's transcendence becomes God's immanence, thereby initiating a process of spiritual transformation. As Cooke (1994) points out, the Eucharist sacrament must also take place within a community, allowing each individual to perceive Christ through other believers. The importance of community is embedded within the ritual of the Eucharist because it is an act of sacred communion -- implying community, gathering, and communication. Therefore, the concept of the Eucharist is rooted in the act of sharing, on one level Jesus sharing His body with the people and on another level the community sharing the Word with each other. Moreover, the Eucharist represents "the message of human life redeemed and transformed by the power of God working through the death and resurrection of Jesus the…
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…
1. Amudsen, Christan. (1999). "Insights from the Secret Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel of Thomas." 1st World Publishing.
2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.
3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.
4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
ymbols and images should be identified from true events in order to strengthen the themes and premises of the story. Furthermore, a central theme should be identified from the events in order to help the reader understand the points that the author is trying to make.
In reading nonfiction, the reader requires imagination in order to connect the events and themes of the story to his or her own life for the purpose of personal enjoyment and growth. The reader should be able to identify the various themes and symbols that the author has chosen to include in the story, and to interpret these in order to understand the central points of the author's writing. The symbols in the works discussed for example relate directly to the ideas of separation, deceit and growth. The reader gains the most from stories that they are able to clearly interpret and understand. In…
Hughes, Langston. "Salvation." In Literature for Composition, 8th edition by Sylvan Barnet, William Burto & William E. Cain, pp. 310-311
Lam, Andrew. "Who will light the incense when Mother's gone?" In Literature for Composition, 8th edition by Sylvan Barnet, William Burto & William E. Cain, pp. 1,036-1,037
Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver. Specifically it will discuss how Kingsolver portrays Native American and Hispanic people in the novel. Codi, the main character in "Animal Dreams," returns to her small hometown of Grace, Arizona, after a long absence. She learns to love her past and her family during her return, and she encounters her high school sweetheart, a Native American who wants to settle down with her. Throughout the novel, Kingsolver portrays Hispanic and Native Americans favorably, and even idealistically, but her writing style and devotion to her subjects make these idealistic portrayals succeed in the novel.
Codi and her family are Hispanics, although Kingsolver never really states this in the novel. It becomes clear as the novel progresses and the culture of Grace becomes known. Their real names are Hispanic, many of the townspeople are Hispanic, and their celebrations are all based on Hispanic celebrations, such as the…
Kingsolver, Barbara. Animal Dreams. New York: Harper Collins, 1990.
For this reason, it is important to identify the most basic differences between Hinduism and Christianity (Christian esponse to Hinduism (http://contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php)."
While Hindus believe in a Creator the truth behind that creator is that there are many Gods within the Brahman. The Christian faith provides one Lord, one God and one true creator.
The bible instructs man to worship and love only one God.
Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one." Deuteronomy 6:4
And call upon me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you will honor me." Psalm 50:15
In the Hindu faith each person is nothing more than a manifestation of the Brahman. It is something that can create great stress with the belief that one is on earth because in a previous life they were not worthy.
The Christian faith believes that God created all mankind with free will. He…
Ghasarian, Christian (1997) We have the best gods! The encounter between Hinduism and Christianity in La Reunion. Journal of Asian and African Studies
Lambert, Yves (1999). Secularization or New Religious Paradigms? Sociology of Religion, 60 (3), Fall, pp. 303-333.
Cohen, Charles L.(2003) the colonization of British North America as an episode in the history of Christianity. Church History
Study of Basic Christian Beliefs (Accessed 5-23-07)
If consumers robotically obeyed advertising messages, then 80% of all new products would not be destined for failure, despite the over 200 billion dollars (in 1997 figures) spent by producers to bombard the senses of the consumer through every possible venue, from television to the Internet. (45; 50)
Twitchell concludes that the presence of consumer culture paradoxically gives consumers the tools of empowerment by offering them new tools of self-fashioning. Through buying products and exercising individual choice, persons can remake themselves into new individuals, much like the rituals of the church provided similar tools of self-improvement and self-fashioning.
However, one must ask the question -- does the existence of consumerism replace other moral aspirations of humankind? For example, a person who believes the rhetoric of advertising might decide that personally buying an ecologically sound product is a replacement for actually writing his or her congressman as part of a widespread…
They point out a practical instance of India when it was struck by disaster and there was overwhelming donation of clothes that Indian towns ended up chocking on these clothes. It forced the authorities to divert from the recovery process to helping in disposal of the piles of clothes that were spewed along the highways and streets.
There is yet another angle to the whole charity giving of clothes in particular. There are some areas or countries whose local textile industry has suffered immensely due to the emergence of the cheaper clothing whose origin is the charity donated clothes from USA. The fact that they are donated means they get into the overseas markets at a cheaper price hence attracting more demand over the locally manufactured clothes. The pressures of demand and supply hence makes it impossible for the local industry to cope, hence he well intended donations of clothes…
Apartment Therapy (2013). Donor Beware: Do Your Clothing Donations Go to Those in Need? Retrieved May 8, 2013 from http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/donating-169341
Charity Raters (2013). 6 Questions you Should ask Before Donating Goods Overseas. http://goodintents.org/core-posts/donating-goods-overseas
Emily a., (2011). Sally Army millionaire: Rag trader Making a Fortune from the Clothes you Donate to Charity. Retrieved May 8, 2013 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1352343/Salvation-Army-millionaire-William-Booth-makes-fortune-donated-clothes.html
Kate S. (2010). Clothing could be Second Disaster. Retrieved May 8, 2013 from http://www.disasternews.net/news/article.php?articleid=4004
The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan
One of the most controversial issues in Christian teaching during the era in which John Bunyan wrote The Pilgrim's Progress was the question, originally posed by Martin Luther, if Christian salvation could be achieved through good deeds or through faith alone. According to the initial appearance of the structure of the book to the eye of a unenlightened modern reader, it might seem as if good works or deeds were all that were required on the part of the pilgrim, Christian, at the center of the narrative. After all, the act of pilgrimage is a physical action of a good deed, of movement in the world from a secular place to a sacred place. Christian does travel a long and hard journey to fully apprehend the true nature of the Christian faith. However, the ultimate (Protestant) truth that Christian learns at the…
Therefore what God has joined together, man must not separate." 7 Why then," they asked Him, "did Moses command [us] to give divorce papers (I) and to send her away?" 8 He told them, "Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because of the hardness of your hearts. But it was not like that from the beginning. 9 and I tell you, whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery."
Divorce was taught to be a last resort, not the 'I am tired of you' choice. Children are hurt and devastated by the divorce and more psychological trauma is being placed on the child. Children are losing context on the meaning of love and what to expect from it.
The Bible also states the expectation on men and women in regards to the family. In Genesis 1:28, it is written, "God blessed them, and God…
Bertolet, Timothy J. 2002. "Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Peril of Postmodernism." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Evangelical Theological Society. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-275630471.html
Dawson, Lorne L.. 1998. "Anti-modernism, modernism, and postmodernism: struggling with the cultural significance of new religious movements." Sociology of Religion. Association for the Sociology of Religion. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-20913875.html
Erickson, M.J. (1995). Evangelical Christology and Soteriology Today. Interpretation, 49(3), 255+. Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037673963
Holy Bible (King James Version). 1972. Thomas Nelson Inc., Camden, New Jersey.
Baptism Debate: An Examination of the Purpose and Merits of Baptism
There is no trick involved in entering the Kingdom of Heaven, but many theologians argue that there are some important steps that must be taken to help pave the way, including being baptized. Issues such as whether complete immersion is required or simply a token sprinkling, who is authorized to perform baptisms and even the fundamental purpose and merits of baptism, have all been the source of enormously divisive controversy within the Christian church for two millennia. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning different views about the purpose and merits of baptism, and whether baptism is reserved for believers only or for infants as well. A discussion concerning what mode of baptism is biblical is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.…
Bryant, S.E. (2004, Winterr). "More Than a Symbol: The British Baptist Recovery of Baptismal
Sacramentalism." Baptist History and Heritage, 39(1), 120-123.
Cavendish, R. (1999). "Baptism." Man, Myth & Magic. New York: Marshall Cavendish
The purpose of this discussion is to examine two interpretations of the functions of lay spirituality during reformation in France. For the purposes of this discussion we will examine "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Burgundy" by Mack Holt, and "Strikes and Salvation in Sixteenth-century Lyon" by Natalie Davis. e will discuss the most important factor shaping lay spirituality in each article during this period. Our discussion will explore whether or not the two historians agree or disagree, and which one we believe has the greater validity and why.
In "ine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-century Burgundy" Holt argues that the most important factor shaping lay spirituality during this period is that the "city's magistrates and elites forged an alliance with the wine growing community to produce a militant anti-Huguenot culture." (Holt)
The ine growing community consisted of Catholics while the Huguenot was composed of Protestants. There were obvious…
Davis, Natalie. "Strikes and Salvation in Sixteenth-century Lyon"
Holt, Mack. Wine, Community and Reformation in Sixteenth-century Burgundy"
Langston Hughes is one of America's foremost storytellers. In the short story, Salvation, (Hughes, Smythe, and Smythe, 1960)Hughes paints a picture that has comic overtones as well as a deeper commentary of the religious, social and cultural sentiments of the time. Hughes portrays himself as the protagonist in the story. He is a little boy who is brought to his Aunt Reed's church so that he might be "touched by the Lord" and experience Jesus as the apostles and early Christians did at the Christian feast of the Pentecost. (SundaySchoolessons.com, 2004) Aunt Reed describes in great detail how being touched by Jesus would feel. "And Jesus came into your life! And God was with you from then on! She said you could see and hear and feel Jesus in your soul." This is the experience that young Langston feels when he sits in the hot church on that summer day.…
Hughes, Langston, Hugh H. Smythe, and Mabel M. Smythe. An African Treasury: Articles, Essays, Stories, Poems. New York: Crown, 1960.
Robinson, J.H. Original Sin: The Adam and Eve Meme. Tparents. org, 2001. Accessed February 16, 2004. Available from http://www.tparents.org/Library/Unification/Talks/Robinson/Robinson-Original_Sin_Meme.htm .
SundaySchoolessons.com. Jesus' Promise Comes True with the Outpouring of the Holy Spirit. SundaySchoolessons.com, 2004. Accessed February 17, 2004. Available from http://www.sundayschoollessons.com/jprom.htm .
West & MacRae. I Have a Dream a Tribute to Martin Luther King. sound recording. West & MacRae, 1994.
According to Zetterholm (2009), God’s covenant with the people of Israel entails a bilateral relationship. In exchange for special status, the Jewish people agree to obey God’s commandments to the best of their ability. Lapses in judgment due to human nature or sin can be rectified via atonement and divine intervention. Thus, God always intended for faith to be a prerequisite for salvation. The endeavor to live by the commandments is itself insufficient.
Paul’s transformative message of faith alone being the key to salvation appears to run contrary to contemporary living in a consumer society. Likewise, Paul’s message appears, at least on the surface, to conflict with ancient Jewish teachings. It is possible to reconcile Paul’s teachings with both Judaism and modern life. For one, God did intend for mercy and grace to be embedded into the bond of the covenant. Second, no amount of mundane effort can replace the…
The Jews, of course, were as antagonistic to hearing Stephen preach the life of Christ as they were to Christ Himself -- ho is the way of salvation, and hom they have rejected. Stephen's speech is fiery and full of love and fury -- love for Christ, fury for the Jews who rejected Him: "You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised." (Here Stephen as much as says, "You are not real Jews. Real Jews would have recognized their Redeemer.) "You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" The reaction of the Jews is to stone Stephen to death. Stephen accepts his martyrdom and dies as Christ died, with a prayer for his persecutors -- and out of that prayer comes (through the mercy of God) the conversion of St. Paul.
In conclusion, "we may say that perseverance as a Christian is the only…
Fitzmyer, Joseph. The Gospel According to Luke (I-IX), vol. 28. Garden City, NY:
Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1981. Print.
Hamm, Dennis. "Are the Gospel Passion Accounts Anti-Jewish?" Journal of Religion
and Film vol. 8, no. 1 (Feb, 2004). Print.
Nowadays, another common aspect of modern life is the sinful life of young women living with men without the shelter of marriage. Although this is considered by the Church to be a sin and rules of the Church are therefore broken, it is very difficult to refuse confession to such believers. The canons are in this way a means through which advice can be given by priests and ministers to try to bring the believers on a religious path. Even so, the priests and ministers, through the canons, are permitted to transmit the believer that the gravity of the sin cannot be repeated. The canons, as generally accepted rules of behavior from the Church also serve as guiding principles in our society today.
The canons are infallible expressions of the truth at all ages because the rules of the Church and of God have not changed. They can be interpreted…
Patsavos, Lewis J. Spiritual Dimensions of the Holy Canons. New York: Holy Cross Orthodox, 2007.
Hopko, Thomas. "The Symbol of Theandric Synthesis" in Orthodox Synthesis: the Unity of Theological Thought (ed) Joseph Allen. New York: Athens Printing Company, 1981.
Viscuso, Patrick. "A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church: The 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress, an Analysis and Translation of Its Acts and Decisions." New York: Inter-Orthodox Press, 2007.
There is a great difference in the way Christianity, Islam, and Judaism perceives death in comparison to these two Indian religions. For Hindus and Sikhs, birth, and death repeat for every single person in a continuous cycle. The main idea is that each person repeatedly undergoes birth, and death in order his or her soul may be completely purified to join the divine cosmic consciousness (Harold, 2000).
A typical example of Indian religions is the Hinduism and Sikhism. These two religions share in the same core beliefs. Their way of worship and rituals, citing their communal origin, traits, and literary pieces are similar. The ultimate common belief found in Hinduism and Sikhism is the Moksha. Moksha stands for deliverance from the life cycle, the frustrations, and torments from the physical life. In Indian religion, Moksha is equivalent to the deliverance from sin in the Christian religion. Moksha perceives liberation as…
Harold, C. (2000). Bioethics for clinicians: Hinduism and Sikhism. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 163(9). p. 1167-1170.
Zavos, J. (2005). Mapping Hinduism: Hinduism and the study of Indian Religions. Contemporary South Asia Journal. 14(1). p. 116.
O'Reilly, a (ed.) 2010, Encyclopedia of motherhood, SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, viewed 29 May 2013, doi: 10.4135/9781412979276
Samuel Escobar is a well-known theologian within the Latin American community and viewed as one of the main participants in the International Congress on World Evangelism at Lausanne, Switzerland in 1974 over the years. He is also the president of the United Bible societies and of the International Fellowship of Evangelic Students and contributed immensely to the subject of global mission both in theory and practically. The contemporary Christian missions are compelled to comply with the global trends and the forces of globalization in order to remain relevant as opposed to the trends that were predominant in the third millennium of the Christian era. Escobar makes significant contribution and consequently influence on the aspect of contemporary global mission by exploring the new realities and forces of a globalized world as well as critically assessing the context of a vastly dynamic mission which hold to the earlier pedagogical teachings…
Escobar, S. (2003). The new global mission: The Gospel from Everywhere to Everyone. Downers Grove, IL:InterVarsity Press.
Escobar, S.E. (2003). A time for mission: the challenge for global Christianity. London: Inter-Varsity Press.
Greenman, J.P. (2012). Global theology in evangelical perspective: exploring the contextual nature of theology and mission. London: IVP Academic.
Taylor, W.D. (2000). Global missiology for the 21st century: the Iguassu dialogue. London: Baker Academic.
A worldview essentially denotes the framework of beliefs, ideas, philosophies, or ideologies that shapes how an individual or a group of individuals make sense of the world (Cosgrove, 2006). For instance, a three-year-old child believes that the world revolves around them. Equally, a secular humanist’s life is driven by the belief that only the material world exists. In essence, everyone has a worldview – whether conscious or unconscious. For Christians, the Bible is the ultimate influencer of their worldview. Christians believe that the sole reason for human existence is to serve God. This means that every action, decision, and emotion is driven by the desire to serve God. That is the fundamental attribute of a worldview – it influences every aspect of an individual’s life. It affects how an individual interprets the character of the world, human nature, and the purpose of life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Christians have their…
Because of the conditions of the Middle Ages, and the temperament of the nobility, many of the funds being paid that would have been considered Church funds were necessary to fund wars between countries and kings. Therefore, several people were excommunicated from the Church because the edict was not followed. Other bulls, however, did have an impact on the political arena. These included the Super rege et regina, issued in 1297. This papal bull "bestowed on James II of Aragon the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica" ("List of Papal Bulls"). This resulted in a war between the pontifical troops and the Colonna clan. The pontifical troops were triumphant, and the rebellious Colonna clan was excommunicated and their property was confiscated ("Pope Boniface VIII "para. 10).
One particular papal bull had particular religious and social significance. The Unam Sanctam was issued on November 18, 1302. This bull "declares that there is…
"List of Papal Bulls." Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved on March 25, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_papal_bulls . Online.
"Pope Boniface VIII." The New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on March 25, 2010
from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02662a.htm . Online.
"Unam Sanctam." The Catholic Forum. Retrieved on March 25, 2010 from http://www.catholic-
ystems of income and financial position would superimpose standards of normalization upon everyone within the firm. Accounting, thereby, had achieved Foucault's definition of knowledge as power over people per excellence. By the 1950s, however, person as decision-maker replaced this vision of person as machine, and accounting still has power in our society, but a different sort of power. Likewise, accounting still possesses its constructivism (i.e. manner of perceiving a certain stranglehold on reality by emphasizing certain construct and demoting others), although its constructivist paradigm may have differed from that of, say, a century ago. Individuals are viewed, measured, and criticized within programmatic frameworks, and Miller and O'Leary (1987) suggest that accounting today can still be viewed as part of the heritage and structure (albeit slightly changed) of the traditional mode of power that it was in the early decades of this century. In other words, the slanted domination of accounting…
Armstrong, P. 2002, "Management, Image and Management Accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 13, pp. 281-295
Bryer, R. 2006, "Accounting and control of the labour process" Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 17, pp 551-598.
Chwastiak, M. & Young, J.J. 2005, "Silences in Annual Reports, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 14, 533- 552
Ezzamel, M., Lilley, S. & Willmott, H. 2004, "Accounting representation and the road to commercial salvation." Accounting, Organizations and Society, 29, pp. 783- 813.
Be sure to use Rahner's idea of anonymous Christianity.
Even devout Christians such as Dante envisioned an afterlife where righteous pagans would have a place of reward and peace. Karl Rahner even conceived of a kind of non-sacramental Christian spirituality for pagans and nonbelievers: by taking a view of the world that is fundamentally in line with Christianity, nonbelievers participate in the Christian tradition and can be saved. This solves the 'problem' of entire peoples and cultures being condemned to hell, simply because they are not officially Christian.
Q3. e stated that a Catholic approach to theology is essentially analogical or metaphorical. Using specific examples, explain what is meant by this assertion.
Catholics believe that the human world is analogous to the transcendent, spiritual world. Because of the Fall and Original Sin, the earth is a reflection of the creator God, but less perfect because it is inhabited by sinful…
Albl, Martin C. Reason. faith and tradition: Exploration in Catholic theology. St. Mary's Press,
Such movements, however, had a way of becoming victims of their own success, as Niebuhr argued. Insofar as they spoke to popular aspirations and needs, they attracted large followings, necessitating new structures and hierarchies. The sharp critiques of social injustice became muffled as devotees percolated up into the respectable classes. Enthusiasm waned, leaving liturgy and ritual to provide what spontaneity and spirit no longer could. Sects became churches. (Campbell 36)
Campbell syas that Methodism especially illustrates this idea beacsue this movement always possessed something of a divided soul:
On one hand, the early esleyan movement was an extraordinarily decentralized affair, that invested authority in an army of itinerant ministers and lay preachers, many with little formal religious training. On the other hand, Methodism retained a strong episcopal center that reigned supreme on questions of doctrine and discipline, finance, and ministerial appointment. The stresses implicit in this situation first became apparent…
AME Church Elects More Women Bishops." The Christian Century, Volume 121, Issue 15 (July 27, 2004), 18-19.
Black Methodist Churches Moving toward Union." The Christian Century, Volume 117, Issue 19 (June 21, 2000), 676.
Campbell, James T. Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Carroll, Bert E. The Routledge Historial Atlas of Religion in America. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Personality and MBA Studies
There are various personalities that are displayed by different people in the society. That is what makes up a diverse society. The personality that I am considered to be is the innovative, individualistic, versatile and entrepreneurial personality. At times this is referred to as Jungian 16-Type Personality specifically the ENTP character. This is because I am resourceful, creative, and quick in the intellectual field. I also like to engage in debates and am excited over new ideas and always assertive as well as outspoken. I like having people around me and I have that ability to grasp concepts and apply logic to get amicable solutions (BSM Consulting Inc., 2011).
Apart from my character traits, there are those values that I hold dearly to and would like to see myself applying in life and getting from life as well. Values, according to National Defense University (2011) are…
BSM Consulting Inc., (2011). High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types.
Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.personalitypage.com/high-level.html
Maggie Fox, (2010). U.S. scores dead last again in healthcare study. Health and Science Editor;
Reuters. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/06/23/us-usa-healthcare-last-idUSTRE65M0SU20100623
difficult to imagine a religion that was indifferent to death; after all, the aspects of life that all religions attempt to explain are truly only relevant with reference to death. Religions attempt to look at life from the largest of possible perspectives and describe those aspects of it that are not altogether apparent through everyday interaction. The fact that the human life is a finite existence requires that individuals make important decisions throughout their lives regarding what set of values they are going to apply to their actions. Faith, in this respect, plays a central role in the way many people perceive and understand death and the afterlife. In Islam, people believe that the time of each person's death is predetermined by God and cannot be avoided. Accordingly, death through the Muslim's lens must be understood as an aspect of the submission to the will of God; therefore, it must…