School District Essays (Examples)

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Schools Districts and Education Boards

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21988163

Chicago's School Systems

"CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason for shutting down these schools is that they are underperforming, and not adequately serving the students that they are supposed to provide a quality education. Specifically, three of the schools -- Amandla Charter High School, Shabazz/Sizemore Academy Elementary School, and Larry Hawkins High School -- were on the Academic Warning List last year. As such, they were tasked with designing and implementing remediation plans to help their students to perform better. A review of those remediation plans, however, determined that they were not sufficiently implemented during the present school year. Subsequently, Chicago Public Schools has decided to revoke the charter for these institutions. The fourth school, Bronzeville Lighthouse Charter Elementary School, will not get its charter renewed because it has failed…… [Read More]

References

You have these, I don't.
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School Change Projects a New Kind of

Words: 1211 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27317717

School Change Projects

A New Kind of PTA

Sometimes the most effective changes in a system come about through the simplest changes. Perhaps a better way to phrase this same idea is that sometimes the most effective changes in a system comes at the most basic level. This is the kind of change that I propose for my district, although it is not the same kind of back-to-basics plan that is still sweeping across the American educational landscape.

This suggestion does not touch on the issue of how basic the curriculum should be, although curricular reform is (of course) one of the central questions for every educational professional since the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind act. ather, the changes that I would like to see instituted in my district are a greater participation of parents and other family members in the students' educational lives. This is a…… [Read More]

References

Appleseed Network. (2010). http://appleseednetwork.org/bOurProjectsb/Education/ParentInvolvement/tabid/618/Default.aspx

It takes a parent. (2010). http://appleseednetwork.org/bOurProjectsb/Education/ParentInvolvement/tabid/618/Default.aspx

Michigan Department of Education (2002). http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Final_Parent_Involvement_Fact_Sheet_14732_7.pdf
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School Superintendent's Communication Within the

Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68424959

It raises the need for both written and verbal communication skills to reach an optimum level that can persuade and cajole.

It is believed by many experts that this economic role will become more important in future years and that in order to achieve the status of superintendent, a candidate will have to display some experience or education in that field to ensure board members that he or she is capable of representing the district well (Thomas, 2002).

With Administrators, Staff and Teachers

School superintendents face a new level of issues when dealing with these three groups of employees, and it is very important how the man or woman in that position communicates layoffs, curriculum changes, school closures, firings, or an order to re-apply for their jobs, as has been done now in a significant number of districts around the country.

One of the superintendent's first priorities is to get…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Board perceptions. (2007, December). Retrieved May 28, 2009, from School Administrator Journal - GALE database (A172251160): .

Glass, T.E., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. (2000). A study of the American school superintendency. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from eric.ed.gov (ED440475): http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/2d/e9.pdf

Hopper, J. (2005, December). Communication essentials: What superintendents need to know and want to share about communicating. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Michigan edusource: http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:PvTiyj6oFJsJ:www.michiganedusource.org/PublicRelations/Supt_Communication_Essentials.doc+school+superintendents+communication+methods&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

McAdams, D.R. (2009, February). Top 10 'guarantees' for a great relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from EBSCO data base (AN 36326105): http://ezproxy.ppld.org:2054/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=99164b10-d3d2-43 AD-b5be-a37ac1448272%40sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=tfh&AN=36326105
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Schools Interoperability Framework Sif Implications

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33722714

The NCLB Act (2002) stresses the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics of performance. The Open Group (2003) in defining the need for integration says that the data captured in SIF "are subsequently moved through state information systems to be used.

Federal, state and local dependence on the quality and availability of education data to inform decision-making has never been higher as funding to the school level based on NCLB benchmarks and measure adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements" (Open Group 2003).

All of these many requirements for reporting the performance of learning programs upward through district, municipal, and state and federal levels is to benchmark the effectiveness of teaching programs, adherence to and compliance with NCLB measures of success, and ultimately to define which schools will continue to receive state and federal funding for their programs, or conversely, those schools that will be audited as a result of…… [Read More]

References

NCLB (2002) - the White House Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind Act. White House press announcement. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html

Open Group (2003) - White paper titled, "The SIF Plan: Advance Education through Interoperability." Published November, 2002. Updated April, 2003. San Francisco, CA. Accessed from the Internet on August 11, 2007 from location: http://www.opengroup.org/comm/case-studies/SIF-casestudy.pdf

SIF Architecture (2007) - Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Association. Presentation of the architectural elements of the SIF standard. Titled "SIF NCLB State Architecture and Community of Practice" accessed on August 12, 2007 from location: http://sif.edreform.net/download/102/1-6%20SIF%20NCLB%20State%20CoP.ppt

SIF (2007) - Why Interoperability. Description of the Zone integration server in the SIF networking topology. Schools Interoperability Framework Association website content. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location:
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School Law Dawson v East

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77896691

The court easily could have come to a contrary result, given that it denied most of the allegations of the plaintiff, other than the specific contention that the nature of this specific advertising was particularly inconsistent with state educational statues and school board policy. Even the plaintiff conceded that advertising in the form of school vending machines, yearbooks, sports scorecards, etc. had long been tolerated in schools, and would continue to be tolerated.

Question 2: What guidelines may administrators who are considering potential educational uses of commercially driven Internet technology draw from the above opinion?

The guidelines for school administers regarding advertising thus remain blurry. Video advertising is acceptable, but not the type of video advertising on Channel One. Regarding Internet advertising, it would seem that using the Internet to research material on websites where advertising may appear would be analogous to the permissible practice of taping programs from the…… [Read More]

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School Finance Its Economics and Politics

Words: 4783 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94298009

School Finance: Its Economics and Politics

School financing in America

Revenue sources for federal and state governments

Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality

School-based decision making

Family choice of schooling

Reform of schooling-finance

Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)

Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.

Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)

National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
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School Choice Throughout the Nation the American

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56936251

School Choice

Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.

Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…… [Read More]

References

CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.

Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.

Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.

Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
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School Leadership Personal and Symbolic

Words: 2540 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49318698

" (2005) Stated to be inclusive in these are the following characteristics:

risk-taking;

open-mindedness; optimism; confidence; decisiveness; reflectiveness; enthusiasm; perseverance; respect; courage; integrity; resilience; empathy. (Catholic Education Commission of Victoria, 2005)

The Catholic Education Commission of Victoria (2005) states that specific knowledge that is required to be in the repertoire of the school leader are those listed as follows: (1) the capacity to think creatively, build and communicate effective concepts that serve to inform actions; (2) the ability to think creatively and build and communicate concepts that inform action; (3) the ability to understand, rationalize and defend a point-of-view; (4) The ability to draw connections between the practical knowledge of experience and research-based, theoretical knowledge; and (5) The capacity to share and create knowledge with colleagues. (Catholic Education Commission of Victoria, 2005)

The Catholic Education Commission of Victoria (2005) states that the school leader requires a "bond of understandings that…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Kimball, Steven Miller, Milanowski, Anthony, and McKinney, Sarah A. (2009) Assessing the promise of standards-based performance evaluation for principals: results from a randomized trial. Leadership and Policy in Schools. Volume 8 Number 3, July 2009; Pages 233 -- 263. Online available at:  http://cmslive.curriculum.edu.au/leader/abstracts,58.html?issueID=11875#art28263 

New South Wales Department of Education and Training (2006) Professional Learning and Leadership Development: School Leadership Capability Framework. Online available at: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/areas/sld/frameworks/slcf/slcf_more.htm

Personal Domain: School Leadership Capability Framework (2006) New South Wales Department of Education and Training. Professional Learning and Leadership Development. Online available at: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/areas/sld/frameworks/slcf/slcf_pers.htm

Interpersonal Domain: School Leadership Capability Framework (2006) New South Wales Department of Education and Training. Professional Learning and Leadership Development. Online available at: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/areas/sld/frameworks/slcf/slcf_inter.htm
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School Change When Jessie Sullivan

Words: 870 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1412707

Granted, she was fortunate that Goldenberg is a noted school change advocate and author. However, if he had not been at the school, she may have been able to find someone else well versed in reform. The important element is collaboration with others who have a knowledge base.

The other important aspect of this article was the example of how the teachers were involved and the results that came from this change. Based on the increased scores of the students, it is easily recognized that there was a fundamental change in the teachers' instruction. Lastly, this article showed that not all changes end in "happy ever after" results. Unfortunately, the changes were not continued from one generation of teachers to the next.

There are a few elements that are missing in this article. The first is what happened to Sullivan and her involvement with this school change. Did she leave,…… [Read More]

References

Tinsley, R. (2006) Successful School Change. Catholic Education 10(1), 115-117
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School Counseling Ethics Has Been

Words: 7187 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39967424

othe values

Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.

These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).

Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).

Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…… [Read More]

references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.

Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.

Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
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School Choice & the Social Construction of

Words: 301 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37308500

School Choice & the Social Construction of School Quality

In this article, Jennifer J. Holme explores how parents, who re-locate their homes for getting access to "higher quality" schools for their children, approach their choice of school. The author also seeks to understand the beliefs of such parents about what constitutes a "good and a "bad" school. Her research consists of interviews with forty-two selected parents who had used their financial resources to buy homes in school districts where they thought the best schools were located. The research reveals that the decisions of most parents in selecting or rejecting schools for their children are not based on knowledgeable information about the quality of schools and their choice is almost always based on information gathered from other parents in their social networks consisting of "high status," "high income" parents. The author concludes from her research that the parents give more credence…… [Read More]

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School Choice and the Dropout

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28364127

Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.

The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.



Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.

.
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School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs the

Words: 9042 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8170287

They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:

1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"

2. which carried out repeatedly and over time

3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)

In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following

1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.

2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.

3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html

Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147

Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99

116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
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Schools Have Been Looking for

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63973265



Another common use is in the generation of written work. Students can learn to revise and edit using a computer word processing program. Again, this supports the use of computers to learn keyboarding just as we teach manuscript and cursive writing: the keyboard is merely a third way to record information and generate data. Students can also learn to use spreadsheets and databases (Fouts, 2000), which can give them the tools to use computers in another way: to organize information, present it in a new way, or even to generate new information. For instance, even first graders can use a simple spread sheet to count how many red, blue, green and yellow m & m's are in a package, combine the information, average them, and with one or two keystrokes, produce a bar chart. In this way, computers can make higher levels of information available to students.

CHANGES in EDUCATION…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fouts, Jeffrey T. 2000. "Research on Computers and Education:

Past, Present and Future." Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Selwyn, Neil. 2000. "Researching computers and education ®¢ glimpses of the wider picture." Computers & Education Vol. 3, pp. 93-101
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School-Based Intervention Trials for the

Words: 14493 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7664904

, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.

Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).

If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.

Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.

Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.

Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
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School Counseling in a Multicultural Society

Words: 3075 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13196920

School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview

More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.

The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.

Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…… [Read More]

References:

American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.

American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611

Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A
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School Bullying Plan

Words: 2473 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66773078

School Legal Entanglement Plan

This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.

Step 1 – Analysis

Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies

One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…… [Read More]

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Schools and Parents Effective Staff

Words: 3287 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81939847

And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.

On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.

Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information

And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.

Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
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School Budget Is Designed the

Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23005154



"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).

3. Key Budget Terminology

There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are

evenue

The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:

Local source,

Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.

Expenditures

Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…… [Read More]

References

Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.

State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.

New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
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School Grants and Proposal Opportunities

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38084335

ace to the Top-District fa Analysis

School Grant Programs

On May 22, 2012, the Secretary of Education made public the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) intention to build upon recent achievements in education through the ace to the Top-State programs (ED, 2012a) by offering an additional $383 million in grant funding to local school districts in 2012 (ED, 2012b). The goal of the ace to the Top District (TT-D) Competition is to continue advancing bold innovation and educational standards made possible through state ace to the Top grants. This essay examines the requirements and criteria that must be met in order to apply to the TT-D program.

Eligibility equirements

Eligibility for applying to the TT-D is limited to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) or a consortium of LEAs (ED, 2012c). Based on Title IX, Section 9101, subsection 26, an LEA is defined as a public board of education or other public…… [Read More]

References

ED. (2012a). Applications for new awards; Race to the Top -- District. Federal Register, 77(159), 49654-49677. Retrieved 5 Nov. 2012 from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-16/pdf/2012-20037.pdf.

ED. (2012b). Race to the Top District Competition draft. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from  http://www.ed.gov/race-top/district-competition .

ED. (2012c). Race to the Top -- District Competition: Final requirements and criteria. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from  http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/2012-fast-facts.pdf .

ED. (2012d). Race to the Top -- District guidance and frequently asked questions. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from  http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/faqs-add-1.pdf .
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Schools & At-Risk Students Continuation

Words: 4822 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7828581

The author of the article, "Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School" (Stits, 2001) related that "prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in districts where expectations were limited to keeping the students in school as much as possible," and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students "away from the traditional high school campus." The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the "good students" in the regular high school.

But eventually, the image of continuations schools in California changed, as communities more and more were trying to prevent school dropouts, and the need for a high school diploma became more important, as well, Stits writes.

HO DO CONTINUATION SCHOOLS OPERATE?

In an article in the journal Thrust…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arlington Public Schools. (2005). Alternative Education: Purpose, Mission, Beliefs. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2007, at  http://www.apsva.us/hsc .

Community College Week. (2004). R.I. Plan Would Help at-risk Students.

Hardy, Lawrence. (2007). Children at Risk: Graduation Day. American School Board Journal,

No. 37907. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2007, at  http://www.asbj.com .
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School-Wide Inquiry Into Learning and Teaching Performance

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32396986

school-wide inquiry into learning and teaching performance and participating in professional inquiry as a colleague" I have often found my school lacking (Copland & Knapp 2006). My current Capstone project is on the phenomenon of 'teaching to the test,' or the extent to which the pressures of standardized testing have inhibited teacher's creativity and limited the development of individuated curriculums in schools today. Copland and Knapp (2006) suggest that under ideal circumstances, a partnership exists between teachers and administrators as they engage in a joint effort to discover what works and what does not work when comparing teaching strategies. But I often find (which is not uncommon amongst teachers) that the standardized test becomes a kind of 'third party' in the relationship between teachers and other stakeholders.

ather than engaging in research to determine what works and does not work to enhance learning, instead teachers and administrators alike must shape…… [Read More]

Reference

Rose, L.P. (2009). Students as researchers: a framework for using action research. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2).
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School-Based Mental Health Program on

Words: 8166 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67429057

This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)

An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…… [Read More]

Bibliography.aspx www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308

Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622

Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228

Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383

Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
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School Systems the Educational Leader

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99256004

From scheduling lunch shifts to arranging for common planning time, my principal has effectively and efficiently managed the set amount of time that we have in a school day. Collaboration between parents and community members is evident as well. We often have parent / child literacy nights. Annually we also hold a rotherhood Dinner that honors community members that have positively influenced the children in our neighborhoods. Throughout New edford, Carney Academy is highly regarded; our reputation precedes us.

Educational Philosophy 6

Knowledge acquired from textbooks and college classes may give me some techniques and standards that effective leaders must know, however they are not going to teach me everything I need to know. Hopefully, my experiences as a successful coach and an employee of an excellent leader will help in building a solid foundation for me to become an effective leader myself.

ibliography

ass, ernard M (1985), Leadership and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bass, Bernard M (1985), Leadership and performance beyond expectations, New York: Free Press.

Conger, Jay A. And Rabindra N. Kanungo (1987), Towards a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review 12/4: 637-647.

Burns, John M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row

Bernstein, R. Should You Be the Boss? Mar 99, Vol. 108 Issue 6, p33, 3p, 1c
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School Situation

Words: 1419 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18918987

Circles Model for an Inner City School

"I am shocked by the lack of urgency we are showing for the deplorable situation in our inner-city schools and their neighborhoods…students trapped, going to school in a community devoid of hope or opportunity, should challenge our moral sensibilities" (Brown, 2011, Jersey Journal).

Inner city schools (including those in Trenton, NJ) tend to be plagued by similar and familiar problems. According to a peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Urban Affairs (Glickman, et al., 2008), inner city communities continue to suffer from "disinvestment" (lack of funding sources), "outmigration" (whites moving to suburbs), and "abandoned property" and a sense of gloom that is reflected in schools. Also, the inner city is known for low income citizens, "predominantly minority," and their plight is often reflected in schools (Glickman, 557). And the poor conditions in inner cities -- including those neighborhoods in Trenton, New Jersey --…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, N. (2011). Opinion: N.J. must improve cities to improve schools. Jersey Journal.

Retrieved August 20, 2013, from  http://www.nj.com .

Glickman, N.J., and Scally, C.P. (2008). Can Community and Education Organizing Improve

Inner-City Schools? Journal of Urban Affairs, 30(5), 557-577.
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School Violence Essay

Words: 2542 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37942868

What Methods Can Schools in the United States Implement to Prevent Violence in Schools?

Introduction

Statement of the problem

The recent upswing in high-profile violent incidents in the United States has focused increasing attention on the causes of this public health threat and what types of response are most appropriate. The debate over the most appropriate responses to increased violence in American society has also extended to the nation’s schools. Although it has always been present to some extent, violence has become a major problem in the nation’s schools in recent years (Kelly, 2010; Killam & Roland, 2014). While the potential for enhanced awareness of the problem and improved reporting mechanisms may account for some of the reported increase in school violence in recent years (Blosnich & Bossarte, 2011), the research that follows will clearly show that any level of violence in the schools can be enormously harmful to students and…… [Read More]

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School Counselor Study Essay

Words: 613 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55753343

School Counselor Case Study: “Tami Smith”

The client is a 14-year-old ninth-grade student who recently transferred to this counselor’s school. The client’s former school counselor reports the family is severely dysfunctional, and characterizes both Tami and her mother as being extremely manipulative. Based on the facts outlined in the case study, this paper describes how Tami’s counselor should handle this situation.

What do you see as your priorities?

There are three overarching priorities involved in Tami’s case as follows:



Compelling this student to faithfully attend class and complete her assignments in a timely fashion;


Persuading Tami and her mother that a referral to the child study team is a prerequisite to Tami’s remaining in this school; and,


Formulating an efficacious counseling intervention that can identify major problem areas in the family home that are adversely affecting Tami’s academic performance and personal life.



How would you accomplish these priorities?

Accomplishing the…… [Read More]

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School Systems and Evaluations

Words: 899 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20097535

County

Educational Technology Plan 2014-2017

TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies

TIP 2: Needs Assessment

TIP 3: The Planning Process

State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures

Environment

Engagement

Tools

TIP 4: Implementation: Timetable and Budget for Goals, Objectives and Strategies

TIP 5: Executive Summary

TIP 6: eferences

TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies of Imaginary County Public Schools

The Imaginary County Public Schools District seeks to empower students with the latest technological resources and training to provide them with the knowledge to take advantage of educational and professional opportunities throughout their communities -- and the rest of their lives.

Vision: The vision of the Imaginary County Public Schools District is to enable students to become vital contributing members to the surrounding society with the most effective and modern methods indicative of the 21st century.

Goals and Strategies

Goal 1: Students must have a safe environment…… [Read More]

References:

Harper, J. (2014). Mobile data governance. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/mobile-data-governance/

Hogan, K.. (2013). The Edtech era. Tech & Learning. 33(8), 4.

Sangani, K. (2013). BYOD to the classroom. Engineering & Technology.8(3), 42-45.

Savitz, E. (2012). How we can use technology to transform the classroom. www.forbes.com. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/11/27/how-we-can-use-technology-to-transform-the-classroom/
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School Choice Debate The Writer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17616519



The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.

Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…… [Read More]

References

Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002

Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris

Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)

First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
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School Inclusion With the Goal

Words: 1560 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58222173

The students will test you during these first few days. Without steadfast rules and well outlined disciplinary procedures, the students will not respect you.

In order to create a positive atmosphere of expectations, procedures and routines, it is also important to clearly outline to the class what is expected of them. However, in order to empower the classroom students, one beneficial strategy is to allow the students to help develop the classroom rules, procedures and expectations. y bringing the group together and making the classroom environment one in which they assisted in creating, the students will be more likely to both respect it and work with it.

Although there are numerous steps a teacher must take to create a successful learning environment in a full-inclusion classroom, taking firm and clear actions the first days of school are the most important. The purpose is to let the students know what the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Gore, M.C. (2003): Successful Inclusion Strategies for Secondary and Middle School Teachers: Keys to Help Struggling Learners Access the Curriculum. SAGE Publications.

Hardmand, Michael L. (2007): Human Exceptionality: School, Community and Family. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Male, Mary. (2002): Technology for Inclusion: Meeting the Special Needs of All Students. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Nowicki, Stephen and Marshall P. Duke. (1992): Helping the Child Who Doesn't Fit in. Peachtree Publishers.
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School Teacher and College Professors

Words: 878 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65330802

Teaching at the university level and at the grade school level can be vastly different. Institutional differences account for the largest part of the disparities between these ostensibly similar careers, but methodological differences also exist. Teaching is considered the primary focus of the grade school teacher's career, whereas university professors are often academic scholars rather than educators and teaching for such people is far less important than academic research.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, one in four Americans are enrolled in educational institutions. Education is the largest industry in the country, accounting for nearly 12 million jobs. Most of these people teach at the grade school level. Teaching is considered a trade rather than a profession: teachers are usually unionized. Teaching positions constitute almost half of all educational services jobs and require at least a bachelor's degree. Most school districts give their employees incentives to pursue further education;…… [Read More]

Howard Gardner; Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 77, 1995 help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school. Middle and secondary school teachers specialize in a specific academic subject, such as English, mathematics, or history, or a vocational area, such as automobile mechanics, business education, or computer repair. Some supervise extracurricular activities after school and help students deal with academic problems and choose courses, colleges, and careers.

Special education teachers work with students - from toddlers to those in their early 20s - who have a variety of learning and physical disabilities. Most special education teachers are found at the elementary school level. Using the general education curriculum, special education teachers modify instruction to meet a student's special needs. They also help special education students develop emotionally, be comfortable in social situations, and be aware of socially acceptable behavior.

Postsecondary teachers, or faculty as they are usually called, generally are organized into departments or divisions, based on subject or field. They teach and advise college students and perform a significant part of our Nation's research. They also consult with government, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. They prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments; grade exams and papers; and advise and work with students individually. Postsecondary teachers keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues and businesses, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field, often publishing their findings in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media..
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School Funding in Illinois and DC

Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76260758

Abstract
This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far greater problem of how to achieve a more equitable distribution of funds, though the state is currently setting a course to try to make this happen with its evidence-based model funding formula recently passed this year. In DC on the other hand, a foundation formula is used to disperse funds equitably throughout the District and private investment is obtained to help develop programs that can assist in closing the achievement gap. DC is thus better structured and its school funding approach better supported to achieve success over the long run.
Keywords: school funding, dc, Illinois, education
School Funding Investigation:
Comparing and Contrasting Illinois and Washington, D.C.
Introduction
Funding for schools is a controversial topic for many mainly because of the lack…… [Read More]

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Implementing of School Uniform Policies

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72323029

School Uniforms

Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. hile school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brunsma, David and Kerry A. Rockquemore. "The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement." 92(1): 53-62. The Journal of Educational Research (1998).

Court Orders School to Enroll Honors Student Who Protested Mandatory Uniform Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2002 from web site http://www.aclu.org/StudentsRights/StudentsRights.cfm?ID=8077&c=156

Emert Suggests Mandatory School Uniforms. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from web site http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092099/kan_0920990017.shtml

Holmquist, Micah. "Uniformed Public Schools." Retrieved on November 15, 2002 from web site http://www.stormpages.com/micahth/youth/su.html
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Nutrition Policies in Schools

Words: 1554 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3435197

School Lunch

If it is true that you are what you eat, many people do not know themselves very well. Nutritional value of any food is of extreme importance due to the fact of its contribution to the maintenance and overall health of the individual. No one could be expected to operate and learn at a high level if the sources of energy using to fuel this process are of low quality. High quality foods coupled with positive healthy attitudes towards eating and consuming are necessities in today's fast-paced society. The future of the world lies within the next generation and their education. The importance of treating children with respect and honesty cannot be overvalued in today's society. The precious resources that children provide in terms of hope and optimism require educators in today's world to do the best for the betterment of the entire society.

Nutritional policies reflect social…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dahl, M. & Scholz, J. (2011). The national school lunch program and school breakfast program: evidence on participation and non-compliance. Retrieved from http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~scholz/Research/Lunch.pdfhttp://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~scholz/R esearch/Lunch.pdf

Eisler, P. et al. ( 2009). Fast food standards for meat top those for school lunches. USA Today 9 December 2009. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2009-12- 08 school-lunch-standards_N.htm

Kaplan, K. (2011) . Is national school lunch program to blame (in part) for the rise in childhood obesity? Los Angeles Times, 6 April 2011. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/06/news/la-heb-school-lunch-program-obesity- 20110406

School Lunch Program. (2011). British Columbia website 15 April 2011. Retrieved from http://www.gov.bc.ca/fortherecord/lunch/lu_k12.html?src=/k12/lu_k12.html
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Reforming Urban Schools

Words: 13440 Length: 49 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79283099

School Choice Program

This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.

Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.

The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.

To begin, I conducted structured…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.

Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.

Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.

Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
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School Retention vs Social Promotion

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19376097

For school retention, the major reason for support of this was academic achievement. If the child does not meet the set benchmarks for performance, the decision-making panel simply agreed to retention of the student. There was no formal assessment system for this decision process.

These results were supported by the result of the study conducted by Hong and audenbush (2006)

who found that student achievement were used in state and district schools to decide social promotion vs. school retention instead of formal systems of assessment of student performance. According to these findings, the schools that used academic achievement as the main criterion for social promotion did not bother to understand how the decision affected the student for who the decision was being made and the other students in general. The findings of these authors showed that these were very important aspects in the general performance of the school itself and…… [Read More]

References

Bali, V.A., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Roberts, R. (2005). Toward a Political Explanation of Grade Retention. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(2), 133-155. doi: 10.2307/3699523

Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2005). Effects of Kindergarten Retention Policy on Children's Cognitive Growth in Reading and Mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(3), 205-224. doi: 10.2307/3699569

Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2006). Evaluating Kindergarten Retention Policy: A Case Study of Causal Inference for Multilevel Observational Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 101(475), 901-910. doi: 10.2307/27590770

Jacob, B.A., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The Effect of Grade Retention on High School Completion. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(3), 33-58. doi: 10.2307/25760170
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School Culture Overview of Situation

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55656360

Batz clearly is attempting to be a consensus manager -- he wants an agenda to go through for implementation with the least amount of conflict. However, it is also possible that he is being rather Machiavellian (potentially at the expense of committee and administrative time). He allows infighting to occur with the ostensible hope that the individuals will work things out. Yet there is an underlying current that perhaps he is using the apparent open ended, congenial style to get people who will concur with his views -- others to resign so that it appears he is not being heavy handed. However, for Jones' own agenda to work out she must consider that management of a situation and leadership are two entirely different things.

Jones must immediately meet with Batz and, rather than usurping his authority, counsel him to make a decision regarding the conference. Even if he rules against…… [Read More]

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School Choice Has Been a

Words: 2363 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33009890

These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.

The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760

Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10

Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press

Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293