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Probationary employees will thus be monitored more stringently than other personnel during the first 3-6 months of their tenure, to ensure compliance with District's goals and objectives.
Full term members will be afforded one verbal warning the first time a disciplinary measure is warranted. A verbal warning will therefore precede any formal disciplinary hearings or measures.
If the term employee has had one verbal warning and repeats an offense, they will next be given written notice which will include a recommendation for disciplinary action. The written notice will be a permanent record maintained in the individuals employee file for future reference. Included with the written warning may be a recommendation for corrective measures to improve employee performance and recommendation for suspension where appropriate.
The written notice must consist of several critical components including the following: (1) statement of the offense, (2) employee name and District name, (3) statement of the…
Collective Bargaining Agreement Between Lemon Grove School District and Lemon
Grove Teachers Association." 3, December, 2004:
Lemon Grove School District Classified Employees Contract." 2, December, 2004:
What happens is many of these entities will often provide additional financing for various long-term projects that a school district needs. As they can help to offer funding in areas where, we may be seeing tremendous amounts of pressure (due to the lack of available resources). These types of organizations can be used to address some of the medium to long-term issues affecting the school.
For example, suppose that the school district is having trouble finding the money to purchase additional computers. This is because of the various financial challenges over the last few years, with most schools having limits on what they can purchase. A foundation is useful, because they can provide assistance to upgrade the schools computer system. Then, they can offer additional assistance to ensure that we are able to keep up with the changes in technology. This is important, because it is showing how this basic…
Arts Education. (2011). NEA. Retrieved from: http://www.nea.gov/grants/apply/artsed.html
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (2011). Gates Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Pages/home.aspx
school districts should prepare learners for both higher education and professions. This is contrary to the current system where learners enter into educational courses while others join professional programs. n the U.S., a dynamic discussion relating to this issue started towards the end of the last millennium. The discussion carries on even now. Although less people now freely suggest ROP programs and funds should be put back into the school districts to develop technical training, some still claim that career-technical education five should not be involved with preparing learners for college: at least not for universities that grant bachelor's degrees. Many students say they desire to get a bachelor's degree at least. Drawing from the Nationwide Middle for Education Research, 79% of Tenth graders in 2012 said they aspired to own a bachelor's or postgraduate degree.
Parents also emphasize these ambitions. Therefore, students and parents usually avoid school district programs…
In the recent century, technical education was provided as a separate program in comprehensive district schools or specialized vocational district schools. In the 1980, a variety of efforts began, with federal support, to "integrate" educational and professional knowledge. For instance, the High Schools That Perform network was established, for guaranteeing that children complete both college-preparatory training and a career-technical series providing real preparation for work. Some school district formalized and motivated this practice by creating profession pathways. The 1994-1999 University to Perform Opportunities Act marketed profession majors and various states are now developing profession groups. Many great educational institutions now contain professional development, which arrange a multi-year program around a career-related concept learner at each grade level take a set of core educational classes together, along with a technological class relevant to the concept of the profession.
According to the Office of Professional and Mature Knowledge in the U.S. Division of Knowledge, Almost every student in the school districts takes at least one technological and career education program, and one in four learners require three or more applications in a single program area. Great Educational institutions That Work is engaged with more than 1,200 sites, and it is approximated that two or three million career institutions now function in U.S. school districts. Many learners merge college-preparatory training with CTE on their own, without any programmatic assistance.
Combining educational and career-technical education in secondary university can keep learners' options open. This incorporated technique can motivate learners to focus in their higher education ambitions while offering useful abilities if they leave school without a bachelor's degree. The management of district schools are progressively hesitant to embrace any program or educating strategy that does not enhance learners' test scores.
school district achievement are correlated with aggregate socio-economic conditions in the community. The impact of socio-economic class on school performance cannot be underestimated. The phenomenon begins as early as kindergarten: "low-SES children begin school at kindergarten in systematically lower-quality elementary schools than their more advantaged counterparts," (Burkham & Lee, 2002). The differences between Shaker Heights and Cleveland are in large part due to their different community demographics. In Shaker Heights, every single school in the district is classified as a low-poverty school. In Cleveland, the reverse is true: all of the schools are classified as high-poverty schools.
The quality of the staff, in terms of their training and educational background, reflects the socio-economic status of the schools in the district. ather than having equal staff, the schools in Shaker Heights and Cleveland have differential staff. This means that the students start out disadvantaged due to their family's low income; and…
Burkham, D.T. & Lee, V.E. (2002). Inequality at the starting gate. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved online: http://www.epi.org/publication/books_starting_gate/
"Cleveland Metropolitan School District."
"Shaker Heights City School District."
Individual Miami School District Negotiation
Quality of education is very important for the children intellectual and social development. Many parents often base their home buying decisions on the quality of schools at the locations of the future houses. Parents need to consider the overall effect of both primary and secondary education of their children since development of mental and habits of children depend on the quality of schools the children receive. High quality education has demonstrated impressive positive effect on children because it has correlative effects on individual success in life. (Magnuson, & Shager 2010). The report made by the First Coast News on 8 January 2008 reveals that Florida schools were ranked 14th nationwide despite their 28th ranking position in the educational spending. The improvement in the educational quality in Florida could be attributed to the system of education put in place, quality of teachers, accountability, and measurement of…
Department of Education (1999). Reducing Class Size, What Do We Know? -- March 1999.Archived Information.
Heavrin, C. (2011).Negotiating Essentials, Theory, Skills and Practice. Pearson Education.UK.
Magnuson, K. & Shager, H. (2010). Early education: Progress and promise for children from low-income families. Children and Youth Services Review 32:1186 -- 1198.
KSCD first tried software-based solutions such as Novell's orderManager and SurfControl's Cyber Patrol, but discovered implementation issues, cumbersome processes and time-consuming updates of content filters and blocked sites. Next, KCSD turned to hardware, purchasing 30 Kentrox ServicePoint Service Delivery Units (SDUs) to serve as DSU/CSUs and to provide the ability to monitor and control bandwidth at the application level by setting policies for use. The systems also supply monitoring as well as real-time and historical reporting based on LAN and WAN availability, utilization, service quality, and application performance statistics.
Further, ServicePoint included remote diagnostic and configuration capabilities to eliminate technician visits.
The initial implementation process took about six months and involved using the systems for termination only. Once the final version of the software was in place, Hill and his team observed traffic usage patterns and anomalies. Next, the staff began tweaking bandwidth and providing limitations by protocol.…
Clark, E. (2001, December 5). Business case: Oregon school district provides higher (bandwidth) learning. Retrieved February 4, 2005 from Web site: http://www.cconvergence.com/shared/article/showArticle.jhtml?articleId=8703266
Finally, you would want to discuss how these changes could affect school officials and their views on such efforts. Once you have spoken with all of the different stakeholders, you would then implement a strategy that will address of all their concerns, by utilizing all the various ideas from all parties. This supports the needs of the school board, by intelligently redrawing the boundaries and taking into account all of the numerous views. At which point, the chances increase that this strategy will be successful, because it addresses the different concerns and helps the school board to achieve it objectives (creating a win -- win situation for all parties).
How do ethics and culture affect your decision?
Ethics will determine how the redistricting experts will approach the issue. Where, they will take steps, towards finding the most agreeable solution for both parties. In this aspect, ethics would affect their decisions…
Key Supreme Court Cases for Civil Rights. (2010). Civil Rights. Retrieved from: http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/supreme-court/key-cases.html
Maley, D. (2010). For Mantee County. The Bradenton Times. Retrieved from: http://www.thebradentontimes.com/news/2010/09/14/schools_and_education/for_manatee_county_florida_class_size_amendment_is_no_simple_issue/
Royse, D. (2010). Florida Stands to Gain Two Congressional Seats. Miami Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.miamiherald.com/2010/09/27/1844556/florida-stands-to-gain-two-congressional.html
The school boards in this case actually tried to argue that they only use things like the webcam as a security measure -- blatantly untrue -- butt the school board members apparently did not understand that there were ethical considerations at play. They should have, and future educators using school-issued laptops need to understand the ethical implications, too.
The threat of misuse does not, ultimately, preclude the use of laptops with webcams in an academic setting. However, knowing how easy it is for people to hack into the laptop and send information back to the school board, it is not unreasonable that people and especially students would be suspicious of this technology in the future. Thus, if schools are going to continue with programs like these, they must build in safeguards. That could mean altering the software and hardware on the computers to accommodate student privacy needs, and it could…
Barrow, L., Markman, L. & Rouse, C. (2008). Technology's edge: The educational benefits of computer-aided instruction . NBER Working Paper No. 14240
Doctorow, C. (2010). School used laptop webcams to spy on them at school and home. Boing. Retrieved May 9, 2013 from http://boingboing.net/2010/02/17/school-used-student.html
Bliman, N. (2010) Student says school webcam spied on him at home. CNN. Retrieved May 9, 2013 from http://edition.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/02/19/laptop.suit/index.html
Clarke, S. (2010). Pa. school faces FBI probe, lawsuit, for using webcams on laptops to watch students at home. ABC News. Retrieved May 9, 2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Parenting/pennsylvania-school-fbi-probe-webcam-students-spying/story?id=9905488
For their own good and that of their classmates, public school children are routinely required to submit to various physical examinations, and to be vaccinated against various diseases." Testing student athletes for drugs was necessary, said Scalia, because of health reasons, much like vaccinations.
Scalia also argued that student athletes have a reduced expectation of privacy, given that they have agreed to participate in a sport. Deterring drug use amongst students, wrote Scalia, was more important than students' constitutional rights. Scalia also found that the method by which the search was conducted, namely that "process of obtaining urine samples under the Policy are negligible, since the conditions of collection are nearly identical to those typically encountered in public restrooms. In addition, the tests look only for standard drugs, not medical conditions, and the results are released to a limited group."
Justice O'Connor, however, dissented, pointing out that non-individuated searches have…
Do school children have Fourth Amendment rights? (2009). Forensic Evidence. Retrieved December 18, 2009 at http://www.forensic-evidence.com/site/Police/school_4th.html
Safford Unified School District et al. v. Redding. (2009). U.S. Supreme Court.
Retrieved December 18, 2009 at http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/08pdf/08-479.pdf
Veronica School District 47J, Petitioner v. Wayne Action et ux., etc., (1991). Cornell
Miami School District Negotiation
The Miami school district, which has announced that due to increases in enrollment that were not expected that the school boundaries for the upcoming year will be redrawn. The school board has hired experts to redraw school boundaries to be submitted for next year. Under this plan, many students will not be able to stay at their present school. Parents are objecting to the school board about the proposed plan on the basis of: (1) educational quality; (2) increases in travel time; (3) crossing economic and cultural boundaries; (4) effect on property values; and (5) social impacts to children. The objective of this work is to develop a plan to address the concerns of stakeholders giving consideration to who the stakeholders in this situation are and what the negotiation strategy should be to support the school board in their redrawing of the boundaries while simultaneously addressing…
Berry, Christopher (2004) School Inflation. Education Next. Fall 2004. Vol. 4 No.4. Retrieved from: http://educationnext.org/school-inflation/
Farmer, Tod Allen (2009) Unique Rural District Policies. The Rural Educator, 30(2). Retrieved from: http://www.ruraleducator.net/archive/30-2/Farmer.pdf
Fischer, Claude S. And Hout, Michael (2003) Different Places, Different People: The Redrawing of America's Social Geography. The Survey Research Center. University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. Retrieved from: http://www.russellsage.org/sites/all/files/u4/Fischer%20%26%20Hout_Different%20Places,%20Different%20People.pdf
Fischer, Mary J. And Tienda, Marta (nd) Redrawing Spatial Color Lines: Hispanic Metropolitan Dispersal, Segregation, and Economic Opportunity. Princeton University. Retrieved from: http://paa2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=51077
Danville School District ESOL program handbook contains policies and procedures that help English language learners (ELLs) attain English proficiency. The key components of the handbook include 1) the district’s legal obligations to ELLs and their parents, 2) the district’s procedures for identifying, assessing and placing students in ESOL program, 3) the district’s educational approach and curriculum, 4) the district’s methods and procedures for students exiting from ESOL program, and 5) the district’s method of evaluating the effectiveness of the ESOL program (“Danville School District ESOL Program Handbook,”2019). The remainder of this paper elaborates on how the above key components of the handbook are consistent with language policies reviewed in this course.
Danville School District legal obligations to ELLs and their parents
Below are some of the legal reasons why the district has an ESOL program.
The Civil Rights of 1964, Title VI
Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act…
Chicago's School Systems
"CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason for shutting down these schools is that they are underperforming, and not adequately serving the students that they are supposed to provide a quality education. Specifically, three of the schools -- Amandla Charter High School, Shabazz/Sizemore Academy Elementary School, and Larry Hawkins High School -- were on the Academic Warning List last year. As such, they were tasked with designing and implementing remediation plans to help their students to perform better. A review of those remediation plans, however, determined that they were not sufficiently implemented during the present school year. Subsequently, Chicago Public Schools has decided to revoke the charter for these institutions. The fourth school, Bronzeville Lighthouse Charter Elementary School, will not get its charter renewed because it has failed…
You have these, I don't.
urban school districts. The biggest one I believe is coping with and attaching importance to the diversity that has been part of the American paradigm since the beginning of the country. The related challenge is providing equitable education for the children of a diverse community, frequently with wide differences in background. These differences might include socioeconomic, cultural and linguistic diversity. I believe the best way to deal with these differences is not to focus on the fact that diversity is a problem, but rather a blessing.
Personally then, I would face the challenge of diversity by focusing on the positive aspects of this element. In the classroom I would for example provide time for students to present their particular culture to the rest of the class. This would entail the traditions such as food and dancing that the culture includes. In this way students learn about other cultures, and also…
This analysis only represents break-even analysis. If the school wishes to make profits, it can increase prices to accommodate this factor, However, the caveat in this move is that as prices go up, the number of prices sold may go down (Cebrzynski, 2008). Therefore, further studies, will have to be conducted to determine the price elasticity of the students within the school. In this case, supply is constant, therefore the only two factors that can change are price and demand. This program is expected to be highly dependent upon price factors.
There are several factors that may affect the accuracy of the information used for this analysis. The first is that the actual school budget is not available, Therefore, representative figures had to be obtained from other sources. Prices may differ from state to state, which could affect the results of this study. However, even if the numbers changed by…
Amonline.com (2008). Average School Lunch cost Jumps 10% in One Year. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008 at http://www.amonline.com/online/article.jsp?id=22636
Cebrzynski, F. (2008). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_23_42/ai_n26675317 /pg_1' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
To do this, the teacher needs to adopt a diverse, personalized teaching style and curriculum.
To accomplish this, a teacher's learning style must show respect for the students' individual and different learning styles, be responsive to students' different learning styles by utilizing different levels of tasks and activities, utilize a range of teaching strategies, and teach thinking skills that stretch across the curriculum. One of the most significant challenges that a teacher using a learning style centered approach to teaching is the growing pressure to "teach to the test." Teaching to the test refers to the practice of utilizing standardized test to assess the learning of students. Since such things as funding and raises are often tied directly to how well a student performs on the standardized test, many teachers and schools have adopted a curriculum that essentially teaches to the test, or in away that ensures high rates of…
Alaska Department of Education and Early Development: Mathematics and Science, http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/frameworks/mathsci/ms4inst.htm# mathematicsandscienceinstructionalpracticestoreachallstudents, Retrieved 12/01/2007
EDAS 7776: Curriculum Design Qualifying Exam Notebook. (2006) http://pirate.shu.edu/~sorrelri/Curriculum/Curriculum.pdf Retrieved 12/01/2007.
Madeus, G.F., & Stufflebeam, D.L. (1989). Educational Evaluation: the Works of Ralph Tyler. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Press.
Prideaux, D. (2005). Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. ABC of Learning and Teaching in Medicine: Curriculum Design, http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/326/7383/268 . Retrieved 12/01/2007.
Brownstone School District, Alberta
Brownstone School District
To avoid the costs associated with suing an employer for recovery of expenses and losses associated with a workplace injury, provincial governments have instituted a no-fault workers' compensation fund designed to cover these expenses (National Institute of Disability Management and Research, 2011, p. 12-13). Most employers are required to pay into this fund and the assessment rate is determined by the expected injury rates for specific industries, the size of the payroll, and claims history. A covered injury must occur during and due to employment. In Alberta these claims are administered by the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta (WCBA).
roblems in the Brownstone School District
The maximal insurable earnings for workers' compensation in Alberta in 2011 was set at $82,800 (WCBA, 2010a), so the maximum payroll amount that can used to determine the workers' compensation assessment for the Brownstone SD's 1900 employees would…
Based on the information provided, at least twenty 'lost time' claims have been submitted by Brownstone SD employees over the past five years and the actual number is probably much higher. With such a high rate of lost time claims the Brownstone SD has probably already been given a poor experience rating and assessed a surcharge (WCBA, 2009, p. 4-6). Many of these claims appear to be indefinite, and with new claims being filed each year the number of ongoing lost time claims will likely increase. At some point a poor performance surcharge will be assessed, if it already hasn't been.
One of the most obvious solutions would be for the Brownstone SD to join a larger school district, such as the neighboring large city, thereby diluting the number of claims over a much larger employee population. Since the larger school district could end up paying a surcharge because of the inherited workers' compensation claims, the merger could be dependent on Brownstone's ability to reduce the number of claims over a defined period. The money saved in terms of workers' compensation assessment fees could then be used to institute several
Beth B. v. Lake Bluff School District 65
This case involved a determination of the appropriate placement for Beth B., a twelve-year-old girl with ett Syndrome. ett Syndrome, a condition that only affects girls, is generally considered a form of Autism and can significantly or profoundly impact a student's ability to function on several different dimensions. It is believed that her motor skills are somewhere in the five to seven-month range. The extent of her cognitive and communicative abilities are greatly disputed and formed much of the factual disputes underlying the case. The student is unable to speak, which, when combined with her motor deficits, makes it impossible to administer the types of tests that would normally be used to assess cognitive and communicative functioning. The professional educators who work with the student estimate her cognitive abilities to be in the 12 to 20-month range, while her parents and private…
Beth B. v. Lake Bluff School District 65
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 20 U.S.C.S. § 1412(a).
Nemours. (2012). Individualized education programs. Retrieved April 7, 2012 from Kids
Health website: http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/iep.html
Personal philosophy of education statement
Although the settings that are used to deliver educational services today differ markedly from those used a century ago, the fundament purpose of education has remained essentially the same: to provide young learners with the academic background and experiences they need to become contributing citizens to American society (Stone, 2014). The introduction of numerous technological innovations in recent years, though, has also resulted in growing numbers of educators questioning the efficacy of conventional pedagogy that ignores the ability of students to locate information instantaneously online about the 50 state capitals, the names of all the presidents, how far it is to Jupiter, or any of the other countless facts that were once widely regarded as indicators of learning. As Trybus (2013) emphasizes, “The future of education may seem daunting and challenging if educators lack a vision of what matters most for students to be prepared…
What this amounted to was a reasonableness test. As long as an educator's actions were reasonable related to retaining order in school, then an educator could censor a school-sponsored publication. eynolds had legitimate reasons for censoring the articles. He was concerned that anonymous sources would be identifiable from the context of one of the articles, and that could lead to disruptions in the classroom. He was also concerned about what appears to be a potential case of libel, because an article was going to publish negative information about a parent without giving the parent an opportunity to respond to the article's allegations. Those were legitimate concerns and gave him the right to censor the articles.
The Court reversed the decision of the Court of Appeals and determined that eynolds' censorship of the articles was not a First Amendment violation.
This decision seems to follow both the letter and…
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 (1988).
The Oyez Project. Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260, Retrieved February
2, 2011 from Oyez, website: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1987/1987_86_836
Therefore, courts are placed in the position of determining whether or not speech falls into the category of a true threat. "A true threat is a statement that a reasonable recipient would have interpreted as a serious expression of an intent to harm or cause injury to another." Doe v. Pulaski County Special School District, 306 F.3d 616, 626 (8th Cir. 2002). Furthermore, to determine whether speech is a threat, it is not necessary that the speaker intend to carry out the threat or be able to carry out the threat, but the speaker has to intentionally convey the threat to someone. Planned Parenthood of the Columbia/Willamette, Inc. v. Am. Coalition of Life Activists, 290 F.3d 1058, 1075 (9th Cir. 2002).
Analysis: The case was not moot because the school district would be permitted to document the incident in its records if the Court reversed the trial court's decision.
Church of Scientology of Cal. V. United States, 506 U.S. 9 (1992).
Doe v. Pulaski County Special School District, 306 F.3d 616 (8th Cir. 2002).
Planned Parenthood of the Columbia/Willamette, Inc. v. Am. Coalition of Life Activists, 290
F.3d 1058, 1075 (9th Cir. 2002).
eligion is not a code of conduct that is imposed; rather it is code of conduct that you practice and in case if the individual shares affiliation with minority, the values are definitely in volatile state under young age.
Young individual is shares different believes and culture, definitely find it to be difficult in assimilating into the society, and for the sake of doing so compromise has to be accorded with the dominant social forces. The compromise can be accorded either by isolating yourself, or by intermingling. In case of a young individual, isolation is more like social curse, and it has major impact on the grooming and growth. The young individual is therefore found willing to compromise and mingle up with the society; this is because that is the psychological requirement of an individual. In some of the cases, perhaps isolation is preferred rather than intermingling with the society,…
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES No. 02-1624 ELK GROVE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT AND DAVID W. GORDON, SUPERINTENDENT, PETITIONERS v. MICHAEL A. NEWDOW ET AL. On writ of certiorari to the United States Court of appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law: ELK GROVE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT V. NEWDOW.
Matthew (EDT) Spalding, Edwin Meese. The Heritage Guide to Constitution.
Peter K. Rofes. The Religion Guarantees: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution
chool districts across the country are experiencing shrinking budgets. One way to increase the funds available for education is to apply for educational grants. They can take many forms, including those requiring rigorous research designs as well as others that might provide funds for equipment or the money to implement promising but unproven programs.
Two organizations that provide educational grant money are the Beaumont Foundation of America and the Institute of Education ciences.
The Institute of Educational ervices (IE) requires an extensive application and applies rigorous scientific research principles when considering which applications to fund. Their specific focus is to increase the body of knowledge regarding best practices in education. Their goal is to fund research being done in the "practice community" -- that is, schools and school districts (IE, 2005). They have a preference for rigorously controlled studies that involve students from multiple schools who are randomly…
Beaumont Foundation of America (BFA). "2005 Education Grant Guidelines." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.
Institute of Education Sciences (IES). "Grant Application Submissions for 2005." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.
S. constitution grants its citizens the right of freedom of speech but this freedom is not available in absolute terms. Many a times schools & educational institutions exercise control in different affairs related to its curricula, extra curricular activities and even in-house publications. The administration however can not take this exception for granted and have to prove that their control does not blatantly impinge upon the rights given to students by the First & the Fourth amendment of the constitution.
First Amendment Right to Schools: Just like First amendment gives rights to the students similarly the same laws give rights to schools to promote particular student speech. They have the right to control "school sponsored publications, theatrical productions, and other expressive activities that students, parents, and members of the public might reasonably perceive to bear the imprimatur of the school."
Case of Tinker is one of the most famous…
This aspect of added material could be more difficult to implement but might give a broader understanding of the real change associated with the overall systems change. Though it must also be mentioned that administrators tend to have a less reflective and more ideal view of classroom and policy change application, owing to the fact that they are often more involved in the development (top down) of policy changes as well as more "sold" on policy change, as a rule when it come to them. (McNeil 2000) Administrators are limitedly included in this work but more could be said about the differences between teacher and administrators perceptions in the context of the classroom. Students are completely absent from the survey materials, likely owing to the fact that a different (but comparable) research tool would need to be used to poll student perceptions of change.
Finally, the last limitation that could…
School Change Projects
A New Kind of PTA
Sometimes the most effective changes in a system come about through the simplest changes. Perhaps a better way to phrase this same idea is that sometimes the most effective changes in a system comes at the most basic level. This is the kind of change that I propose for my district, although it is not the same kind of back-to-basics plan that is still sweeping across the American educational landscape.
This suggestion does not touch on the issue of how basic the curriculum should be, although curricular reform is (of course) one of the central questions for every educational professional since the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind act. ather, the changes that I would like to see instituted in my district are a greater participation of parents and other family members in the students' educational lives. This is a…
Appleseed Network. (2010). http://appleseednetwork.org/bOurProjectsb/Education/ParentInvolvement/tabid/618/Default.aspx
It takes a parent. (2010).
It raises the need for both written and verbal communication skills to reach an optimum level that can persuade and cajole.
It is believed by many experts that this economic role will become more important in future years and that in order to achieve the status of superintendent, a candidate will have to display some experience or education in that field to ensure board members that he or she is capable of representing the district well (Thomas, 2002).
With Administrators, Staff and Teachers
School superintendents face a new level of issues when dealing with these three groups of employees, and it is very important how the man or woman in that position communicates layoffs, curriculum changes, school closures, firings, or an order to re-apply for their jobs, as has been done now in a significant number of districts around the country.
One of the superintendent's first priorities is to get…
Board perceptions. (2007, December). Retrieved May 28, 2009, from School Administrator Journal - GALE database (A172251160): .
Glass, T.E., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. (2000). A study of the American school superintendency. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from eric.ed.gov (ED440475): http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/2d/e9.pdf
Hopper, J. (2005, December). Communication essentials: What superintendents need to know and want to share about communicating. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Michigan edusource: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:PvTiyj6oFJsJ:www.michiganedusource.org/PublicRelations/Supt_Communication_Essentials.doc+school+superintendents+communication+methods&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
McAdams, D.R. (2009, February). Top 10 'guarantees' for a great relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from EBSCO data base (AN 36326105): http://ezproxy.ppld.org:2054/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=99164b10-d3d2-43 AD-b5be-a37ac1448272%40sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=tfh&AN=36326105
The NCLB Act (2002) stresses the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics of performance. The Open Group (2003) in defining the need for integration says that the data captured in SIF "are subsequently moved through state information systems to be used.
Federal, state and local dependence on the quality and availability of education data to inform decision-making has never been higher as funding to the school level based on NCLB benchmarks and measure adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements" (Open Group 2003).
All of these many requirements for reporting the performance of learning programs upward through district, municipal, and state and federal levels is to benchmark the effectiveness of teaching programs, adherence to and compliance with NCLB measures of success, and ultimately to define which schools will continue to receive state and federal funding for their programs, or conversely, those schools that will be audited as a result of…
NCLB (2002) - the White House Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind Act. White House press announcement. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html
Open Group (2003) - White paper titled, "The SIF Plan: Advance Education through Interoperability." Published November, 2002. Updated April, 2003. San Francisco, CA. Accessed from the Internet on August 11, 2007 from location: http://www.opengroup.org/comm/case-studies/SIF-casestudy.pdf
SIF Architecture (2007) - Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Association. Presentation of the architectural elements of the SIF standard. Titled "SIF NCLB State Architecture and Community of Practice" accessed on August 12, 2007 from location: http://sif.edreform.net/download/102/1-6%20SIF%20NCLB%20State%20CoP.ppt
SIF (2007) - Why Interoperability. Description of the Zone integration server in the SIF networking topology. Schools Interoperability Framework Association website content. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location:
The court easily could have come to a contrary result, given that it denied most of the allegations of the plaintiff, other than the specific contention that the nature of this specific advertising was particularly inconsistent with state educational statues and school board policy. Even the plaintiff conceded that advertising in the form of school vending machines, yearbooks, sports scorecards, etc. had long been tolerated in schools, and would continue to be tolerated.
Question 2: What guidelines may administrators who are considering potential educational uses of commercially driven Internet technology draw from the above opinion?
The guidelines for school administers regarding advertising thus remain blurry. Video advertising is acceptable, but not the type of video advertising on Channel One. Regarding Internet advertising, it would seem that using the Internet to research material on websites where advertising may appear would be analogous to the permissible practice of taping programs from the…
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
Granted, she was fortunate that Goldenberg is a noted school change advocate and author. However, if he had not been at the school, she may have been able to find someone else well versed in reform. The important element is collaboration with others who have a knowledge base.
The other important aspect of this article was the example of how the teachers were involved and the results that came from this change. Based on the increased scores of the students, it is easily recognized that there was a fundamental change in the teachers' instruction. Lastly, this article showed that not all changes end in "happy ever after" results. Unfortunately, the changes were not continued from one generation of teachers to the next.
There are a few elements that are missing in this article. The first is what happened to Sullivan and her involvement with this school change. Did she leave,…
Tinsley, R. (2006) Successful School Change. Catholic Education 10(1), 115-117
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
School Choice & the Social Construction of School Quality
In this article, Jennifer J. Holme explores how parents, who re-locate their homes for getting access to "higher quality" schools for their children, approach their choice of school. The author also seeks to understand the beliefs of such parents about what constitutes a "good and a "bad" school. Her research consists of interviews with forty-two selected parents who had used their financial resources to buy homes in school districts where they thought the best schools were located. The research reveals that the decisions of most parents in selecting or rejecting schools for their children are not based on knowledgeable information about the quality of schools and their choice is almost always based on information gathered from other parents in their social networks consisting of "high status," "high income" parents. The author concludes from her research that the parents give more credence…
Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.
The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…
Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.
Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
Another common use is in the generation of written work. Students can learn to revise and edit using a computer word processing program. Again, this supports the use of computers to learn keyboarding just as we teach manuscript and cursive writing: the keyboard is merely a third way to record information and generate data. Students can also learn to use spreadsheets and databases (Fouts, 2000), which can give them the tools to use computers in another way: to organize information, present it in a new way, or even to generate new information. For instance, even first graders can use a simple spread sheet to count how many red, blue, green and yellow m & m's are in a package, combine the information, average them, and with one or two keystrokes, produce a bar chart. In this way, computers can make higher levels of information available to students.
CHANGES in EDUCATION…
Fouts, Jeffrey T. 2000. "Research on Computers and Education:
Past, Present and Future." Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Selwyn, Neil. 2000. "Researching computers and education ®¢ glimpses of the wider picture." Computers & Education Vol. 3, pp. 93-101
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview
More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.
The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.
Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611
Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A
School Legal Entanglement Plan
This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.
Step 1 – Analysis
Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies
One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…
And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.
On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…
Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.
Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information
And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.
Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
ace to the Top-District fa Analysis
School Grant Programs
On May 22, 2012, the Secretary of Education made public the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) intention to build upon recent achievements in education through the ace to the Top-State programs (ED, 2012a) by offering an additional $383 million in grant funding to local school districts in 2012 (ED, 2012b). The goal of the ace to the Top District (TT-D) Competition is to continue advancing bold innovation and educational standards made possible through state ace to the Top grants. This essay examines the requirements and criteria that must be met in order to apply to the TT-D program.
Eligibility for applying to the TT-D is limited to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) or a consortium of LEAs (ED, 2012c). Based on Title IX, Section 9101, subsection 26, an LEA is defined as a public board of education or other public…
ED. (2012a). Applications for new awards; Race to the Top -- District. Federal Register, 77(159), 49654-49677. Retrieved 5 Nov. 2012 from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-16/pdf/2012-20037.pdf .
ED. (2012b). Race to the Top District Competition draft. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www.ed.gov/race-top/district-competition .
ED. (2012c). Race to the Top -- District Competition: Final requirements and criteria. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/2012-fast-facts.pdf .
ED. (2012d). Race to the Top -- District guidance and frequently asked questions. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/faqs-add-1.pdf .
The author of the article, "Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School" (Stits, 2001) related that "prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in districts where expectations were limited to keeping the students in school as much as possible," and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students "away from the traditional high school campus." The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the "good students" in the regular high school.
But eventually, the image of continuations schools in California changed, as communities more and more were trying to prevent school dropouts, and the need for a high school diploma became more important, as well, Stits writes.
HO DO CONTINUATION SCHOOLS OPERATE?
In an article in the journal Thrust…
Arlington Public Schools. (2005). Alternative Education: Purpose, Mission, Beliefs. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2007, at http://www.apsva.us/hsc .
Community College Week. (2004). R.I. Plan Would Help at-risk Students.
Hardy, Lawrence. (2007). Children at Risk: Graduation Day. American School Board Journal,
No. 37907. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2007, at http://www.asbj.com .
school-wide inquiry into learning and teaching performance and participating in professional inquiry as a colleague" I have often found my school lacking (Copland & Knapp 2006). My current Capstone project is on the phenomenon of 'teaching to the test,' or the extent to which the pressures of standardized testing have inhibited teacher's creativity and limited the development of individuated curriculums in schools today. Copland and Knapp (2006) suggest that under ideal circumstances, a partnership exists between teachers and administrators as they engage in a joint effort to discover what works and what does not work when comparing teaching strategies. But I often find (which is not uncommon amongst teachers) that the standardized test becomes a kind of 'third party' in the relationship between teachers and other stakeholders.
ather than engaging in research to determine what works and does not work to enhance learning, instead teachers and administrators alike must shape…
Rose, L.P. (2009). Students as researchers: a framework for using action research. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2).
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
From scheduling lunch shifts to arranging for common planning time, my principal has effectively and efficiently managed the set amount of time that we have in a school day. Collaboration between parents and community members is evident as well. We often have parent / child literacy nights. Annually we also hold a rotherhood Dinner that honors community members that have positively influenced the children in our neighborhoods. Throughout New edford, Carney Academy is highly regarded; our reputation precedes us.
Educational Philosophy 6
Knowledge acquired from textbooks and college classes may give me some techniques and standards that effective leaders must know, however they are not going to teach me everything I need to know. Hopefully, my experiences as a successful coach and an employee of an excellent leader will help in building a solid foundation for me to become an effective leader myself.
ass, ernard M (1985), Leadership and…
Bass, Bernard M (1985), Leadership and performance beyond expectations, New York: Free Press.
Conger, Jay A. And Rabindra N. Kanungo (1987), Towards a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review 12/4: 637-647.
Burns, John M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row
Bernstein, R. Should You Be the Boss? Mar 99, Vol. 108 Issue 6, p33, 3p, 1c
Circles Model for an Inner City School
"I am shocked by the lack of urgency we are showing for the deplorable situation in our inner-city schools and their neighborhoods…students trapped, going to school in a community devoid of hope or opportunity, should challenge our moral sensibilities" (Brown, 2011, Jersey Journal).
Inner city schools (including those in Trenton, NJ) tend to be plagued by similar and familiar problems. According to a peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Urban Affairs (Glickman, et al., 2008), inner city communities continue to suffer from "disinvestment" (lack of funding sources), "outmigration" (whites moving to suburbs), and "abandoned property" and a sense of gloom that is reflected in schools. Also, the inner city is known for low income citizens, "predominantly minority," and their plight is often reflected in schools (Glickman, 557). And the poor conditions in inner cities -- including those neighborhoods in Trenton, New Jersey --…
Brown, N. (2011). Opinion: N.J. must improve cities to improve schools. Jersey Journal.
Retrieved August 20, 2013, from http://www.nj.com .
Glickman, N.J., and Scally, C.P. (2008). Can Community and Education Organizing Improve
Inner-City Schools? Journal of Urban Affairs, 30(5), 557-577.
What Methods Can Schools in the United States Implement to Prevent Violence in Schools?
Statement of the problem
The recent upswing in high-profile violent incidents in the United States has focused increasing attention on the causes of this public health threat and what types of response are most appropriate. The debate over the most appropriate responses to increased violence in American society has also extended to the nation’s schools. Although it has always been present to some extent, violence has become a major problem in the nation’s schools in recent years (Kelly, 2010; Killam & Roland, 2014). While the potential for enhanced awareness of the problem and improved reporting mechanisms may account for some of the reported increase in school violence in recent years (Blosnich & Bossarte, 2011), the research that follows will clearly show that any level of violence in the schools can be enormously harmful to students and…
School Counselor Case Study: “Tami Smith”
The client is a 14-year-old ninth-grade student who recently transferred to this counselor’s school. The client’s former school counselor reports the family is severely dysfunctional, and characterizes both Tami and her mother as being extremely manipulative. Based on the facts outlined in the case study, this paper describes how Tami’s counselor should handle this situation.
What do you see as your priorities?
There are three overarching priorities involved in Tami’s case as follows:
Compelling this student to faithfully attend class and complete her assignments in a timely fashion;
Persuading Tami and her mother that a referral to the child study team is a prerequisite to Tami’s remaining in this school; and,
Formulating an efficacious counseling intervention that can identify major problem areas in the family home that are adversely affecting Tami’s academic performance and personal life.
How would you accomplish these priorities?
Educational Technology Plan 2014-2017
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies
TIP 2: Needs Assessment
TIP 3: The Planning Process
State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures
TIP 4: Implementation: Timetable and Budget for Goals, Objectives and Strategies
TIP 5: Executive Summary
TIP 6: eferences
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies of Imaginary County Public Schools
The Imaginary County Public Schools District seeks to empower students with the latest technological resources and training to provide them with the knowledge to take advantage of educational and professional opportunities throughout their communities -- and the rest of their lives.
Vision: The vision of the Imaginary County Public Schools District is to enable students to become vital contributing members to the surrounding society with the most effective and modern methods indicative of the 21st century.
Goals and Strategies
Goal 1: Students must have a safe environment…
Harper, J. (2014). Mobile data governance. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/mobile-data-governance/
Hogan, K.. (2013). The Edtech era. Tech & Learning. 33(8), 4.
Sangani, K. (2013). BYOD to the classroom. Engineering & Technology.8(3), 42-45.
Savitz, E. (2012). How we can use technology to transform the classroom. www.forbes.com. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/11/27/how-we-can-use-technology-to-transform-the-classroom/
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
The students will test you during these first few days. Without steadfast rules and well outlined disciplinary procedures, the students will not respect you.
In order to create a positive atmosphere of expectations, procedures and routines, it is also important to clearly outline to the class what is expected of them. However, in order to empower the classroom students, one beneficial strategy is to allow the students to help develop the classroom rules, procedures and expectations. y bringing the group together and making the classroom environment one in which they assisted in creating, the students will be more likely to both respect it and work with it.
Although there are numerous steps a teacher must take to create a successful learning environment in a full-inclusion classroom, taking firm and clear actions the first days of school are the most important. The purpose is to let the students know what the…
Gore, M.C. (2003): Successful Inclusion Strategies for Secondary and Middle School Teachers: Keys to Help Struggling Learners Access the Curriculum. SAGE Publications.
Hardmand, Michael L. (2007): Human Exceptionality: School, Community and Family. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Male, Mary. (2002): Technology for Inclusion: Meeting the Special Needs of All Students. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Nowicki, Stephen and Marshall P. Duke. (1992): Helping the Child Who Doesn't Fit in. Peachtree Publishers.
Teaching at the university level and at the grade school level can be vastly different. Institutional differences account for the largest part of the disparities between these ostensibly similar careers, but methodological differences also exist. Teaching is considered the primary focus of the grade school teacher's career, whereas university professors are often academic scholars rather than educators and teaching for such people is far less important than academic research.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, one in four Americans are enrolled in educational institutions. Education is the largest industry in the country, accounting for nearly 12 million jobs. Most of these people teach at the grade school level. Teaching is considered a trade rather than a profession: teachers are usually unionized. Teaching positions constitute almost half of all educational services jobs and require at least a bachelor's degree. Most school districts give their employees incentives to pursue further education;…
Howard Gardner; Reflections on multiple intelligences: myths and messages. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 77, 1995 help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school. Middle and secondary school teachers specialize in a specific academic subject, such as English, mathematics, or history, or a vocational area, such as automobile mechanics, business education, or computer repair. Some supervise extracurricular activities after school and help students deal with academic problems and choose courses, colleges, and careers.
Special education teachers work with students - from toddlers to those in their early 20s - who have a variety of learning and physical disabilities. Most special education teachers are found at the elementary school level. Using the general education curriculum, special education teachers modify instruction to meet a student's special needs. They also help special education students develop emotionally, be comfortable in social situations, and be aware of socially acceptable behavior.
Postsecondary teachers, or faculty as they are usually called, generally are organized into departments or divisions, based on subject or field. They teach and advise college students and perform a significant part of our Nation's research. They also consult with government, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. They prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments; grade exams and papers; and advise and work with students individually. Postsecondary teachers keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues and businesses, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field, often publishing their findings in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media..
This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far greater problem of how to achieve a more equitable distribution of funds, though the state is currently setting a course to try to make this happen with its evidence-based model funding formula recently passed this year. In DC on the other hand, a foundation formula is used to disperse funds equitably throughout the District and private investment is obtained to help develop programs that can assist in closing the achievement gap. DC is thus better structured and its school funding approach better supported to achieve success over the long run.
Keywords: school funding, dc, Illinois, education
School Funding Investigation:
Comparing and Contrasting Illinois and Washington, D.C.
Funding for schools is a controversial topic for many mainly because of the lack…
Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. hile school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have…
Brunsma, David and Kerry A. Rockquemore. "The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement." 92(1): 53-62. The Journal of Educational Research (1998).
Court Orders School to Enroll Honors Student Who Protested Mandatory Uniform Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2002 from web site http://www.aclu.org/StudentsRights/StudentsRights.cfm?ID=8077&c=156
Emert Suggests Mandatory School Uniforms. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from web site http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092099/kan_0920990017.shtml
Holmquist, Micah. "Uniformed Public Schools." Retrieved on November 15, 2002 from web site http://www.stormpages.com/micahth/youth/su.html
If it is true that you are what you eat, many people do not know themselves very well. Nutritional value of any food is of extreme importance due to the fact of its contribution to the maintenance and overall health of the individual. No one could be expected to operate and learn at a high level if the sources of energy using to fuel this process are of low quality. High quality foods coupled with positive healthy attitudes towards eating and consuming are necessities in today's fast-paced society. The future of the world lies within the next generation and their education. The importance of treating children with respect and honesty cannot be overvalued in today's society. The precious resources that children provide in terms of hope and optimism require educators in today's world to do the best for the betterment of the entire society.
Nutritional policies reflect social…
Dahl, M. & Scholz, J. (2011). The national school lunch program and school breakfast program: evidence on participation and non-compliance. Retrieved from http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~scholz/Research/Lunch.pdfhttp://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~scholz/R esearch/Lunch.pdf
Eisler, P. et al. ( 2009). Fast food standards for meat top those for school lunches. USA Today 9 December 2009. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2009-12 - 08 school-lunch-standards_N.htm
Kaplan, K. (2011) . Is national school lunch program to blame (in part) for the rise in childhood obesity? Los Angeles Times, 6 April 2011. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/06/news/la-heb-school-lunch-program-obesity - 20110406
School Lunch Program. (2011). British Columbia website 15 April 2011. Retrieved from http://www.gov.bc.ca/fortherecord/lunch/lu_k12.html?src=/k12/lu_k12.html
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
For school retention, the major reason for support of this was academic achievement. If the child does not meet the set benchmarks for performance, the decision-making panel simply agreed to retention of the student. There was no formal assessment system for this decision process.
These results were supported by the result of the study conducted by Hong and audenbush (2006)
who found that student achievement were used in state and district schools to decide social promotion vs. school retention instead of formal systems of assessment of student performance. According to these findings, the schools that used academic achievement as the main criterion for social promotion did not bother to understand how the decision affected the student for who the decision was being made and the other students in general. The findings of these authors showed that these were very important aspects in the general performance of the school itself and…
Bali, V.A., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Roberts, R. (2005). Toward a Political Explanation of Grade Retention. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(2), 133-155. doi: 10.2307/3699523
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2005). Effects of Kindergarten Retention Policy on Children's Cognitive Growth in Reading and Mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(3), 205-224. doi: 10.2307/3699569
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2006). Evaluating Kindergarten Retention Policy: A Case Study of Causal Inference for Multilevel Observational Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 101(475), 901-910. doi: 10.2307/27590770
Jacob, B.A., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The Effect of Grade Retention on High School Completion. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(3), 33-58. doi: 10.2307/25760170
Batz clearly is attempting to be a consensus manager -- he wants an agenda to go through for implementation with the least amount of conflict. However, it is also possible that he is being rather Machiavellian (potentially at the expense of committee and administrative time). He allows infighting to occur with the ostensible hope that the individuals will work things out. Yet there is an underlying current that perhaps he is using the apparent open ended, congenial style to get people who will concur with his views -- others to resign so that it appears he is not being heavy handed. However, for Jones' own agenda to work out she must consider that management of a situation and leadership are two entirely different things.
Jones must immediately meet with Batz and, rather than usurping his authority, counsel him to make a decision regarding the conference. Even if he rules against…
These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.
The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…
Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760
Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10
Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press
Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293