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For example, with respect to the leadership support area developed by Bryk, Korkmaz (2006) reports that in some cases, collecting primary data are required to make informed decisions, particularly with respect to human resource decisions. In his study of 842 teachers working in 42 elementary schools, Korkmaz operationalized the dimensions in this area as described in Table 2 below.
Operationalization of Elementary School Climate and Leadership Dimensions
This dimension was defined as being a top-down process that begins with the elementary school principal and purposely extends to all school stakeholders. The two important elements of effective leadership identified were:
1. Building up positive interpersonal relations; and,
2. Developing a school vision.
To measure the perceptions of teachers working in these schools about the vision in their schools, the study used the obustness Semantic Differential (SD), developed by Licata and Willower (1978) (see…
Bryk, a.S. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Research on Chicago school improvement indicates that improving elementary schools requires coherent, orchestrated action across five essential supports. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(7). 23-25.
Korkmaz, M. (2006). The relationship between organizational health and robust school vision in elementary schools. Educational Research Quarterly, 30(1), 14-16.
Licata, J.W. & Harper, G.W. (1999). Healthy schools, robust schools and academic emphasis as an organizational theme. Journal of Educational Administration, 37(5), 463 -- 475.
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
At the time and having been influenced by military efficiency of World War II, the nation adopted standardized testing and mainstreaming because they held an aura of scientific respectability and eased the grading dilemmas. Of course, the reason we keep these outdated systems today is more based on the fact that standardized testing and single educational objectives are far more cost effective and require far less objective and social knowledge by the educational faculties. In other words, cost and ease of presentation continue to win.
In conclusion, this essay aimed to present a view that our educational process is in need of change. Our mainstream philosophies and the reliance on standardized achievement testing will continue to create problems for our society. "The sad fact is that it's a corporate jungle out there where cigar-chewing CEOs bare their teeth and cannibalize those who aren't problem-solvers. Companies exist to solve problems. We…
Henry, Tamara (January 12, 1994). Educators Cling to Multiple-Choice Exams. USA Today.
Macht, Joel. (1998.) Special Education's Failed System: A Question of Eligibility. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey,
Manigaulte, John Carlo (1997). Multiple Choice Exams Don't Mimic Tests of Work World. University Wire, October 1.
O'Neill, Patrick B. (2001). Essay vs. Multiple Choice Exams; an Experiment in the Principles of Macroeconomics Course. American Economist, March 22.
Here, the information processing theory applies to the manner in which the board induces a multilayered engagement of the subject matter. The correlation of conceptual and practical application with a visual presentation conforms to the information processing idea that "information is stored in multiple locations throughout the brain in the form of networks of connections. It is consistent with the levels-of-processing approach in that the more connections to a single idea or concept, the more likely it is to be remembered." (Huitt, 1) As we have addressed technology based approaches to instruction, it bears noting that there are evolving opportunities in the fied of education to improve upon this multilevel engagement of material.
As an educator, you want to decrease undesirable behaviors in the educational environment. hat is the best strategy to decrease these behaviors for each student? 1)Andrew who likes to utter profanities every now an then. 2) Sandy,…
Huitt, W. (2003). The information processing approach to cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Online at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/infoproc.html
Johnson, S.F. (2007). Special Education & Educational Standards. NHEdLaw,
Knowledge of Nutrition and Activity for Communities in Kansas (KNACK). (2009). Social Cognitive Learning Model. Kansas State University.
Ogonosky, A. (2009). Emotionally Disturbed Students. Association of Texas Professional Educators. Online at http://www.atpe.org/resources/Student&ParentIssues/emoDisturb.asp
esidential School System: State-Sponsored Bullying?
The esidential School System: Was it a Form of State-Sponsored Bullying?
From as early as the mid 1800s through to the late 1900s, scores of Aboriginal children were compelled to attend residential schools that sought to, amongst other things, assimilate the said children into the dominant culture. In Canada, we had the Indian residential schools, whereas in the U.S. there were the American Indian boarding schools. Over time, there has been a lot of controversy regarding not only the conditions those youngsters who attended the residential schools experienced, but also the rationality of forcibly immersing children into cultures they were not familiar with. Some have equated the residential school system to some form of state-sanctioned bullying.
Compelling children to discard their cultures, in favor of the dominant culture, was a form of bullying. To begin with, it is important to note that as Sinclair…
Hamilton, A.C. And Sinclair, M. (1991). Aboriginal concepts of justice. Vol.1: Report of the Aboriginal justice inquiry of Manitoba: The justice system and Aboriginal people. Winnipeg: Queen's Printer, pp.17-47.
However a poll take in 1994 by the Wall Street Journal found that 28% of Americans would prefer to have their own children homeschooled (Houston & Toma 2003).
The authors further explain that the increased number of children being home schooled has created issues associated with truancy laws and in some cases been the catalyst for the passing of new laws. In fact 35 states have created new legislation related to home schooling. For instance, in some states there are hybrid forms of public-home enrollment. In addition the state of Idaho permits dual enrollment, and in California there is a district that gives parents a $1,000 voucher to home-schooled children so that they can purchase textbooks that are approved by the district. Although states have been effective in formulating and implementing laws related to home schooling, the federal government has been less effective in creating such legislation (obertson 1994; (Houston…
Homeschooling. (2000, October). World and I, 15, 14.
Houston, R.G., & Toma, E.F. (2003). Home Schooling: An Alternative School Choice. Southern Economic Journal, 69(4), 920+.
Lines Patricia. (1997). Homeschooling: An Overview for Educational Policymakers. Working paper, U.S. Department of Agriculture, January.
Lyman Isabel. (1998). "Homeschooling: Back to the Future?" Policy Analysis 294.
Harold Kirk, Board Member - Feels that they do not have the money to hire ServiceMaster, strongly opposed to hiring of outside contractors. Feels threatened by outside contractors, may have relatives who he has done favors for that may lose their job. Harold may have the ability to influence the rest of the board and sway their opinion through his strong opposition.
Other board members - Must decide whether hiring ServiceMaster is the correct or incorrect decision for building maintenance problems. Board members must decide whether to go with political ties, or financial concerns. Ultimately, the decision is in the hands of the Board, as a whole. They must decide what to do, after hearing the arguments of both sides. The other players can attempt to influence these players, but ultimately, it is their choice.
I- Central Problem
The central problem in this case is that old dysfunctional organizational must…
Bobic, M., & Davis, W. (2003). A Kind Word for Theory X: Or Why So Many Newfangled Management Techniques Quickly Fail. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 13 (3): 239 Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 239-264.
Cox, D. & Hoover, J. (2002). Leadership when the heat's on. USA: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Herzberg, F. (1959). The Motivation to Work, New York, new York: John Wiley and Sons Publishers
Hoare, C. (2002). Erikson on Development in Adulthood: New Insights from the Unpublished Papers. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
Chicago Public School (CPS) system is the most understaffed in Illinois, where throughout the state the average student to staff ratio is 11 to one. In the CPS system, it is 16 to one—16 students to every one teacher, and that is just going by averages (Sepeda-Miller, 2018). As Laraviere (2019) puts it, “the 20 most adequately staffed school districts in Illinois have 100 staff members for every 500 students.” Yet in CPS, it is just 29 staff for every 500 students (Laraviere, 2019)—which means when compared to the best that Illinois has to offer, Chicago looks like the worst. That is a serious shame for a city and school system that should be recognized and hailed as the state’s top district. Instead, the reality is that there is no maximum limit on classroom size in the CPS system (Guerrero, 2019), and some classes can grow much larger than already…
This paper examines the healing process of Aboriginal communities from the devastating inter-generational effects of residential school system. The paper begins by evaluating the formation and purpose of residential school system in Canada. In this case, the establishment of the residential school systems to help assimilate Aboriginal children into the dominant culture in Canada is discussed. The development of the school system into residential school abuse is also examined and its devastating impacts evaluated. Traditional and non-traditional healing practices utilized by Aboriginals to deal with these effects are also discussed with respect to their effectiveness. The paper demonstrates the significance of utilizing healing practices developed by and within Aboriginal communities to cope with the historical trauma of residential school abuse in Canada.
Keywords: residential school abuse, residential school system, Aboriginal communities, healing practices, devastating impacts.
The Healing Process of Aboriginals from Residential School Abuse
The residential school era in Canada…
Canada’s University. (2017, September 20). Introduction to Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Retrieved November 27, 2017, from http://www.med.uottawa.ca/SIM/data/Vul_Indigenous_e.htm
Dionne, D. (2008). Recovery in the Residential School Abuse Aftermath: A New Healing Paradigm. Retrieved from University of Lethbridge website: https://www.uleth.ca/dspace/bitstream/handle/10133/736/dionne,%20dee.pdf?sequence=1
Goforth, S. (2007). Aboriginal Healing Methods for Residential School Abuse and Intergenerational Effects: A Review of the Literature. Native Social Work Journal, 6, 11-32. Retrieved from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/OSUL/TC-OSUL-392.pdf
Hanson, E. (2009). The Residential School System. Retrieved November 27, 2017, from http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/the_residential_school_system/
Pulitzer Center. (2016, July 17). Signs of Your Identity: Forced Assimilation Education for Indigenous Youth. Retrieved November 27, 2017, from https://pulitzercenter.org/project/western-canada-first-nations-residential-schools-identity
Spear, W.K. (2008). Historical Trauma and the Aboriginal Healing Foundation. “Aboriginal People” Issue of Visions Journal, 5(1), 26-27. Retrieved from http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/visions/aboriginal-people-vol5/canadas-indian-residential-school-system
From scheduling lunch shifts to arranging for common planning time, my principal has effectively and efficiently managed the set amount of time that we have in a school day. Collaboration between parents and community members is evident as well. We often have parent / child literacy nights. Annually we also hold a rotherhood Dinner that honors community members that have positively influenced the children in our neighborhoods. Throughout New edford, Carney Academy is highly regarded; our reputation precedes us.
Educational Philosophy 6
Knowledge acquired from textbooks and college classes may give me some techniques and standards that effective leaders must know, however they are not going to teach me everything I need to know. Hopefully, my experiences as a successful coach and an employee of an excellent leader will help in building a solid foundation for me to become an effective leader myself.
ass, ernard M (1985), Leadership and…
Bass, Bernard M (1985), Leadership and performance beyond expectations, New York: Free Press.
Conger, Jay A. And Rabindra N. Kanungo (1987), Towards a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review 12/4: 637-647.
Burns, John M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row
Bernstein, R. Should You Be the Boss? Mar 99, Vol. 108 Issue 6, p33, 3p, 1c
Educational Technology Plan 2014-2017
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies
TIP 2: Needs Assessment
TIP 3: The Planning Process
State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures
TIP 4: Implementation: Timetable and Budget for Goals, Objectives and Strategies
TIP 5: Executive Summary
TIP 6: eferences
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies of Imaginary County Public Schools
The Imaginary County Public Schools District seeks to empower students with the latest technological resources and training to provide them with the knowledge to take advantage of educational and professional opportunities throughout their communities -- and the rest of their lives.
Vision: The vision of the Imaginary County Public Schools District is to enable students to become vital contributing members to the surrounding society with the most effective and modern methods indicative of the 21st century.
Goals and Strategies
Goal 1: Students must have a safe environment…
Harper, J. (2014). Mobile data governance. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/mobile-data-governance/
Hogan, K.. (2013). The Edtech era. Tech & Learning. 33(8), 4.
Sangani, K. (2013). BYOD to the classroom. Engineering & Technology.8(3), 42-45.
Savitz, E. (2012). How we can use technology to transform the classroom. www.forbes.com. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/11/27/how-we-can-use-technology-to-transform-the-classroom/
5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?
The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.
6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?
The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.
7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?
The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…
Most important, the teachers need the backing of the principal in order to have the time and resources to implement such a program and to further enhance the concept of a school that cares about its students and their educational and personal needs.
Denault, L.E. (1999) estructuring? Keep it simple. Consider Looping! Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 65(4): 19-26.
Elliot, I. (1998). When two years are better than one. Teaching Pre-K 29(3): 38-41
Forsten, C., Grant, J., and ichardswon, I. (1999) Multiage and looping. Borrowing from the past. Principal. 78(4): 15-16.
Jordan, D. (2000) Looping: Discovering the Difference. Teaching PreK-8-30(6): 58-59.
Little, T.S., and Dacus, N.B. (1999) Looping up with the class. Educational Leadership.
Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks. (2001) Looping. Creating elementary school communities
Schaefer, B.A., Khoury, .A., and Ginsburg-Block, M. (2003). Does looping make the rade? A preliminary study of…
Denault, L.E. (1999) Restructuring? Keep it simple. Consider Looping! Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 65(4): 19-26.
Elliot, I. (1998). When two years are better than one. Teaching Pre-K 29(3): 38-41
Forsten, C., Grant, J., and Richardswon, I. (1999) Multiage and looping. Borrowing from the past. Principal. 78(4): 15-16.
Jordan, D. (2000) Looping: Discovering the Difference. Teaching PreK-8-30(6): 58-59.
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
Schools and Education
Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "e live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. ithout expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it…
Ballantine, Jeanne. 2012. Schools and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hendrix, L. (2013). Education and Society. (Educational Autobiography).
Morris, Edward. 2012. Learning the Hard Way. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Rury, John. 2013. Education and Social Change. New York: Routledge.
These issues of professionalism and innovation seem to be a major problem in many public schools in America. In recent years these issues have come to light as teachers have been disciplined and even fired for their interactions with students that have been unprofessional and even criminal at times. Teachers have an ethical responsibility to act professionally and when they fell to do so the ability of students to excel academically is also compromised.
The aforementioned authors also mention the lack of innovation that often occurs as a result of using democratic methods. One of the reasons why school choice is even an issue is because the curriculums that have been implemented in public schools lack variety. Part of the reason for this lack of innovation has to do with bureaucracy and government mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act. This particular act stifles innovation because many teachers…
Cullen, J.B. Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt (2005) The impact of school choice on student outcomes: an analysis of the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics. 89 (5-6):729-760
Hastings, Justine S. Thomas J. Kane Douglas Staiger (2005) Parental Preferences and School Competition: Evidence from a Public School Choice Program .Yale Economic Applications and Policy Discussion Paper No. 10
Moe, Terry. 2001. Schools, Vouchers and the American Public. Washington: Brookings Institution Press
Sikkink, D., Emerson M.O. (2008) School choice and racial segregation in U.S. schools: The role of parents' education. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(2): 267-293
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview
More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.
The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.
Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611
Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A
Conant challenged a very old standard with regard to education, as he identified that making decisions about who is given opportunity and who is excluded should be based on merit and ability rather than wealth, privilege and race. (235) His actions and ideals drive the continued utilization of federal student aide, even today, as well as the expansion of scholarship offering, both public and private as his work redefined the determination of who deserves education and who does not. (235-237) in a speech given by Conant he stressed that education in the past had fostered social stratification and in so doing created a potential situation of unrest among those who could not receive it. This Conant warned was the seed of revolution and the only manner in which to change this reality, he warned was through educational opportunity, "the chances of a nonrevolutionary development of our nation in the…
school that are related to all the students and have a general effect on the entire organization. The focus of the research pertinent to this investigation deals with the Hispanic female population in my school. Within this group there are some specific issues that could definitely benefit from a widespread application of a thoughtful universal design for learning (UDL) plan. At the heart of the learning problems with this specific demographic is the differing culture and communication methods that come into conflict with the student and her environment. The transition from Spanish to English is dramatic in many cases and the curriculum and school system design does not necessarily align itself with the a path to simple and easy learning. The environment has taken this problem into consideration and has addressed this communication gaps in some ways but there is much room for improvement. English as a second language (ESL)…
Sahin, Y (2003). Empowering ESL Students with Universal Design. University of Maryland, Paper 2003. Retrieved from http://www.edtechpolicy.org/StudentWork/yesmin/www.glue.umd.edu/~ysahin/EDUC477/Empowering%20ESL%20students%20with%20UD.htm
Strehorn, K. (2001). The Application of Universal Instructional Design to ESL Teaching. The Internet TESL Journal, 7(3), March 2001. Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Strehorn-UID.html
The author of the article, "Achieving the Challenge: Meeting Standards in the Continuation High School" (Stits, 2001) related that "prior to 1983, many continuation high schools existed in districts where expectations were limited to keeping the students in school as much as possible," and also the ideas was to keep those continuation students "away from the traditional high school campus." The implication was clear: there was a stigma that students in continuation school were bad seeds, and the idea was to keep them away from the mainstream lest they have a negative effect on the "good students" in the regular high school.
But eventually, the image of continuations schools in California changed, as communities more and more were trying to prevent school dropouts, and the need for a high school diploma became more important, as well, Stits writes.
HO DO CONTINUATION SCHOOLS OPERATE?
In an article in the journal Thrust…
Arlington Public Schools. (2005). Alternative Education: Purpose, Mission, Beliefs. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2007, at http://www.apsva.us/hsc .
Community College Week. (2004). R.I. Plan Would Help at-risk Students.
Hardy, Lawrence. (2007). Children at Risk: Graduation Day. American School Board Journal,
No. 37907. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2007, at http://www.asbj.com .
The Grow tool can certainly be used in other educational systems to the same end that NYC uses it in its own schools. More so, similar reports and web-based data summaries can be created to help teachers better understand and assist their students.
What additional data would you suggest they collect and analyze to enhance their understanding of the problem and identify sound solutions?
Other web-based data systems may be a comparison of effective strategies that are used to encourage students to learn; or innovations that teachers in various schools have created; or a synthesis of instructional models that have proved useful in the educational system. Comparison of scores of public schools in particular regions can be the content of another web-based data system. Describe at least one method they used that you might consider adopting to diagnose a problem in your school or district.
I might use a web-based…
Light, D et al. (2004) How Practitioners Interpret and Link Data to Instruction:Research Findings on New York City Schools' Implementation of the Grow Network. EDC/Center for Children and Technology
This work intends to address the situation of budgeting problems within the context of a fictitious school for purposes of this work, which will be called Highbridge Day Care. This is a school that receives State allocations for funding in part as well as allocations from other sources. The school budget is set and fixed prior to budget submission to the board each year.
Too many times waste in the school budget can be traced back to abstract and poorly defined expenditures allocated to poorly defined functions of administration. However, the realization of this has some district resolving the problem.
Resolution of School udget:
Streamlining administration / support-service expense.
The school principal is ethically as well as administratively responsible to oversee budgetary concerns, not only in preparation, but as well in the carrying out of those allocations approved by the governing committee for the school. The…
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100 [Online] available at: http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications/digests/digest100.html
Prager, Karen (1993) 'Collegial Process vs. Curricular Focus: Dilemma for Principal Leadership: Brief to Principals 'No. 5 ERIC Digest ED356550 [Online] available at: http://188.8.131.52:86/search/o?SEARCH=ED356550
"A Practical Look at School Leadership" (2003) Center on Reinventing Public Education (2003 Sept 13) located [Online] at: http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:ocx-wPj5gFUJ:www.crpe.org/pubs/pdf/MakingSensePortin_brief.pdf+school+principal+tasks+budget+resources& ; hl=en& ie=UTF-8
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100
Perhaps the best solution for parents is to create local support networks to better enable them to work together within the existing school systems. Dealing with the administrative bureaucracy of the educational system can be difficult, particularly for a parent with the additional stresses of coping with a special need child's emotional, educational, and social challenges. Parents can share advice and 'war stories' together in school-specific support groups.
In conclusion, working in conjunction with national and state organizations that specifically address and provide information specific to the child's rights; with private organizations that give information about the child's disability; and soliciting nearby emotional support and information specific to the child's school district may be the most satisfying multi-pronged strategy for a parent coping with a child with special needs.
Working locally with other parents enables families with special needs children to find personal, emotional support for what they are enduring.…
Autism speaks. (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.autismspeaks.org/
National Federation for the Blind. (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.nfb.org/nfb/Default.asp
Parent Education Network (PEN). (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.parentednet.org
Resources for Children with Special Needs (RCSN) (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.resourcesnyc.org/
school prepare children for life -- and should it? The public school system in the United States has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. It has become a required institution in which children spend a minimum of 12.5 years and more time than in any other place than home for their formative years. Thomas Jefferson, for instance, believed that universal education would have to precede universal suffrage. The ignorant, he argued, were incapable of self-government. But he had profound faith in the reasonableness and ability of the masses and in their collective wisdom when educated. As one of the founding fathers, Jefferson in fact set the precedent for American education: reading, writing, mathematics, the Classics, and European and American History.
The American Educational system is supported in several ways -- primarily through taxation and Federal/State grant money. It is this support that gives us a clue as to the…
Chicago's School Systems
"CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason for shutting down these schools is that they are underperforming, and not adequately serving the students that they are supposed to provide a quality education. Specifically, three of the schools -- Amandla Charter High School, Shabazz/Sizemore Academy Elementary School, and Larry Hawkins High School -- were on the Academic Warning List last year. As such, they were tasked with designing and implementing remediation plans to help their students to perform better. A review of those remediation plans, however, determined that they were not sufficiently implemented during the present school year. Subsequently, Chicago Public Schools has decided to revoke the charter for these institutions. The fourth school, Bronzeville Lighthouse Charter Elementary School, will not get its charter renewed because it has failed…
You have these, I don't.
What Methods Can Schools in the United States Implement to Prevent Violence in Schools?
Statement of the problem
The recent upswing in high-profile violent incidents in the United States has focused increasing attention on the causes of this public health threat and what types of response are most appropriate. The debate over the most appropriate responses to increased violence in American society has also extended to the nation’s schools. Although it has always been present to some extent, violence has become a major problem in the nation’s schools in recent years (Kelly, 2010; Killam & Roland, 2014). While the potential for enhanced awareness of the problem and improved reporting mechanisms may account for some of the reported increase in school violence in recent years (Blosnich & Bossarte, 2011), the research that follows will clearly show that any level of violence in the schools can be enormously harmful to students and…
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Student isolation and teacher autonomy have been perpetuated, where there is a basic lack of collaboration in the learning process.
Although student collaboration in the teaching process is not necessarily a novel idea, integrating teachers in this process is. In all learning and teaching models, the role of the teacher has always been one of superiority in terms of knowledge. Students are regarded as subordinate, deferring to the teacher for their learning process. In Carroll's model, teachers truly become collaborators with students, working together to gain new knowledge, making an enriching experience for everyone involved. Central to this model is the sense of community.
On major challenge here is that Carroll's proposed model is so radically different from all education models developed thus far, that it is likely to meet significant resistance in educational circles. At the heart of this resistance is not necessarily only the pride of leaders and…
Caine, R.N. And Caine, G. Understanding why Education Must Change. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved from: http://home.avvanta.com/~building/trans/caine_change.htm
Carroll, T.G. If we didn't have schools today, would we create the schools we have today?
Kokinos, P. (2010). Changing the Schools can Change the World. Retrieved from: http://changetheschools.com/
America's School System Needs More Character Education
The school system in America has its good and bad points. On the good side, it provides kids a place to go while parents are at work: they get an education, they get lunch, they get supervision, and they get a place where they can learn math, reading, and writing. On the negative side, it can be a place where time is wasted, where students are not allowed to learn up to their potential, and where a limiting kind of indoctrination can take place. This paper will discuss school issues in America and show why the school system is failing our nation’s children.
One of the most important aspects of education is character development, and yet our schools do not engage in character education or what used to be called moral education (Lickona). Instead, schools focus on promoting politically correct doctrines that give…
Kristjánsson, Kristján. \\\\"There is Something About Aristotle: The Pros and Cons of Aristotelianism in Contemporary Moral Education.\\\\" Journal of philosophy of education 48.1 (2014): 48-68.
Lickona, Thomas. \\\\"The return of character education.\\\\" Educational leadership 51.3 (1993): 6-11.
This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far greater problem of how to achieve a more equitable distribution of funds, though the state is currently setting a course to try to make this happen with its evidence-based model funding formula recently passed this year. In DC on the other hand, a foundation formula is used to disperse funds equitably throughout the District and private investment is obtained to help develop programs that can assist in closing the achievement gap. DC is thus better structured and its school funding approach better supported to achieve success over the long run.
Keywords: school funding, dc, Illinois, education
School Funding Investigation:
Comparing and Contrasting Illinois and Washington, D.C.
Funding for schools is a controversial topic for many mainly because of the lack…
If it is true that you are what you eat, many people do not know themselves very well. Nutritional value of any food is of extreme importance due to the fact of its contribution to the maintenance and overall health of the individual. No one could be expected to operate and learn at a high level if the sources of energy using to fuel this process are of low quality. High quality foods coupled with positive healthy attitudes towards eating and consuming are necessities in today's fast-paced society. The future of the world lies within the next generation and their education. The importance of treating children with respect and honesty cannot be overvalued in today's society. The precious resources that children provide in terms of hope and optimism require educators in today's world to do the best for the betterment of the entire society.
Nutritional policies reflect social…
Dahl, M. & Scholz, J. (2011). The national school lunch program and school breakfast program: evidence on participation and non-compliance. Retrieved from http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~scholz/Research/Lunch.pdfhttp://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~scholz/R esearch/Lunch.pdf
Eisler, P. et al. ( 2009). Fast food standards for meat top those for school lunches. USA Today 9 December 2009. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2009-12 - 08 school-lunch-standards_N.htm
Kaplan, K. (2011) . Is national school lunch program to blame (in part) for the rise in childhood obesity? Los Angeles Times, 6 April 2011. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/06/news/la-heb-school-lunch-program-obesity - 20110406
School Lunch Program. (2011). British Columbia website 15 April 2011. Retrieved from http://www.gov.bc.ca/fortherecord/lunch/lu_k12.html?src=/k12/lu_k12.html
Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. hile school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have…
Brunsma, David and Kerry A. Rockquemore. "The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement." 92(1): 53-62. The Journal of Educational Research (1998).
Court Orders School to Enroll Honors Student Who Protested Mandatory Uniform Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2002 from web site http://www.aclu.org/StudentsRights/StudentsRights.cfm?ID=8077&c=156
Emert Suggests Mandatory School Uniforms. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from web site http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092099/kan_0920990017.shtml
Holmquist, Micah. "Uniformed Public Schools." Retrieved on November 15, 2002 from web site http://www.stormpages.com/micahth/youth/su.html
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Evaluation of Decision to Close and Closure Process
It seems as though FBPS was trying to fulfill the more popular of the Six PESTEL factors, technology. The launch of its International Baccalaureate Programs seemed promising; however, it came at the worst possible economic time. The US economic recession of 2005 took toll on not only the FBPS campuses but other reputable schools surrounding it. This indication quickly started impacting the FBPS organization. The closure of several schools and the announcement of others not continuing with certain academics.
The fact that only two campuses would remain open—the Richmond and the North Richmond campuses—rankled parents, and the fact that news of the closing of the Staunton campus school came after the enrollment deadline at other neighboring schools was a shock that parents simply were not inclined to accept. The FBPS assured parents that the closures were not the result of finances—but Moody’s…
Complete Solutions plc (CS) is a successful organization specializing in IT consultancy business with annual turnover of £40 millions. The company is located at North of England with branches in the U.S. And France. Established in 1980, the company was taken over by a larger company, and the take-over bid led to the rapid expansion of the company. Complete Solution has several sections with approximately 400 users in the UK divisions. The company internal services are based in Manchester with the Training Solutions (TS) consultancy section, Sales, and Marketing section. The overall services of Complete Solution consists of the IT consultancy service as well as selling of hardware and software, training and recruitment, software development and, outsourced services. The other services provided by the Complete Solution are consultancy services. With rapid expansion that the company is enjoying, the Complete Solution is planning to go public by…
CO3601 System Concepts (nd).Soft Systems Methodology Case Study: Complete Solutions
Checkland, P.(1985). Achieving 'Desirable and Feasible' Change: An Application of Soft Systems Methodology ST. The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 36(9): 821-831.
Gasson, S. (1995). The Role of Methodologies in IT-Related Organizational changes. Proceedings of BCS Specialist Group on IS Methodologies, 3rd Annual Conference.
Simonsen, J. (1994).Soft Systems Methodology. Computer Science/Roskilde University.
School Change Projects
A New Kind of PTA
Sometimes the most effective changes in a system come about through the simplest changes. Perhaps a better way to phrase this same idea is that sometimes the most effective changes in a system comes at the most basic level. This is the kind of change that I propose for my district, although it is not the same kind of back-to-basics plan that is still sweeping across the American educational landscape.
This suggestion does not touch on the issue of how basic the curriculum should be, although curricular reform is (of course) one of the central questions for every educational professional since the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind act. ather, the changes that I would like to see instituted in my district are a greater participation of parents and other family members in the students' educational lives. This is a…
Appleseed Network. (2010). http://appleseednetwork.org/bOurProjectsb/Education/ParentInvolvement/tabid/618/Default.aspx
It takes a parent. (2010).
Systems of Power and Inequality
In early March of 2012, a 28-minute video on the plight of African children received more than 21 million YouTube views. The video vividly depicts how the guerilla warlord Joseph Kony, leader of the Lords esistance Army (LA), reportedly abducted over 60,000 children who were subsequently forced to become child soldiers or sex slaves over the course of the civil war. Captured children who did not cooperate as said to have been mutilated and murdered. Production and dissemination of the video was a result of the efforts of an American charity called Invisible Children. In interviews with the press following the viral reception of the video, Invisible Children campaigner Jason ussell stressed the importance of the video as an example of how social media allows people all over the world to actually see other people -- see, as in the struggles, challenges, plights, and victories…
Anderson, M.L. And Hill Collins, P. (2009). Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology (7th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing.
Christie, D.J., Wagner, R.V., and Winter, D.D. (2001). Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Thorton, B. (2006). Critical consciousness and liberal education, In Watson, B. (2006) Civic Education and Culture.
Wilkerson, M. (2012, March 8). Kony 2012 campaign: Oprah and bracelets won't solve problem. The Guardian.
The NCLB Act (2002) stresses the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics of performance. The Open Group (2003) in defining the need for integration says that the data captured in SIF "are subsequently moved through state information systems to be used.
Federal, state and local dependence on the quality and availability of education data to inform decision-making has never been higher as funding to the school level based on NCLB benchmarks and measure adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements" (Open Group 2003).
All of these many requirements for reporting the performance of learning programs upward through district, municipal, and state and federal levels is to benchmark the effectiveness of teaching programs, adherence to and compliance with NCLB measures of success, and ultimately to define which schools will continue to receive state and federal funding for their programs, or conversely, those schools that will be audited as a result of…
NCLB (2002) - the White House Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind Act. White House press announcement. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html
Open Group (2003) - White paper titled, "The SIF Plan: Advance Education through Interoperability." Published November, 2002. Updated April, 2003. San Francisco, CA. Accessed from the Internet on August 11, 2007 from location: http://www.opengroup.org/comm/case-studies/SIF-casestudy.pdf
SIF Architecture (2007) - Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Association. Presentation of the architectural elements of the SIF standard. Titled "SIF NCLB State Architecture and Community of Practice" accessed on August 12, 2007 from location: http://sif.edreform.net/download/102/1-6%20SIF%20NCLB%20State%20CoP.ppt
SIF (2007) - Why Interoperability. Description of the Zone integration server in the SIF networking topology. Schools Interoperability Framework Association website content. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location:
Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various grade levels and many schools integrate the latest technologies into their curriculums. With this being understood, it will be interesting to see how school curriculum will change in the future. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how schools will change in the future as it pertains to technology. The discussion will also focus on the introduction of schools as social anchors, that are both moral and purposeful.
Schools of the future
Indeed technology will continue to play a large role in schools of the future. Educators will continue to incorporate technology into the curriculum. According to Caldwell and Hayward (1998) "schooling at the upper secondary level will become more complex and diverse, with multiple providers; combined with advances made…
Briefing paper on Emerging Issues and Best Practices -- Introduction. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.arc.org/gripp/publicEducation/grippPublicEducPg06.html
Florida Virtual School: The Future of Learning? A Forum Brief -- October 18, 2002. American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2002/fb101802.htm
Caldwell, B.J., & Hayward, D.K. (1998). The Future of Schools: Lessons from the Reform of Public Education. London: Falmer Press.
Huskey, B.L., & Wiley, R. (1993, August). Using Public Education Campaigns to Build Community Partnerships. Corrections Today, 55, 154+.
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).
3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.
4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.
Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.
Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.
Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
here are variations on these four schools but, in essence, these four schools dominate the field. hese four schools are: Marxist, Kenyesian, Monetarist, and neoclassic.
he Marxist school is built upon the theories and writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. hese gentlemen believed that all economic societies go through a period of development wherein different economy systems are used beginning with a form of primitive communism through feudalism, capitalism, and then eventually ending in pure communism. he economy of the Soviet Union was based on the theories of Marx and Engels and, as a result of the failure of that government it has fallen out of favor among modern day economists.
he decline of Marxism seemed to served as an impetus for the remaining major economic schools to re-examine their positions. In the last two decades of the twentieth century the schools began to build a consensus. his consensus…
The Marxist school is built upon the theories and writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. These gentlemen believed that all economic societies go through a period of development wherein different economy systems are used beginning with a form of primitive communism through feudalism, capitalism, and then eventually ending in pure communism. The economy of the Soviet Union was based on the theories of Marx and Engels and, as a result of the failure of that government it has fallen out of favor among modern day economists.
The decline of Marxism seemed to served as an impetus for the remaining major economic schools to re-examine their positions. In the last two decades of the twentieth century the schools began to build a consensus. This consensus has become to be known as the new Keynesian economics. This new school of thought incorporates elements of Keynesian, monetarist and the neoclassical ideas and has been adopted by a large majority of modern day economists. In its simplest form, new Keynesian economics stresses the stickiness of prices and the need for an active stabilization policy that manipulates the aggregate demand in order to keep the general economy operating close to its potential output. It also incorporates the monetary policy of the monetarist school and stresses the importance of aggregate supply as professed by the neoclassical school. This blending of economic thought occurs after fifty years of bitter dispute caused by the introduction of Keynesian economics in the 1930's. Although there remain proponents of all the major schools of thought, the new Keynesian economics currently dominate the field of macroeconomics.
Combining competing schools of economic thought
For school retention, the major reason for support of this was academic achievement. If the child does not meet the set benchmarks for performance, the decision-making panel simply agreed to retention of the student. There was no formal assessment system for this decision process.
These results were supported by the result of the study conducted by Hong and audenbush (2006)
who found that student achievement were used in state and district schools to decide social promotion vs. school retention instead of formal systems of assessment of student performance. According to these findings, the schools that used academic achievement as the main criterion for social promotion did not bother to understand how the decision affected the student for who the decision was being made and the other students in general. The findings of these authors showed that these were very important aspects in the general performance of the school itself and…
Bali, V.A., Anagnostopoulos, D., & Roberts, R. (2005). Toward a Political Explanation of Grade Retention. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(2), 133-155. doi: 10.2307/3699523
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2005). Effects of Kindergarten Retention Policy on Children's Cognitive Growth in Reading and Mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(3), 205-224. doi: 10.2307/3699569
Hong, G., & Raudenbush, S.W. (2006). Evaluating Kindergarten Retention Policy: A Case Study of Causal Inference for Multilevel Observational Data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 101(475), 901-910. doi: 10.2307/27590770
Jacob, B.A., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The Effect of Grade Retention on High School Completion. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(3), 33-58. doi: 10.2307/25760170
Every school board now offers school-to-work (STW) programs, which are designed to meet the needs of a large portion of today's students - those who are work-bound as soon as they graduate high school. Many of these programs allow students to enroll as apprentices and accumulate hours and experience towards a qualifying certificate in a specific profession while earning credits towards their high school graduation diploma, as well.
While advocates of such programs argue that they give additional relevance and meaning to the educational process as a whole and give students real opportunities to make connections between theory and actual practice, opponents believe that these types of programs are pervasive and prevent students from receiving a thorough and valuable education.
This paper supports the opposing viewpoint of school-to-work programs, arguing that education that concentrates on job training results in graduates who are less adaptable and less able to…
Brandeis University. (1992). Future options education: Careers and middle school youth. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University.
Cook, Mary. (June, 2001). Do School-to-work Programs Help or Hinder Education? Ingram's Education Edition.
Starr, Linda. (1998). STW Programs. Education World. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.education-world.com/a_admin/admin081.shtml.
The 21st Century Education Foundation, (2001). U.S. Department of Education. School to Work Initiative. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.buildbridges.net/businesses/schooltowork.htm.
School esponse to Student Suicide: Postvention
The emotional impact on family and friends following an adolescent suicide - and the school's response to a suicide - has not been the subject of the same level of intense research as have: a) the causes of suicides; and b) programs to prevent suicides. However, there is now an emerging body of solid research on what protocol a school can put into place, to be more prepared in the unfortunate circumstance of a teen suicide. Indeed, on the subject of tragedy, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many schools and communities re-tooled their crisis/response plans for dealing with such threats. And yet, in many ways, the sudden, inexplicable death of a student can cause serious psychological ramifications to fellow students on a part with the shockwaves following an attack by terrorists. And hence, this paper analyzes literature that…
American Association of Suicidology (2003). Remembering Our Children:
Parents of Suicides, A Memorial to Our Precious Sons & Daughters. http://www.angelfire.com/mi2/parentsofsuicide/page1.html
Bratter, Thomas Edward (2003). Surviving Suicide: Treatment Challenges for Gifted, Angry, Drug Dependent Adolescents. International Journal of Reality
Therapy, XXII, 32-36.
It raises the need for both written and verbal communication skills to reach an optimum level that can persuade and cajole.
It is believed by many experts that this economic role will become more important in future years and that in order to achieve the status of superintendent, a candidate will have to display some experience or education in that field to ensure board members that he or she is capable of representing the district well (Thomas, 2002).
With Administrators, Staff and Teachers
School superintendents face a new level of issues when dealing with these three groups of employees, and it is very important how the man or woman in that position communicates layoffs, curriculum changes, school closures, firings, or an order to re-apply for their jobs, as has been done now in a significant number of districts around the country.
One of the superintendent's first priorities is to get…
Board perceptions. (2007, December). Retrieved May 28, 2009, from School Administrator Journal - GALE database (A172251160): .
Glass, T.E., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. (2000). A study of the American school superintendency. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from eric.ed.gov (ED440475): http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/2d/e9.pdf
Hopper, J. (2005, December). Communication essentials: What superintendents need to know and want to share about communicating. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Michigan edusource: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:PvTiyj6oFJsJ:www.michiganedusource.org/PublicRelations/Supt_Communication_Essentials.doc+school+superintendents+communication+methods&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
McAdams, D.R. (2009, February). Top 10 'guarantees' for a great relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from EBSCO data base (AN 36326105): http://ezproxy.ppld.org:2054/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=99164b10-d3d2-43 AD-b5be-a37ac1448272%40sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=tfh&AN=36326105
Granted, she was fortunate that Goldenberg is a noted school change advocate and author. However, if he had not been at the school, she may have been able to find someone else well versed in reform. The important element is collaboration with others who have a knowledge base.
The other important aspect of this article was the example of how the teachers were involved and the results that came from this change. Based on the increased scores of the students, it is easily recognized that there was a fundamental change in the teachers' instruction. Lastly, this article showed that not all changes end in "happy ever after" results. Unfortunately, the changes were not continued from one generation of teachers to the next.
There are a few elements that are missing in this article. The first is what happened to Sullivan and her involvement with this school change. Did she leave,…
Tinsley, R. (2006) Successful School Change. Catholic Education 10(1), 115-117
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
School Students Community
Designing an Ideal School Students Community
What is needed to be in the new high school and why?
The proposed high school should cater to the needs of students, academically and otherwise. This is important for a well-rounded development of every student. Firstly, the high school should provide opportunities for students to pursue their personal interests such as knitting or carpentry or just about anything else instead of forcing them to choose from a given set of options. This will help to build their skill and will also give them the confidence needed for higher education. A warm and inviting climate, more interaction with nature and extensive opportunities to learn and explore are vital for a model high school.
Likes and dislikes of students
Most high school students will be between 14 to 18 years of age and this is an important developmental stage for them. They…
Below are the results of the survey:
1. Inadequate number of student spaces - 28,800 (64%)
2. Too many faculty spaces not being used - 7,650 (17%)
3. Inadequate attempts to keep students without decals from occupying spaces - 6,750 (15%)
4. Dim marking lines-1,800 (4%)
As you can see from the above information, a disproportionate amount of individuals attribute the parking inconvenience to simple lack of spaces. The university can easily rectify these results by renovating current parking garages to accommodate more parking, create space to develop more parking, or enhance the public transportation system on campus. Figure 3 below indicate that the latter option may be very viable in regards to cost over the long-term.
Figure 3: Effect of Potential Improvements to Public Transportation
Members of the FID community were asked about their feelings towards public transportation; individuals were able to check more than one category:
Then, each program is measured in terms of how well it can perform in a given environment. Based on this test called the fitness measure, the fit programs are selected for the next generation of reproduction. This process is continued until the best solution is determined. (Koza, 1992).
The advantages of genetic programming is that it is an evolving process based on the tested process of natural selection and evolution. This also uses parallel processing and so it can produce more accurate results within a short period of time. Due to these advantages, it is used in many real-world applications.
It plays a profound role in data mining and virtual reality, in every field ranging from finance to gaming. Specialized computer programs can retrieve data from large databases with a lot of precision and speed. These programs can also be used to identify relationships among this data and express them…
Yao, Xin. (1999). Evolutionary Computation: Theory and Applications. Publisher: World Scientific.
Back, Thomas. Fogel, David.B, Michaelewicz, Zbigniew. (2000). Evolutionary Computation 1: Basic Algorithms and Operators. Publisher: CRC Press.
Mitchell, Melanie. (1998). An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. Publisher: MIT Press.
Koza, John. R. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by means of natural selection. Publisher: MIT Press.
They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).
Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.
Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…
Swanson and Torrco discuss how the Human Resources Department must not only support but play an active part in a company's overall business strategy. Because of this they must be an integral part in any kind of systems thinking. The authors give multiple examples, such as the type of traning given to employees as well as their efforts to maintain the quality of employees' work. How such HR goals are achieved will have a profound effect on company culture and must be part of the company's overall plan.
Vogelsang-Coombs, Vera. 1997. "Governance Education: Helping City Councils Learn." Public Administration Review, Vol. 57.
This article tightly focuses on how one group can become dysfunctional -- city councils. The authors suggest ways city councils can learn to function more effectively. While it remains to be seen if city councils, as a group, would put in the time and effort to use systems thinking to improve their functioning, and whether dynamics within the group would or would not thwart such attempts, the article has a good discussion on "groupthink," a group phenomenon that blinds the group to lurking risks and dangers.
Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…
Family system theory, too avoids labeling behaviors as good and bad seeing them as factor of external elements (such as geography or time) that are, often, beyond individual's control and often beyond his or her awareness too. Taking this in mind enables the counselor to not only be more empathic and understanding of client but to also help detach the client from guilt regarding his activities and show him how to effectively reduce his negative behavior in a self-efficacious manner. By seeing the behavior as simply an action that has been learned and robotically repeated / reiterated through the generations, family system theory reuses to evaluate it and teaches the counselor / social worker and client to see it as a negative variable, through no fault of his own, that needs to be altered. Altering it will, in turn, not only make his own life and lives of those who are closest to him happier, but he will also positively impact the lives of countless effected others.
System theory, when applied to treatment of domestic violence, may be helpful too in that it treats not only first-order levels but provides understanding of, and probes underneath, to second-order levels too. First order levels refer to the situation where surface behavior may be changed but the underlying attitude remains unaltered (Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). The perpetrator, for instance, may learn new communication skills but the influence of his cultural internalizations regarding supposed inferiority of the female remains unchanged. System theory, on the other hand, may help the client realize the root of his perspectives and, by so doing, have a greater and more enduring impact on him. This would consequent in a second-order change where the underlying rationale is addressed leading to male and partner affecting a healthier relationship.
It is in this way that I see systems theory as contributing powerfully to amelioration of domestic violence.
To rectify this situation, business schools need to begin implementing some kind of ethics training, in the undergraduate and graduate school levels. This is because the corporate and social responsibility that students are taught; will have a dramatic impact upon how they view the world. Where, studies have shown that in college, students do not have any kind of understanding of being ethically and socially responsible. (Arlow, 1991) This is significant, because one could infer that all of the different corporate scandals that have been occurring, over the last ten years are: because of a lack of ethics in business. In many ways, one could imply that the reason why this is a problem is occurring, is students are being not taught the difference between ethical and social responsibility. To rectify this situation, it is advisable that all graduate and undergraduate schools implement some kind of corporate and socially responsible…
Arlow, P. (1991). Personal Characteristics in College Students. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (1), 63 -- 69.
Gandz, J. (1988). Teaching Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 7 (9), 657 -- 669.
George, R. (1987). The Status of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3), 201 -211.
In most occasions however, the consent of the Congress is rather difficult to acquire and this often leads to frictions in the relations between the two parties. So tense are these relationships that the President perceives his meeting with the Congress as the most demanding and largest milestone in his path. "The President often sees Congress as an obstacle to be overcome, and always has to calculate how his proposals will play out with Congress. He cannot dictate to Congress what he wants, and faces a huge task in communicating with Congress because of its size and diversity" (Hamilton, 2004).
The frictions which occur between Congress and President have had a historical positive side in the meaning that they forced Presidents to forward flawless action plans, based on real facts, resource estimations and expected outcomes. Today however, the general perception is that these tensions are a means of stalling and…
Hamilton, L., 2004, Congress and the President, Center on Congress, http://www.centeroncongress.org/radio_commentaries/congress_president.php last accessed on August 12, 2009
2009, United States Government, MSN Encarta, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500781_3/united_states_government.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
The Constitution of the United States of America, Cornell University Law School, http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.overview.html last accessed on August 10, 2009
The model consists of five phases:
1. Perception of the ethical problem
2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue
3. Identification of alternatives
4. Selection of an alternative
5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).
This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.
Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…
Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict-of-interest.html
Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://ethics.iit.edu/index1.php/Programs/Codes%20of%20Ethics/Authoring%20a%20Code%20of%20Ethics.html
Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.
Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.
The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…
Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.
Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.
Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.
Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.