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On Earth, volcanic eruptions trigger the carbon cycle that accounts for the eventual concentration of calcium carbonate wherever water once existed. On Mars, the absence of calcium carbonate and, even more importantly, the presence of jarosite suggests that the element sulfur may have played a comparable role to that of carbon on Earth. Specifically, Martian volcanoes apparently ejected vast quantities of sulfur dioxide (instead of carbon dioxide released in volcanoes on this planet) where it was eventually dissolved in Martian oceans to form silicates and sulfites including calcium sulfite. At the same time, the presence of calcium sulfite would also have inhibited the formation of carbonates like limestone.
Additionally, this recent observation also offers a logical explanation for how a planet like Mars which is presently far too cold to support liquid water could ever have been warm enough to do so. That answer derives from the fact that just…… [Read More]
scientist cannot simply do "pure" research, because in almost all branches of science, there is no such thing. Science is embedded in our society, and when science is applied, it has repercussions that are broad-reaching, whether it is the discovery and application of a new drug, a new material, or a new type of computer or diagnostic tool. Therefore, scientists must understand the culture in which they are working, and advocate for the support of their research as well as its ethical application.
A case in point is genetic anthropology, a field of research that uses the human genome to trace our origins on this planet and also to understand the differences between groups of people. Subtle but consistent differences in our genome may lead to a deeper understanding not only of our origins and the way we spread out on this planet, but of genetic vulnerabilities to certain illnesses…… [Read More]
War is, scientists are discovering, not inevitable based on primate social behavior and aggression. Interestingly, research suggests that aggression may cause elevated levels of testosterone, not the other way around. Moreover, aggression is hard-wired and inevitable but so too are traits related to cooperation and conflict resolution. esearch among primate populations shows the remarkable capacity for primates to act and live peacefully with each other.
However, not all environmental conditions are conducive to peace. Note researchers, competition for resources is one of the main factors that engenders warfare and aggression. Interdependence is another key factor that can cause peace. When neighboring bands of primates interact with, socialize with, and cooperate with each other they tend to be more peaceful. The same is true for human societies.
esearch on primates can easily be applied to the human world. In regions of the globe besieged by inequality, including parts of the United…… [Read More]
scientist: illiam Shockley
ithout a man whom you have probably never heard of, writing this report on a computer would not be possible. The name of illiam Shockley is not as famous as the names of Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, or even the founders of Google. But Shockley is one of the inventors of the transistor, and without the transistor, most of the technology we take for granted today would not exist. Before transistors, vacuum tubes were used as the main form of communications technology. Vacuum tubes "could amplify signals…on telephone lines as they were transferred across the country from one switch box to another…It allowed the signal to be amplified regularly along the line, meaning that a telephone conversation could go on across any distance as long as there were amplifiers along the way" ("Transistorized," PBS, 1999). But "it wasn't a very efficient technology, and [it] required a lot…… [Read More]
Popcorn - Purdue University Research
Popcorn comes close to being one of nature's most perfect foods. Not only does it taste good, but it is also a whole grain with high nutritional value, making it one of the few snacks that is actually good for you. And, popcorn is a great substitute for bread because its carbohydrates are easily digestible and provide energy to help metabolize fats. However, popcorn has one minor drawback. Old maids, kernels that remain at the bottom of the kettle that do not pop, can get stuck in the throat and damage fillings in teeth when consumed accidentally. The percentage of unpopped kernels is no small problem and ranges from at little as four percent in premium brands to as much as forty-seven percent in cheaper brands. ut, soon, according to a recent CNN article, even this one remaining objection may go away if manufacturers take…… [Read More]
scientist's need to acquire knowledge trumped the patient's or research subject's rights to autonomy and other, personal individualistic rights. The affirmative side advocated a utilitarian approach to ethics. Utilitarianism deems that when there is a conflict between the rights of one group and those of another, the decision-making prioritization should favor the greatest good for the greatest number of people. The affirmative stated that when conducting medical research, the emphasis from a utilitarian perspective should be on the potential knowledge that can be gained from the research that can help future generations, rather than specifically how the research can benefit the research subjects. This means that some forms of deception regarding the purpose of the research derived from the study is ethically acceptable.
The negative side of the debate invoked a deontological ethical argument, pointing out that informed consent is a widely-accepted medical principle as defined in the Code of…… [Read More]
S. hurricane season may be greater than average this year, with a higher probability of at least one hurricane touching land.
It is also interesting to note that Klotzbach and Gray have altered the model and predictors used to predict the upcoming hurricane season, and the 2007 season was the first season predicted using this new model. The model uses temperature, atmospheric, and other weather data from the North Atlantic, Extreme North Atlantic, and the Subtropical Northeast Pacific regions to predict what will happen during the upcoming hurricane season, and using this data to predict prior years information has been very accurate (Klotzbach and Gray 12-15). Thus, the new prediction for the upcoming hurricane season may be one of the most accurate to date.
In conclusion, it is clear that predicting hurricanes is a science, and that it is also extremely difficult to forecast hurricanes totally correctly throughout the hurricane…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to assess the story and intrigue of the development of the breast cancer drug Herceptin. Indeed, there are many important advances that occur due to the efforts and travails of scientists and other medical professionals. The author of this report has been asked to identify the five key forces that influenced the discovery, development and promotion of the drug in question. For each factor identified, there will be a description of whether the force helped or hindered the development of the drug. While there are challenges with all drugs in terms of funding, potential lawsuits and other setbacks, Herceptin was and is indeed a success story despite what challenges are faced with the development of every drug.
One force that worked both for and against Herceptin are the expectations when it comes to new drugs to fight cancers including breast…… [Read More]
S. needs to have companies continually challenging them on all sides to force greater economic and technological growth. Constraining competition hurts innovation, fostering and nurturing it, makes innovation flourish . The scientist and engineer plays a critically important role in the overall ecosystem of technological and economic change as a result, driving existing companies who are lethargic and complacent out of business with disruptive innovation, while challenging existing companies to continually improve. All of these dynamics and innovations revolve around adding a continually higher level of value to the consumer, enriching their experience and their value obtained.
Within the next five years, each of us will most likely have a smart phone that has an order of magnitude more computing power than the most powerful laptop or desktop PC today. These smartphones will be able to instantly drill down into contextual data no matter where we are globally, providing immediate…… [Read More]
Even if the initial consequences seem morally ambiguous in experiments like the one described in Flowers for Algernon, it would be foolish to assume that scientists should simply stop working. Scientific inquiry and experimentation do leave unfortunate casualties in their wake, but those setbacks seem small compared with the tremendous benefits that science also provides. Without experimentation and the willingness to play god every day, scientists would be unable to develop new tools and technologies that help eliminate disease and suffering.
Playing god is a natural expression of the divine spark in all human beings. The most astute and creative people on the planet play god. Artists and musicians play god, even if their work does not please every viewer or listener. The job of the artist or scientist is not to please people, but to use the gifts given to them by the creator to make the world a…… [Read More]
The scientist is mistaken in this regard. Protocol, from a business standpoint is appropriate considering the rapid expansion of technology and product features. First, new products management have a better grasp on the needs of the customer. Through personal interviews, surveys, and other information gathering methods, a new products manager can better ascertain customer driven solutions. In contrast, R&D may falter as they may be out of touch with the voice of the customer in regards to product specifications. For example, R&D may design a premium product, with multiple features, but it may not be adequate for the particular target markets usage needs. By ascertaining the voice of the customer, product manger can act swiftly and efficiently to develop better products to suit proper specifications.
Great efficiency towards product development is extremely helpful in the rapidly changing environment of today. The nature of the business cycle is that some…… [Read More]
scientist' is but a simple word, unless mad is attached to it. When I hear someone say 'scientist' I think of mad scientists and they are never more than crazy villains set on destroying the world. There is a reason why science and through extension scientist is regarded by many as a subject leaning towards darkness and chaos. People in the past associated science and scientific breakthroughs with magic, witchcraft, and set out on mad pitchfork holding crusades in order to thwart the maladies supposedly brought on by science. While my opinion of a scientist is that of an innovator and of a person meant to bring forth an advancement or direct evolution, I cannot help but imagine all the times mad scientist or even simply scientist has led to the creation of some of the dastardliest villains in literature as well as some of its heroes and that the…… [Read More]
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
This is a paper that outlines the case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hide as a cautionary tale. It has 6 sources.
Novels or films often have several themes running simultaneously together, and authors or directors often highlight more than one theme so that they can portray a maximum amount of their thoughts to the reader. There are certain writers who portray these themes in almost all their novels, and thus earn a reputation for using them. The introduction and use of a theme often depends on the experiences of these people and their ability to put these experiences into words. In putting some of these themes into words, addition of other themes is often unavoidable (Nabokov, pp184).
The type of character that we may possess governs the decisions we take. These are decisions that one takes consciously and are aware of repercussions of…… [Read More]
Alien Life on Earth
Scientists believe that all known life forms descended from a single common ancestor, a microbe that lived approximately 3.5 -- 3.8 billion years ago. Their belief is based on an understanding that all life forms have liquid water as their foundation, and they contain the same "building blocks" (Toomey 26). Researchers in the new field of synthetic biology have raised questions about another kind of living organism, independent of the building blocks already understood and unrelated to the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) from which all known life forms came. It is an intriguing idea that is attracting more interest as scientists continue to find evidence of this alien, or "weird" life on earth. The weird life is said to inhabit what is called the shadow biosphere.
Because little is known about weird life, scientists are considering myriad possibilities. The basic molecule might be other than…… [Read More]
It helped lead to more accurate readings of inanimate objects like rocks, too, which helped scientists narrow down the age of the Earth and how it has evolved through time.
Macdougall uses many differing sources for his book, as his "notes and further reading" section indicates. He uses books, journal articles, essays, and scientific data, and offers some of that data up in Appendixes in the back of the book. It is quite clear he is an expert in his subject. What is more important, however, is that he has the ability to make what could have been a very dry and dull subject very readable. He opens the book with the story of Oetzi, the Alpine Iceman, a fascinating look into the very heart of the book's thesis, and he grabs the reader's attention right away with this interesting story of a man who is probably at least 4,000…… [Read More]
It undergoes a transition from the olivine structure to the spinel structure. These transitions account for the discontinuous increase of the Earth's mantle as observed by seismic instruments.
6. How do mountains in the ocean basin differ from those on land?
Mountains in the ocean basins are perpetually being "recycled" through subduction zones. Therefore, the rock that they are made of differs in composition to mountains on land because of their younger age and mineral composition. Many of the mountains on land were created through uplifts in the crust, where rock from the crust was pushed upward and folded over time and time again. These types of rock have more metamorphic qualities while the ocean-bottom mountains tend to be more volcanic in nature and are more igneous. Also, the oceanic crust is made of basalt vs. The continental crust made of granite.
7. Why are continents so much higher than…… [Read More]
The epidemiology of Microbacterium hatanis is unknown at this time (New species of bacteria contaminates hairspray, 2008). However, researchers have found similar bacteria to infect humans and are concerned with what impact Microbacterium hatanis will have. For this reason, researchers will conduct additional testing to determine if the new species poses a health threat and, if so, researchers will make recommendations for new hairspray formulations to prevent future contamination.
The discovery of Microbacterium hatanonis is significant because contamination of cosmetic products has previously been thought to be rare. This new species in hairspray will no doubt lead to further research in this area, especially since Microbacterium hatanonis can grow in an environment which is pH neutral and 30°C, the environment common in the manufacturing of may commercial cosmetic products (Contaminated hairspray, 2008). Hairspray, with its high alcohol content, had not seemed to provide the ideal conditions for life…… [Read More]
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]
You lead research scientist WooWoo Pharmaceuticals. As a research scientist, responsible testing efficacy newly designed drugs. However, recently assigned a task. Your task determine effect eating pasta marathon performance.
esearch study on eating pasta (carbohydrate loading) before a marathon
Carbo-loading before a marathon has been a staple of many runners' dietary programs. However, athletes are notoriously superstitious and frequently base their training regimes on anecdotes rather than sound science. The scientific method demands a rigorous process involving researching a particular phenomenon (in this case, athletic performance); formulating a hypothesis; creating an experiment that effectively isolates the variable under study in the form of an experimental and control group; confirming or disconfirming the hypothesis and then retesting the experiment.
The existing literature notes "the practice of carbo-loading dates back to the late 1960s. The first carbo-loading protocol was developed by a Swedish physiologist named Gunvar Ahlborg after…… [Read More]
Scientists are now discovering the potential benefits that Homeostatic Soil Organisms (HSO's) once provided for the body. These microbes used to be ingested by humans through plants grown in soil that was never sterilized or polluted. Nowadays, since this is no longer the case with the soil, the ingestion of HSO's by humans has dropped significantly. This has led scientists to believe that an increase in dysbiosis has begun occurring within humans, which is a condition in which the population of harmful organisms within the gastrointestinal tract increases significantly thus causing an imbalance to occur. This in turn has led to humans today suffering more frequently from certain immune and gastrointestinal disorders such as allergies, bowel diseases and chronic fatigue among others.
In his article, Dr. Paul A. Goldberg lists the various benefits HSO's provide to the body. They prevent the growth of harmful organisms, such as molds, yeasts,…… [Read More]
Pathogen Detection Methods:
Scientists across the globe have been able to string total microbial genomes effectively and rapidly due to advances in the DNA sequencing technology. This is largely because the access to the DNA sequences of whole microbial genomes provides new opportunities to evaluate and understand micro-organism at the molecular level. Consequently, many scientists have been able to discover pathogens within biological tissues and examine variations in gene expression in reaction to the invasion of pathogens.
esearch Activities in Pathogen Detection:
Pathogen detection methods have been utilized as important parts of research in various fields like food safety, biodefense, pathology, clinical research, drug discovery, forensics, animal health care, and diagnostics. As terrorism has grown to become a major global threat, bioweapons or biological weapons, which are pathogenic organisms and their toxic substances, have become a pernicious threat. These products can be released into the air and water systems or…… [Read More]
As scientist come up with new technology for the welfare of mankind in this world they end up producing luxuries. The attitude of the people towards the environment is changing due to the fact that they need more and more luxuries and this makes them destroy the environment, and this make environment to be polluted in different forms.
In the act of mankind living luxuriously, they sometime use instruments such as air conditioners, fridges and others that do release C.F.Cs in the environment leading to deplete of the ozone layer, Paul Kennard (2006). According to researches the depletion of ozone layer during 19th century when there was no much use of such things, is compared with for 20th century, it has been found that there is 50% increase of the depletion. Deforestation uncontrollable for the purpose of building with the aim of accommodation tends to raise the content of…… [Read More]
In this experiment the independent variable would be whether the children responded to the genitals of the doll or not; the dependent variable would be based on the observed result of the independent variable.
Chapter Five -- Question ONE: Biological clocks are the drivers for circadian rhythms, according to the National Institutes of Health. The biological clock in a human is groupings of interacting "molecules in cells throughout the body" (www.nigms.nih.org). The nerve cells in the brain are called the "suprachiasmatic nucleus" (SCN).
Question TO: Flying from California to New York the passenger loses three hours, so when she wakes up the next day at 7:00 A.M., her body feels like it's 4:00 A.M. (that is being "out of sync" -- a sensory processing disorder).
Question THREE: If a person looks at the passage from Ecclesiastes philosophically, then modern science doesn't even need to weigh in. The truth is that…… [Read More]
In this experiment the independent variable is whether the children responded in some obvious way to the genitals of the doll; the dependent variable is based on the observed result of the independent variable.
Chapter Five -- Question ONE: Biological clocks are what make the circadian rhythms work, according to an article by the National Institutes of Health. The biological clock in a human is a series of interacting "molecules in cells throughout the body" (www.nigms.nih.org). The nerve cells in the brain are referred to as the "suprachiasmatic nucleus" (SCN).
Question TWO: Flying from New York to Paris the passenger loses eight or so hours, so when he awakens the next day at 7:00 A.M., his body feels like it's 11:00 P.M. (that is what is meant by being "out of sync" -- which is a sensory processing disorder).
Question THREE: In this passage from Ecclesiastes Solomon writes that the…… [Read More]
Another distortion is that older individuals always remember the past, but have difficulty with short-term memory. Restak stresses that it is normal that people's memories do decline somewhat with aging, but this does not involve losing present memories in place of those in the past (pg. 84). The reason some stereotypes develop such as this, he notes, is because stress, anxiety and depression can negatively impact memory. Physical changes, such as those in vision and hearing, may also have an impact on memory formation. The bottom line: Everyone over 50 is going to have some difficulty remembering as much as they did when younger. Yet, according to psychologist Marilyn Albert, this situation can be rectified. mprovement in memory performance when aging can come through six steps: paying attention to what is being learned; making learning conscious and deliberate; making that must be remembered more interesting, more connected and more…… [Read More]
Behavioral scientists and investigate often rely on criminal profiling to narrow down the list of possible suspects in a crime scene or in a potentially threatening situation. This is primarily done by matching personal traits and behavioral patterns of criminals to the way in which the crime was committed and that can help in shrinking the large pool of suspects to a few which makes it relatively easier to solve the crime. (Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M., 1986). Profiling has often been a target of intense debate by people who feel victimized by the process, however, it must be understood that profiling can never lead to one specific person. It can only help in providing leads to possible suspects and that too by means of their personality traits and behavioral past. In other words, a person who has not committed crimes and doesn't have suspicious behavior or personality traits…… [Read More]
Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism
Today, modern scientists understand that the Earth is billions of years old, they have a basic understanding of how the Earth was formed and how it developed over the eons that it has existed. However, this was not always the case and until the late 1800's, most scientists had no idea of the age of the Earth or how it had changed over time. But in the late 1700's a Scottish scientist named James Hutton carefully observed the world around him and came to the conclusion that the sedimentation observed in bedrock must take place at a very slow rate of speed and must be made up of "materials furnished from the ruins of former continents." ("James Hutton") This idea has been called "Uniformitarianism" and for its development, Hutton has been awarded the title of the "Founder of Modern Geology."
Hutton's ideas were in sharp contrast to…… [Read More]
Milgram's study illustrates that many who have had the responsibility taken from them are although not happy but content to continue with a procedure as long as they are not directly held responsible, thereby giving rise to an obedience through social bonding and situations (Hayes & Orell PG).
In this situation in a comparison with the Tuskegee experiment and Milgram's experiment it can be argued that the members of the medical team were acting under orders from the government and therefore were blameless in their experiments as were the teachers in theory only following orders, obviously this form of passing blame can be seen be as a paradigm in ethical understanding as we are all cogent beings with the ability to reason and question yet it seems when a person is actively allowing himself to take the blame as such then all reason as to ethical understandings of what is…… [Read More]
Gilmore writes, "Carver discovered more than 300 peanut-related products, including milk, cream, cheese, buttermilk, instant coffee, face powder, ink, dyes, vinegar, soap, wood stains and creosote" (Gilmore). He went on to discover a wide variety of products that used sweet potatoes and other items grown in the South, which helped literally recreate agriculture in the early 20th century.
One of the ways Carver's works continue to influence agriculture today is in the use of plant and crop rotation, which is one of the most common methods of rejuvenating the soil today, and Carver discovered it. Another biographer continues, "Carver understood that cotton had depleted the soil of the nitrogen that plants need in order to grow, and he knew that legumes, such as peanuts and peas, had a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that could take inert nitrogen molecules from the atmosphere and convert them into a form plants can use"…… [Read More]
Systems Engineering Documentation
When a scientist is developing a new pharmaceutical, an inventor is creating an alternative to an existing product, and a researcher is determining an easier method to develop a chemical process, they continually take notes or document each of their actions. This significantly reduces the amount of errors when others repeat the work to move ahead in the process and allows for the exact specifications to be copied when successful results are achieved.
Systems engineering follows this same pattern. In fact, documentation is an essential aspect, because of the creation of new designs and end products that meet the identified need of the customer. In Systems Engineering and Analysis, Benjamin Blanchard explains the importance of documentation as a design aid. Throughout the systems design process, which starts on a theoretical plane with an idea and evolves into a more specific set of steps and procedures, engineers often…… [Read More]
It doesn't take a rocket scientist to note that there have been disturbing trends in schools recently. While the spate of extreme violence appears to be waning, schools are still troubled places, with both students and teachers seemingly failing to get out of them what they expect or need, and suffering stress and trauma in the meantime. Society wants 'instant' gratification, TV is full of 'reality shows' that depend on people doing disgusting things to win a huge fortune, relatively speaking, so they can go do and buy more stuff. The most recent presidential race offered us a three-years-and-counting national discussion over who really won the presidency. And we have rushed headlong to send troops into two sovereign nations without benefit of the United Nations' sanctioning the acts, after the United Nations -- located on U.S. soil -- was founded to smooth out relationships between the world's peoples.
All…… [Read More]
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]
Censoring Science & Ethics
Here are my answers to the questions on the Values Exchange. I assume censoring is bad. I tried to answer the questions in a way like the others did. Then I changed the essay to make it sound why the issue should be considered in a better way. The questions are provided and then the answers are in RED. I guess, if you have to post them, you can use this as a guide. The essay can then be cut and pasted into another file and used that way. Hope this is what you want.
Emerging Biotechnologies: Censoring Science
I disagree with censoring science.
Why does this matter?
Because the issue is about whether science works the way it should.
IDEAL: What ideal most important?
Giving scientists and the way science is done the chance to work properly.
How confident? Just a little.
Why ideal…… [Read More]
Both of them are very accurate but they do not work together and he tried to solve that problem for the rest of his life. Einstein knew that this problem would have to be solved if we wanted to understand exactly what happened to create the universe in the very first instant of time.
If Albert Einstein were alive today, he would also be trying to stop war because he was very opposed to warfare between nations. He would also be working to promote nuclear power plants for energy and to reduce or eliminate nuclear weapons as much as possible. During World War II, Einstein knew it was necessary to invent the atomic bomb to end the war but he was very opposed to nuclear weapons otherwise.
Goldsmith, D. (1997). The Ultimate Einstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hawking, S. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. New…… [Read More]
This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.
ell-being of Muscles and Bones:
As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…… [Read More]
While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…… [Read More]
Social scientists often state that there are four models of group interaction, models of pluralism, assimilation, segregation, and genocide. These models exist on a sliding scale in terms of the degree of positive relations they exhibit between the dominant or hegemonic group and the minority or less powerful group involved in the interaction. In the first interactive model, that of pluralism, there is the smallest gulf of power between the majority and the minority group, or the most powerful and least powerful group in the dynamic. In a pluralistic state of interaction, no single group's set of values or one group truly dominates another group's set of values. This is a kind of mosaic model of group interaction, as is embraced in Canada, where a multitude of linguistic and ethnic groups are all considered equally 'Canadian,' and is also a model of interaction theoretically embraced within many American…… [Read More]
The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.
Overall System Design
Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified…… [Read More]
Smith notes that it may be impossible to unequivocally prove something with one hundred percent accuracy; rather, scientists seek probability.
The term theory is often misconstrued: Smith states that "theories always explain facts." Moreover, there is no clear demarcation between a theory and a hypothesis. Theories are basically broad hypotheses. Laws, on the other hand, are more restrictive and are often derived from theories. The practice of science entails experimentation as well as presentation to the scientific community. When the research is presented to other scientists, it is usually done so through peer-reviewed journals. Often other scientists will critique and critically evaluate the scientific experiment and attempt to replicate it. When the experiment has been replicated the hypothesis may become part of the canon of established science and from there, common knowledge.
Because science can only deal with what is observable and measurable, it can not apply to philosophy, aesthetics,…… [Read More]
1. When you hear the word “scientist” what do you envision?
When I hear the word “scientist”, what I picture is an individual conducting practical experiments and also proving theories with the endeavor of advancing the field of science and the world at large. However, I also picture both aspects of science encompassing the scientists that wish to make the world a better place, for instance, preserving the earth and also advancing scientific theories as well as the scientists that use knowledge for negative purposes such as creating bombs and viruses.
2. Discuss at least three characteristics of your vision of a scientist
One of the characteristics of my vision of a scientist is having had formulated and developed a scientific theory that had massive impact. A second characteristic of a scientist is someone who is extremely smart and intellectual and lastly I consider scientists to be revolutionary.
3. Which…… [Read More]
Many of the most famous scientists in world history also happened to believe in God: including Copernicus, Bacon, Kepler, Gallileo, and Newton ("Famous Scientists Who Believed in God," n.d.). These great scientists had no trouble reconciling their faith with their practice; their Christian beliefs with their research and investigations into the known universe. Yet science has morphed from an integrated realm of study to one that excludes religion from its ranks. It has become anathema to be a practicing Christian and a practicing scientist. It does not have to be; in fact, science and religion comfortably coexist and each can benefit the other.
One of the arguments against Christians being able to be good scientists is that they are too prone to personal bias. Sure, some Christians are prone to bias, but so is any scientist. Scientists are biased by their personal beliefs no matter where those beliefs…… [Read More]
Views on the Nature of Knowledge: Social Scientists vs. Natural Scientists
hat is knowledge? A simple question, or so most people would think. Knowledge is the accumulation of information on a given subject or subjects. It is a collection of facts, of things known to be true...or is it? The closer one looks, the more one comes to realize that there are many different approaches to obtaining knowledge, and many different definitions of precisely what constitutes knowledge. One's use of the term varies with one's own background and objectives. To some, knowledge is an absolute, to others; it is that which is gained through long hours of observation and long years of experience. The facts that make up what we call knowledge may be composed of absolutes, or they may be composed of many opinions, opinions that we believe to be most accurate or most correct. But what then…… [Read More]
The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.
As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.
There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce…… [Read More]
2. Scientists avoid using the terms "true" and "the truth" because they are too absolute. Science does not aim to give absolute knowledge. Instead, the scientific method relies on the senses and on experiments by creating hypotheses and testing them. Also, science is based on the five senses. The terms "true" and "truth" do not acknowledge the limitations of the five senses. Scientists understand that the body of knowledge created by science has changed over the years because of the development of better instruments to measure and gather data. The human senses might not change much, but the reliability of the senses change as instruments become more sophisticated. Scientists are constantly striving to improve the reliability of their observations and so can never claim to know the "truth." The five senses can point to what seems to be true, but scientists work with objectivity. Truth is a subjective issue, which…… [Read More]
This information is utilized to create new products and substances that are used on a regular basis. For example, chemists could use the COSY process to understand how to create a new kind of raincoat that will be even more water resistant. To determine this, the protons inside the molecules of the raincoat would have to be examined through the COSY process. This will identify the peaks inside the protons and what specific attributes are similar to other compounds. Once this happens, is when scientists can use this as a way to create specific attributes that they are looking for (i.e. A raincoat that is more waterproof). This is significant, because it is showing how the contribution of the COSY methodology allows chemists to create new compounds with specific attributes. ("Thomaston," 2006)
HETCO is useful in understanding the genetic composition of a substance and the compounds that are used to…… [Read More]
ole of females in science [...] achel Carson and Barbara McClintock and compare each scientist to general principals characterizing the careers of women in science.
WOMEN IN SCIENCE
One becomes a scientist by viewing the world in a particular manner; scientists select for study those aspects of the world that are amenable to analysis by scientific methodology. A person acting as a scientist constructs a scientific domain out of the world when s/he adopts a scientific attitude (Grinnell 2).
Most scientists face obstacles at some point in their career. Their research does not produce the results they expected. They lose their funding and must move to another research location. Critics do not agree with their findings or methods. When the scientist is a woman, she often faces even greater obstacles than her male counterparts. achel Carson and Barbara McClintock are two such women scientists, who worked relentlessly toward their goals,…… [Read More]
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…… [Read More]
Thus, to bring Cliff's supposed cure into a world where people are desperate for hope, when it is not adequately backed with science, seems dangerous.
There is also the question of obtaining funding for research, an obsession amongst all of Goodman's scientists. Scientists must prove that their research is bearing fruit, and it is very tempting to exaggerate the positive effects initially, in the hopes of gaining funding that will pay off in the long run. Goodman suggests that science has been corrupted by both a hunger for money and a hunger for publicity that has tainted the real reasons people entered science in the first place. A 'good' or pure scientist does not really exist any more, when politics and the need to make a profit, more than evidence, dictates the truth, instead of hard data and the desire of the scientist to heal. Both Cliff and Robin are…… [Read More]
He even goes so far as to claim that if global warming does occur, it will be a positive thing. Higher temperatures would be positive for agriculture and forests. He believes that higher temperatures will actually cause sea levels to drop, and wraps up his interview with the cheery optimism that everyone appreciates warmer weather.
igley isn't quite as upbeat. He points out that because uncertainty is a built in component of the climate models, it is just as likely that the scientists have erred on the side of caution as it is that they have erred on the side of excess. This means that the effects of global warming could be much worse than what the models predict. His overall concern:
I]t's not so much just the temperature changes, but it's the changes in all other aspects of the environment: amounts of precipitation, the ability for vegetation to maintain…… [Read More]
For example, if birds feed on seeds and a certain variety of insect, without the seeds, the birds may disappear, and the insects would then overpopulate the area.
In addition, the cost of GM crops is initially high to the farmer. These seeds cost much more to develop and test, and so, they are much more costly to the farmer. They might benefit Third World agriculture in many ways, but few Third World farmers could possibly afford the increased cost of these seeds, and so, they would not be available to a majority of the people that need them the most. Cost is an important factor in the continued growth of GM crops, and so, manufacturers must eventually address the cost of these seeds, and reduce the cost so that more people can afford to plant them.
While no study has found GM food to be harmful to humans, opponents…… [Read More]
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…… [Read More]
However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.
A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.
20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/
This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.
The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx
This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.
Ejelonu, A.…… [Read More]
That is not to say that theory and application cannot be separated into ethical categories. They can be, but those categorizations are always going to be somewhat skewed by the researcher, because no human being is capable of perfect neutrality. To assume that one can research for the sake of purse science really does involve imaging that scientists are not human beings with their own personal motivations. Moreover, this is not an issue that developed in the post-atomic world. Even before the use of the atomic bomb, scientists were motivated by personal motivations that kept them from being completely neutral. Therefore, it might be better to consider the ethics of scientific discovery from a viewpoint that includes the inherent morality of a discovery. For example, chemotherapy could be used as a weapon with very disastrous results, because its side-effects are devastating and can even be fatal. However, chemotherapies are developed…… [Read More]
Arctic Melt Unnerves the Experts" by Andrew C. Revkin, printed in the New York Times on October 2, 2007. Its focus lies on the Arctic ice cap -- particularly, on the rapidly decreasing amount of floating ice there. It reports that during the summer of 2007, the amount of floating ice melted to "an extent unparalleled in a century or more," and that upon discovering this information, scientists were "unnerved." The article cites a study that found that during that summer, ice had not only melted but moved -- out of the Arctic basin and past Greenland. It reports that the rate at which the ice melted was far more than any scientist or report had previously speculated, but that there exists between scientists disagreement about the true cause for this event. Still, the article says, many of those scientists believe that the Arctic "is heading toward a new, more…… [Read More]
"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).
These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made…… [Read More]
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…… [Read More]
Air Bags in Cars
The Politics of Air Bags
Air bags weren't always in cars. They have come about as a fairly recent development, and the rise of the air bag was due to politics. hile this may sound strange, many things that individuals take for granted today have come about because special interest groups were concerned about a specific aspect of public policy or public safety. These individuals or groups then worked to change laws or to have laws enacted that made the world, in their opinion, a better place.
The purpose of this paper is to examine air bags from a political standpoint. In other words, the goal of this paper is not to make a judgment as to whether air bags in cars are good or bad, but rather to look at the political changes that caused them to come about in the first place.
In order…… [Read More]
More objectivity is however expected from scientists, but their opinions also vary. Specifically, the opinions of those who support growth hormones and those who reject them are all derived from scientific evidence. This in turn means that the results of scientific research could be manipulated and influenced so that the findings are indicative of the desires of those who initiated the study. In this particular sense, the most pertinent situation is revealed by the beef and dairy producers, who hire their own scientists to lead the research process in the direction desired by them.
Aside from these situations however, the scientists who have conducted studies tend to link various health problems with the growth hormones. Some of the side effects to consuming products with residual matters from growth hormones include the onset of early puberty in girls, an increase in the risk of breast cancer, an increase in the risk…… [Read More]
There lies question on whether scientific knowledge is able to answer all the questions that relate to physical reality. For many years, people have wondered what the earth is composed of, leaving them wondering if the nature's secrets will one day be revealed (Grant 64). However, it is notable that since Galileo discovered the moon in 1608, there has been a remarkable move by his fellow scientists.
A lot of studies in science including the origin of the solar system, sonata of the stars, how matter changes to energy, and detailed works of an atom, among others has not fully exposed the science knowledge. However, the human culture seems to change with science. orldview patterns prove that complex systems studies by working from their smallest constituents meaning from bottom up. These paradigms also confirm that the laws of nature pounce from deep symmetry writs in to the basics…… [Read More]
Ethically, this may not be quite as questionable, but when matters of public health are concerned, and whenever the stakes of the decision-making are great, it is wise both to avoid apparent as well as actual conflicts of interests.
Should NIH scientists (compared to scientists in the private sector) be held to a higher degree of regulation of conflict of interest?
The NIH is a body of the federal government. The public must trust the government that the scientists have their own interests at heart, first and foremost. An individual who watches a drug commercial for Celebrex knows that it is being advertised by a self-interested commercial entity, but when the public hears a report provided by his or her government, composed by a supposedly disinterested body of scientists, he or she is more inclined to trust the evidence. Thus the NIH should be held to a higher standard.… [Read More]