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Alaska is experiencing a tourist boom of those who want to see glaciers before they disappear. One Hostel in witzerland is welcoming up to 800 people per day, twice their normal capacity. The guests hope to watch a rock the size of two Empire tate Buildings collapse onto a canyon floor about 650 feet below when the glacier which is holding it up finally melts. Meanwhile, they watch boulders the size of buildings roll down the sides of the Eiger, a mountain which has been held together for eons by permafrost. This is just one example of stories of resorts either losing or gaining clients as a result of the glaciers losing up to a tenth of their volume in a year. Today the ice occupies a third to half the volume it did in 1850 (Reuters, p. 1).
ea Level Rise (1 reference)
All over the world, coastal cities…
Sea Level Rise (1 reference)
All over the world, coastal cities in Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh and Holland are scrambling to stem the encroachment of the rising seas. In London the British have built floodgates on the Thames River and in Venice they are doing the same thing on the Adriatic Sea. A precipitating 1966 flood caused widespread damage and economic stress in Venice and prompted an ambitious plan, the Moses Project, placing 78 enormous gates on the floor of the Adriatic Sea which would rise if dangerous tidal surges threaten the city again. "Long debate over the project's merits repeatedly delayed the start of construction until May 2003. Opponents claim that the $4.5 billion effort will prove ineffective while threatening to kill the fragile lagoon in which Venice sits. In theory, the gates are to be completed by 2010" (Broad, p. D1)
Examples of Resort Cities Affected by
Rising sea levels, resulting from global warming, may have a potentially important impact on human culture. Recent evidence supports the contention that increases in greenhouse gases are linked to rising sea levels. One important impact of climate change and rising sea levels is increased rates of extinction across the globe. Further, changes in sea level will have a significant impact on outlying coastal areas, both in terms of physical changes, and in terms of events such as storm surges. Rising sea levels in the United States and across the world will have significant economic and cultural impacts, and may influence human health and the environment through the flooding of toxic waste disposal sites.
arrick, in his 1993 book, Climate and Sea Level Change: Observations, Projections and Implications, notes that there are many important uncertainties in predicting both global climate change, and changes in sea level. The factors that can impact…
Barth, Michael C. And Titus, James G. Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: A Challenge for this Generation. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Response Strategies Working Group. Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise. November, 1990.
Titus, et al. Greenhouse Effect and Sea Level Rise: The Cost of Holding Back the Sea. Coastal
Management (1991), Volume 19, 171-204.
Again, in October of 2004, 80% of Venice flooded when the water came up to 135 cm. The Piazza San Marco was inundated with 16 inches of water in the worst flooding in the last ten years. But there have been nine floods almost as bad as this one since the record high in 1966.
The City of Venice, along with concerned international organizations, is working on solving the problem with floodgates in the Lagoon entrance, as well as raising the pavement in low-lying parts of the city. Much of the raising of pavement has been done, but unless water barriers are made permanent, turning the Lagoon into a fresh-water lake, nothing else can be done. The high water arrives about every two weeks and sometimes is higher than previous times. And some believe it is getting worse, all to the benefit of the tourist trade.
Today, tourists come…
Imboden, D. And C.. (2008). Acqua Alta: High Tides and Flooding in Venice. Europe for Visitors. 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://europeforvisitors.com/venice/articles/acqua-alta.htm .
Povoledo, E. (2008). Venetian transport leaves tourists high and dry. International Herald Tribune. 1 Jan 2008.
Zwingle, E. (2007). The Venetian Bind: The Tides of Floodwaters and Tourism Both Threaten a controversial flood-control plan in the fabled city portends similar problems worldwide. Edutopia Magazine, Nov.28. Retrieved April 19, 2008 at http://www.edutopia.org/venice-controversial-flood-control-plan .
ising Sea Levels: Boston Harbor Case
The change in the climate of our planet is mainly a result of the increase in the global temperatures and the greenhouse gases. These gases and the rise in temperatures have affected our planet in many different ways. One of the most serious issues caused by these increased greenhouse gases and rise in temperatures is the increase in the water levels of sea. It has been observed that each year the sea water level on the eastern coast of the United States is increasing by up to 3mm (Church, & White 2011).
The buildings that lie near the shores are greatly threatened by this increase in the water levels. Now, the two most important concerns of the shore protection are to deal with the damages done by the waves and the coastal flooding and how to prevent these damages (Morang, 2006, chapter V-3, para.…
Arrowstreet Inc., & Goulston and Storrs. (2004). Final environmental impact report. Pier 4: South Boston Waterfront
Americans with Disabilities Act (2010). 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Section 405: Ramps. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/regs2010/2010ADAStandards/2010ADAStandards.pdf
Beaulieu, D. Colon, J. And Toussi, D. (2011). Sea Level Rise Adaptation in the Boston Harbor Area. The Boston Harbor Association. Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Chan, Sewell. (2007, August 8). Flooding cripples subway system. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/08/08/flooding-cripples-subway-system/
238 -- 273)
Coasts: Define a beach. What is the shore face along a beach? What is littoral drift (long shore sediment transport)? What is difference between Groin and Jetty? Where would you find a tidal inlet? Give an example. What is wave refraction? Identify and describe a barrier island system. What is difference between an estuary and ocean area?
A beach is a land formation along the ocean's shoreline. A shore face is a zone where the water line is lower. Littoral drift is when non-sedimentary sediment (i.e. sand) is moved along the coastline. Groins are structures that run parallel to the cost line. While Jetties, are structures built to stabilize inlets. Tidal inlets are found in between barrier islands. An example of this can be seen when someone is traveling among the Hawaiian Islands. A wave refraction is when a wave is changing its direction. Barrier islands are…
About AGI. (2012). AGI. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/
Home. (2012). MGS. Retrieved from: http://www.mgs.md.gov/
Science Features. (2012), USGS. Retrieved from: http://www.usgs.gov/
Gronitz, V. (2007). Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology. Berlin: Springer.
Case Study: Climate Change and Dealing with Sea Level Increase
Rising sea levels have emerged as one of the major concerns in today’s world because of the increased devastating impacts of climate change or global warming. While increase in sea levels is expected to affect the whole world, some regions will be affected more than others. One of the regions that will be significantly affected by sea level increase in China based on a recent report from Climate Central. China is among one of the major Asian countries that has experienced tremendous economic growth over the past few years. The country is characterized by faster-growing coastal megacities and a population of more than 145 million people. Actually, these coastal cities account for approximately 70% of China’s big cities and 41% of her population (Chen, p.925). These coastal areas play a critical role in the country’s GDP and national industrial output…
Logistics network integration, expertise with suppliers from the same industry and knowledge of information systems coordination from VMI through paperless invoicing (Hannon, 52) are also critical. After these steps are completed, there would need to be an assessment of the logistics costs and fees including a break-even and eturn on Investment (OI) analysis across the Ocean Spray supply chain, in addition to an Internal ate of eturn (I) analysis specifically within Ocean Spray. Compounding all these factors is also the assessment of external factors including seasonality inherent in their business model, and the initiative to create more effective packaging that maximizes Ocean Spray's shelf space in stores, specifically focusing on square containers to accomplish this (Hannon, 51). After this first phase of completing a strategic assessment was complete, the next step would be to define timeframes to form a strategic relationship. An evaluation of the various forms of strategic relationships,…
David Hannon. "Ocean Spray leverages software to manage inbound logistics " Purchasing 19 May 2005: 49-52. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 10 Sep. 2008
Harry L. Sink, C John Langley Jr. "A managerial framework for the acquisition of third-party logistics services. " Journal of Business Logistics 18.2 (1997): 163-189. ABI/INFORM Global. 12 Sep. 2008
Perry a Trunick. "Sea change at Ocean Spray " Transportation & Distribution 1 Feb. 2003: 35-37. ABI/INFORM Global. 12 Sep. 2008
The case involving the hometown favorite, Ocean Park in Hong Kong, going up against a new competitor, Disneyland, represents a trend that has revolutionized the business world in the last few decades. Many locations around the world have had their existing businesses in all industries be challenge by newly introduced multinational corporations. The trend is nearly universal a crossed all industries. McDonalds will enter an international market and challenge the local restaurants; Wal-Mart may open a new superstore and go up against local retail establishments. The Ritz Carlton may open a new luxury hotel that competes with establishments that over a century old. All these represent some of the challenges that are found in the modern business environment.
While the local company may have a long track record of operating success as well as decades of experience with the local culture, multinational companies have access to quantities of…
Sea and Poison
Shusaku Endo's novel The Sea and Poison was published in 1958. Although it is set during orld ar II, The Sea and Poison is about much more than the war. The novel is about bioethics. The fact that The Sea and Poison is set against the backdrop of one of the bloodiest wars in history is appropriate from a literary perspective. Morality of war is juxtaposed with the morality of self-serving doctors. The decisions that doctors make in their own interest is depicted alongside the decisions that generals make to take prisoners of war and strip them of their humanity. Therefore, Endo's novel is multilayered and complex. The lessons Endo tries to teach through the moral turpitude of The Sea and Poison remain salient today, especially in light of the growing conflicts of interest in a for-profit American healthcare system.
The Sea and Poison is as realistic…
Endo, Shusaku. The Sea and Poison. Trans. Michael Gallagher. Tokyo: New Directions, 1958(1972).
ocean park HK
A rate fence is a barrier between target markets that ensures that different markets pay different prices. Landman (2010) notes that there are physical and non-physical rate fences. In the hotel industry, a physical rate fence might be the quality of the room -- the guests need to discern a difference in order to justify paying a higher price. A non-physical rate fence would be something service-oriented, for example.
The pricing structure at Ocean Park Hong Kong highlights a number of different rate fences. The basic prices are set out for adults, children and families receiving assistance from CSSA. Children under 3 and seniors enter free, as well as people with disabilities if they hold a "registered card for people with disabilities." These could be considered non-physical rate fences, but they are closer to just reflecting price discrimination that allows some people to enter free. These are…
Landman, P. (2010). Physical vs. non-physical rate fences . Xotels.com Retrieved May 3, 2014 from http://www.xotels.com/en/revenue-management/revenue-management-book/physical-rate-fences
Art is also powerful according to Vendler, capable of inspiriting interest and curiosity about other "aesthetic matters" including philosophy, history and other disciplines (Vendler 1). Vendler also states that the arts "are too profound and too far reaching to be left out of our children's patrimony" suggesting that the arts have a right in schools and should be considered as serious as other subjects including math or biology (Vendler, 2004; Field, 2004). Further, Vendler argues that the arts can teach individuals more about heritage than other subjects including philosophy and even history because the arts offer a picture of the way mankind was, has lived and may live in the future (Field, 2004).
Vendler suggests that people would be sleepwalkers as allace Stevens proposes in his poem "Somnambulisma" that wonder through life without conscious acknowledgment of their existence I they fail to participate in the arts and recognize the vital…
Craig, Bruce. "Poet Helen Vendler Delivers Jefferson Lecture." National Coalition for History, 10(20): 2004, May. 10 October 2005: http://hnn.us/readcomment.php?id=34866&bheaders=1
Field, Kelly. "Jefferson Lecture: Harvard Poet Says History Is Not Essential To Liberal
Education." (2004- May). Chronicle of Higher Education, 10, October 2005: http://hnn.us/roundup/comments/5058.html
Gewertz, Ken. "The centrality of the arts." 2005. Harvard University Gazette, (17):1, 10
motion of water. In the Ocean there are three major types of currents; Tidal, Coastal, and Surface Ocean.
Coastal currents are movements of water that are located near the coast and are influenced by wind, waves and land formations. Surface Ocean currents are currents that are located throughout the oceans, involve much more complex influences like global wind systems, the spin of the earth, salinity, and water temperatures.
Normally wind patterns on the earth follow a cycle of circulation between the equator and the poles. But because the earth rotates on it's axis, these normally north and south wind patterns develop a slight curve, called the Coriolis effect. In the northern hemisphere this effect causes the winds to curve to the right, in the southern hemisphere, to the left. s the winds blow on the surface of the oceans, it drags the surface of the water in the same direction…
A. The predicted high tide is to take place at 09:51 GMT, and be 1.67 meters. The low tide is to take place at 16:42 GMT, and be -0.16 meters. This is not the same time as 5/8/2011, primarily due to the moon's influence on the tides and the fact that the moon will not be in the same position relative to the earth two days in a row.
B. On 5/9/2011 the actual high tide was 1.702 meters, .035 meters higher than predicted, while the actual low tide was -0.035 meters, 0.125 meters less than predicted. Meaning the tide was supposed to go to - 0.160 meters, but only dropped to -0.035 meters. This could be explained by wind patterns pushing water toward shoe, increasing water levels during high tide, but reverse winds could push the water away from shore during low tide, making low tide even lower. Increased and decreased movements of coastal currents can also keep water moving away from the shore, decreasing tide levels, or they could keep more water available for use in tides, increasing tide levels.
7. In the past 100 years, the sea level, according to the measurements at the San Francisco Station Number 9414290, the sea level has risen 0.66 feet, or 20,11 cm. This is a rate of 2.01 mm (+/- 0.21 mm) per year. One possible factor that could have had an effect on sea levels generally increasing over the past 100 years could be increased global temperatures melting more of the polar icecaps, increasing the total amount of water in the sea. Another could be the increase in fresh water in the salt water oceans. This can have an effect of the global conveyor belt system of ocean currents; slowing them down. A slow down in the overall ocean current will allow more water to be present near the shores, making increased tide levels more pronounced.
Near the middle of the sea in what is now Kansas sediments were deposited at a fast rate creating about an inch of compacted chalk each 700 years. Some of the worlds finest fossils have been discovered here. The crinoid Uintacrinus and fish Ichthyodectes are two examples. (Fossilmuseum.net NP)
hen other regions have such finds they are news, while the shelf and chalk deposit areas of the estern Interior Seaway boast finds nearly every digging season, by both hobbyists and professional scholars. hile other scholars are quick to point out that marine fossils are abundant the vertebrate fossil record is relatively barren, this is likely due to the significantly fossil bearing conditions of the silt sea bottom and its storm driven record keeping system, where large silt deposits moved rapidly over large areas in short periods of time and created a relative recording of the living and dead creatures in…
Baldridge, W.S. (2004). Geology of the American Southwest: a journey through two billion years of plate-tectonic history. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brigham, a.P. (1905). A Textbook of Geology. New York, NY: D. Appleton and Co.
Everhart, M. (2010). Oceans of Kansas Paleontology. Retrieved November 17, 2010, from Oceans of Kansas: http://www.oceansofkansas.com/
Everhart, M. (2007). Seamonsters: Prehistoric Creatures of theDeedp . Washington, DC: National Geographic Press.
An examination of consumer views on marine aquarium trade in fish indicates that there is need to educate and inform lobbyists and consumers towards creating demand for organisms caught sustainably. Further, there is need for such campaigns to connect the consumer information to human health effects and environmental impacts in a way that is honest and still not offending such a crucial industry. The venture in aquarium fish retailers on the online market has made 'impulsive purchases by lobbyists' a common occurrence (Mccollum, 2014).
The growth of the aquarium industry has encouraged more lobbyists to emerge. The increased success of private aquariums and the heightened interest in keeping aquariums as a hobby have also led to a higher demand for aquarium fish. Such fish is now commonly available both on the online market and retail physical stores. Larger chain stores have also joined in the trade. They haul simple aquariums…
The larger particles can influence the absorption rates of solar energy by a factor of three over particulates such as phytoplankton and minerals (Stramski and Woz'niak, 2005). This means that a small concentration of these particles can do a lot for the absorption rates of the water they are suspended in. The smaller particles can also have this effect, but their concentrations need to be proportionately higher to exact this same influence. The smaller particles are more influential as far as backscattering is concerned, and represent a massive shift in the way that scientists think about light diffusion and backscattering within the ocean. Previously, scientists thought that only the larger of these particles combined with other particulates were responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption (Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L., 1981). Now scientists understand that in shallow, mineral-rich waters, even a small presence of these tiniest of…
Babin, Marcel, and Dariusz Stramski. (2004). "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water." Limnology Oceanography. 49(3), pp. 756 -- 767.
Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L. (1981). "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea
(yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains." Limnology, Oceanography 26 (1). pp.43-53.
Dera, J., S. Sagan, and D. Stramski. (1993). "Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new results from the Black Sea." Oceanologia, 34. pp. 13-25.
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
Clarke, T. (September, 2003). "North sea fish have shrunk." Nature Science - European
Cetacean Bycatch Campaign. 1, December 2004: http://www.eurocbc.org/northsea_number_small_fish_increased_due_to_overfishing_25sept2003page1290.html
CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
Dayton, P.K., Thrush, S.F., Agardy, M.T., & Hofman, R.J. (1995). "Environmental effects of marine fishing." Aquatic Conservation 5: 205-32
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…
The red ocean industry that I decided to cover is video rentals and the company chosen is Netflix. The company has succeeded in overwhelming major competitor Blockbuster through differentiation, in this case the use of the Internet as a distribution mechanism rather than storefronts. According to Kim and Mauborgne (2010), the six paths framework seeks to uncover a new open space for the firm. The six paths are:
"Looking across alternative industries instead of focusing on competing within an industry; looking across strategic groups within industries instead of a company confining itself to established strategic groups; looking across the chain of buyers instead of focusing on the same buyer group as the rest of the industry; looking across complementary products and services instead of a company limiting itself to the scope of an industry's products and services; looking across functional or emotional appeal to buyers instead of accepting an…
Dignan, L. (2011). Netflix's rough weekend: Sign of things to come. CNet. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-20072648-93/netflixs-rough-weekend-sign-of-things-to-come/
Kim, W & Mauborgne, R. (2010). Six paths framework. Blue Ocean Strategy.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com/abo/Blue_Ocean_Strategy_Glossary_Lookup.php?Term=six-paths-framework
Kim, W. & Mauborgne, R. (2010). 3 tiers of noncustomers. Blue Ocean Strategy.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com/abo/noncustomers.html
Kim, W. & Mauborgne, R. (2010). 4 actions framework. Blue Ocean Strategy.com. Retreived October 29, 2011 from http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com/abo/4_action.html
Ocean Tides are the periodic rise and fall of the ocean waters due to the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on the surface of the earth. This paper is all about oceanic tides in which we shall discuss what causes tides, what are high and low tides, the types of tides, the phenomenon of tidal currents and waves, the effect of tides on the coastlines, and on fishing, and how tides can be harnessed for energy. e shall also discuss other areas in which knowledge of tidal data can prove useful.
hat Causes Tides?
Tides (the periodic rise and fall of the ocean levels) are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun. Apart from the oceans, tides also occur to a lesser extent in large lakes, the atmosphere and in the solid crust of the earth. Although gravity of the moon and the…
Daily Tide Predictions." Nautical Software's Graphical Tide Charts. Tide Data for Gulf of Mexico. 2003. April 17, 2003. http://duckcentral.com/daily_tideC.htm
Davidson, Buck. "Moon Phases: How Should They Affect Your Fishing?" n.d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003. http://www.floridasaltwater.com/how_to/Moon_Phases.htm
Solunar Phases: How should they affect your fishing?" n.d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003. http://www.floridasaltwater.com/how_to/Solunar_Phases.htm
Gore, Pamela J.W. "Shorelines and Coastal Processes." June 2000. Georgia Perimeter College. April 17, 2003. http://gpc.edu/~pgore/geology/geo101/coastal.htm
ebay: a blue ocean industry
eBay -- a Blue Ocean Industry
In 1995, the same year that Craigslist was born as a mailing list for announcing local events, Auction Web entered a market without competitors. A software engineer by trade, company Chairman Pierre Omidyar wanted to create a simple system for online trading of goods ("Meg," 2005). His wife, who had an interest in trading Pez candy dispensers, was one of the first customers. In three years time, trading was skyrocketing and Meg Whitman, from Hasbro, was hired as the CEO. Later in 1998, an initial public offering (IPO) made eBay a public company. Share value climbed steadily until the 2004 recession, as shown in Figure 1.
eBay Share Price
, June 9, 2005A company like eBay could not exist without the Internet, nor could it have grown so exponentially fast. In 1995, e-commerce was a twinkle…
Anniversary lessons from eBay. (2005, June 9). The Economist. Retrieved http://www.economist.com/node/4055579?story_id=E1_QDVVVSJ
Kim, W.C. & Maubourgne, R. (2005). Blue ocean strategy: How to create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.
Meg and the power of many. (2005, June 9). The Economist. Retrieved http://www.economist.com/node/4054876?story_id=E1_QDVQRSG
The heyday of the auction. Internet auctioneers such as eBay may be the instigators of a revolutionary leap forward in the efficiency of the price mechanism. (1999, July 22). The Economist. Retrieved http://www.economist.com/node/226168
In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges iver deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)
After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two…
Bernard, Eddie N; Robinson, Allan R. The Sea Tsunamis.
Harvard University Press. 2009.
Bilham, R; Engdahl, E. R; Feldl, N; Satyabala, S.P. Partial and Complete Rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847-2004. University of Colorado, Boulder.
Seism. Res. Lett. 2005.
Sherman's March To The Sea
Services and trainings at military
Marriage and Career
Services in Civil Wars
Year 1864 (Atlanta Event): Preparation of War 4
March to the Sea Event
Move to South Carolina Event
Move to North Carolina Event
Consequences of the Sherman's March
esearch Paper Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman who was also known as General Sherman (born on 8 February, 1820 in Lancaster-Ohio) that is nearby Hocking iver shore. By profession, his father was a lawyer and worked at Ohio Supreme Court. At the age of nine, his father died. A family friend raised him.
When he was 16 years old, Ewing appointed him as a cadet in U.S. military academy at the West Point. After his graduation, he entered into the army as second lieutenant in 1840. Sherman was promoted to Captain due to his services. He was not…
Clarke & Dwight, L. (1969). William Tecumseh Sherman: Gold Rush Banker. California Historical Society.
Eicher, J.H. & Eicher, D.J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press.
Inscoe, J. (2011). The Civil War in Georgia: A New Georgia Encyclopaedia Companion. University of Georgia Press.
Rhodes, J.F. (1901). Sherman's March to the Sea. The American Historical Review, 6(3), 466-474.
Kinesthetic Learners Achievement Levels in Technology Rich Classrooms
Hypothesis With Operational Definitions
Computers and Kinesthetic Learning
The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project
Collaborative Visualization (CoVis) Project
Apple Classroom of Tomorrow Project
American Culture in Context: Enrichment for Secondary Schools
SchoolNet / Rescol Report: The emerging contribution of online resources and tools to classroom learning and teaching
Lehrer HyperAuthor Study
The Highly Interactive Computing Environments (HI-CE) Group
Interactive technologies that are appealing to kinesthetic learning such as multimedia, hypermedia, and visualization in virtual learning environments hold great promise for enhancing the learning experience. A variety of research studies have produced results ranging from the ability of interactive computing not only to enhance the student's ability to absorb complex information, but also to fundamentally reshape the learning process.
Interactive computing holds exciting potential to create student-controlled learning environments in which students are more responsible for their own instruction. And,…
About learning and power. Retreived March 14, 2003 from Power Learning
Network Web Site: http://www.powerlearningnetwork.com/main/about.asp#Multiple
Bracewell, R., Breuleux, A., Laferriere, T., Benoit, J., and Abdous, M.
1998). The emerging contribution of online resources and tools to classroom learning and teaching.
Dead Sea Scrolls have been the focus of intense debate over their intended purpose since their discovery in the mid-20th century. Since their discovery, there has also been a growing body of scholarship that can help answer this question (Vermes, The Complete, p. 12). Drawing on the relevant historical evidence to this end, this paper provides a discussion concerning the best explanation for the function of the Dead Sea Scrolls, including an analysis concerning how the scrolls would have functioned during the life of the Dead Sea Scrolls community and how and why the scrolls were put in the caves. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the purpose of the Dead Sea Scrolls are presented in the conclusion.
Historical knowledge of the Dead Sea Scrolls community
It is reasonable to posit that some of the overarching purposes of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) included providing the…
Schiffman, Lawrence H. Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls: The History of Judaism, the Background of Christianity, the Lost Library of Qumran. Garden City: Doubleday, 1995.
VanderKam, James C. and Peter Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Significance for Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2002.
Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. London: Penguin, 2004.
" (SD, 1)
McClintock goes on to connect this to pointedly negative consequences for marine life, arguing that many invertebrates are distinctly vulnerable because their protective shells require many of the nutrients naturally available in their surrounding water to maintain hardness or to develop at all. This is a concern which is also raised in the article by Monroe (2009), where the results of an experiment designed to confirm this effect were as expected. Accordingly, "[Victoria] Fabry, a biological oceanographer and visiting researcher at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, studies the effects of ocean acidification on the mollusks known as pteropods. In one experiment, only 48 hours of exposure to slightly corrosive seawater caused normally smooth shells to become frayed at the edges on their way to eventual dissolution, severely diminishing their owners' chances of survival." (Monroe, 1)
This demonstrates that the increased acidification of the ocean's…
ANI. (2010). CO2 Negatively Affecting Environment of World's Oceans. Thaindian News.
Monroe, R. (2009). Carbonated Oceans. Explorations: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Pechenik, J. (2004). Biology of the Invertebrates. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.
Pinet, P.R. (2009). Invitation to Oceanography. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Mercantilism as a philosophy may be dead, but special interests that lead to trade controls are alive and well (Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life, 2003). Trade controls that affect price and indirectly quantity include tariffs, subsidies, arbitrary customs-valuation and special fees (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include quotas, voluntary export restrictions, "buy local" legislation, arbitrary standards, licensing arrangements, foreign-exchange controls, administrative delays and requirements to take goods in exchange for selling (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).
Finally, businesses must also consider trade organizations and regional economic integration when deciding where to conduct business. The World Trade Organization promotes trade liberalization and mediates trade disputes and enforcing agreements (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Major regional trading groups include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Community and…
Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426.
Kokko, a., Matha, T., and Gustavsson, P. (2006). Regional integration and trade diversion in Europe. http://ideas.repec.org/p/hhs/eijswp/0231.html
Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life (2003, September 19). National Review. http://www.policynetwork.net/main/article.php?article_id=584
Although these students are very active learners, they also enjoy reading silently and time for their own thinking. The students enjoy participating in sports, dancing, and singing.
Luis (not his real name) is a bright, outgoing 3rd grade boy. After speaking with Mrs. Jones, I learned he has been in the United States since the end of 1st grade. During the (approximately) two years Luis has lived in the United States, he has gone back to Mexico for extended periods. Luis is verbal and is not shy. He can speak fairly well, but struggles with some English. The push in services Luis receives is from a paraprofessional who has had some ESL training. The Para comes in twice a day to work with Luis. In addition, Mrs. Jones has taken the proactive approach of labeling "everything" in the room as well as partnering Luis with strong students.
Strategy Concepts -- From Planning Through Analysis and Implementation
The Concept of Strategy
Strategy is about change and response to change. Competitive strategy cannot stand still (Eisenhardt, 2002). Competitive strategy must establish differentiation (Kim & Mauborgne, 2004). Strategy appears most difficult from the inside of a business as perspective taking is based on what the competition is doing, might do, might do in response to what other businesses do, and so forth (Kim & Mauborgne, 2004). The critical distance needed to truly conceive and implement efficacious strategy is not easily achieved from inside a company -- a factor that has contributed significantly to the financial success of consulting businesses like Bain Consulting, Boston Consulting Group, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, and McKinsey and Company.
Businesses face market conditions that are in a continual state of flux, challenging them to construct strategies that are agile, effective, and relevant ("HB SWOT,"…
Eisenhardt, K.M. (2002). Has strategy changed? MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(2), 88-91. Cambridge, MA: MIT Sloan Management Review.
Halligan, B. (2006, September). HubSpot. Blue Ocean Strategy: A Small Business Case Study. Retrieved http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/54/Blue-Ocean-Strategy-A-Small-Business-Case-Study.aspx
Johnson, M.W., Christensen, C.M., & Kagermann, H. (2007, December) Harvard Business Review. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. [Reprint.]
Kaplan, R.S. (2007, January). What to ask the person in the mirror. Harvard Business Review. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. [Reprint.]
Community ule Texts
The incredible finds at Qumran have provided many new insights about faith, God and the way religion was practiced many years ago. The ule of the Community or the Manual of Discipline, as it is known in some circles, is a very central text that represents many of the core principles of the sectarian movements during the times before the new era. This text provides a keen insight into the possible practices of these people.
The ule of Community is a highly organized instruction manual that appears to be directed an elite level of society due to its tone and content. This manual presented many laws and rule much like other texts such as the Damascus Document and the Miqsat Ma' ase Ha Torah, also referred to as 4 QMMT. The rule of community spelled out many principles about the organization of community by clarifying what behaviors…
Dead Sea scrolls." In A Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. W. R. F. Browning. Oxford Biblical Studies Online. Sep 28, 2015. .
Qimron, E. (1986). The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (No. 29). Scholars Press.
Vermes, G. (2004). The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Penguin.
Humans made it to the Americas
Since the first humans originated in Africa and somewhere in the Middle East, anthropologists and historians have been figuring out how the first humans made it to the Americas. Archaeologists agree that these first Americas relocated from Asia via Beringia and settled in North America. Based on new and emerging evidence, we can doubt this theory and suggest new possibilities. Many explanations exist about how the early man migrated to the New World. This paper looks at three predominant theories of how humans made it to the Americas. The oldest is the Bering Land Bridge Theory, recently the Coastal Theory, and the Pacific/Atlantic Theory
The Bering Land Bridge Theory
The theory of the Bering Land Bridge is the most widely held. Human beings hunted and gathered for food. As sources of food became scarce, people began looking for ways to hunt large animals. Larger…
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…
Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.
Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.
London: Prentice Hall, 1995
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
globalized context, which of the two issues -- sovereign debt and energy insecurity -- is the greater challenge to U.S. national interests and why?
Globalization is the integration of trade, economic, financial and communication resources. Its primary focus is on the free transfer of goods and services across national borders. However, there are some restrictions which are applied under this philosophy. Most notably: the movement of people across national borders with little to no interference. This is designed to protect the smaller economies and encourage development inside these regions. (Dodds, 2012)
The biggest challenge for U.S. national security interests is energy insecurity. This is because all nations require resources (such as oil and natural gas) to maintain consistent levels of economic growth. The tighter supplies will lead to increased chances of conflicts taking place based upon controlling them. (Dodds, 2012)
A good example of this can be seen with the…
China Japan Island Dispute. (2013). Defense News. Retrieved from: http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130504/DEFREG03/305040006/China-Japan-Island-Dispute-Could-Become-Flashpoint
Burgan, M. (2007). America in World War Two. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library.
Burr, M. (1994). Requiem for Sudan. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Dodds, F. (2012). Climate Change and Energy Insecurity. Sterling, VA: Dunstan House.
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…
Author not Available. "About the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." IPCC.ch. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm
Editors. "Climate Change." EPA.gov. 2008. 14 March 2008.
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…
Alvarez RA, Pacala SW, Winebrake JJ, Chameides WL, Hamburg SP. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure. (2012), ProcNatlAcadSci USA.
Hansen, James, et al. "Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People Future Generations and Nature." PLOS One (2013). Review.
Heinberg R, Fridley D. The end of cheap coal. Nature, 468(7322): 2010, 367 -- 369. DOI: 10.1038/468367a.
International Energy Agency. 2010 Key world energy statistics, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.iea.org / textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key stats 2010.pdf
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
1578 Sunnyside Drive
New York, New York 10035
Hon. Charles E. Schumer
322 Hart Senate Office Building
Dear Hon. Senator Schumer;
I am writing to let you know about a serious issue that plagues our city, our nation, and that could possibly affect the entire world. As you may or may not be aware, according to a 2011 report by the American Lung Association, New York City placed 21st among the most polluted cities in the U.S. (American Lung Association, 2011). A look out the window of any building in New York at rush hour brings the problem home as the mass affect of gasoline powered vehicles in New York can be an overwhelming site to see. Pollution from vehicles is a major contributor to greenhouse gases that are the heart of the global warming problem (NDC, 2011).
If current projections are correct NYC would be…
American Lung Association. (2011). "Half of Americans still affected by dangers pollution levels." CityMayors. Retrieved from http://www.citymayors.com/environment/polluted_uscities.html
NRDC (2011). "Global Warming Basics." Retrieved from http://green.yahoo.com/global - warming/nrdc-231/global-warming-basics.html
Zimmer, L. (2011). "New Report Says Nyc Has Experienced Global Warming Effect at 2x the Global Average." 20 November 2011. Inhabitat New York City. Retrieved from http://inhabitat.com/nyc/new-report-says-nyc-has-experienced-global-warming-effects-at-2x-the-global-average/
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
Oceans on Human Life:
ecent economic, political, and environmental developments
One of the oldest forms of transport is sailing: long before airplanes or cars were invented, people turned to the sea as method of moving goods and people from one place to another. But oceans still play a critical role in the modern economy. In fact, an estimated one of every 6 jobs in the U.S. is in some way tied to the oceans and "over 1/3rd of the annual U.S. Gross National Product originates in coastal areas -- approximately $700 billion… U.S. maritime transport carries 95% of the nation's foreign trade" ("Oceans impact the economy" 2015). The importance of ocean-related shipping has increased rather than decreased in recent years, due to the rise in global trade. Although cheaper and more convenient airplane-related travel has retracted the importance of human-driven transport by sea, ocean-related trade has increased.
The creation of…
Bucker, C. (et al. 2014). Chapter 1: The earth's climate system. World Ocean Review.
Bucker, C. (et al. 2014). Chapter 8: Global shipping: A dynamic market. World Ocean Review.
(1989). These researchers investigated skeletal muscle adaptations in response to acclimatization at high altitude. Samples of muscle extracted before reaching high altitude and after returning to sea-level showed that maximal activities of enzymes, such as those representative of beta-oxidation, were unchanged. However, after exposure to extremely high altitude hypoxic conditions, reductions were observed in succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthetase and hexokinase. The findings of this study did not support the researchers' hypothesis that extremely hypoxic conditions elicit changes that are adaptive toward maximizing oxidative function at the intracellular level (Green et al., 1989).
Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., obbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in esponse to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.
Green, H.J., Sutton, J.., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology…
Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., Robbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in Response to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.
Green, H.J., Sutton, J.R., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology 66.5 (1989): 2454-61.
Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M. "Muscle Tissue Adaptations to Hypoxia." The Journal of Experimental Biology 204 (2001): 3133-9.
Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M., Weibel, E.R., Fluck, M. "Response of Skeletal Muscle Mirochondria to Hypoxia." Experimental Physiology 88.1 (2003): 109-19.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…
Paleozoic time period. Two internet sources, author.
The Paleozoic -- Geological History
Six major continents were present by the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, as the supercontinent had started to break apart during the latest Proterozoic period. Each of these continents can be separated into two principal constituents: a craton and one or several mobile belts. In contrast to the geological history of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic periods, there is lesser information concerning the Paleozoic era because the development of Pangaea led to the destruction of magnetic anomaly patterns that would normally be preserved in ocean crust. Experts thus focused on other concepts in trying to find out more regarding the period's geological history, such as how plants and animals were distributed and other structural relationships.
In addition to the six major continents present during the beginning of the Paleozoic, there were also a series of other microcontinents. Even with…
Fielding, Cristopher R., Frank, Tracy D., and Isbell, John L., "The late Paleozoic ice age revisited," EOS, TRANSACTIONS AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION, VOL. 87, NO. 8,-PAGE 87, 2006 doi:10.1029/2006EO080005.
Wicander, Reed, and Monroe, James. S., "Historical Geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time," (Cengage Learning, 25.05.2012)
"The Carboniferous Period," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the University of California website: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/carboniferous/carboniferous.php
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…
references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).
Possible predictions about the future of British engineering
In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).
Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.
Global Warming is real and happening
When it comes to the environment, one of the major topics for concern revolves around the issue of global warming. While there has been much debate on global warming, the fact of the matter stands, that numerous items if scientific research demonstrate the global warming is in fact real and happening. Those who oppose the idea that global warming is real and happening, do so often seeking refuge in the assertion that the climate of planet earth has changed continually through time, and that the climate changes that some attribute to global warming are actually just changes that are typical to the fluctuations of the earth. At this day and age, scientists have high technological tools such as satellites which orbit above the earth and which are able to show scientists snapshots of the "bigger picture" of this issue and preventing any further denial…
Nasa.gov. (2013). Climate change: How do we know?. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence
Markman, A. (2013, May 21). Who rejects evidence of global climate change?. Retrieved
Matthews, D. (2012, November 8). Cbo: Letting upper-income tax cuts expire would barely hurt economy. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/11/08/cbo-letting-upper-income-tax-cuts-expire-would-barely-hurt-economy/
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…
Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from:
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…
"CEH Protects People from Toxic Chemicals and Promotes Business Products and Practices That Are
Safe for Public Health and the Environment." Center for Environmental Health. N.p., n.d.
Web. 01 Mar. 2013.
"How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE." How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
Global Environmental & Social Problems
The four unit course in Contemporary Global Environmental and Social Problems explores and critiques some of the most pressing global social / environmental issues and problems that are not limited to one nation or region. Thesis: The most serious environmental and social issues on the planet -- issues that threaten the health, safety and productivity of the human race -- should be given serious, critical thought and research by students, because they will inherit the ramifications and problems related to those pivotal issues.
hile the science will be reviewed, the focus is on how climate change impacts people and the lands and waters they depend on, and on the wildlife. The world is already being impacted by global climate change.
Unit Two delves into the problems associated with human rights, including the nations and political movements that abuse human rights and the leadership that informs…
Nilson, L.B. (2010). Teaching at is Best. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Public Broadcast Service. (2012). Is Genetically Modified Food Safe to Eat? Front Line.
KCET. Retrieved November 8, 2014, from http://www.pbs.org .
Schuldt, J.P., Konrath, S.H., and Schwarz, N. (2011). "Global Warming" or "Climate
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…
1. Chen-Young, et al. Transnationals of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001.
2. Richard Wiffin, William Phettipace, Anas Todkill; Imagining Distance: Spanish Explorers in America. Early American Literature, Vol. 25, 1990.
3. Stephen Zunes; The United States and the Western Sahara Peace Process. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, 1998.
In this author's opinion, a greater than ninety percent probability that humans are involved in global climate change, with the additional concern that irreversible detrimental consequences may result, is sufficient to warrant immediate action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. ithin the scientific field an absolute certainty that humans have fueled global warming will never be obtained, no matter how much time is provided for study. It is paramount that action, such as the Cap and Trade Policy, is taken immediately to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Failure to take these steps will only exacerbate the deleterious effects of global warming as time progresses.
Many opponents to implementation of emissions restrictions, such as that of the Cap and Trade Policy, have also suggested that alternative energy sources are not sufficiently advanced or effective to meet the energy demands currently provided by fossil fuels. Presently, alternative energies…
Farrar, Amy. Global Warming. Abdo Pub Co, 2007.
Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, Steve Charnovitz, and Jisun Kim. Global Warming and the World Trading System. Peterson Institute, 2009.
Labatt, Sonia, and Rodney R. White. Carbon finance. John Wiley and Sons, 2007.
Metz, Bert, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change 2007. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
Groundwater & Hydrology
Water is the most cast off natural material in the earth. Irrespective of variations in its supply with the pace of time and location its aggregate quantity remains constant. The transformation of the water takes place through a continuation process referred to as hydrological cycle deriving its momentum through the solar energy and gravity. Down pouring of rain consequent upon condensation of clouds are extracted by the roots of plants, flooded over the surface joining the streams and rivers and to some extent absorbed by the earth to form the reservoir of underwater. Vaporization of water from water reservoirs, and transpiration of plants makes the water back to atmosphere.
The invisible underwater, which is the result of the continuous process of hydrological cycle, constitutes the key source of the water. This is also considered as the primary reservoir of pure water in a nation. Presently, the assessments…
Barringer, T.A; Dunn, D; Battaglin, W; Vowinkel, E.F. (1990) "Problems and Methods involved in Relating Land Use to Ground-Water Quality" Water-Resources Bulletin. Volume: 26; No: 1; pp: 1-9.
Cesare, Dosi. (2001) "Agricultural Use of Groundwater: Towards Integration between Agricultural Policy and Water Resources Management" Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht
Freeze, R. A; Cherry, J.A. (1979) "Groundwater" Prentice Hall, Inc.
Hubbert, M.K. (1956) "Darcy's Law and the Field Equations of the Flow of Underground Fluids" AIME Transact. Volume: 207. pp: 222-239
Mining on the Denniston Plateau
Towards the northwestern side of South Island of New Zealand is situated a small settlement that is known by the name of Denniston. The area formed by this settlement is the West Coast region of the country. This small town is situated on the small Mount ochfort Plateau in the mountain ranges of Papahaua, which measure around 600 meters above sea level, meanwhile the distance from Westport is 18 kilometers towards northeast.
At the start of the 20th century, the population of this small settlement was recorded to be about 2000, because of the huge coal mine that is situated quite close to where the people had settled. Speaking of now, the area has become more of a ghost town and hardly 50 people live here. It will not be wrong to say that the fate, location and history of Denniston are not very different…
Barnden, A., & Harding, J. (2005). Shredders and leaf breakdown in streams polluted by coal mining in the South Island, New Zealand. University Of Canterbury. School Of Biological Sciences..
Cashdollar, K., & Sapko, M. (2006). . -- EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF COAL DUST IN THE PRESENCE OF METHANE. Handbook For Methane Control In Mining, 147.
Greenpeace International. (2010).
Mfe.govt.nz,. (2014). Laws and treaties | Ministry for the Environment. Retrieved 21 August 2014, from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/
Planning Across Levels of Government: Federalism and the Planning for the esponse to Emergencies
This paper will be in the form of a governmental response plan to the natural disaster: Hurricane Katrina.
Early morning, on the 29th of August, 2005, USA's Gulf Coast was hit by the Hurricane Katrina. When it reached land, it was identified as having "Category 3" intensity, on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, bringing continuous winds of speeds between 100 and 140 miles/hour and stretching across for about 400 miles (Hurricane Katrina - Facts & Summary - HISTOY.com, n.d). While the storm was damaging enough by itself, the aftermath was utterly devastating. Firstly, massive flooding resulted from levee breaches. Furthermore, a large number of individuals claimed that the government didn't respond in a timely manner to take care of victims' needs. Several thousands of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi inhabitants suffered displacement from home. It has been…
(n.d.). History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. Hurricane Katrina - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.history.com/topics/hurricane-katrina
Luntz, T. (2009, July 17). Science News, Articles, and Information - Scientific American. Hurricane Protection for New Orleans Debated - Scientific American. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/hurricane-protection-for-new-orleans/
(n.d.). Occupational Safety and Health Administration - Home. Hurricane Preparedness and Response - Preparedness. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.osha.gov/dts/weather/hurricane/preparedness.html
Reese, M. (2012, April 23). Carolina Fire Rescue EMS Journal: Your Source for Fire, Rescue and EMS News and Reviews. - The National Response Framework: Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://www.carolinafirejournal.com/articles/article-detail/articleid/2071/the-national-response-framework.aspx
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…
Barbera, J.A., DeAtley, C., & Macintyre, a.G. (1995). Medical aspects of urban search and rescue. Fire Engineering, 14888-92.
Currah, P., & Mulqueen, T. (2011). Securitizing Gender: Identity, Biometrics, and Transgender Bodies at the Airport. Social Research, 78(2), 557-582.
Edmonson, J.W., Keeton, M., & Vernon, M. (1995). Rescue command. Fire Engineering, 14848.
Fagnoni, C.M. (2006). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season: GAO-06-