Coasts: Define a beach. What is the shore face along a beach? What is littoral drift (long shore sediment transport)? What is difference between Groin and Jetty? Where would you find a tidal inlet? Give an example. What is wave refraction? Identify and describe a barrier island system. What is difference between an estuary and ocean area?
A beach is a land formation along the ocean's shoreline. A shore face is a zone where the water line is lower. Littoral drift is when non-sedimentary sediment (i.e. sand) is moved along the coastline. Groins are structures that run parallel to the cost line. While Jetties, are structures built to stabilize inlets. Tidal inlets are found in between barrier islands. An example of this can be seen when someone is traveling among the Hawaiian Islands. A wave refraction is when a wave is changing its direction. Barrier islands are narrow strips of land that will run parallel to the coastline. An estuary is when fresh water sources are meeting the ocean (i.e. The mouth of a river). The difference between this area; is there are lower amounts of salt and high levels of silt / debris. (Pipkin, 2010, pp. 306 -- 343)
Geological Organizations: What is the USGS? What are 3 of their main areas of responsibility or focus? What is the Maryland Geological Survey? What are three areas of A the Maryland Geological Surveys focus? What is the AGI (American Geological Institute)? What is its focus?
The USGS is a government agency that is focused on studying the natural features inside the U.S. Their three areas of responsibility include: analyzing the biology, geology, geography and hydrology of the land. The Maryland Geological Survey is focused on these areas within the state of Maryland. Its three responsibilities are: the biology, geology, geography and hydrology of the land within the state. The AGI is non-profit organization of 45 geo- scientific and professional associations. Their focus is: to serve as a voice for the scientific community, to strength geoscience education and increase public awareness in these areas. ("About AGI," 2012) ("Home," 2012) ("Science Features," 2012)
Stratigraphy & Structural Geology: What is stratigraphy? LIST 3 fundamental principles of stratigraphy. Distinguish between Syncline vs. Anticline, Strike and Dip, and Fault vs. Joint. Distinguish between the three types of faults (normal, reverse, and strike slip) << the strike slip variety is associated with earthquakes in Haiti and Chile>>. Define Absolute Dating vs. Relative Dating. What Era and Period are we living in today? If you had a sample of wood from a tree from the Cenozoic, Quaternary, Pleistocene, would Carbon-14 Pleistocene be of more value in dating it than a trilobite of Paleozoic Mississippian age? Why?
Stratigraphy is discipline of geology that is focused on rock layers and layering. Three fundamental principles include: lithologic, lithostratigraphy and biology. Syncline is when the youngest rocks are at the core of the fold. Anticline is where the oldest rocks are inside the core. A strike is a bend within the crust of the Earth. While a dip, is the level of decline that is taking place. A joint is a fracture in the rock where displacement is occurring. Whereas a fault; is a displaced joint (with the rock slipping beyond the other plate). A normal fault is when the crust moves downward relative to the footwall. A reverse is where the hanging wall moves up the footwall. A strike slip fault is when the blocks rub past each other (creating friction). The earthquake in Chile was caused by a normal fault. While the incident in Haiti is based upon movement in the strike slip fault. Absolute dating is when scientists are seeking to understand the age of the rock in terms of years. Relative dating is comparing sedimentary sequences with each other to determine which one is the oldest. The current period is known as the Holocene Epoch. Carbon-14 Pleistocene is more valuable for dating. This is because it will provide scientists with the actual age in terms of years vs. determining if the mineral is older or younger in contrast with others. (Pipkin, 2010, pp. 468 -- 520)
About AGI. (2012). AGI. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/