Security Principles Essays (Examples)

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Security Balance Control Performance and

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28158174

S. Department of Energy).

Q3. Discuss the internet of things and its likely consequences for developing an enforceable information assurance (IA) policy and implementing robust security architecture.

The internet of things refers to the inevitable connectedness of all things in all regions of the world through the internet. "The fact that there will be a global system of interconnected computer networks, sensors, actuators, and devices all using the internet protocol holds so much potential to change our lives that it is often referred to as the internet's next generation" (Ferber 2013). Although the internet feels ubiquitous today, the internet of things refers to an even more complete merger of the virtual and the real world. "In many and diverse sectors of the global economy, new web-based business models being hatched for the internet of things are bringing together market players who previously had no business dealings with each other. Through…… [Read More]

References

Ferber, Stephen. (2013). How the internet of things changes everything. HBR Blog. Retrieved:

http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2013/05/how_the_internet_of_things_cha.html

Heath, Nick. (2012). What the internet of things means for you. Tech Republic. Retrieved:

http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/european-technology/what-the-internet-of-things-means-for-you/320
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Security Auditing Strategy for FX Hospital EHR EMR Website

Words: 2990 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97278498

Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems

The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.

By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…… [Read More]

Reference

Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.

Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.

Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.

Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
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Security Standards & Least Privilege Security Standards

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87377305

Security Standards & Least Privilege

Security Standards and Legislative Mandates

Industries are required by law to follow regulations to protect the privacy of information, do risk assessments, and set policies for internal control measures. Among these polices are: SOX, HIPAA, PCI DSS, and GLA. Each of these regulations implements internal control of personal information for different industries. Where GLA is for the way information is shared, all of them are for the safeguard of sensitive personal information.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) created new standards for corporate accountability in reporting responsibilities, accuracy of financial statements, interaction with auditors, and internal controls and procedures (Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information). When audits are done to verify the validity of the financial statements, auditors must also verify the adequacy of the internal control and procedures. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is designed to protect personal health information held by covered entities and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brenner. (2007). How Chevron Met the PCI DSS Deadline. Security Wire Daily News.

Gramm Leach Bliley Act. (n.d.). Retrieved from Bureau of Consumer Protection: http://business.ftc.gov/privacy-and-security/gramm-leach-bliley-act principle of least privilege (POLP). (n.d.). Retrieved from Search Security:  http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/principle-of-least-privilege-POLP 

Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Data Manager's Public Library: http://www.sox-online.com/basics.html

Tipton, K. & . (n.d.). Access Control Models. Retrieved from CC Cure.org: http://www.cccure.org/
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Security of Health Care Records

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15432259

" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)

III. Risk Reduction Strategies

Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html

Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87
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Security Analysis in the UK

Words: 2541 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92583051

Security eport

In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…… [Read More]

References

Alfawaz, S. M. (2011). Information security management: a case study of an information security culture (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).

Ashenden, D. (2008). Information Security management: A human challenge? Information security technical report, 13(4), 195-201.

Briggs, R. (2005). Joining Forces From national security to networked security. DEMOS.

Chang, S. E., Ho, C. B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106 (3): 345-361.
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Securities Market Relatively New Trend

Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74859653



Mohr, and Webb 45)

The change includes increased consumer awareness of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) of a company to companies seeking to make such commitments to CSR marketable to the public. Companies are taking note that their CSR behaviors are important to investors in both mutual and individual investment funds, not to mention direct sales of products manufactured by the company.

This change is a significant one, and is growing in popularity, expanding to include the development of brokers an firms who specialize in different types of socially responsible business investment. Those who have a particular interest in social issues, such as fair employment or local manufacturing and employment can seek out such a broker. While those who are more about environmental issues can seek out a broker who specializes in finding companies that work within the goals of developing sustainable environmental business practices, energy efficiency, the use of…… [Read More]

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Security Sector Reform

Words: 2212 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31958685

Security Sector eform

Overview of the relevant arguments regarding Security Sector reform

The objective of security sector reform has to take care of the threats to the security of the state and the safety of its citizens. These arise often from the situation within the state and military responses may not be suitable. This leads on to an analysis of the government. The second article talks in a wider, more theoretical and less action oriented tone. It says that "existing constitutional frameworks have been used to maintain status quo than promote change." This much is certainly true and it is true not only of the countries with a security problem, but also of even United States wherein recently a justice of the Supreme Court was appointed, though she had no experience of being a judge, but she was a friend of the Chief Executive of the country. There are and…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Major Will. Wiring up Whitehall: Ensuring Effective Cross -- Departmental

Activity. Journal of Security Sector Management. Volume 3 Number 3 -- June 2005. Retrieved from http://www.jofssm.org/issues/jofssm_0303_AndersonW_Wiring_up_whitehall_2005.doc?CFID=939029& CFTOKEN=57506392 Accessed 6 October, 2005

Ball, Nicole. Enhancing Security Sector Governance: A Conceptual Framework for UNDP. 9

October, 2002. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/jssr/4_resources/documents/UNDP_Ball_2002_SSR%20Concept%20Paper.pdf Accessed 6 October, 2005
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Security Threats Explain Companies Held Liable Losses

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61012084

Security Threats

Explain companies held liable losses sustained a successful attack made accounting information system sources. The paper APA style includes -text citations sources.

Liability for losses in successful attack made on their accounting information system

"One of the fastest-growing threats on the Internet is the theft of sensitive financial data" (Beard & Wen 2007). The greater the amount of sensitive financial data available online, the greater the risk for the organization. "Failure to include basic information security unwittingly creates significant business and professional risks...With the expansion of computer technology, traditional business processes have been restructured and unique internal control techniques are required to address exposure to many new dangers" (Beard & Wen 2007).

New laws have placed additional security burdens upon managers, regarding the handling of sensitive financial data. "Management's responsibilities include the documentation, testing, and assessment of internal controls, including relevant general IT controls...and appropriate application-level controls designed…… [Read More]

References

Beard, Deborah & H. Joseph Wen. (2007). Reducing the threat levels for accounting information

Systems: Challenges for management, accountants, auditors, and academicians.

CPA Journal. Retrieved: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2007/507/essentials/p34.htm

Clifford, Robert. (2002). Accountant's liability. Clifford Law Firm.
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Physical Security Controls to Document the Importance

Words: 1746 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64070953

Physical Security Controls

To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime

Background information on the identification and authentication of people.

With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.

The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization

Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.

C. Brief overview of the paper.

i. The remainder…… [Read More]

References

1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.

2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.

3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.

4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.
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Network Security Administrator Approach Problem Securing a

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3941700

Network Security Administrator, Approach Problem Securing a Central

I would utilize a number of security measures to adequately secure a central computer network that is accessed by other branches and staff from remote physical location. The vast majority tends to work in conjunction with one another, and should not deny access to authorized users.

For all of the computers that are present in the primary, physical location in which the network is based out of, I would employ encryption measures. This sort of encryption is similar to that used by cellular devices (whether in the form of tablets or phones), which enables users to reduce the threat of unauthorized users from accessing their devices or the data within them (Stafford, 2010). However, it is worth noting that encryption would not be used on the computing devices in the network that are outside of this primary physical location.

One of the…… [Read More]

References

Merkow, M.S., Breithaupt, J. (2006). Information Security: Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Stafford, M. (2010). "Hackers crack cell phone encryption." Tech News Daily. Retrieved from http://www.technewsdaily.com/70-hackers-crack-cell-phone-encryption.html

Williams, P. "The Apache Software Foundation and its influence on data management." www.dataversity.com. Retrieved from  http://www.dataversity.net/the-apache-software-foundation-and-its-influence-on-data-management/
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Law Enforcement - Physical Security

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8256047

Specifically, perimeter security requires protocols for continuous monitoring of the entire perimeter, especially in conjunction with responding to potential breaches in any given sector (McGee 2006). Grounds and perimeter security also requires scenario-based training in conjunction with non-security-related emergency procedures. Specifically, periodic emergency drills involving building tenants and personnel may present a vulnerability where grounds and perimeter security procedures are not equipped to accommodate larger than normal volumes of foot traffic, such as typically associated with fire drills.

Optimal grounds and perimeter security protocols must include procedures for accommodating the increased traffic necessitated by non-security-related emergency drills without compromising general grounds and perimeter security considerations. For the same reason, information detailing emergency drill schedules must be protected from unauthorized access or unnecessary dissemination in advance (Larson 2007).

Technological Advances:

The primary technological advances in physical facility, building, grounds, and perimeter security relate to computerization of relevant security information and its…… [Read More]

References

Larsen, R.J. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing

McGee, J. (2006) International Special Events; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 1. (pp.10-18).

Reed. B. (2008) Future Technology in Law Enforcement; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 5. (pp.15-21).
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Building Security External Building Security Seems to

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8050307

Building Security

External building security seems to have taken on added significance since the 2001 strike against the orld Trade Center in New York city by terrorists that flew airplanes into the two buildings that resulted in their complete decimation. As one recent study determined, however, there are modern remedies that help against future attacks of similar nature. One study in particular determined that "Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) is particularly suitable for application in aircraft-impact-resistant high-rise buildings for combined load-bearing and protective structures" (Noldgen, Fehling, Riedel, Thoma, 2012, pp. 358). There are more concerns however in developing and maintaining security than just worrying about an airplane (or other missile) being used against a building for terrorism and mayham.

One of the concerns may include the access points to the building that may be vulnerable to entry by those who seek to control or damage the building. As the book reminds us…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Noldgen, M.; Fehling, E.; Riedel, W.; Thoma, K.; (2012) Vulnerability and robustness of a security skyscraper subjected to aircraft impact, Computer -- Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 358 -- 368

White House (2013) Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th edition, p. 1 -- 1

Chapters 10 -- 11 -- 15 in the book (you will have to put in the citation)
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Role of the DHS in Protecting the US

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39245281

TEOISM

COUNTE-TEOISM AND THE DEPATMENT OF HOMELAND SECUITY

Counter-terrorism is popular as antiterrorism and incorporates techniques, practices, strategies, and tactics that militaries, governments, corporations and police departments adopt in attacking terrorist threats and acts either real or imputed. Both governments and insurgents use terror tactics. It is clear that some insurgents do not terror as tactics while others opt not to apply as other tactics have better outcomes for their particular contexts. Individuals may engage in acts of terror, as it was the case with Oklahoma City bombing (Katherine, Darmer & osenbaum, 2004). Where the terrorism acts are part of broader insurgencies, counter-terrorism forms an integral element of security doctrines. However, economic, political, and other measures focus on insurgencies as compared to specific terror acts. The United States uses foreign internal defense doctrine in its military programs to support other nations while attempting to suppress lawlessness, insurgency, or subversion and…… [Read More]

References

Katherine, M.B., Darmer, R.M., & Rosenbaum, S.E. (2004). Civil Liberties vs. National Security in a Post9/11 World. Amherst NY: Prometheus Books.

Nacos, B.L. (2012). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. New York: Longman/Pearson.
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Private Security in Project One

Words: 1714 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93055016

These devices can help to ensure customer violence is limited. Additionally, by investing in interpersonal training and dispute resolution courses for employees, companies can help to control coworker violence. Furthermore, the use of EAP (Employee Assistance Programs) for frustrated workers can help to provide some outlet for frustrations, further eliminating the possible problems (Hagan, 2004). Through polite, direct, proper communication, most acts of interpersonal workplace violence can be avoided.

eferences

ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. etrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website: http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm.

Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] etrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html

Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy eport. etrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html.

Collins, P.A., icks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Friedman.…… [Read More]

References

ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website: http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm.

Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] Retrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html

Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy Report. Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html.

Collins, P.A., Ricks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
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Virtualization Security

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54430097

Virtualization Security

ITEM

Virtualization: Benefits of XenServer

Disadvantage of XenServer

Virtualization Security Challenges

Implementation of XenServer

VITUALIZATION SECUITY

The objective of this study is to examine the use of Citrix XenServer which is a free virtualization platform based on the open-source Xen hypervisor and to examine the implications, advantages and disadvantages of having an open-source virtualization product such as XenServer.

XenServer is a "full open source model beginning with the new XenServer 6.2." (Citrix, 2015, p.1) Xenserver provided by Citrix is a paid version however, the upside to the paid version is that it is inclusive of both maintenance and support as well as having CPU socket licensing. It is reported that the "DNA of Xen and XenSource...is open source." (Citrix, 2015, p.1) In addition it is reported that "open source software leads proprietary software in cloud infrastructure [and] open source enables collaborative development and drives public trust." (Citric, 2015,…… [Read More]

References

Meeting the Challenges of Virtualization Security (2014) Trend Micro. Retrieved from: http://www.trendmicro.com/cloud-content/us/pdfs/business/white-papers/wp_meeting-the-challenges-of-virtualization-security.pdf

Microsoft Hyper-V vs. Citrix Xen Server (2014) Custom Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.customsystems.com/microsoft-hyper-v-vs.-citrix-xen-server/

XenServer 6.2 Is Now Fully Open Source (2013) Citrix. Retrieved from; http://blogs.citrix.com/2013/06/25/xenserver-6-2-is-now-fully-open-source/

Clearly better virtualization with Citrix XenServer (nd) Retrieved from: https://www.moonsoft.fi/materials/citrix_better_virtualization.pdf
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Information Technology IT Security Systems

Words: 3128 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51446477

Computer Security Systems

The report provides new security tools and techniques that computer and IT (Information Technology) professionals, network security specialists, individuals, corporate and public organizations can employ to enhance security of their computer and information systems. In the fast paced IT environment, new threats appear daily that make many organizations to lose data and information that worth billions of dollars. In essence, the computer and IT security professionals are required to develop new computer and IT security tools and techniques to protect their information resources.

The present age of universal computer connectivity has offered both opportunities and threats for corporate organizations Typically, since corporate and public organizations rely on computer and network systems to achieve their business objectives, they also face inherent risks which include electronic fraud, eavesdropping, virus attack and hacking. In essence, some hackers use malicious software with an intention to gain access to corporate computer systems…… [Read More]

Reference

Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009. Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.

Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.

Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.

Osterhage, W. (2011). Wireless Security. UK, Science Publishers.
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DHS and Hurricane Katrina

Words: 2452 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19217223

HLS-355: CRITICAL THINKING FOR HOMELAND SECURITY Final Project

The fight against Hurricane Katrina in a political environment set on fighting terrorism

Improving security can be a particularly challenging mission and this makes a critical thinking technique particularly useful for a person or a community to effectively strengthen their position and legislations. One of the first things that someone dealing with the concept needs to consider is the fact that security can never be one hundred percent foolproof. Even the most advanced security systems can be defeated and caring for such a system thus entails having to be in constant alert and to attempt to improve it every minute. The better a security system is, the harder it is for a criminal to defeat it and the more successful the individuals benefiting from it are.

Many individuals have a limited understanding of the idea of security, as they only tend to…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bullock, J., Haddow, G, & Coppola, D.P., "Introduction to Homeland Security: Principles of All-Hazards Risk Management," (Elsevier, 2012)

Kiltz, Linda, "Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management," Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http://www.innovative-analytics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/DevelopingCriticalThinking.pdf

Matthews, J. "Mass Shootings: Six Steps to Survival," (eBooks2go, 10 Jan 2014)

Purpura, P. "Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction with Applications," (Butterworth-Heinemann, 29 Aug 2011)
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How Would a CIO Handle Security

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85128554

Network Security

The Key equirements of Network Infrastructure Security

Measures for Internal Network Architecture

Storage of sensitive information on Networked Systems

Network Connection Control

Administrative Services

Visitor access

Third Party Access to Internal Networks

Security of the IT network for any company is very important. Scores of sensitive business information is stored electronically in the IT systems and the company network. An unsecured or a partially secured network has the potential to cause financial losses to the company if the information falls in the wrong hands. Therefore there is need for installing and network security systems.

For any network security to become operational the company must first look into whether the system can be implemented technically and whether it can be implemented throughout the organization. Another consideration for the selection of the network security is to ensure that the system clearly define areas of responsibility for the users, administrators, and…… [Read More]

References

Andres, S. (2004). Security sage's guide to hardening the network infrastructure. Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub.

Convery, S. (2004). Network security architectures. Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press.

Heng, S., Wright, R., & Goi, B. (2010). Cryptology and network security. Berlin: Springer.

1 | Page
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Accounting Firm Network Security Systems

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97080552

Network Security Systems for Accounting Firm

Vulnerabilities Assessment

In the contemporary IT environment, the implementation of the IT tools has become an effective strategy that organizations employ to achieve competitive market advantages. In other words, the IT tools have become an effective strategy that organizations can employ to be ahead of competitors, and be first in the market. One of the crucial features of the information systems is the network connectivity that involves connecting global computer resources, which assist in enhancing effective communication systems. Thus, the network connectivity will improve the communication system for our accounting firm assisting our organization to serve the customer better.

Despite benefits that network connectivity will provide to our organization, the network connectivity is associated with inherent risks and vulnerabilities. Typically, the network systems face different vulnerabilities that include virus attacks, electronic fraud, attacks from malware, Dos attacks and electronic eavesdropping. Since our organization will…… [Read More]

Reference

Black, P.E. Fong, E. Okun, V. et al.(2007). Software Assurance Tools: Web Application Security Scanner Functional Specification Version 1.0. NIST. Special Publication 500-269.

Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST SP 800-145). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Oliveira, R.A., Laranjeiro, N., & Vieira, M. (2015). Assessing the security of web service frameworks against Denial of Service attacks. Journal of Systems and Software. 109: 18-21.

Stallings, W. (2013). Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice (6th Edition). Pearson Education.
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Homeland Security and Emergency Management

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76425367

Homeland Security and Emergency Management.

M7D1: Social Media and Risk Communications

According to Bullock (et al. 2013) the four methods of risk communication include mitigation or "to promote implementation of strategies, technologies, and actions that will reduce the loss of lives and property in future disasters; preparedness or "to communicate preparedness messages that encourage and educate the public in anticipation of disaster events;" response or "to provide to the public notification, warning, evacuation, and situation reports on an ongoing disaster and recovery or "to provide individuals and communities affected by a disaster with information on how to register for and receive disaster relief" (Bullock et al. 2013: 515). It is in the response phase which was critically lacking in the case of dealing with the threat posed by the D.C. sniper. There is always an element of fear in the case of spontaneous threats which emerge, as but a realistic…… [Read More]

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Human Aspects in Cyber and IT Security

Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25492392

Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline

Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security

Methods of the Government Interventions

Impacts of Government egulation on National Security

Failure to comply to related cyber regulations

Meeting the minimum requirements.

Exceeding the Minimum equirements

The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. ecently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of…… [Read More]

Reference

Coyne, C.J. (2012). Who's to Protect Cyberspace? Department of Economics Hampden-Sydney College

Liu, E.C. Stevens, G. Ruane, K. A. et al. (2013). Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues. Congress Research Service

Rosenzweig, P. (2012). An emerging threats: Cybersecurity and Public Goods. The Public/Private "Partnership." Hoover Institution, Stanford University

Stalling, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice. (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall
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Security Analysis' Has Been Current for More

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74419685

Security Analysis' has been current for more than 60 years. Graham and Dodd are not only astute observers but also veterans in the field of investing. They have seen investment markets and businesses plunge and raise themselves and have observed investor's behavior under all conditions.

Although their books are classics, Graham and Dodd manage to write in a clear and contemporary style that is just as applicable today as it was then. They provide details and techniques for achieving success as investors as well as the responsibilities of businesses to be transparent about the affair of their businesses for shareholders and potential investors.

The brunt of the book, however, is its timeless advice to students that careful assessment and review of balance sheets is the essence and key to success in investment.

The fact that Buffet writes that he has been following their "road map" for 57 years and that…… [Read More]

Reference

Graham, BG & Dodd, DL. Security Analysis: Principles and techniques. McGraw Hill, 2010.
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Security Threat Is a Potential Happening That

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33038360

security threat is a potential happening that may have an undesirable effect on the system, its resources, or the organization as a whole. Vulnerability is the weakness that makes it possible for the threat to occur. There are a number of threats that can occur on a system, and are usually grouped together since some overlap.

Errors and Omissions -- Data entry, data verification, programming bugs.

Fraud and Theft -- kimming and/or controlling access to the system for profit.

Employee (or Outside) sabotage -- Destroying information or planting viruses, stealing proprietary data or customer information, etc. (NIT, 2012).

imilarly, there are a number of losses that can occur based on threat and vulnerability; some more serious than others, and all somewhat dependent on the type of organization under analysis. For instance, a bank's security loss might be different than an academic institution's, but both are a data loss. Losses may…… [Read More]

Sources:

Best Practice for Computer Security. (2011). Indiana University Information Technology Services. Retrieved from: http://kb.iu.edu/data/akln.html#polp

Bishop, M. (2003). Computer Security: Art and Science. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Brenner, S. (2010). Cybercrime. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Kassner, M. (2009, August). 10 Ways to Detect Malware. TechRepublic. Retrieved from: http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10things/10-ways-to-detect-computer-malware/970
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Security of the U S and Canadian Border

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11673247

security of the U.S. And Canadian border is in peril. There is an unprotected route allowing the free-flow of terrorists from around the world into Canada and then into the U.S. This is a national security situation that threatens our way of life. hat are our options for eliminating this threat?

By definition a liberal is a man or a woman who believes in liberty. Liberalism as a philosophy has evolved as a defense of individual citizen's liberties against the potential tyranny of his or her ruling state. Liberals such as John Locke have typically maintained that humans are naturally in 'a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions ... As they think fit ... without asking leave, or depending on the ill of any other Man," In other words, unless the individual's liberty impinges upon the liberty of another individual, than that individual should do as he or…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Gaus, Gerald. "Liberalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001. Available online November 3, 2004 at  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberalism/
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Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery

Words: 2060 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52903638

Disaster ecovery

Intrusion detection is the method of keeping track of the events taking place inside a computer or perhaps a network and then examining them to get indications of potential situations, that are transgressions or impending dangers of breach of IT security procedures, appropriate usage guidelines, or standardized security strategies. Intrusion prevention is the method of carrying out intrusion detection as well as trying to stop recognized potential situations. Intrusion detection as well as prevention systems (IDPS) happen to be mainly centered on determining potential situations, writing down details about them, trying to end all of them, as well as reporting these to security managers. Additionally, businesses make use of IDPSs for various other objectives, like identifying issues with security guidelines, documenting current risks, as well as stopping people from breaking safety guidelines. IDPSs have grown to be an essential accessory for the security system involving just about any…… [Read More]

References

Allen, J., Christie, A., Fithen, W., McHugh, J. And Pickel, J. (2000). State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies. Pittsburg, PA: Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, January.

Base, R. And Mell, P. (2001). SP 800-31, Intrusion Detection Systems. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kent, K. And Mell, P. (2006). SP 800-94, Guide to Intrusion Detection and Prevention (IDP) Systems (DRAFT). Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kent, K. And Warnock, M. (2004). Intrusion Detection Tools Report, 4th Edition. Herndon, VA: Information Assurance Technology Analysis Center (IATAC).
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Security and Co-Operation in Europe the Topics

Words: 800 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55020110

Security and Co-Operation in Europe

The topics before the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE) are: Combating Human Trafficking; Supporting Post-Conflict Stabilization and Institution- Building in Kyrgyzstan; and Energy Supply as a Factor of Instability. Greece is dedicated to assisting the OCSE to combat human trafficking, to supporting OCSE initiatives to stabilize and build democratic institutions in Kyrgyzstan, and I. Combating Human Trafficking

As a committed member of the United Nations and the European Union, Greece supports the objectives outlined by both organizations to combat human trafficking. . Accordingly in an effort to combat human trafficking, Greece has increased its efforts to disrupt major human smuggling rings and arrest the individuals involved, and coordinated these efforts with similar efforts by both the European Union and the United Nations. The delegation from Greece signals that its enforcement has been stepped up, which is reflected in the increased number of…… [Read More]

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Security the First 10 Years the 21st

Words: 1378 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49162973

Security

The first 10 years the 21st century began a seemingly new age of terror and fear where heightened alert statuses and preventive measures can be seen as taken to extremes. The macrocosmic status of the global affairs which are often riddled with warfare, strife and suspicion can be examined at the microcosmic level within the information security and data protection industry. The purpose of this essay is to examine these questions: "How should we decide how secure we want our information to be? And who should be responsible to make these decisions? I'll answer these questions using ideas connecting the rationality of fear and security. Next I'll examine how materialism has distracted technology from its true essence, to help mankind. Lastly I will offer solutions to hopefully eliminate confusing and overbearing problems that humanity's quest for security can both effectively and efficiently have serious impact on that condition.

Fear…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antonopoulos, A. (2011). " Can you have too much security? "NetworkWorld May31, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.networkworld.com/columnists/2011/053111-andreas.html

CIOinsight. (2005). "Jurassic Plaque: the u-curve of security." April 21, 2005.

Fact Forum Framework. (n.d.) "Computer Security." Retrieved from  http://www.caplet.com/security/taxonomy/index.html 

Lipowicz, A. (2010). "Wikileaks fallout: white house orders classified data security review." Federal Computer Week Nov 30, 2010. Retrieved from http://fcw.com/articles/2010/11/30/white-house-wikileaks-classified-data-security- review.aspx
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Security and Control of Health Data

Words: 3766 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68825610

Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Security and Control: A White Paper

Protecting Health-Care Data

The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure. Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession. Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. (IO Press)

This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…… [Read More]

References

A WWW implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health

Information. http://medg.lcs.mit.edu/people/psz/secman.html

Accessed 21 September, 2005

IO Press. Retrieved from http://www.iospress.nl/loadtop/load.php?isbn=9051992661
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Security System for an Airport

Words: 4781 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20444672

Airport Security System

The secure operation of the aviation system across the globe is one of the most significant factors in the security and economic development of the United States. The use of the world's airspace should also be secured because aviation has become a major target for criminals. Actually, criminals, terrorists, and hostile nations increasingly consider aviation as a major target for exploitation and attack. An example of the security threats facing this industry is the 9/11 terror attacks, which highlighted the desire and ability of enemies to generate considerable harm to the United States. Therefore, aviation security is increasingly important in order to protect the country and its citizens from such attacks. According to Federal of American Scientists (2007), aviation security is realized through combination of private and public aviation security activities across the globe. These activities are then coordinated to detect, prevent, deter, and defeat threats that…… [Read More]

References

"Aviation Transportation System Security Plan." (2007, March 26). National Strategy for Aviation Security. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Homeland Security website: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/hspd16_transsystemsecurityplan.pdf

Das, D. (2013, January 1). Total Airport Security System: Integrated Security Monitoring Platform. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from https://security-today.com/Articles/2013/01/01/Total-Airport-Security-System-Integrated-Security-Monitoring-Platform.aspx

Elias, B. (2007, July 30). Air Cargo Security. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL32022.pdf

Elias, B. (2009, April 23). Airport Passenger Screening: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R40543.pdf
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Security Implementation of

Words: 3464 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4428986

Information System Security Plan

The information security system is required to ensure the security of the business process and make the confidential data of the organization secure. The organization's management is required to analyze the appropriate system to be implemented and evaluate the service provided on the basis of their required needs. The implementation of the system requires the compliance of organizational policies with the service provider to ensure the maximum efficiency of the system. The continuous update and maintenance of the system is required to ensure the invulnerability of the system towards the potential internal and external threats.

Data Security Manager and Coordinator

Develop Plan

Implement Plan

Employees Training

Test Safeguards

Evaluate Service Providers

Internal isks

Change Passwords Periodically

estricted access to personal information

Safeguard paper records

eport unauthorized use of customer information

Terminated Employees 1

3. External isks 1

3.1 Firewall Protection 1

3.2 Data Encryption 1

3.3…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Baskerville, R., & Siponen, M. (2002).An information security meta-policy for emergent organizations.Logistics Information Management, 15(5/6), 337-346.

Dlamini, M.T., Eloff, J.H., & Eloff, M.M. (2009). Information security: The moving target. Computers & Security, 28(3), 189-198.

Dhillon, G., & Backhouse, J. (2000). Technical opinion: Information system security management in the new millennium. Communications of the ACM, 43(7), 125-128.

Jain, A.K., Ross, A., & Pankanti, S. (2006). Biometrics: a tool for information security. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, 1(2), 125-143.
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Security of Network Is Fundamental

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65834680

It therefore assists in identifying network vulnerability and corrects them immediately.

SSL Certificate

Ferland (2009) noted that Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a network protocol used in encrypting data so that the information send remains secure until it reaches its destination. It also used in the validation of the identity of the website which is using certificate. It informs the user the authentication of the website and that such a web site as been validated by the third party certificate authority. Both the source and destination of any send data has their own unique keys for encryption. However, the organization would install SSL certificate so that the customers has trust in our website

Digital certificate

Digital certificate is describes as an electronic "tag" that shows the credentials of an organization when doing business or any other transaction online. The certificate contains the name of organization, serial number, and expiry date,…… [Read More]

References

Al-Slamy K., (2008) E-Commerce: Security Challenges and Solutions

Stawowski M., (2007). The Principles of Network Security Design

The Global Voice of Information Security; ISSA Journal | October 2007

Ferland M., (2009). WIPO Customer Certification Authority Information
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Securities Law

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75099828

Corporation Transactions and Misrepresentation of Financial eports

Business law also called commercial law is a branch of civil law that governs business as well as, commercial transactions, and deals with both the private and public law. The branch created to ensure that, they are no exploitation and manipulation of people as well as rules and regulation in order to benefit some members of a business. This means that should one break or manipulate the rules and regulation in his favor. The or she must face the court in accordance with the law. With legal rights of all investors considered as an important element of the business law, we examine the board changes within the filling of the shareholder derivative lawsuits and might not be frivolous. Also, lack of highly competent employees within a business can lead to tremendous losses and to some extent closure of the business in accordance with…… [Read More]

Reference list

Arlen, J. (1994). The Potentially Perverse Effects of Corporate Criminal Liability, the Journal of Legal Studies 23 (June), 833.

Becker, G.S. (1968). "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (March/April), 169-217.

Zingales, L. (2004). The Costs and Benefits of Financial Market Regulation, European Corporate Governance Institute working paper 21/2004
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Security Implementation

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66207484

oom With a View

Enterprise isk Assessment

The principle risk associated with the Data Security Coordinator and his or her role in the security plan is in properly training employees and selecting the proper service providers. Additionally, it is necessary to continually monitor and evaluate the progress of service providers to ensure that they are compliant with both enterprise and industry standards. Internally it is necessary to ensure that there is a set period of no more than a month for which passwords must be changed. Personal information should be accessible only to the Data Security Coordinator and to C. level employees. An orderly, formal procedure needs to take place for de-provisioning terminated employees in which they provide access to all of their data and have all of their employee access denied. isk assessment for external risks includes evaluating and monitoring the progress of the service provider responsible for provisioning…… [Read More]

References

Harper, J. (2014). Data replication: The crux of data management. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from  http://www.dataversity.net/data-replication-crux-data-management/ 

Harper, J. (2014). Cloud data protection. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from  http://www.dataversity.net/cloud-data-protection/
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Principles of Macroeconomics News Analyze

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83249480

Macroeconomics in the News

In her recent article The 'Go Fast' and 'Go Big' Fiscal Challenges, economics professor Laura D'Andrea Tyson uses a combination of straightforward language and complex terminology to explain the intricacies of our nation's current budgetary crisis. ith the January 1st deadline for the so-called "fiscal cliff," a $600 billion package of mandatory spending cuts and tax hikes, fast approaching, Tyson proposes that America's economic plight is actually twofold when the impending debt ceiling debate is also considered. Through a comprehensive analysis of the various factors affecting the debate, including stagnant unemployment rates, entitlement reforms to Medicare, Medicaid and Social Security, and the eventual impact of the Affordable Care Act, the author presents her case for a macroeconomic-based approach to balancing the budget, reducing the national debt, and leveling the playing field in terms of taxation.

Analysis: These esoteric concepts may sound like mere abstractions, but the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Tyson, Laura D'Andrea. "The 'Go Fast' and 'Go Big' Fiscal Challenges." New York Times 05 Dec 2012. Print. .
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Principles of Finance

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10148183

capital is defined as the "return expected by those who provide capital for the business" (Gallo 2025). Both managers and investors may calculate the cost of capital, investors to determine whether the company is a worthwhile risk and managers to determine if particular ventures are worth the risk in relation to the return (Gallo 2015).

In 2009, ExxonMobil (XOM) acquired XTO Energy for $41 billion. The acquisition provided ExxonMobil an opportunity to engage in the development of shale and unconventional natural gas resources within the continental United States. This acquisition added to ExxonMobil's existing upstream (exploration and development) activities. In addition to this business segment, ExxonMobil was also engaged in chemicals and downstream operations related to the refining of crude oil into a variety of consumer and industrial products. How do you think the company should approach the determination of its cost of capital for making new capital investment decisions?…… [Read More]

References

Capital investment decisions. (2015). Capital Investment. Retrieved from:

http://www.capital-investment.co.uk/capital-investment-decisions.php

Gallo, A. (2015). A refresher on the cost of capital. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from:

https://hbr.org/2015/04/a-refresher-on-cost-of-capital
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Security Liberty and Participants

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54883763

Stone's treatise on Liberty fascinating particularly since I have been much intrigued by philosophers' depiction of an ideal metropolis (with, therefore, ideal liberty) in general, and with Leibniz's political jurisprudence (and ideal liberty) in particular.

Leibniz, draws on Ulpian's oman code for basis but goes beyond that in extrapolating and arguing that ideal liberty should constitute not only strict Justice but also Charity (i..e national welfare). He then goes on to state that the highest strata of liberty is one where the country is regulated per a City of God. What this, essentially, means is that Justice and Charity should be combined with ethical attributes (that he called Piety).

Comparing this to Mill's definition of liberty presented by Stone I see an interesting correspondence as well as contrast.

Mill states that the government is only justified in restricting behavior that impedes others. Connecting that to contemporary concerns one may argue…… [Read More]

References

Arnstein, Sherry R. "A Ladder of Citizen Participation," JAIP, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1969, pp. 216-224.

H.George Frederickson, Social Equity and Public Administration: Origins, Developments, and Applications, M.E.Sharpe (chapter 2 & 3)

Deborah Stone, Policy Paradox: The Art of Political decision Making, WW Norton and Co Revised Edition (Chapters 4 & 5)
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Principles of Management HR

Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51982916

Management-HR

Drawing from Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Shank's old boss failed to fulfill the needs of both esteem and belonging. Belonging is related to making sure employees are comfortable and feel that they are part of the team or group. Although esteem is making employees feel a sense of accomplishment. Shank has described the former boss as being non-motivating, having no relationship with employees and having told employees that they are just a number in the organization. During the tenure of the former boss, motivating employees was not a prime factor. The former boss ran the company on the bottom line of getting things done, making profit, efficiently and effectively. If things were not done in the right manner, the boss would replace the employees. Since the boss is operating at a twofold level of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs (security and physiology), its top priority must be to motivate…… [Read More]

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Implementing Security

Words: 433 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32462577

Security Implementation

Identity Management and Security Awareness Training Plan Strategy

all departments.

Duration and frequency: three sessions of one hour each. Technology developments that are used in permanently updating the company's security features must be communicated to employees. Update training sessions of two hours must be performed every three months in order to keep up with technology improvements.

The training program must inform employees on the company's security guidelines. The administrative, technical, or physical safeguards intended to protect the personal information of clients and employees must be communicated and explained to all department members. In addition to this, the company must identify current attitudes towards information security that employees have (Winkler & Manke, 2013). The training material will be structured in accordance with these attitudes.

Trainer selection:

In this case, the question is whether to select an in-house or an outside trainer. An outside trainer could have more experience on…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Winkler, I. & Manke, S. (2013). The 7 elements of a successful security awareness program. CSO Online. Retrieved February 14, 2015 from

2"

http://www.csoonline.com/article/2133408/network-security/the-7-elements-of-a-successful-security-awareness-program.html.

2
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The history of'security measures

Words: 777 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75418588

Introduction to Security Measures
The history of security is fairly lengthy. Security has always accompanied organized civilizations for nearly as long as they have been extant. Initially, security was begotten from the need to protect important personages who, not infrequently, were in the private sector. Therefore, the history of security can be traced to the private security guards who were appointed to protect the Pharaohs and the rulers in Egypt. It is worth noting that these security personnel worked for those in the public sector, yet were themselves comprised of individuals from the private sector. In general, this trend would continue to this very day, in which there are currently private security companies engaged in services in which they are combating forces of ISIS for the public sector.
Perhaps the most notable security advancements to initialize within Westernization are found in the history of ancient Rome. The Vigiles Urbani was…… [Read More]

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Home Security Vulnerabilities Having Observed My Residence

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70189068

Home Security Vulnerabilities

Having observed my residence from the outside so as to identify key security vulnerabilities or weaknesses, I now come up with an in-depth security vulnerability assessment of the said residence. Included in this assessment are recommendations on how the identified vulnerabilities or security weaknesses will be eliminated and/or minimized.

Vulnerability Assessment and ecommended Security Enhancements

Intruders more often than not 'case' homes before they attempt a robbery. What this means is that intruders scout for key vulnerabilities that would make a certain home their likely target. Having looked at my residence from an intruder's point-of-view, I was able to identify a number of key security vulnerabilities. In the section below, I revisit some of the vulnerabilities I spotted and make recommendations that would in addition to eliminating the said vulnerabilities also make my home more secure.

To begin with, the open bedroom window presents a perfect opportunity…… [Read More]

References

Capel, V. (1997). Home Security: Alarms, Sensors and Systems (2nd ed.). Jordan Hill, Oxford: Newnes.
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Enterprise Security Plan Proposal the

Words: 1088 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39968926

Protections for hardware, software, and data resources. (American Health Information Management Association, 2011, paraphrased)

V. Legal and Ethical Issues

Security professionals are held responsible for understanding the legal and ethical aspects of information security including crimes, investigation of computer crimes and specifically it is stated that certified security professionals "…are morally and legally held to a higher standard of ethical conduct." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011)

There are four primary canons established in (ISC)2 code of ethics for credentialed security included those stated as follows:

(1) Protect society, the commonwealth, and the infrastructure

(2) Act honorably, honestly, justly, responsibly, and legally

(3) Provide diligent and competent service to principals

(4) Advance and protect the profession (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011)

Three credentials are held by information security professions include the following credentials:

(1) CISSP -- Certified Information Systems Security Professional, credentialed through the International…… [Read More]

References

Kurtz, Ronald L., and Russell Dean Vines. The CISSP Prep Guide (Gold Edition). Indianapolis, in: Wiley, 2003, p. 345.

Summary of the HIPAA Security Rule (2011) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/srsummary.html

The 10 Security Domains (AHIMA Practice Brief) (2011) Retrieved from:  http://www.advancedmedrec.com/images/The10SecurityDomains.pdf 

Walsh, Tom. "Selecting and Implementing Security Controls." Getting Practical with Privacy and Security Seminars, AHIMA and HIMSS, 2003.
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Operation of the Homeland Security Council Creates

Words: 1614 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45717577

Operation of the Homeland Security Council

Creates the Homeland Security Council and sets down is functions.

This directive creates the Homeland Security Council (HSC) and lists its functions. The purpose of the HSC is to synchronize homeland security-related efforts across executive departments and agencies of all levels all through the country, and to put into practice the Department's policies by way of eleven Policy Coordination Committees.

Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3: Homeland Security Advisory System

Creates a Homeland Security Advisory Board to issue security threat levels. There are five threat levels, each identified by a description and corresponding color. From lowest to highest, the levels and colors are: Low = Green; Guarded = Blue; Elevated = Yellow; High = Orange; Severe = ed. The higher the threat level is, the greater the risk of a terrorist attack. isk includes both the likelihood of an attack taking place and its potential…… [Read More]

References

Homeland Security Presidential Directives. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/editorial_0607.shtm
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Justice and Security Free Balance in the

Words: 2493 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70449647

Justice and Security

Free Balance in the Administration of Justice and Security

Justice and Security policies have always been at the center of international politics, but their nature has changed due to the advent of nuclear weapons and their proliferation, economic interdependence, the end of the Cold War, environmental problems, technological advancements and vulnerabilities, as well as other material and cultural developments typically linked to globalization. This paper will talk about the evolution of justice security and balance rights freedoms that protect citizens a free society, respecting constitutional guarantees and individual rights. Further we will review the cumulative issues concerning the legal environment in which justice and security administration operates and also evaluates the changes in technology and mass communication that effects the justice and security areas. Last but not the least, we will talk about the issues that involved with individual rights vs. The needs of the justice system…… [Read More]

References

Booth, K. (Ed.). (2005). Critical security studies and world politics. Boulder. CO: Lynne Rienner.

Deudney, DH (2006). Bounding power: Republican security theory from the polis to the global village. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kaldor, M. (2007). Human security. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Lipschutz, R. (Ed.). (2005). On security. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Vivint Home Security System Security Systems Development

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074991

Vivint Home Security System

Security Systems Development Life Cycle

In the system development cycle, certain precise steps are accountable and they are all integrated into phases. As mentioned in the abstract earlier, five stages/phases are used as guidelines when developing the security system, or any other system. In the planning system, the project is reviewed to realize its applicability. In the case of Vivint home security system, the proposal of the system development has to be reviewed by experts, who go ahead to prioritize the requests brought forward in the project. In addition, in the same phase, resources are allocated and an able team is selected to oversee the entire development processes. Details of the planning phase are discussed in the proceeding paragraphs.

At the analysis stage, the team selected and responsible for the systems development conducts a preliminary analysis/investigation, and conducts a performance analysis that includes analyzing any system…… [Read More]

References

Crabtree, C. (2007). Presenting a Conceptual Model for the Systems Development Life Cycle. New York: ProQuest Publishers.

Whitman, M.E. & Mattord, J.H. (2011). Principles of Information Security. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.

Rivard, S. & Aubert, B.A. (2007). Information Technology Outsourcing. New York: Sharpe Publishers

Shelly, G. & Vermaat, J. (2010). Discovering Computers: Living in A Digital World: Fundamentals. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.
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Social Security a Proposal to Change the

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35245392

Social Security

A proposal to change the program

educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).

Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…… [Read More]

References

Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.

Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
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Covey Principle-Centered Leadership Principle-Centered Leadership

Words: 1762 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53330728

Too often people focus on values, norms, and specifics while ignoring the principles that they are based on.

Principle-centered leadership, on the other hand, can be applied to any generation or any type of organizational culture. Another reason why Covey's book is effective is because he continually reverts to the central ideas of natural law and self-discipline. Natural law is best conveyed through the image of farm work: Covey offers this metaphor throughout Principle-Centered Leadership to underscore why principles, not values, guide effective leaders. After all, what an effective farmer does in his or her daily life is quite different from what an effective CEO does. If one focuses only on their core values, only differences would be evident. However, if one closely examines the principles that guide both the farmer and the CEO, key similarities in their leadership styles and personality traits will be made evident. These are the…… [Read More]

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Human Security Origin and Development

Words: 3263 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8278717

It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.

Rethinking the Concept

Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.

General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:

Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009

Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,

Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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Identify What Risk Communication Is and Explain Its Importance for the Security Manager

Words: 1860 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91337317

isk Communication and Its Importance for the Security Manager

Identify what risk communication is and explain its importance for the security manager

Communication is a significant factor in all aspects and sectors of life. The social, political or economic features of are transmitted exclusively through communication. Communication is the act of conveying information and messages from an individual to another or a group. It serves to, teach, educate, learn, entertain and to warn among other purposes. Thus, in any organization or area of a corporate or personal life, it is imperative to have effective and efficient communication. The safety of a person, corporate organization or a nation can always be assured. Communication is, therefore, needed in ensuring this safety.

What is risk communication?

If you are told that, in the path, you are about to take, there is a gargantuan poisonous snake lying by the side of the path; you…… [Read More]

References

Roeser, S., Hillerbrand, R., Sandin, P., & Peterson, M. (2012). Handbook of Risk Theory:

Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics, and Social Implications of Risk. Dordrecht:

Springer Netherlands.

Hayes, R. (2007). Retail security and loss prevention. Basingstoke [u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan
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Cisco Safe's Network Security Planning Network Security

Words: 790 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28185958

Cisco SAFE's Network Security Planning

Network Security

Cisco SAFE

Cisco SAFE has significantly help in securing large internetwork that has remain a daunting challenge; this complexity has been facilitated through cloud computing as well as social networks. Cisco SAFE architecture offer guidelines of design and implementation which are detailed that is used for building secure and reliable network infrastructures as well as the policies supporting them. The guides have been established based on security best practices that have been amalgamated with several hours spent in designing, testing, and documentation.

Since the contemporary organizational environment is full of threats, the target is directed on everything and Cisco SAFE uses defense-in-depth approach to provide the needed security. Systemwide intelligence approach for SAFE tend to address network devices; security of the infrastructure, applications and application servers; endpoints; email; web; databases; storage systems; communications devices; and other servers. This is accomplished through putting emphasis…… [Read More]

Resources/resources/SAFE_white_paper.pdf
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ERP and Information Security

Words: 8373 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74211420

EP and Information Security

Introduction to EP

Even though the plans of information security include the prevention of outsiders to gain access of internal network still the risk from the outsiders still exists. The outsiders can also represent themselves as authorized users in order to cause damage to the transactions of the business systems. Therefore, strict prevention measures should be taken to avoid such situations.

The threats of both the hackers have been increased with the software of the enterprise resource planning (EP) (Holsbeck and Johnson, 2004). By performing acts of deception, the system privileges are neglected by them and take old of the assets which are mainly the cash. Its continuous integration has not succeeded in eliminating the threat of hackers who are either the insiders or enter through the perimeter security.

Considering the financial losses caused from the system-based frauds, errors and abuse by business transactions, new ways…… [Read More]

References

Bell, T., Thimbleby, H., Fellows, M., Witten, I., Koblitz, N. & Powell, M. 2003. Explaining cryptographic systems. Computers & Education. Volume 40. pp 199 -- 215.

Blosch, M. & Hunter, R. 2004. Sarbanes-Oxley: an external look at internal controls. Gartner. August.

CobiT Security Baseline. IT Governance Institute. http://www.itgi.org

Dhillon, G. 2004. Guest Editorial: the challenge of managing information security. International Journal of Information Management. Volume 24. pp 3 -- 4.
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Conflict and Security in the

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6129801

This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.

While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
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UN Security Council

Words: 5883 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61388417

UN Security Council

Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…… [Read More]

References

AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,

Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.

Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.

http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_background.html
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Siracusa Principles

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21289165

Siracusa Principles Empowering Public Health

Siracusa Principles

Investing in public health is substantial for the prosperity of human rights. This is based on the knowledge that public health commitment is a collective focus attempting to minimize the gap between the rich and the poor in accessing health resources. As a result, public health policy formulation is possible through national and international legislations. A good example of this legislation is the Siracusa principles. This study examines the various roles played by Siracusa principles in improving public health administration both nationally and internationally. This discussion will present a critical analysis of the background that lead to the development of this legislation and the impact it has had on general human rights practice. This study also focuses on the impact of the Siracusa principles in facilitating public health administration whilst using the Medicaid as a close example of its influence (Grodin et al.,…… [Read More]

References

Burchill, R., Davidson, S., & Conte, A. (2013). Defining Civil and Political Rights: The Jurisprudence of the United Nations Human Rights Committee. New York: Ashgate Publishing

Grodin, M., Tarantola, D., Annas, G., & Gruskin, S. (2013). Human Rights in a Changing World. New York: Routledge

Olesker, R. (2007). The Value of Security Vs. The Security of Values: The Relationship Between the Rights of the Minority and the Security of the Majority in Israel. New York: ProQuest.
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Criminal Justice -- Homeland Security

Words: 1362 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78058178

Specifically, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is one of the premier law enforcement organizations in the world. However, it was conceived, designed, and structured more for the purpose of investigating past crimes and apprehending and prosecuting criminals. For example, the FBI is, by design, a decentralized agency so that field offices in different states can pursue independent investigations. In the field of counterterrorism, the exact opposite structure is required: the counterterrorism mission demands a highly centralized structure whereby intelligence collected from many different locations and by many different agencies and entities is funneled into an integrated analysis center (Larsen, 2007). In many respects that deficiency still pervades the national homeland security mission, as evidenced by the failure of authorities to identify the perpetrator of the Northwest 253 plot on the basis of information that had previously been made available to the national counterterrorism and intelligence infrastructure.

Weapons of Mass…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

DHS-FEMA. (2006). Fundamentals of Emergency Management: Introduction to Emergency Management. Accessed online December 28, 2009, from:

http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/fem.asp
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Homeland Security Since 9-11-2001 Homeland

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92904781

And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.

"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.

One of the causes of the failure of the United…… [Read More]

References

Casteel, Philip. (2011, Feb. 24). "Mayor Reacts to Terrorist Arrest in Lubbock." KCBD

Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.kcbd.com/story/14136417/mayor-reactas-to-terrorist-arest-in-lubbock?redirected=true

"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University

"Lubbock Police Department swears in 13 New Officers." (2011, Sept. 9). Lubbock
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Traditional Principles of Just War Guide States

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1640134

traditional principles of just war guide states in fighting terrorism, or do new rules have to apply?

War has been waged much in the same manner, barring technological advances, for centuries. Wars are fought between sovereign nation states and the regimes that control them or against civil challenges to sovereign nation states from within, and yet the current so called war on terror is very obviously a different animal all together than any previous war. Yet, like so many other national and international challenges there is a reluctance to change.

The questionable link that the ush administration established between its war on terror and its military intervention in Iraq, as well as its apparent willingness to suspend fundamental rights if the 'war' requires it (exemplified by its practices in Guantanamo ay and its exhortations to extradite terror suspects across Europe), have contributed much to the striking fact that many citizens…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arquilla, J. (2007). The End of War as We Knew It? Insurgency counterinsurgency and lessons from the forgotten history of early terror networks. Third World Quarterly, 369-386.

Michta, A.A. (2008, January). Double or Nothing. National Interest, 58-61.

Monar, J. (2007). The EU's approach post-September 11: global terrorism as a multidimensional law enforcement challenge. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20 (2), 267-283.

Richard H. Fallon, J. (2010). The Supreme Court, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror: an Essay on Law and Poltical Science. Columbia Law Review, 352-398.
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Department of Homeland Security DHS

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55264167



Regarding Border ecurity, "the Department of Homeland ecurity prevents and investigates illegal movements across our borders, including the smuggling of people, drugs, cash, and weapons" (DH.gov. Border ecurity. 2012. PP. 1). Customs, Coast Guard, and Immigration (IN) are working departments in this area.

Preparedness, Response, Recovery refers to "providing a coordinated, comprehensive federal response and mounting a swift and effective recovery effort" (DH.gov. Preparedness. Response. Recovery. 2012. PP. 1). FEMA is the direct provider of government action and coordination in this realm.

On Immigration, "the Department is responsible for providing immigration-related services and benefits such as naturalization and work authorization" (DH.gov. Immigration. 2012. PP. 1). IN is the primary vehicle in this context however, cross-over with Border ecurity functions are common.

Lastly, DH engages in cyber security "keeping our federal civilian networks secure, and secure the cyberspace and critical infrastructure on which we all depend" (DH.gov. Cyber ecurity. 2012. PP.…… [Read More]

Succinctly, no! The encompassing mission of the DHS is so broad as to incorporate far too many active departments, agencies directorates, and components for the structure to effectively work. The flow chart itself is complex in its reporting and layered approach. The unification which is necessary to protect the U.S. from threats is not possible under the auspices of a broad tent approach to control and information dissemination. As an example, a recent report indicated "86 reported attacks on computer systems in the U.S. that control infrastructure, factories, and databases between October 2011 and February 2012" (Schmidt, M. March 13, 2012. PP. 1); yet no one Federal agency "has the authority to compel businesses that run the nation's infrastructure to improve their security" (Schmidt, M. March 13, 2012. PP. 1). If the DHS were to assume control of this task, the assumption would be that economies of scale in resources and scope would allow for greater efficacy. The counter is that the nimbleness and coordination necessary to prevent such hacking is anathema under a monolithic structure. Decentralization would be a more logical method of countering the multiple risks to homeland security.

2. Are there any federal, state, and/or local agencies present in DHS that do not belong? If so, explain why / if not, explain why. Be detailed.

The best example, and most obvious is FEMA, the
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Network Security

Words: 3307 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52013252

Network Security: Past, Present and Future

The work of Curtin (2007) states that a network is defined as "any set of interlinking lines resembling a net, a network of roads -- an interconnected system, a network of alliances." Quite simply a computer network is a system of computers that are interconnected. There are seven layers of communication types identified by the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) eference Model as well as the interfaces among them. Each layer is stated to be dependent on the services that the layer above it provides including the physical network hardware.

Technology: Description and Area of esearch

The most popular networks which have been used over the past twenty-five years and which include both private and public networks include the following network services: (1) UUCP -- Unix-to-Unix CoPy: This was developed originally for connecting Unix hosts together however, since that time UUCP…… [Read More]

References

Bouchard, Mark (2009) WANTED: The Future of Network Security for Service Providers -- Now!AimPoint Group, LLC. Juniper Networks. Retrieved from: http://www.juniper.net/us/en/local/pdf/whitepapers/2000301-en.pdf

Cisco Security Planning and Design Service (2010) Cisco Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.planetcisco.org/en/U.S./services/ps2961/ps2952/services_datasheet_securitypd.pdf

Graff, Mark (2002 ) The Future of Internet Security. Para-Protect. Retrieved from:  http://www.markgraff.com/mg_writings/TFOIS6000.pdf 

Keohane & Nye (2000) in: Schneider, Jim (2003) Globalization and Think-Tanks: Security Policy Networks. SAREM International Seminar, Istanbul, May 30, 2003. Retrieved from:  http://www.policy.hu/schneider/GlobalTTs.pdf
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Employment Law Criminal Law to the Security Manager

Words: 2017 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92719483

Legislation

Disputes

Advice on Handling Dismissals

The Minimum Wage

Working Time egulations

WOKES AND EMPLOYMENT

DISCIMINATION

Gender and Sexual Orientation Discrimination

Sexual Orientation

Gender eassignment

Discrimination on Grounds of ace or eligion or Age

Treatment of employees has come under scrutiny in the last few decades. Legislation has been passed to help facilitate effective regulation of a business/work environment. The areas covered by legislation are: employment contracts, work-related regulations (ie. Breaks and work conditions), minimum wage rates, unlawful/unfair dismissal, and discrimination/harassment on the grounds of gender, sexual preference, race, religious beliefs, disability, and in recent years, age. Legislation of this nature need to be a major concern for employers to not only follow, but implement. Dismissal of legislation could lead to large penalties, associated with compensation and legal fees.

Infringement of employees rights may also lead to a company/organization's poor public image. As most businesses know, maintaining a positive public…… [Read More]

References

Ashworth, A. 1995. Principles of criminal law. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press, p. 87.

Computer World. 1996. IT security managers too focused on compliance, experts say. [online] Available at: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9237254/IT_security_managers_too_focused_on_compliance_experts_say [Accessed: 12 Jun 2013].

Fay, J. 2007. Encyclopedia of Security Management. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, p. 249.

Fletcher, G. 1998. Basic Concepts of Criminal Law. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, p. 45.