Self Awareness Essays Examples

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Self and Social Psychology Social Psychology Is

Words: 2462 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40851888

Self and Social Psychology

Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.

Discovering the Self

Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas

Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue of self-concept, the totality of self-schemas -- individual facets of an individual's projection of self. For example, a student might project a "student" schema. An actor might project an "actor" schema. A politician might project a "politician" schema. Self-schemas act as basic normative or "type" roles. Most people have more…… [Read More]

Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.

Myers, D.G. (2010). Social Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Tsakiris, M., Haggard, P. (2005). Experimenting with the acting self. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22(3): 387-407.
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Self-Assessment and Reflection

Words: 1819 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25145097

Self-Assessment and Reflection

According to Daniel Goleman, author of Emotional Intelligence: Why it Can Matter More than IQ (July 1997): "Self-awareness includes the competencies of emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment and self-confidence. Skill in knowing about personal strengths and limits and self-worth are related to these competencies." Various professional tests I have taken have provided me with some insights into my own personality characteristics and personal and professional strengths. For example, according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, my personality type is ISTJ (introverted, sensory, thinking, judging), which I find useful in assessing my own personality style and strengths. The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) test, an assessment tool used for improving working relationships and individual effectiveness, places me at the midway point between 'need for inclusion' and 'need for total control'. In other tests I have taken, results indicate personality characteristics including self-confidence; adaptability; initiative; empathy; service orientation, and ability in conflict management.

Discuss your strengths and opportunities for professional and personal growth.

In both educational and work endeavors, I have been fortunate to be able to take advantage of insights offered by myriad tests, inventories, self-assessment instruments and personal characteristic inventories. Each of these has offered me information valuable in…… [Read More]

Bush, G.W. (Date). Name of article. Retrieved July 31, 2005, from: http:www. (You need to include the name an article, or link, or something on this website, e.g., Biography, or something like that, not just the website itself. The rest of this citation is okay)
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Self-Assessment the Effective Use of Qualitative Research

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73932145


The effective use of qualitative research

When I first embarked upon this course, I only had a vague idea about the purposes of the different qualitative research methods. While I knew the distinctions between grounded theory, case studies, phenomenology, narratives, and ethnographies on an intellectual level, when I assessed different studies over the course of my own research, I was less concerned about the different processes used to reveal the results than I was about the results themselves. By virtue of taking this course, I am much more process-oriented in my analysis. Now I see it is impossible to understand the results of a study without an intimate understanding of how those results were achieved. Critiquing and understanding the final conclusions requires a full understanding of the assumptions and methods of the researcher.

A researcher's choice of methods can affect the accuracy of the results and the standards by which those results are assessed. For example, in the case of narrative research, the main aim of this technique is to bring to light different experiences of a select group of individuals, often by showcasing their unique perspectives and voices. Narrative research illuminates a specific kind of storied experience. In…… [Read More]

Lee, P. (2006). Understanding and critiquing qualitative research. Nursing Times, 102 (29). 30.

Retrieved from: 
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Self-Confidence at Present I Would

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38680032

A person with high self-esteem is a (6) risk-taker (DuBrin 2004: 86-87). Nothing is more risky yet more fulfilling than learning something new.

Explain how they can help you strengthen your self-confidence

Self-acceptance of who I am right now gives me knowledge of where I want to go in the future. Self-esteem means being confident that my learning and personal investments will pay off, that I am truly 'worth it' in terms of the ventures I attempt. In all of the above-cited examples, education seems like the key to building self-esteem. Education shows a sense of personal confidence in one's ability to advance (and is reinforced by positive self-talk and building upon one's core skills).

Analyze how self-confidence can affect job performance and how inter-office relationships are affected by differing levels of self-confidence.

Everyone has been in an office setting where a 'bullying' boss has dominated his or her employees. The bosses' sense of self-aggrandizement causes him to subordinate the needs of his or her employees and even the company as a whole, to inflate his or her own ego. Belittling employees in public rather than discussing areas of improvement, and using insults and sarcasm creates a toxic work environment…… [Read More]

Burton, James P. & Jenny Hoobler. (2006). Subordinate self-esteem and abusive supervision.

Journal of Managerial Issues. Retrieved July 19, 2011 at
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Self Four Aspects of Self

Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69588599

This could be referred to in terms of Stern's Sense of Subjective Self. As Stern notes, the child or infant becomes aware that the 'gap' that develops in the realization of its subjectivity can be overcome through various intersubjective experiences. My strength in this regard lies in my understanding of the value of intersubjectivity in enhancing my own sense of self.

Another strength that I have that can be related to Stern's theory is the verbal self. As Stern notes, the capacity that the child develops for representation and language usage also tends to enhance intersubjective aspects of development. In other words, intersubjectivity is improved through the development of symbolic language. This is a strength that I feel can be further enhanced and improved in later life. A sensitivity to language and symbolic representation also allows us to develop better relationship skills.

In conclusion, it is noteworthy that an imminent psychologist and theorist like Felix Guattari has this to say about Stern's theory. "[Daniel Stern] has notably explored the pre-verbal subjective formations of infants. He shows that these are not at all a matter of "stages" in the Freudian sense, but levels of subjectivation which maintain themselves in parallel throughout…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Daniel_Stern_(psychologist) Retrieved September 19, 2009, from

Guattari F. (1995) Chaosmosis: An Ethico-Aesthetic Paradigm, trans. Paul Bains and Julian Pefanis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
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Self-Care Strategies

Words: 2217 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37897177

Self-Care Strategies

Self-care is a widely acknowledged aspect of Counseling. Through research, studies and hard-earned self-knowledge, experts have defined personal attributes, strategies such as mentoring, and qualities that can lead to development of the therapeutic self. Due to differing experiences and results, experts may differently name those attributes, strategies and qualities but all are focused on taking care of the self as the counselor takes care of his/her clients and other people in his/her personal and professional life.

Which attributes of the self-care do you think are most important to success in the counseling relationship?

The most effective approach to self-care involves understanding the "Five Areas of Wellness" discussed by Dr. Eugenia Curet in Mental Health and Self-Care for Counselors, and ensuring that each of those areas is satisfied with one or more specific activities. The "Five Areas" are: Cognitive; Emotional; Physical; Spiritual and Social (Curet, 2010). The Cognitive area can be satisfied by non-counseling-related activities such as journaling, hobbies, pleasurable reading, meditation, volunteering and attending the theater. The Emotional area can be satisfied by allowing one's own emotional freedom by laughing and crying, talking with friends, having supportive discussions with colleagues and seeing a counselor. The Physical area can…… [Read More]

Bohorquez, E. (2007, July 15). Working with the therapeutic self. Retrieved on April 10, 2012 from Thoughwareprograms Web site: 

Chamberlin, J. (2005). Sticky situations in mentorshis. Retrieved on April 10, 2012 from American Psychological Association Web site:
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Self-Analysis Many People Including Myself Can Coast

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26445667


Many people, including myself, can coast through life, without giving much thought to personal goals or planning. However, after taking this course I realized the value in thinking deeply about my future, especially in relation to my talents, dreams, and desires. The lessons have opened my mind and broadened my horizons in many areas, as I can apply the lessons to almost every aspect of my life, from relationships to personal finances. Moreover, I have begun to appreciate more fully the meaning behind much of the rhetoric I often hear. For instance, while I always heard that a college education could be beneficial for me, I never truly grasped what a higher education actually entailed. After taking this course, I will pursue a degree not only because I feel I "should," but because I genuinely desire to experience college life. In addition to the networking and social opportunities college offers, a college education will enrich my life by improving the way I learn and view the world. I will be better able to think critically and creatively and will have an improved understanding of my innate talents and weaknesses. The variety of courses I will take will expose me…… [Read More]

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Self-Concept and Presentation to Prospective Employers Why

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22763161

Self-Concept and Presentation to Prospective Employers

Why is understanding yourself important in your career development?

In general, those who find careers within their natural interests and abilities are more likely to be happy than people who end up in careers or positions that do not match their interests and skills. Understanding yourself is important for career development because prospective employers always want to see indications that job applicants are self-aware enough to appreciate their weaknesses and areas where they can make improvements as well as their strengths and area where they may already be strong, They are especially interested to know that you have a realistic perspective about how they can succeed in the positions that they see (Beatty 2003 p35).

From a much more practical perspective, understanding yourself is a fundamentally important life skill because it is impossible to make meaningful improvements in many areas of life, whether in the vocational realm or in the personal realm if one cannot recognize and admit faults and areas of relative need for improvement. It is also important to understand yourself for the purposes of career development because one of the more obvious aspects of any career is that the person is…… [Read More]

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Self-Directed Search Assessment Booklet

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22144991

Self-Directed Assessment

Self-Assessment Research

Finding a career path that is both financial rewarding and personally satisfying can be a trying process. While many workers find positions that are either financial rewarding, or personally satisfying, ultimately the two goals are subtly linked. When a person settles for a career path that is financial rewarding, but exists outside the scope of their personal values or talents, the career can produce feelings of unhappiness in the individual, and lead to the 40-40-40 syndrome. A person works forty hours per week, for roughly 40 years, and tops out at a 40K per year salary. On the other hand, a person who finds the career he or she loves can spend a lifetime building personal accomplishments, which will quite often lead to expanded opportunity and expanded earning potential. Finding the ideal path for the career minded individual is a function of matching the person's desires and their innate talents with the responsibilities of a particular career. Making these matched possible is the purpose of Dr. John Holland's Self-Directed Search Assessment (SDS).

Purpose and Description of the SDS Inventory

Wendy Burton is a 25-year-old single career minded women who is moving toward serious career path. She…… [Read More]

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Self-Concept Awareness Scenario One You

Words: 525 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25088787

In one case you please the boss in the other you don't, but in both cases you demonstrate a disregard for the wishes of your loved ones.

Scenario Three: A favorite relative tells you he or she is disappointed that you have decided not to continue the family tradition of pursuing a career in a particular field. How do you respond?

Positive response: I would acknowledge that the family tradition was something to be proud of and that I was proud of it as well. I would explain that my interests/passions lie in a different direction and hope that she would understand and support me in my effort to make the family proud.

Negative response: Tell her that it's my life, I will do as I please and to mind her own business.

Scenario Four: You just got a new haircut. A close friend says, "I love your new look. It compliments your eyes and makes you look so much younger!" How do you handle that compliment?

Positive response: I would say "thank-you," and move on. I would hope that the implied insult was unintentional.

Negative response: Ask "Are you saying that I looked old before?" putting them on the…… [Read More]

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Self-Regulation Issues in Children and Adolescents With ADHD ODD and OCD

Words: 6305 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39399907

Self-Regulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD

Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to respond to things in a rational and balanced way.

Children who experience OCD are often stuck with repeating set and defined patterns to rid themselves of sad or disturbing thoughts. Self-regulation among children who suffer from this disorder is very difficult to attain because of the repetitions and obsessions that…… [Read More]

Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from 

Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from
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Self-Efficacy Believing in Oneself Self-Efficacy

Words: 3109 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67918030


As a top manager, the person possesses three distinct categories of self-efficacy beliefs (Yun, 2007). These are his individual participant's abilities, his team's capabilities, and the organization's capabilities. Team capabilities are not simply the sum of the abilities of the individual members. And organizational capabilities are different from team capabilities. These being distinct from one another, the top manager can build his efficacy beliefs on himself, the team and the organization. Organizational efficacy can then proceed from the top manager's belief in the organization's capabilities to create competitive advantage as well as attain high performance (Yun).

Self-Efficacy in the Work Environment

Employee Empowerment

According to Newstrom and Davis, self-efficacy is the conviction that one can successfully perform a given task and make meaningful contributions (Edralin, 2004). Causes of powerlessness and low self-efficacy in the workplace are job-related, boss-related, and reward system-related. Unclear roles and expectations, lack of opportunity to use discretion at work, and the lack of job variety and depth are job-related factors. A highly authoritarian or task-directing towards capable and willing subordinates is a boss-related factor. And a reward system-related cause is when the wage, incentives and other benefits and rewards fall short of recognizing, rewarding and…… [Read More]

Yun, S. (2007). Top manager's efficacy beliefs and organizational outcomes: an application of social cognitive theory. Vol 13 number 2 Seoul Journal of Business:

Seoul National University. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from
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Self-Concept the Concept of One's

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27417822

If he has good self-concept, he will see the feedback as a chance to weigh things, improve self and deepen his self-understanding. However, if he has otherwise, he may not accept the feedback, feel bad about it and possibly even refuse to recognize the experience and/or the person/s involved in it. This denial to address the event may ultimately cause social and individual stagnation.

The interplay of self-concept and emotions affect one's self-esteem. Poor self-concept results to a low aspiration in achieving things which when confronted may lead to emotions like anxiety, humiliation or self-deprecation. These feelings, if not addressed, will consequently lower self-esteem and undesirably lessen one's outlook of self and life. As Mecca (1989) explained:

"For persons with high self-esteem, shame is painful but not overwhelming. Such persons have sufficient experiences of pride in their lives that they can usually manage the shame they experience. [But] Persons with low self-esteem appear to lack sufficient experiences of pride to be able to manage shame; for them, shame is a calamity, to be avoided at all costs. When it cannot be avoided, its effects are often disruptive or even catastrophic."

One's Self and Behavior and how it Affects His Self-Presentation…… [Read More]

Craighead, E., & Nemeroff, C. (2001). The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science (3rd Ed.). U.S.: New York John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Milliken, M.E. (1998). Understanding Human Behavior: A Guide for Health Care Providers. (p. 74). Albany: Delmar Health Care Publishing.
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Self-Disclosure Coming Out of One's

Words: 4081 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98901271

The EPA conducted a study on the effectiveness of the amnesty program after three years of implementation on May 17, 1999. It found that, during the study period, 455 entities had revealed violations of 1,850 facilities and that the rate of disclosure had also gone up. The EPA also noted that the amnesty policy was most beneficial in four major areas. These were overall benefit to human health and the environment, prompt disclosure and correction of violations, improvements in corporate compliance policies and programs, and increased awareness of new environmental issues. The EPA took special note of how the policy encouraged prompt disclosure and correction of violations. Those who disclosed said that the program encouraged them to prove their auditing and reporting procedures. Most of them reported improving corporate programs in the form of a broader scope of corporate compliance activities; greater diligence, thoroughness and frequency of auditing processes; and greater timeliness of internal and external reporting of violations (Mustokoff et al.).

Antitrust Amnesty Program

Promulgated on August 10, 1993, this policy considered the DOJ's most successful amnesty program (Mustokoff et al. 2000). It draws its success from an absolute guarantee of amnesty from criminal prosecution for disclosing directors, officers…… [Read More]

Beach, M.C., et al. (2005). Patient satisfaction affected by physician self-disclosure. 2 pages. Journal of Family Practice: Dowden Health Media, Inc.

Hargie, DW. (2001). Gender, religion and adolescent patterns of self-disclosure in the divided society of Northern Ireland. 10 pages. Adolescence: Libra Publishers, Inc.
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Self-Evaluation I Am Currently Employed

Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60390010

I have a relatively flexible work schedule, and I have a very supportive family. My family and my employer are as committed to my personal and professional growth as I am and I believe I should have little problem maintaining a 15-20-hour a week schedule for school. My approach to my academics will be one where I add hours to my day prior to work, in the morning and in the evening after work as well as, as much time as is need to complete my assigned work on the weekend. If the need arises for me to take time off work I have explained the possibility to my employers and I will approach, my supervisor when needed to secure additional time for my educational needs. This is particularly true of educational project deadlines, as I will make my academic schedule known to my supervisors and take vacation and/or personal time off if the need arises, during the term and at crucial beginning and end periods of the term. My employer has also emphasized the desire for me to bring school work to my job site if I have down time, during the day but still need to be there…… [Read More]

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Self-Advocacy Steps to Successful Transition

Words: 2911 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38290680

Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)

This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations in traditional approaches to special education planning. As the Mason et al. article demonstrates, this is not simply a problem of practical shortcoming, but far more troubling, it is a civil rights issue as well. As underscored by the focus of the article by Test et al. (2005), the denial…… [Read More]

Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).

Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at
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Awareness About Psychology Behind Domestic Violence Has

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3339499

Awareness about psychology behind domestic violence has been greatly enhanced in recent years, as have legal protections for victims. However, the courts' major decisions on domestic violence cases have been somewhat equivocal. For example, in the case of Castle Rock v Gonzales, the abused woman filed a complaint against the police department, arguing that it violated her right to Due Process when "acting pursuant to official policy or custom" the police "failed to respond to her repeated reports over several hours that her estranged husband had taken their three children in violation of her restraining order against him. Ultimately, the husband murdered the children" (Castle Rock v Gonzales, 2012, Cornell). In the case, the woman had a restraining order against her husband, prohibiting him from coming near her or her children. However, ultimately the court did not find favor with the defendant since a restraining order is not a property 'right.'

In the case of Thurman v. City of Torrington (1984), however, when Tracey Thurman's husband repeatedly assaulted her and the police ignored numerous violations of restraining orders, it was found that by the U.S. District Court for Downstate Connecticut that "city officials and police officers… [Must] protect the personal…… [Read More]

Castle Rock v Gonzales. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved:
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Self-Evaluation -- Teamwork Innovation and

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51306506

Ford implemented social media campaigns to promote some of its product lines that are intended for young adults precisely because they are already so comfortable using those forms of communications. Perhaps the most innovative concept embraced by Ford in that regard is the incorporation of customer-to-customer communications as a supplement to the traditional channel of promotional communications between corporate entities and prospective customers.

Tata Motors as the Counterexample

The purchaser of the Land Rover and Jaguar product lines from Ford was Tata Motors of Britain. That company apparently made the decision relying primarily on traditional economic principles predicated mainly on the differential between the selling price and their value at the time of their original purchase. Tata apparently intended to wait out the current economic climate and hoped to capitalize on the acquisition in the future when the luxury vehicle market rebounded. However, Tata apparently failed to consider the volatility and instability of political unrest in the Middle East and other tensions that have now materialized and resulted in a spike in oil prices once again. As a result, whereas Ford was able to recoup $2.3 billion, Tata was eventually forced to request a bailout from the British government to…… [Read More]

Hill, C.W.L. And McShane, S.L. (2007). Principles of Management. New York:

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Emotional Awareness Self-Assessment and Self-confidence

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16489754

Innovation comes into the picture when a leader has the self-knowledge and self-confidence to devise innovative solutions. Leaders without a high level of self-confidence will typically be more conservative in their approach, and that can make it more difficult for those leaders to adjust. Innovation, therefore, comes from having a high level of confidence in one's abilities -- and that in turn comes from understanding your skills and how they can be best put to use in a given situation.

The article is insightful with respect to the role that emotional intelligence, particularly with regard to oneself, plays in decision-making. While managers often see themselves as highly rational, we all use our intuition more than perhaps we realize. The lesson to take from this is not that intuition should be suppressed, but that we should better understand the processes that affect that intuition. The more we know about ourselves, how we process information and how we come to decisions, the better our decision-making abilities will be.

All of these different elements of emotional intelligence tie into intuition. One's intuition derives from emotions, knowledge and prior experience. But the decisions that are intuitive in nature can be improved when the manager…… [Read More]

Goleman, D. (no date). Working with Emotional Intelligence. Random House/Bantam.
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Leader's Self-Insight 1 1 Your Learning Style Using

Words: 3023 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73993967

Leader's Self-Insight 1.1: Your Learning Style: Using Multiple Intelligences

I scored evenly on all of the types of intelligence measured by this self-assessment: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and musical. This indicates that I am a well-rounded person with the ability to work in multiple environments on different tasks.

Leader's Self-Insight 1.2: Your Leadership Potential

I scored slightly more (7) on the even-numbered indicators than on the odd ones (6), indicating I have leadership capabilities such as "vision and change." However, the scores were about even.

Leader's Self-Insight 1.3: Are You on a Fast Track to Nowhere?

On people skills, I scored 3 out of the 4 qualities. I believe I have solid interpersonal skills. On working with authority, I scored 2. I believe I need to work more on my assertiveness and courage when dealing with persons in positions of authority because I remain afraid to speak up and express my opinion when it differs from that of management. On networking, I scored two out of the four because I am not "invited to join key members of my team or organization for lunch" at least one time per month. Clearly I need to network more.

Leader's Self-Insight 2.1: Rate…… [Read More]

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Shortcomings and Biases in Person Perception Self-Verification

Words: 2108 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47486069

Biases in Person Perception-Self-Verification

Biases in Self-Perception

"O wad some Pow'r the giftie gie us ... To see ourselves as others see us," wrote Scotland's bard Robert Burns, asserting the oft-believed truism that we would all like to have the power to know exactly what it is that other people are saying and thinking about us. And yet, as the poet continues on to say, the more we think about this idea the less wholeheartedly we might well be to embrace it: Thinking about how others see us (and especially if they so precipitate as to tell us their precise thoughts) carries a very high degree of social and psychological risk. The high degree of risk so incurred arises in no small part from the fact that when we consider the idea that other people know what we are "really" like rather than the self-deception with which we cloak ourselves can give us -- to use a highly technical term -- the willies. This paper examines the concept of self-verification, which is a part of the process of how each person determines the (perceived) truth about what kind of person they are and the complex ways in which this psychological…… [Read More]

London, M. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of self-verification: Implications for individual and group development. Human Resource Development Review 2(3), 273-293.

Pasupathi, P. & Rich, B. (2005) Inattentive listening undermines self-verification in personal storytelling. Journal of personality 73(4).
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Galapagos the Dangers of a Self-Aware Big

Words: 1376 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30343855


The Dangers of a Self-Aware, Big, Human Brains in Galapagos

Kurt Vonnegut is always concerned with humanity's satisfaction with itself. Many of Vonnegut's books center around how humans believe they are the most divine creations in the universe and act from that presumption as well. The arrogance is crippling. This is a main theme in his novel, Galapagos. Yes, the end of the world may be an event that is out of humanity's control, but more than likely, humans are going to contribute to their own destruction and have no one to blame but themselves. He values humility, compassion, and what it is to be humane, to have humane thoughts, and perform humane actions. Kurt Vonnegut writes to tell us that if humans do not become less selfish and more selfless as a species, it will be their doom. This is true for the novel Galapagos. People who lack self-awareness have big egos and no humility. Self-awareness makes one aware of oneself, of course, but also it makes one aware that others are self-aware. This is the beginning of empathy. Empathy leads to selflessness. Selflessness breeds humility and extinguishes excess pride. Lack of pride and abundance of humility do…… [Read More]

Vonnegut, Kurt. Galapagos. Delacorte Press/Seymour Lawrence, NY, NY, 1985.
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Comatose Awareness as Medical Science

Words: 3294 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37262294

They do not show what people perceive, and, in the end, this is what consciousness is (18).

According to Steinberg, PET studies of vegetative patients have indicated "that the primary sensory cortices respond to pain and sounds, but that higher-order associative cortices do not. For minimally and fully conscious people, in contrast, sounds activate associative areas as well" (18).

A study of minimally conscious patients exposed patients to recorded narratives. Similar brain activity was found in both healthy control subjects and the patients. However, when the recording was played backwards, only the healthy controls' cortices were activated, indicating that only fully conscious brains are engaged by ambiguous stimuli.

Figure 1:

Source: Steinberg 17)

Leviton concurs with Davis and Gimenez's work. Arousal is surmised to be linked with cognition. but, he cites Plum and Posner as noting that the limits of consciousness are difficult to define quantitatively and satisfactorily. Self-awareness is inferred by appearance and actions. Some degree of arousal is needed for cognition (65).

When physicians talk to their patients who are comatose as if they are aware, Leviton notes, they sometimes get startling results. He cites John La Puma MD, the Director of the Center for Clinical Ethics at…… [Read More]

Bothwick, C. & Crossley, R. "Permanent vegetative state: Usefulness and limits of prognostic definition." NeuroRehabilitation 19 (4) 2004: pp. 381-389.

Davis, a. & Gimenez, a. "Cognitive-behavioral recovery in comatose patients following auditory sensory stimulation." Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 35 (4) Aug 2003: p. 202.
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Vienna Convention Reflected Best Self

Words: 1854 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57307675

I am excellent at gaining approval from people for projects and resolving interpersonal conflicts among others. I am good at interacting with people and choosing a communication style that does not demean or belittle subordinates. I have excellent organizational skills and need to focus on management rather than serving in behind the scene roles at events.

Finding our motivators is the key to a healthy, happy, and successful lifestyle (Hartley, 2010). The ability to get people to work together to achieve a bigger goal is a key asset that is being under utilized in my current of life pursuits. When I have a cause to work for, I put everything into it and have the ability to inspire others to do the same. In my present position, I am unable to utilize these abilities and only have the opportunity to do so on rare occasions. In the future, I will spend more time of the working in areas where I can lead people and inspire them to accomplish larger goals. I will spend less time performing menial tasks that can the better be handled by someone who is better at them than myself. To spend my time doing tasks for…… [Read More]

Brim, B. (2007). Debunking Strengths Myths #1; Adopting a strengths-based approach doesn't mean you can ignore your weaknesses. Gallup Management Journal October 11, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from

Challenger, J. (2007). Career Pros: Employers Seek Soft Skills. July 22, 2007. Job Journal. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from
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Rapport Building and Self-Enhancement Process

Words: 789 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33861747

This scale would indicate participants' positive feelings between themselves and the examiner. The wording of several items on the questionnaire was changed slightly, for example, "therapist" was changed to "examiner." A different subscale was used to test the hypothesis that assessment feedback accelerates rapport building. Another subscale asked questions regarding participants perceptions about themselves were reaffirmed and they felt proud, secure, or important after the testing experience. The final subscale was used to further understand how assessment feedback enhances a sense of self-enhancement, particularly a sense of self-discovery. The results supported the authors hypotheses that providing assessment feedback results could have some therapeutic value. I though the study was positive because very few studies have systematically attempted to identify the processes or mechanisms underlying the observed outcomes.

The study concluded that personalized feedback was associated with processes related to initial establishment of rapport and to the enhancement of intra-individual states such as self-awareness and self-regard. However, the study had several limitations. The clearest limitation to me was that the participant sample mirrored a past study on the topic. I believe this was a strong limitation, because varied groups should have studied, as compared to what has already been studied. In…… [Read More]

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Authentic Self

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68651967

Authentic Self

Delving deep within one's own mind provides opportunity for personal growth and this intention may be useful in attaining potential. Accumulating certain valuable personal skills throughout a lifetime has given me an opportunity to reflect on these experiences and summarize them in an educational manner, useful for gaining understanding into these practices. Leadership seems at times a very interesting phenomenon that has varying consequences and originations. My own personal leadership skills, I believe, are a clear and true reflection of my authentic self and provide a useful and cathartic method of displaying this authentic self towards others. The purpose of this essay is to explore my authentic self and describe how my authentic leadership skills are derived from this source. I will explore my strengths and weaknesses and examine how they relate to my value system and other learned behaviors. I will also discuss how I have improved on my behaviors through the use of different techniques and methods in order to understand higher levels of leadership understanding.

Strong leadership personalities have many things in common. The ability to create a vision and inspire others to follow this vision is perhaps the strongest and most valuable leadership trait…… [Read More]

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Ethics Self-Assessment

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83901381

Ethics in Health Care

The role of ethics within the medical profession is extremely important and it is extremely necessary to abide by a high standard of ethical behavior while working in this industry. The trust that patients and people place within the medical profession dictates this high level of ethical behavior. The purpose of this essay is to examine the influence of individual ethics on decision making the health care industry using the ACHE self-assessment test as a guide to highlight key issues regarding this approach.

The ACHE self-assessment provided some, but not much guidance on the way medical professionals should conduct their business. Many of the questions were quite superficial and did not really hit at the true ethical issues that are present within the medical field. For me, ethics cannot be standardized to the extent where there are automatic responses to challenging situations. Rather, the ethical approach necessary requires wisdom, reason and experience.

My ethical decision making system does have some automatic tendencies, however, the times that my ethics have been truly challenged, the situation was not so clear. For me, ethics are much more general and require subtle understandings of situations where facts are not so…… [Read More]

American College of Healthcare Executives. Ethics Self-Assessment.
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Leadership the Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54440652

One noticeable weakness in the scoring measures is the fact that the questions must be answered in too absolute a manner. There is no room for flexibility or for answering in ways such as, "I normally accept the feelings I have about myself, except when I am in a bad mood." There are also differences in the ways I react to other people and to group pressures: it all depends on the people who form the group and my reaction to them in particular. When working with others who are less experienced than I am, I tend to be more confident. Yet if I am working with a group of others who are more experienced or have higher status than I am, I may be less prone to being assertive, sharing my opinion, or expressing myself as a leader. This bit of self-awareness sprung as I was taking the ALQ. Although self-awareness is one of the core leadership factors measured by the ALQ, I cannot help but wonder what value the questionnaire actually has in the real, applied world of work.

Self-awareness itself is an important trait for leadership, which is why it is included in the nine-factor model. According…… [Read More]

Avolio, B.J. Gardner, W.L., & Walumba, Fred O. (2010). ALQ: Measure Authentic Leadership. Mind Garden. Retrieved online:

McCann, J. (2008). Leadership in the apparel manufacturing environment: an analysis based on the multi-factor leadership questionnaire
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Psychology Personality Hypo-Egoic Self-Regulation Exercising

Words: 1639 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81590713

" Earlier, in Leary et. al.'s article, it was stated how thoughtless commitment of an activity is vital to the success of self-control, since at this stage, the individual loses his/her concept of self-awareness. However, in Hoyle's analysis, impulsivity is a factor that hampers the individual's performance of an activity with a high level of self-control. Thus, the relationship between impulsivity and self-regulation are inversely proportional to each other: as the individual increases his/her level of impulsivity, the level of self-regulation decreases.

Combining both factors, Hoyle then created a bigger picture of his interpretation of and perspective about self-regulation. For him, in order to fully gain self-regulation in the self, there should be an "alignment" of both the real and ideal self. The real self are actions and behavior that the individual observes on a daily basis, while the ideal self could be a part of the individual's personality, or a construct that the individual aspires to have or become. Success in self-regulation can only be claimed by the individual if s/he could confidently say that his/her real self is similar to his/her construct of the ideal self. If the case is otherwise, then the individual's effort towards self-regulation has…… [Read More]

Hoyle, R. (Dec 2006). "Personality and self-regulation: Trait and information-processing perspectives." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.

Leary, M, C. Adams and E. Tate. (Dec 2006). "Hypo-egoic self-regulation: Exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self." Journal of Personality, Vol. 74, No. 6.
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Understanding the Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing by Orem

Words: 1971 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68106373

Nursing Theorist Grid Dorothea Oren Theory

Over the years, nursing theories have been used in defining the ways healthcare is delivered through the interaction of patients and nurses. This study presents a theoretical discussion of the self-care concept in relation to health care delivery among elderly patients. The self-care concept is popular as Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing by Orem. Orem's theory perceives individuals as self-care agents equipped with unique needs. The theory focuses on transactional analysis in enhancing rehabilitative roles of nursing and positively influencing self-care agency among individuals. This creates power component based on self-care behaviors. The theory was initially defined as the analysis of exchanges between people in their interactions and communications with one another. The focus also classifies, understands, predicts and alters human behavior among the well and sick individuals. The theory supports individuals treated as adults and has a higher likelihood of using Adult ego states in encouraging information processing, as well as responsible behavior. The items recognize the congruence of perceptions between nurses and patients as one of the vital factors in the provision of nursing care. The issues should focus on nursing and validation of the perceptions held by patients. It is through…… [Read More]

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Leadership Self Assessment and Team Excellence

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90553157

Qualities as an Authentic Leader

Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire has helped me measure the component comprising Authentic Leadership (Northouse, 2016). Thus, under self-awareness questions, I was aware of my strengths, limitations, how I influence others and how they view me as a leader. Transparency is an essential tool for me that have enabled me to reinforce my high leadership levels of openness with others in the organization. Therefore, this has given them an opportunity to be forthcoming with their opinions, challenges, and ideas. This aspect has gone a long way in solving company problems and hence, many are the times that a leader and his team work in getting solutions to a situation as a team. In today's business world, ethics is being advocated for and therefore, my ethical or moral aspect as a leader showed high degrees because I have set high moral and ethical standards of conduct in the organization. In looking at balanced processing, I also realized that my scores were low which meant that the degree needed in a leader to solicit sufficient opinions and viewpoints from team members before making important organizational decisions is lacking. Thus, I need to look at listening carefully to other…… [Read More]

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Self-Evaluation of Church Organisations and

Words: 4450 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17026340

.." Kotter specifically is noted as having stated as follows:

"Leadership is different from management but not for the reason most people think. Leadership isn't' mystical and mysterious. It has nothing to do with having charisma or other exotic personality traits. It's not leadership necessarily better than management or a replacement for it: rather leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary activities. Both are necessary for success..." (Kotter, 1990, p.103 cited in Bolden, 2004)

V. Policy and Strategy

In most cases quality in ministry is defined as "meeting or exceeding the expectations of needs of the customer in such a way as to fully satisfy him or her." (Kallestad) But the purpose of this paper is not to make a business process out of ministry but to make the business of ministry a quality process. The quality performance of a church is typically measured primarily by its size, participation in programs and/or financial indicators. Recently, however, a new awareness of quality beyond material issues has begun to surface (see below, Hybels). This focus embraces those core values that count for eternity, which may suggest the need to introduce a new term: "Quality for Eternity." Quality for Eternity stands for…… [Read More]

O'Hara, Debbie (2003) Church Growth Movement -- Revival or Apostasy? 21 Oct 2003 News with Views. Online available at: 

Coutts, Peter (2000) John Kotter on Leading Change. St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Calgary. 27 Jun 2000. Online available at:
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Self in Counselor Know Thyself Hulnick Addresses

Words: 852 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11694051


In Counselor: Know Thyself, Hulnick addresses the laundry list of ideal psychological concepts:

"authenticity, unconditional positive regard, empathy, accuracy in our communications, the ability to express oneself, increased awareness, focus on the NOW, action modes of dealing with problems, psychological independence, the need for healthier concepts, movement toward self-actualization, openness to life's experience, self-worth, meaningful research, a mature value system in general, a spiritual value system in particular, and most importantly, the need for continual, unceasing work on one's own growth" (Hulnick, 1977, pp. 69-70).

While a person with all those qualities may exist, I have not met him/her. Hulnick is wise to speak of the process in which a person gradually attains and enhances those vital qualities while working to become as effective a counselor as possible. The term "process" seems so scientific, (it makes me think of "processed cheese"), that I prefer the term "becoming." I possess all those qualities to some degree but also certainly lack every quality to some degree. That is perfectly fine, because I am consciously "becoming." Am I becoming a person who is stronger in each of those positive qualities? Yes, and to that extent, my sense of self is congruent with…… [Read More]

Hulnick, H.R. (1977). Counselor: Know thyself. Counselor Education and Supervision, 17(1), 69-72.
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Self-Defeating Behavior Patterns I Have Is Procrastinating

Words: 1616 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90885019

self-defeating behavior patterns I have is procrastinating. I know that many students suffer from this behavior pattern and struggle with it, but in my case, I consider it a serious problem that has influenced my academic work. Because of procrastinating, I sometimes have to work fast (and thus imperfectly) at the last minute and work under stress. I may even not be able to finish my work in time because of not starting to do it earlier.

For example, recently I needed to write an analytical essay for my English class. I had the whole weekend to do it. Although I did some important things during those days, I kept postponing the writing process until late Sunday. The paper was due the next day. It was a short paper, but since it was an analytical one, I had to stay late at night to finish it in time. I did not get enough sleep and the next day I was not sure if I did my job well enough to like it myself.

I think, the problem lies in my inability to focus on the most important tasks in time. I have many things to do every day most of…… [Read More]

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Self-Learning Style Assessment

Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29165613

1983, Howard Gardner challenged conventional views of teaching and learning styles with his book, Frames of Mind. Gardner hypothesized that the skill-sets of different people are directly correlated to their learning styles. It was from this that he developed the theory of multiple intelligences. Within this theory there are seven intelligences, linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, and what are known as intra and inter-personnel forms of the personal intelligences.

The following paper is an assessment of the intelligence which represents my personal learning style. It is clear this style is best represented by the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

This intelligence is related to physical movement and the knowing/wisdom of the body. Including the brain's motor cortex, which controls body motion. Body/kinesthetic intelligence is awakened through physical movement such as in various sports, dance, physical exercises as well as by the expression of oneself through the body, such as inventing, drama, body language, and creative/interpretive dance. (Learning Styles: A Multiple Intelligence Approach, Pg. 1)

Generally those who have a kinesthetic learning style have a strong understanding of their body and their ability to move. There are six capacities involved with the kinesthetic learner.

1) Kinesthetic learners have control…… [Read More]

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Self-Journey or Self-Discovery

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56548588

Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. Specifically it will discuss the self-discovery Marlow encounters on his journey through Africa. Marlow's journey from England to Africa and back to Europe is a journey of self-discovery and adventure. He encounters greed, savagery, and indifference along his journey, and he encounters prejudice, imperialism, and a new understanding of himself along the way, as well. In the end, he recognizes he is a changed man who no longer sees the world or himself in the same way.

Throughout the book, Marlow recognizes, as he looks back on his experiences, that he was on a journey of self-discovery on his trip to Africa. Literary critic Harold Bloom notes, "But Marlow reiterates often enough that he is recounting a spiritual voyage of self-discovery. He remarks casually but crucially that he did not know himself before setting out, and that he likes work for the chance it provides to 'find yourself . . . what no other man can ever know'" (Bloom 9). Early in the book, Marlow tells his companions the same thing. He says of his experience, "It seemed somehow to throw a kind of light on everything about me -- and into my thoughts.…… [Read More]

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Self Being Defined by Others

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40408477

Racism and Society -- Literature Response

Race and Identity as Functions of Societal Labeling and Expectations

Two pieces of 20th century literature exemplify the alienation felt by African-Americans in the United States. One of those works, authored by Zora Neal Hurston in 1928, is the essay How It Feels to Be Colored Me, which vividly illustrates the degree to which the identity of a black person in the pre-Civil Rights era was defined by white society. More importantly, Hurston's work also illustrates how much of a conflict and perpetual struggle African-Americans experienced internally if they tried to maintain their own self-identity. Whereas many blacks of that era bought into the expectations foisted on them by white society, others resisted this artificial identity that was imposed on them. Hurston clearly was shaped by this dynamic and bitterly resisted the self-identity that she was expected to have accepted and reflected to get along in her society.

One of the mechanisms that black people used to cope with racial stereotypes was, apparently, to downplay their ties to their African-American heritage. Hurston makes a reference to this when she writes that she could "offer nothing in the way of extenuating circumstances except the fact…… [Read More]

Ehrenreich, B. (2009). Nickel and Dimed: on (Not) Getting by in America. New York,

NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.
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Self Defense Strategy Against Hazardous Situations in the Community

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63123620

Avoiding Commonly Hazardous Situations in the Community

Hazardous situations can be described as conditions that pose significant threat to life, security, the environment, and health and can easily create and emergency situation. Hazardous situations have become prevalent in today's society or community because of increased exposure to potentially harmful situations when carrying out the activities of daily life. The most common hazardous situations in my community include people and things that are in the immediate surroundings. These hazardous situations in the community are prevalent at home, in school, and in the society. It is increasingly important for people to develop measures that help in avoiding commonly hazardous situations in the community because of the potential harm that the hazards can cause. Actually, the various kinds of hazards usually emerge from unsafe use or actions of equipments and objects.

One of the most important ways for avoiding commonly hazardous situations in my community is through arranging my life in a manner to avoid the various types of hazards. My personal plan for arranging my life to avoid situations that are regarded as commonly hazardous in the community will be based on three components i.e. awareness, avoidance, and prevention. These three components…… [Read More]

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Self Is One That Is

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72504306

This is all he cares to know about Sonny because knowing anymore might be painful for him. It is also worth noting that the protagonist in this tale has gone on to become successful and live a somewhat respectable life, unlike his brother. The protagonist does everything he can to escape the street life that held no future, no promise. He fled the pain and darkness of those streets and Sonny was just a painful reminder of his past. Donald Murray writes that there is "no escape from the darkness for Sonny and his family" (Murray 354) and the only way to cope is by finding another way to survive with the darkness.

Sonny's brother could not have chosen a more different path in life to take. He is a teacher and feels a certain amount of superiority over Sonny. Sonny was not in the least bit inclined to become more educated and he finds in joy in music. Here, Baldwin shows us the different between the boys -- one loves numbers and the other loves music. The protagonist encourages Sonny to "stop kidding around" (33) and find something productive to do because "people can't always do exactly what they…… [Read More]