In fact these moderate quit rates are substantially higher than health care interventions (Salize et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009).
Psychological interventions such as support groups, counseling sessions, and guided quit plans have been proven most effective when coupled with pharmacological interventions (Huang, 2005). Cessation programs need to be interactive and engage the participant in the treatment process as well as identifying individual characteristics that have led to the smoking behavior and tailoring interventions to meet these needs (Rovina et al., 2009). Those programs that emphasized lectures, consultations, and group discussions were found to have a 40% quit rate with the majority of participants failing to reduce their daily cigarette consumption (Huang, 2005). Smoking cessation programs also exist in the workplace and focus on self-efficacy and social support achieved a 19% participant quit rate (Huang, 2005). Programs that utilized pharmacological interventions alone such as the transdermal nicotine patch have achieved smoking cessation rates of 30% at the one year marker (Huang, 2005).
Given the individual successes of these programs, researchers have begun to explore the efficacy of combining psychological and behavioral interventions with pharmacological treatments. Informal interventions have also shown increase the likelihood of smoking cessation. Increasing technological advances have also led to the use of interventions such as telephone and email counseling to support smoking cessation efforts (Polosa et al., 2009). Polosa et al. (2009) utilized an unrestricted e-mail counseling approach to provide smokers with assistance in cessation efforts. This method was found to be particularly useful in its ability to provide smokers with prompt assistance that prevents relapse and has been shown to increase the level of participant communication and interaction in the treatment process (Polosa et al., 2009). These technological advances have allowed for an increase in cost effective and individualized service delivery (Polusa et al., 2009).
Future research into the efficacy of smoking cessation programs should emphasize long-term programs for preventing relapse as well as the evaluation of permanent cessation effects on participants. Increased awareness of the smoking cessation process and how individuals experience it will be helpful for healthcare professionals who have found themselves frustrated with the lack of progress and success of smoking cessation programs. The ability to design programs that incorporate pharmacology with other interpersonal based interventions will continue to be important as smoking cessation endeavors progress. Further, there is significant literature to support short-term health benefits of smoking cessation and it would be important to have an equal understanding of the long-term health implications.
Apelber, B.J., Onicescu, G., Avila-Tang, E., & Samet, J.M. (2010). Estimating the Risks and Benefits of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 341-348.
Barnett, P.G., Wong, W., & Hall, S. (2008). The cost-effectiveness of a smoking cessation program for out-patients in treatment for depression. Addiction, 103(5),...
& Polosa, R. (2008). Common predictors of smoking cessation in clinical practice. Respiratory Medicine, 102, 1182-1192.
Carlens, C., Hergens, M., Grunewald, J., Ekbom, A., Eklund, A. Hoglund, C., & Askling, J. (2010). Use of Moist Snuff, and Risk of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 181(11), 1217-22. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete.
Carrozzi, L., Pistelli, F., & Viegi, G. (2008). Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease, 2(5), 201-317.
De Leeuw, R.N., Scholte, R.H., Sargent, J.D., Engels, R.C. (2010). Do interactions between personality and social-environmental factors explain smoking development in adolescence? Journal of Family Psychology, 24(1), 68-77.
Huang, C.L., (2005). Evaluating the program of a smoking cessation support group for adult smokers: A longitudinal pilot study. Journal of Nursing Research, 13(3), 197-205.
Hudmon, K.S., Corelli, R.L., and Prokhorov, V. (2010). Current approaches to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease, 4(1), 35-47.
Kendzor, D.E., Businelle, M.S., Costello, T.J., Castro, Y., Reitzel, L.R., Cofta-Woerpel, L.M., Li, Y., Mazas, C.A., Vidrine, J.I., Cinciripini, P.M., Greisinger, A.J., & Wetter, D.W. (2010).Financial strain and smoking cessation among racially/ethnically diverse smokers. American Journal of Public Health, 100(4), 702-706.
Mclvor, A., Kayser, J., Assaad, J., Brosky, G., Demarest, P., Desmarais, P., Hampson, C., Khara, M., Pathammavong, R., & Weinberg, R. (2009). Best practices for smoking cessation interventions in primary care. Canadian Respiratory Journal 16(4), 129-134.
O'Donovan, G. (2009). Smoking prevalence among qualified nurses in the Republic of Ireland and their role in smoking cessation. International Nursing Review, 56(2), 230-236.
Polosa, R., Russo, C., Di Maria, A., Arcidiacono, G., Morjaria, J.B., & Piccillo, G.A. (2009). Feasibility of using e-mail counseling as part of a smoking-cessation program. Respiratory Care, 54(8), 1033-1039.
Quist-Paulsen, P. (2008). Cessation in the use of tobacco-pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic routines in patients. The Clinical Respiratory Journal, 2(1), 4-10.
Raherison, C., Marjay, A., Valpromy, B., Prevot, S., Fossoux, H. & Taytard, A. (2005). Evaluation of smoking cessation success in adults. Respiratory Medicine, 99, 1303-1310.
Rovina, N., Nikoloutsou, I., Katsani, G., Dima, E. Fransis, K., Roussos, C., & Gratziou, C. (2009). Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and behavioral interventions for smoking cessation in actual clinical practice. Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease, 3(6), 279-287.
Salize, H.J., Merkle, S., Reinhard, I., Twardella, D., Mann, K., & Brenner, H. (2009). Cost-effective primary care -- based strategies to improve smoking cessation: More value for money. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(3):230-235.
Smith, R. (2009). Giving up is the hardest thing. The Journal for Respiratory Care Practitioners, 22(11), 24-28.
Thy, T., Boker, T., Gallefoss, F., & Bakke, P.S. (2007). Hospital doctors' attitudes toward giving their patients smoking cessation help. Clinical Respiratory Journal, 1(1), 30-36.
Smoking Cessation Interventions Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions on Smoking Of the many causes of death in the world, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains one of the top global killers with an estimated 7.2 million people dying each year (Howell, 2011). The United States comprises a great majority of this mortality rate, which is approximately 450, 000 deaths in the United States alone (Capewell, et.al, 2010). Fortunately, since the 1970s CHD mortality rates
Smoking Cessation Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Nearly all smokers have at least some idea of the risks associated with the practice yet chose to smoke anyway. The adverse effects of tobacco use on cardiopulmonary function are well established and recognized; less evident, but equally important, is its impact on all aspects of physical therapist practice, including integumentary, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular health (Pignataro, Ohtake, & Dino, 2012).
Smoking Cessation Health Belief Model According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. It is estimated that there are more than 43 million adults who currently smoke in the United States. Of these 53% are men and 47% are women. Tobacco use is responsible for causing many diseases and reducing the health of smokers in general. The adverse effects of smoking
The competition is tough all the way around, and companies are tight financially in making ends meet for all employees that are trying to help others survive around the globe (Peto, Darby, Deo, Silcocks, Whitley, & Doll, 2000). Public health priorities are an issue that could arise at any given time in trying to get adults to stop smoking. For example, if an emergency occurs with someone who has received
SMOKING History of smoking and the effects on health History of smoking The history of smoking and its effect on health Hard as it may believe to be today, the ill effects of smoking were not always well-known. The practice originated in the Americas with the Native Americans and the European colonists also indulged in the practice. Tobacco was a major cash crop in the South even before America formally became a nation. "Most
Program Evaluation Integrate data collection methods into the program evaluation plan. The data collection method is seeking to integrate qualitative and quantitative research together. It is developing a program that is effective in helping to support smoking cessation efforts. Qualitative research is used to provide background on the study and proven smoking cessation initiatives. For instance, this portion of the research revealed that any effective program will integrate therapy, support groups and