Social Construction Essays (Examples)

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how race is'socially constructed

Words: 2052 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98722771

Introduction
Although genetics certainly do define the physical features and characteristics of individuals, “race” itself is an arbitrary classification, much as geo-political boundaries are. Geopolitical boundaries are “real” in the sense that they can be delineated on a map and often are defined by geological features like mountain ranges or rivers. Yet the “reality” of geographic boundaries is tenuous, and they mainly have ramifications for political relationships and regional power struggles. Much in the same way, race can be based on distinct biological features like skin color or facial features but those physiological traits are only clustered for purposes of labeling and stereotyping, justifying social hierarchies, and political expediency. Race is a category of convenience, one that attempts to link specific biological markers like skin color or facial features with cultural components such as ethnicity. More importantly, the construction of race as a deterministic classification has direct implications for social,…… [Read More]

References

Coates, T. (2013). What we mean when we say race is a social construct. The Atlantic. May 15, 2013. https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/05/what-we-mean-when-we-say-race-is-a-social-construct/275872/

Dempsey-Jones, H. (2018). Neuroscientists put the dubious theory of ‘phrenology’ through rigorous testing for the first time. The Conversation. Jan 22, 2018. http://theconversation.com/neuroscientists-put-the-dubious-theory-of-phrenology-through-rigorous-testing-for-the-first-time-88291

Gannon, M. (2016). Race is a social construct, scientists argue. Live Science. Feb 4, 2016. https://www.livescience.com/53613-race-is-social-construct-not-scientific.html

Hartigan, J. (2009). Is race still socially constructed? Science as Culture 17(2): 163-193.

Hodson, G. (2016). Race as a social construction. Psychology Today. Dec 5, 2016. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/without-prejudice/201612/race-social-construction

Johnson, H. (2017). The social construction of race in the United States. Medium. https://medium.com/@KnowledgeisPower/the-social-construction-of-race-in-the-united-states-c958cf5a6eb7

Lusca, E.L. (2008). Race as a social construct. Anthropology.net. https://anthropology.net/2008/10/01/race-as-a-social-construct/

Morning, A. (2014). Does genomics challenge the social construction of race? Sociological Theory 32(3): 189-207.

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Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35902449

Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process

Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…… [Read More]

References

Mosher, C. (2001). The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature. The Family Journal. 9 (2): 164-173.
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Social Work Is a Field

Words: 5719 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98222205

While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).

The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html

Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at  http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf 

Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957

Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
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Social Psychology the Power of the Situation

Words: 1197 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18643862

Social Psychology

The Power of the Situation

Sam Sommers (2008) writes in an article entitled The Elusive Power of Daily Situations about an incident in which he broke a finger of each one of his hands and had to undergo a minor surgical operation that was necessary to ensure the healing process. He describes how this situation was altered for him by his anxiety over the various choices and complications that were part of this type of surgery, by the discomfort he felt wearing a flimsy hospital gown that he was unable to tie due to his broken fingers and being in an unfamiliar place, and by his embarrassment at the incident that resulted in the injury in the first place. Sommers relates this to the phenomena of the power of the daily situation as he writes "As we know from decades of research in social psychology, many of us…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, P.L. And Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality.

Biali, S. (2007) Was Michael Jackson a Highly Sensitive Person (HSP)? Are You? Retrieved on May 2, 2011 from http://www.psychologytoday.com / blog/prescriptions-life/200907/was-michael-jackson-highly-sensitive-personhsp-are-you.

Gleitman, Fridlund, and Reisberg. (2004) Personality. Psychology Today. 6th Ed. New York W.W. Norton and Co.

Markman, A. (2009) People, Situations, Attributions, and the Hollywood Movie. Retrieved on May 2, 2011 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog / ulterior-motives/200901/people-situations-attributions-and-the-hollywood-movie.
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Social Deprivation Language and Learning

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27424590

..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development." (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: "...a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and clinicians. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in social responsiveness." (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: "Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis": Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities." (National Joint Committee…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kamhi, a.G. (1984) Problem Solving in Child Language Disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in School Journal. Volume 15. October 1984.

Federici, R.S. (1999) Neuropsychological Evaluation and Rehabilitation of the Post-Institutionalized Child. Presented at the Conference for Children and Residential Care, Stockholm, Sweden May 3, 1999. Neuropsychological and Family Therapy Associated.

A de Valenzuela, JA (1999) the Social Construction of Language Competence: Language Socialization in Three Bilingual Kindergarten Classrooms. University of New Mexico. Dissertation Synopsis.

Thanasoulas, Dimitrios (2001) Language and Disadvantage - Article 70 - the Weekly Column. 2001 August.
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Social Ecology Model Social Ecology Requires That

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16841716

Social Ecology Model

Social ecology requires that people see that nature and society are intertwined by progress into one environment that is made up of two differences. The first difference being biotic nature and the second being human nature. Human nature and biotic nature split an evolutionary prospective for better prejudice and elasticity. Nature is the manner in which people are flexible, extremely intellectual primates that occupy the natural world. In other words, individuals generate an atmosphere that is most appropriate for their manner of survival. In this case, human nature is no different from the atmosphere that each animal, contingent upon its aptitudes, generates as well as acclimates to, the biophysical conditions or eco community in which it lives. On this extremely basic level, people are, in fact, doing nothing that varies from the endurance actions of nonhumans (Bookchin, 2001).

The SEM is made up of several levels wrapped…… [Read More]

References

Bookchin, Murray. (2001). What Is Social Ecology? Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site:  http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/socecol.html 

Innovative Pediatric Nursing Role: Public Health Nurses in Child Welfare: Theoretical Framework for Health Case Management Role. (2006). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543725_4

Social Ecological Model. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site:  http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/cpns/Documents/Network-Appendix6SocialEcologicalModel.pdf
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Social Significance of Food in Early Modern Europe

Words: 1568 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90769900

Social Significance of Food in Early Modern Europe (c.1350 -1800)

Today's society is bombarded with mass produced food competitions and cooking shows. Restaurants and food carts pop-up at every corner, and grocery shops are constantly stacked with most everything that one could imagine. Exotic foods are available year-round, and some are even affordable. Food is truly everywhere in this country, and everybody is trying to cook the latest experience. As one of the most basic of human necessities, food has become part of an expanding "material culture" and, in some instances, part of a luxury culture (van der Veen 003, 405).

Yet this basic human necessity, this basic experience, was not always readily available and, hard as it may be to believe, many people still cannot afford to eat well, even in this country. Just as it did in Ancient Rome, different societal status often means better food, even today.…… [Read More]

2. Ken Albala, Food and Class: Eating Right in the Renaissance (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002), 184-216.

3. Marijke van der Veen, When is Food a Luxury? (London: Routledge, 2003), 405-427.

4. Massimo Montanari, The Culture of Food (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1996), 68 -- 97.
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Social and Political Differences Among

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41452461



eligion played an important role in the lives of many of the Northern colonists as well, but by the time of the evolution it was not nearly so prevalent in the politics of the day as it had been during the earlier times of the Puritan and Pilgrim settlements. This was, in fact, one of the main societal -- and ultimately political -- differences between the Northern colonies and the rest of the British colonies. The quiet reserve and stoicism that was a strong part of the Puritan tradition persist even to this day, however, and was if anything stronger then than it is now. In certain ways, then, religion did play an important role in shaping New England society. Though its direct effects were muted by the time that the evolutionary action was beginning, the puritan streak influenced the personality of the culture and many of its individuals.

Part…… [Read More]

References

Bonomi, Patricia U. "Hippocrates' Twins': Religion and Politics in the American Revolution." The History Teacher, 29 (2), pp. 137-44.

Bushnell, Amy Turner. "Review: Another's Country: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on Cultural Interactions in the Southern Colonies," J.W. Joseph and Martha Zierden, eds. The Journal of Southern History, 2002. Pp. 889-91.

Kierner, Cynthia A. "Hospitality, Sociability, and Gender in the Southern Colonies." The Journal of Southern History, 62 (3) pp. 449-480

Pagliassotti, Druann Lynn. "Apparel and attribute: The social construction of status in New England colonies and the United States." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, United States -- California.
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Social Entepreneurship Social Entrepreneur a

Words: 4068 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11649126

Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)

The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.

Entrepreneurship development services

This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve

Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…… [Read More]

References

Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.

Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.

Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
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Social Psychology The Social Sciences

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27191752

Thus, this aspect can multiply into many sub-genres that focus on one or more aspects of the social world as they contribute to influencing behaviors and innate thought processes. Focusing on the social means looking for more abstract concepts that relate to existence within a social world. Actually trying to predict later success in publication, "Predicting the future success of junior scholars is of great concern to academic hiring committees," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Yet it is based within two correlating variables that can then be compared, "It is therefore reasonable to predict that publication success during graduate school may be associated with publication success later in people's academic careers," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Although the subject is socially constructed, the method of analysis is still quantitatively measured. Even this study shows quantitative measurement use- using mathematical prediction models in analysis of data (Haslam & Lamb 2009). egression analysis, common…… [Read More]

References

Haslam, Nick & Laham, Simon M. (2009). Ten years on: does graduate student promise predict later scientific achievement? Current Research in Social Psychology. 14(10):143-147.

Kearl, Michael C. (2009). Social psychology. Trinity University. Retrieved 28, October 2009 at http://trinity.edu/~mkearl/socpsy.html

New York University (2009). Infants able to identify humans as source of speech. Science Daily. Retrieved October 28, 2009 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091019162919.htm

Smith, Eliot R. & Mackie, Diane M. (1999). Social Psychology. Routledge Press.
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Social Group 2 Summary the Following Is

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82439761

Social

Group 2 Summary

The following is a general critique of the Group 2 Summary.

The summary begins well with an overt and clear statement of the central issues and problem. However, a more direct reference to the term "diversity issues" and perhaps a more academic definition of this term could be mentioned at the beginning to reinforce the argument put forward in the first section or paragraph of the discussion summary. This could lead to your opening quotation. For example: a definition of diversity issues in social work would be; "Social workers should recognize and respect the ethnic and cultural diversity of the societies in which they practice, taking account of individual, family, group and community differences"(Ethics in Social Work, Statement of Principles). You might prefer to include a better citation form your course reference works.

You should also give full references depending on the reference style being used…… [Read More]

References

Ethics in Social Work, Statement of Principles. Retrieved from http://www.ifsw.org/f38000032.html
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Social Contexts of Development the

Words: 3669 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39089120

(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)

ole of Workplaces:

espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]

References

Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at  http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005

Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005

Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005

Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
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Social Research Effective and Ethical

Words: 1797 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33012620

This allows the researcher and the research to be completely and comprehensively concerned with doing the "right" thing, regardless of what the observations and evidence gathered in the course of the research shows. This applies to honesty in recording and presenting information as well as to the collection methods for obtaining this information.

Without a strong ethical through-line in social research, the entire purpose of this research ends up being lost. Social research exists specifically to identify issues in society and among individuals and to suggest ways to improve these issues, and to build better-functioning societies that allow for greater chances at group and individual success. The measures of this success and the determination of exactly what constitutes a "better functioning society" are, of course, issues with many often hugely divergent conclusions, but even when these conclusions seem diametrically opposed the individuals that hold these conclusions are working towards the…… [Read More]

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Social Control of Girls --

Words: 1099 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76918043

(Sheldon 2004: 3). In other words, girls are penalized for transgressing societal norms such as the idea that girls should stay at home, or the fear that a loitering girl might be soliciting sexual activity. "Part of the explanation of why girls become involved in activities that are likely to land them in the juvenile justice system, but at a rate substantially lower than for boys, is that girls undergo a childhood and adolescence that is heavily colored by their gender," and they are discouraged rather than encouraged to act out in violent actions (Sheldon 2004: 4). However, the obsession with curtailing teenage female sexuality remains in the form of status offenses. As in Victorian times, making female sexuality criminal, and morally reforming female offenders becomes a way of socially engineering the population as a whole, and making it more 'moral' by encouraging or forcing girls to be chaste.

Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. (1966). Jane Eyre. New York: Penguin Classics.

Fessler, Anne. (2006). The Girls who Went Away. New York. Penguin Press.

Mumm, Susan. (1996, Spring). "Not worse than other girls: the convent-based rehabilitation of fallen women in Victorian Britain."

Journal of Social History. Retrieved 10 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_n3_v29/ai_18498207/pg_2
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Social Sciences Why Are the

Words: 443 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661651

Still, this idea should also be supported by data about birth control use and an analysis of how often responsible attitudes towards sexuality are discussed in the media, rather than a deconstruction of a few ads.

The issue of ethics in psychology and anthropology also requires a certain rigorous and rule-based methodology. To avoid exploiting or changing home cultures, anthropologists must maintain a proper distance from their subjects. Researchers in psychology cannot abuse subjects in a laboratory environment to prove a theory.

The issue of 'common sense' inevitably plays some role in social science theory, given that researchers are human beings, and bring their own cultural assumptions to their studies and the construction of hypotheses. But common sense can never replace statistical, experimental, and recorded data about another culture. What constitutes common sense varies widely from culture to culture and era to era. 'Common sense' or cultural misconceptions may tell…… [Read More]

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Social Times and the Culture

Words: 4845 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5402298

They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].

The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:

The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal

Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.

It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car

Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did

James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.

December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.

A wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_v._Board_of_Education.html>.
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Social Contract Rousseau Argues That We Are

Words: 1293 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90476856

Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction of the General Will is the means by which people can achieve freedom. The General Will is the social contract where all members of society agree to obey the General Will to be part of society. Rousseau argues that by this General Will, the separate wills of each member of society converge into one. Freedom is achieved because every citizen is equal, each being a single unit of the General Will and having the same amount of influence over it. Rousseau argues that this General Will is the way individuals in society retain their equality and find freedom. Further consideration of the implications of the General Will and the social contract will show that Rousseau's version of freedom and equality may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. Trans. Maurice Cranston. New York: Penguin, 1987.
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Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30854973

Social Impact of Cold War & Terrorism

The Cold War is often associated with the idea of making great and physical divides between the good and the bad of the world. It was a symbolic representation that extended for about 30 years on the expectation that the greatest powers of the world could, under the right circumstances, impose a sort of benign order on the planet by isolating the evil empires and showcasing how the non-evil ones could administer their own ideas of peace, justice and liberty .

In reality, what was happening was much different. The Cold War was about engagement, not separation (Tirman, 2006). No matter that the Berlin Wall was its most powerful symbols of division, the world as a whole was learning that military might was not all that it was made out to be (U.S. History, n.d.). Together and separately, the biggest countries across the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Diamond, L. (n.d.). Winning the new cold war on terrorism. Hoover Institute. Stanford University. Retrievable from http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/papers/coldWarOnTerrorism.pdf.

Levine, D. And Levine, R. (2006). Deterrence in the Cold War and the War on Terror. National Science Foundation Grant publication. Retrievable from  http://www.dklevine.com/papers/inimical.pdf .

Tirman, J. (2006). The War on Terror and the Cold War: They're not the same. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Audit of Conventional Wisdom. Retrievable from  http://web.mit.edu/cis/acw.html .

US History (n.d). Berlin Wall. Viewable at  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1867.html .
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Construction Project Management Project Management

Words: 1563 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40068371



Conclusion

In undestanding the facets of a PFI/PPT constuction endeavo, one must fist undestand the afoementioned facets of the patneship that will come into play fom the constuction poject's inception to its completion. The decision to engage in such an endeavo is clealy one that is subjective, but should be undetaken caefully in gauging the isks involved.

Refeences

Akintoye, A., Bing, L., Edwads, P. And Hadcastle, C. (2004). Risk allocation pefeences in PPP/PFI Constuction Pojects. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.ics.og/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=2640&fileExtension=PDF on 17 Novembe 2011.

Dillon, M. (2009). PFI constuction contacts -- what they don't want you do know. Silve Shemmings LLP. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.silve-shemmings.co.uk / aticles/pfi-constuction-contacts-sept-2009.pdf on 14 Novembe 2011.

Feachem, R., Ni, A., and Sekhi, N. (2011). Public-pivate integated patneships. Health Affais, 30.8: pp. 1498-1508. Web. Retieved fom: LexisNexis Database.

Haiston, R. (2005). Pesentation: integating pocuement and poject management. 10th

Annual Intenational Supply Management Confeence. Web. Retieved fom: http://www.ism.ws/files/Pubs/Poceedings/BEHaiston.pdf…… [Read More]

references in PPP/PFI Construction Projects. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.rics.org/site/download_feed.aspx?fileID=2640&fileExtension=PDF on 17 November 2011.

Dillon, M. (2009). PFI construction contracts -- what they don't want you do know. Silver Shemmings LLP. Web. Retrieved from:  http://www.silver-shemmings.co.uk  / articles/pfi-construction-contracts-sept-2009.pdf on 14 November 2011.

Feachem, R., Ni, A., and Sekhri, N. (2011). Public-private integrated partnerships. Health Affairs, 30.8: pp. 1498-1508. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.

Hairston, R. (2005). Presentation: integrating procurement and project management. 10th

Annual International Supply Management Conference. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.ism.ws/files/Pubs/Proceedings/BEHairston.pdf on 14 November 2011.
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Social Media in the Contemporary

Words: 2288 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12624632

WikiNerdia allows the users to ask questions and all the nerd community members answer the questions. People normally trust the reviews and answers of the customers more than the brand. Giantnerd gets the benefit of their fan engagement and ultimately the brand trust increases. Customers can be your sale force and work for any company if the company can get the benefit by engaging the audience. A brand must think of multiple opportunities for the customers so that they can spread the word about the company. eal-time engagement opportunities and exclusive social communities are the tools which can turn existing customers to word-of-mouth advocates (Goldman, 2013).

Social Media will have a huge impact on business over the next decade, especially on the recruiting matters. Social media technology presents exciting opportunities for the recruitment industry. A research has highlighted that Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook are the most used social media websites…… [Read More]

References

Goldman, J. (2013). Going Social: Excite Customers, Generate Buzz, and Energize Your Brand with the Power of Social Media. New York: AMACOM.

Hensel, K., & Deis, M.H. (2010). Using Social Media to Increase Advertising and Improve Marketing. Entrepreneurial Executive, 15, 87+. Retrieved May 16, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-2191652481/using-social-media-to-increase-advertising-and-improve

Libert, B. (2010). Social Nation: How to Harness the Power of Social Media to Attract Customers, Motivate Employees, and Grow Your Business. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Mathieson, R. (2010). The on-Demand Brand: 10 Rules for Digital Marketing Success in an Anytime, Everywhere World. New York: AMACOM.
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Social Work Is an Important

Words: 2884 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78986634

The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be

Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.

In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html

Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press

Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009

Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
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Social Memory Societies Across the

Words: 857 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1932715

In other words, "the acquisition and transmission of imaginations of the past follows patterns that are specific to the respective generation." (Welzer, 2010, p.5) This is exemplified by the experience of the Sabbateans during the transition of Turkey into a modern nation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1920. Traditionally the Sabbateans had followed their religious beliefs in private while maintaining a Moslem facade in public. But after the fall of the Ottomans, and the modernization programs enacted by its new leader Mustafa Kemal, there was enormous social pressure for the Sabbateans to conform to the new ideals of the modern Turkish state by discarding their Sabbatean religious traditions. In other words, the Turks were creating a new social memory that was based on abandoning traditional activities, like practicing Sabbateanism, and embracing the new, progressive activities of the modern Turkish state: exemplified by citizenship. But this new social…… [Read More]

References

Allan, Diana (2007). "Chapter 10: The Politics of Witness: Remembering and Forgetting 1948 in Shatila Camp," in Nakba: Palestine, 2948, and the Claims of Memory. Eds. Ahmad E. Sa'di and Lila Abu-Lughod.

New York: Columbia UP: 254-282. Print.

Cenarro, Angelo. (2002). "Memory Beyond the Public Sphere: The Francoist

Repression Remembered in Aragon." History and Memory 14(1/2): 165-176
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Social Implications of the Industrial

Words: 2180 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83223618



On the other hand, one lesson of the Industrial Revolution is that human suffering and exploitation can never be used as a coin with which to pay for material progress or wealth. Likewise, the Industrial Revolution teaches that neither the welfare of the contemporary wealthy and fortunate, nor even the future well-being of subsequent generations is ever justified as the fruits of the suffering of other human beings.

In retrospect, the progression from agrarian to industrial economies need not have required the degree of suffering with which it was, unfortunately, associated, particularly in the nineteenth century. The best evidence for this proposition seems to be the efforts, most of which were successful, on the part of Bismark, in Germany, while workers suffered greater hardships, by comparison, in the rest of the newly industrialized world. Greed and callousness, is, unfortunately, characteristic of many elements of human life, which was not necessarily…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burchell, S.D. (1968) Age of Progress.

Time Life: UK

Faissler, M., Hayes, C. (1966) Modern Times: Mainstreams of Civilization.

Macmillan: New York
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Social Philosophy

Words: 2053 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19656090

Social Philosophy

Concluding in Political moderation, in "A Theory of Justice," and in later works, John awls explains a comprehensive, as well as influential theory, which is on the subject of, presenting a theory of justice in concurrence with the liberal-democratic passion that relates to the rights and freedoms of individuals in society. It entails that the rights of the individuals ought to be moderated by various types of clauses, making certain that no social or natural eventualities are overlooked. The theory declares that no inborn benefits of political authority, substance riches or natural capability should irreversibly or overpoweringly establish life chances. Furthermore, more distinctively, these morally subjective issues should not establish the value of political liberties to moral persons (1).

In 1971, awls's explains his first articulation of his theory of justice which highlights on individual abilities that he entitles the "Original Position" and in addition, a model of…… [Read More]

References

1). Macedo, Stephen. April 1995. Liberal Civic Education and Religious Fundamentalism: the Case of God v. John Rawls. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp.468 -496.

2). Carter, Stephen. 1987. Evolutionism and Treating Religion as a Hobby. Duke Law Journal.

3). Rawls, John. 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

4). Kenneth Baynes. 1992. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, Habermas, Albany. Suny Press.
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Social Economic and Political Significance of the Military EST of New France

Words: 1835 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72465831

Social Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishment of New France

This paper presents an analytic review of the article titled the "Social, Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishments in New France" by Eccles. The paper critically examines various aspects of this article including its strengths and weaknesses in addressing the main issues in addition to establishing important relationships with other scholarly articles and works in the field. The article begins by exploring the socio-economic spectrum of New France which provided the basis for the military establishments. It is perhaps prudent enough to take a general overview of New France so as to get an understanding of what the article is all about.

New France was an area in North America that was colonized by the French for a period of over two hundred years, beginning in 1534 when French explorers toured the Saint Lawrence River until…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Addall, T., Halifax Warden of the North, McClelland and Stewart; 2003

Armstrong, Frederick. Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology; Dundurn Press.1985

Axelrod, A., Blooding at Great Meadows: young George Washington and the battle that.... Running Press, 2007

Boose, W. Over the beach: U.S. Army amphibious operations in the Korean War. Combat Studies Institute. 2008
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Social Epidemiology -- Methods Describe

Words: 2812 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93273090

Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.

IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.

Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.

This…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bonita, R. And R. Beaglehole. (2006). Basic epidemiology. Geneva: WHO Press.

Muntaner, C. (2003). "Qualitative and quantitative research in social epidemiology: is complementarity the only issue?" Gac Sanit, Vol. 17, Supl. 3.

Olsen, J. And K. Christensen. (2010). An introduction to epidemiology for health professionals. NY: Springer.

Rosnow, R. And R. Rosenthal. (1996). Beginning Behavioral Research. NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Female Identity in Photography Construction

Words: 3888 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14963605

When we look at Starkey's works we appear to be looking at moments captured from everyday life, in particular the everyday life of women. In fact Starkey's photographs are constructed, the people we are looking at are actors.

Her images of modern banality also suggest ennui, despair, depression and listlessness, which are conveyed as central facets of the reality of life for women in society. As one critic describes her images; "apathetic teenagers, usually girls, languish, slack-limbed and expressionless, in dimly lit cafes, nondescript interiors, and anonymous shopping malls."

Furthermore, the images also emphasize the sense of loneliness and isolation that she considers to be the existential situation of working women in the city.

In these images and others like them, individuals stand apart from the world, separated from it by a screen of indifference. It is not that they actively refuse to invest in their surroundings; they simply do…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, P and Luckmann T. The social construction of reality: A

treatise in the sociology of knowledge, Garden City, NY; Doubleday. 1966.

Delamater, J.D., & Hyde, J.S. "Essentialism vs. Social Constructionism in the Study of Human Sexuality," The Journal of Sex Research, 35, no. 3(1998): 10.

Fuku Noriko. "A woman of parts." Art in America, June, 1997. November 30, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n6_v85/ai_1948
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Global Warming as a Social

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33014357

" (Ungar, 2001) in the work of Jerry Williams entitled: "Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems" explored are the "realist and constructionist approaches to environmental-social problems." (1998) Neither view in its current form is adequate as the actual reality is one that "moves beyond relativism and definitional constructionism" recognizing that the natural world is not dependent upon the constructions of humans. (Williams, 1998) the work of Carvalho and urgess (2005) entitled: "Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in the U.K. roadsheet Newspapers 1985-2003" provides an argument supporting "a cultural perspective to be brought to bear on studies of climate change risk perception." This article holds that those who produce and consume media texts "are jointly engaged in dynamic, meaning-making activities that are context-specific and that change over time." (Carvalho and urgess, 2005) Richard a. Kerr in the work entitled: "Global Warming: Rising Global Temperature, Rising Uncertainty" states…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dunn-Brown, Beth (2007) Far North is 'Ground Zerio' for Global Warming. AP New Wire. 15 April, 2007. Online available at http://news.aol.com/topnews/articles/_a/far-north-is-ground-zero-for-global/20070415145709990002?ncid=NWS0001

Shelden, Ungar (2001) Moral Panic vs. The Risk Society: The Implications of the Changing Sites of Social Anxiety. The British Journal of Sociology. 52 (2) 2001 June.

Williams, Jerry (1998) Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems. Sociological Inquiry. Vol. 68 No. 4. October 1998.

Carvalho, Anabela and Burgess, Jacquelin (2005) Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in U.K. Broadsheet Newspapers, 1985-2003.
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Human Behavior and the Social Environment

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10189363

Sociology

Economic and social classes are artificial divisions of individuals and groups based on their incomes, lifestyles, and professions. Economic class stresses level of income, number and quality of material possessions, from houses to cars to electronic equipment. Social class is often a function of economic class but social class can also include the relative prestige of one's profession, unrelated to one's annual income. For example, a lawyer in the public defender's office might make less than a public sanitation worker but the lawyer is considered to be a member of a higher social class. In most modern societies, individuals are judged significantly based on economic and social class.

Likewise, individuals are judged based on their race and ethnicity. Race is an artificial construction that usually refers to physical features like skin color. Ethnicity and race are closely intertwined, but ethnicity usually incorporates cultural, historical, and nationalistic elements as well…… [Read More]

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Open Source Social Science

Words: 3536 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 873402

Open source software has recently emerged as the frontrunner for many industries as the primary method of code production, as it is widely predicted to provide more options for its users in a quicker, quality improved, and cost effective format than the more traditional proprietary software. Linux, the dominant player in the market, is a considerable threat to the Microsoft operating system, which has successfully established itself in the global market. eyond its commercial potential, open source software possesses a potential goldmine in the government sector. However, questions regarding security and privacy continue to plague government officials in their pursuits of this option. The following discussion will provide an overview of open source software as well as proprietary software and their primary components, an evaluation of government options in relation to the products available on the market, and the social construction of open source software vs. The technological determinism of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allison, J. "Which is more secure? Open source vs. proprietary."

Interactive Week 8.28 (2001): 23.

Brockmeier, J. "Microsoft makes a good argument for open source."

April 2003: http://www.osopinion.com/perl/story/21199.html
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Generational Differences in Social Media Usage

Words: 2329 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31623145

The topic for this paper is to determine what is meant by social change from the perspective of graduate students today. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part presents a background statement concerning the issue of interest and the gap in the existing body of knowledge the study intends to address. A description concerning the role of the researcher is provided in the second part and an explanation concerning the process of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to form the basis of the methods used in this study are presented in part three followed by the analysis and interpretation of those data. Finally, a discussion concerning the trustworthiness of the findings that emerged from this analysis and a summary of the research are presented in part four.
Introduction

Background statement

What you have learned about social change as a social issue. Because the historical record confirms that…… [Read More]

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Global Warming as a Social

Words: 3315 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49315796

There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)

This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.

Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)

2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions

Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:

Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978

Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007.  http://alt-e.blogspot.com/ 

Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007  http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
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Looking Into the Social Revolution 1945 to 1990

Words: 3077 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21093926

Social Revolution 1945 to 1990

Eric Hobsbawm's writing style was that of a historian. Nevertheless, his objective was always: adding to political action and thought, which he accomplished more effectively through this book than all his other works. Retrospectively, the author discovered that global socialism's challenge to the capitalist idea had a strength which was its opponent's weakness. Also, in truth, a large number of individuals who backed socialism sincerely to the very end held a belief, for long, that socialism's political yzantinism, bureaucratic rigidities, and mass murders would eventually be overcome, and that the above horrors were responsible for ensuring capitalism remained afloat. The weaknesses of the socialist theory were underrated, while those of the capitalist theory were overvalued. In effect, the world was convinced in its belief that capitalism was unable to solve issues, while socialism could tackle their own issues. However, the latter issues were deep-rooted rather…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Araghi, F. A., 1995. Global Depeasantization, 1945-1990. The Sociological Quarterly, 36(2), pp. 337-368.

Berman, S., 2011. Understanding Social Democracy. Columbia University, pp. 2-38.

Freedman, L., 1997. Review of The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991. [Online]

Available at: http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/28
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Role of Communication in Social Group or Organization

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55505041

Insider Communication and Standpoint Theory

According to traditional theories of group dynamics, every group goes through a formative period of 'forming, storming,' and then 'norming,' -- in other words, groups engage in a first, tenuous period of formation before they coalesce and become socially and vocationally productive. All groups must engage in a necessary icebreaking phase of asserting and organizing power and personality hierarchies and comfort zones before group members can began to complete the assigned tasks according to their delegated duties, before they finally disband. Even informal social groups will have social hierarchies, some of which are more difficult for outsiders to penetrate than others. Every group has its own social and symbolic language of status.

However, standpoint theory challenges the notion that groups have 'normal' equilibriums that are fair and just for all potential members -- rather one's perception of fairness and equity depends upon where one stands…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wood, Julia T. (1994) "Gendered Media: The Influence of the Media on Gender.

Sex, Gender, and Communication in Small Groups." From A First Look at Communication Theory. New York: Roxbury.

Reich, Nina M. & Julia T. Wood. (2001) Small Group Communication. 8th Edition. New York: Roxbury.
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Crime Is a Social Phenomenon

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38278426

Crime a Socially Constructed

One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…… [Read More]

References

1)

Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml. Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.

2)

Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf. Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
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Sociology and Racism Sociologists Recognize That Social

Words: 1553 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54040229

Sociology and Racism

Sociologists recognize that social stratification is a cultural universal, an aspect present in every society. In many societies, these social hierarchies are based on factors like class, gender or kinship. In the United States and most advanced industrialized capitalist countries, for example, being wealthy can significantly improve a person's life chances.

In a society as diverse as the United States, racial and ethnic categories are another key factor in determining social hierarchy and one's life chances. In the 2000 Census, respondents were given a choice of 15 racial groups to choose from. Additionally, respondents were given the option of choosing two or more races when appropriate.

For many people, these racial categories are a crucial determinant of identity.

In addition to how people are grouped by race, sociologists are also interested in the social meanings and significances that people attach to race.

For sociologists, race should be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Herrnstein, Richard. The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press, 1994.

Nisbett, Richard. "Race, Genetics and IQ." The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks, ed. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.

Olzak, Susan. The Dynamics of Ethnic Competition and Conflict. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.

Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification. New York: MacMillan, 1965.
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Social Cognition

Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44120545

Social Cognition

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents

Academic Institution

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents

Child development is influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors that affect the development of a child include heredity, nutrition, parental affection, and culture. Cognition refers to a general processes regarding the principles of thinking in humans, whereas social cognition refers to the study of how people process and use social information, particularly how social information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and then applied by the person in social situations (Striano & eid, 2006). Social cognition and social cognitive development are often studied by cognitive psychologist and social psychologists. The parallel between cognitive development and the development of social cognition certainly cannot be ignored. Cognition in children develops within the social context, but also most likely conforms to certain developmental patterns (Piaget, 1954). The primary influences of the…… [Read More]

References

Baumrind, D. (1967). Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.

Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Blakemore, S.J. (2011). Social-Cognitive Development during Adolescence. Child Psychology
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Construction of New High Speed

Words: 1725 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22474575

As a result of these major issues and ineffectiveness of the project, future research on the project should focus on the development of a suitable alternative for the new high speed railway. The development of a cost-effective and less expensive alternative should be based on accurate financial analysis and precise projections of economic benefits. In literature review, there are 1,090 words between the background and conclusion sections.

eferences:

BetterthanHS2.org (2011), A Better ailway for Britain, BetterthanHS2.org, viewed 28

December 2011,

Bluespace Thinking Ltd. (2010), A eview of High Speed ail -- HS2 Proposals, Bluespace

Thinking Ltd., viewed 28 December 2011,

Department for Transport (2009), Britain's Transport Infrastructure: High Speed Two,

Department for Transport, viewed 28 December 2011,

Greengauge21 (2011), Capturing the Benefits of HS2 on Existing Lines, Greengauge21, viewed

28 December 2011,

High Speed Two (HS2) Ltd. (2011), Demand for Long Distance Travel, High Speed Two (HS2)

Ltd, viewed 28…… [Read More]

References:

BetterthanHS2.org (2011), A Better Railway for Britain, BetterthanHS2.org, viewed 28

December 2011,

Bluespace Thinking Ltd. (2010), A Review of High Speed Rail -- HS2 Proposals, Bluespace

Thinking Ltd., viewed 28 December 2011,
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Social Science Research Are Qualitative and Quantitative

Words: 4883 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70439606

social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.

In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/

Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
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Social Contracts Media Articulation of the Rites

Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46858953

Social Contracts:

Media Articulation Of The ites Of

HETEOSEXUAL vs. HOMOSEXUAL MAIAGE IGHTS

In the Land of the Free where the Bill of ights is supreme, all marital unions between consenting adults should be accorded the same level of societal respect and legality under federal and state laws. It was just a few decades ago when the Gay ights Movement was born in a raucous Greenwich Village bar, but homosexuals have become increasingly accepted in mainstream American society in the years since and a growing number of states are legalizing same-sex marriage in response to this trend. Unfortunately, the path to equal rights for all American citizens has been hampered by negative media coverage of homosexuals in the United States in recent years in ways that are frequently subtle but which are discernible through careful analysis. This type of analysis is important because prejudicial public information or notice of the…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (2011). Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://

www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/14thamendment.html.

Gallagher, M. (2006, May 15). Banned in Boston. The Weekly Standard, 11(33), 3.
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Social Sciences in Education the Development and

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66610854

Social Sciences in Education

The development and specialization of the various fields in the social sciences started with the establishment of sociology as an academic discipline in the 19th century. The architects of this early discipline include Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Over time, the social sciences have broadened to include other disciplines looking at human life through in a variety of contexts, including anthropology, economics, political science, history, psychology, communication and linguistics.

There are two broadly-defined schools of thought in the contemporary understanding of social sciences. A positivist interpretation of the social sciences utilizes the scientific method in the study of human society. An interpretivist social scientist tends to utilize analysis, written deconstruction, and contextualization to examine theoretical linkages. One of the more notable tendencies of contemporary social science practice have been researchers who use hybrid styles, techniques, and methodologies in their work to look at their…… [Read More]

References

Jacoby, Sanford M. (2005). "Social Science in Europe, Japan, and the United States" Comparative Labor, Law, and Policy Journal. Vol. 23:819

National Council for the Social Studies. (2009). "About National Council for the Social Studies." Retrieved from:  http://www.socialstudies.org/about 

Hess, Diana. (2001) "Teaching Students to Discuss Controversial Public Issues" Social Studies Development Center. Retrieved from: http://www.indiana.edu/~ssdc/cpidig.htm

Vessuri, Hebe. (2000). "Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century." Current Sociology 50, no. 1 135-150.
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Social Relations While Every Individual

Words: 1932 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36621445

This break-down of local hierarchies is first witnessed in the nuclear home, where friendship and kinship are forced to commingle and self-distinguish.

ecause friendship is tied to relationship building learned in the home, the relationship of family members is inevitably tied to the degrees of intimacy, compatibility, and power hierarchy at play at home. While most studies of kinship are an examination of the family in the great social sense, Carsten understands that the modern-day ideas of kinship put previously held principals on their heads. The tenants of blood and bonds in kinship are undeniable, but not mandatory. In El arrio, kinship was created through unrelated individuals because of the fulfillment of shared needs, responsibilities, and contextualization on the margin of society. Additional problems of families spread across the globe, evidenced in the Puerto Rican - Manhattan splits that many of the families in East Harlem had, kinship can be…… [Read More]

Bourgois, Phillippe. 1995. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bourois, p. 9.

Bourgois, p. 12.
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Construction of Gender and the

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93729498

The relationships transcend the racial, economic and power limitations.

This disregard for the traditional relational constraints produces some unique outcomes as it is not unusual to see a white foreign professional woman in the arms of a rural male with limited education and even less income. These associations are desired by young males as it opens new vistas of opportunity for them. They are able to acquire some income, status and the possibility of an exit out of poverty to a foreign country.

As with any endeavor there are associated risks. There is the possibility that the woman may move on to another male who appears to be a better prospect. There are occasions when the males are taken to the home country of the woman they are unable to fit in. In the metropolitan country education is a premium, and he has little so his income earning potential is…… [Read More]

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Construction of a Person Who Feel Disconnected

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28345616

construction of a person who feel disconnected from his social setting? What are the elements of a person's experiences that combine to disconnect him or her from his social environment, and create the archetype misfit? Sometimes the person's ethics create the desire within him to be separate from his social surroundings sometimes the person is thrust into a setting with which he does not share any connections. Sometimes the simple choices of the individual separate him or her form the social surroundings, and create an isolated individual who is searching for meaning, and purpose. Such is the case for the characters in Ethan Frome, and Recitatif.

In the case of Ethan Frome, to combat the silence, isolation, and loneliness in his life, he marries a woman who is dissimilar to him, names Zenobia Pierce after his mother's death. While Ethan wants to leave their home town of Starkfield, his new…… [Read More]

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Social Research the Modern Day

Words: 2267 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6592448

A significant increase in volunteerism is observed within the communities which implement social studies in high schools. The main elements which contribute to this outcome are those of community service programs integrated within the educational act and socialization. "The implications of our study are that mandatory community service programs can boost later volunteer efforts but that socialization into appropriate citizenship attitudes is of equal, if not greater, importance" (Janoski, Musick and Wilson, 1995).

Social research is conducted by a variety of parties within the community, from academicians to economic agents. Yet, a major category of researchers is represented by the federal institution. Within the United States, the public social researches are conducted by the Government Social esearch Service. The institution bases its findings on the evolutions within the contemporaneous society and it makes its findings public to the audience in order to support social development. In a nutshell, the functional…… [Read More]

References:

Babbie, E.R., 2009, the practice of social research, 12th edition, Cengage Learning

Cole, J.R., 2009, Defending academic freedom and free inquiry, Social Research, Fall edition

De Vaus, D.A., 2002, Surveys in social research, 5th edition, Routledge

Dicks, B., 2005, Qualitative research and hypermedia: ethnography for the digital age, SAGE
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Social Networking Has in the Last Couple

Words: 3108 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28704254

social networking has in the last couple of years stirred a lot of debate among politician and scholars alike. The level of risks and benefits associated with social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace especially to children and teenagers has elicited a mixed reaction among the debating parties. In this paper we present a systematic analysis of the implications of social networking sites for both children and teenagers with a sharp focus on Facebook. We also focus on the benefits as well as the issue surrounding the use of social networking sites by use of relevant illustrations. Overall, we evaluate how the use of computer technology has impacted the society in general and education in particular.

Definition of Social Networking

Several scholars have attempted to define the concept of social networking and its components. Boyd & Ellison (2007) define social networking sites as special web-based services that are…… [Read More]

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