Sovereignty Essays (Examples)

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killing consensus about'sao paolo and violence

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15049846

Sovereignty by Consensus

In Sao Paolo, homicide detectives do not serve the same function as they do in the U.S. or any other wealthy and wealthy country; they have a different means of classifying deaths. They cannot and do not investigate crimes in the same way as in wealthy countries. Violence and homicide are pervasive and common in Sao Paolo; they are even considered "normal" (Willis 6).

Police tend to investigate two types of homicides: one with an unknown assailant, and police killing citizens, which is very common, at a rate of more than one per day. These types of homicide are ironically crimes perpetrated by the police, and they are labeled as "resisting arrest"

The PCC -- essentially the mafia -- handles everything else.

The author introduces the theme of the book as being about "cities, social relations, and the patterns of urbanization common in the Global South," (p.…… [Read More]

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Review Globalization Unplugged in Globalization

Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24505938

Such an example
cannt be refuted withut statistical research t make an argument against
Urmetzer, and thus his arguments refuting the impact f glbalizatin n
eliminating the natin-state's svereignty are strengthened.
This sets up Urmetzer's primary pint, and the thesis f his argument-
it is a myth that because f glbalizatin "natinal brders have becme s
prus that gvernments are n lnger able t prperly manage their wn
affairs" (Urmetzer 2005: 123). In the case f Canada, a welfare state,
Urmetzer even maintains glbalizatin strengthens the welfare state. T
reach this pint, and t prve that ecnmic freedm des nt ultimately
cmpletely eliminate plitical pwer frm the ecnmic spectrum, Urmetzter
evaluates the effects f glbalizatin n the different prgrams f
gvernment invlvement within the ecnmy. Fr example, in regards t the
afrementined welfare-state services, Urmetzer ntes hw this is an ften
verlked aspect t glbalizatin (Urmetzer 2005: 142). By tuching…… [Read More]

of globalization.

Urmetzer, Peter. Globalization Unplugged: Sovereignty and the Canadian
State in the Twenty
First Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005.
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Political Science Multinational Conflict Management

Words: 1639 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48112331

orks Cited

Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.


Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.


Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.


Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.


Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.


Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.


Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.


David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59.

Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.


Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
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Google Earth and the Nation

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50160817

892). This Western ethnocentric view is equivalent to the private interests that control media conglomerates such as Google and its Google Earth, which underscores the degree of inequity that ultimately is found when these new media conglomerates garner power within and over individual nation states.

The conceit that Kumar utilizes repeatedly throughout his essay to emphasize the thesis that new media enables private interests to slowly dissolve the traditional governmental authority of nation states is that such media is akin to a military, with its advancements in countries akin to conventional military takeovers. In much the same way that Google Earth leverages its authority and technology (in the form of aid and increased trade within a needy foreign country), "military interventions conducted around the world in the name of universal values of 'democracy' and 'freedom'" (Kumar, 2010, p.157) do the same thing.

The sense of power that new media presents…… [Read More]


Kumar, S. (2010). "Google Earth and the nation state: sovereignty in the age of new media." Global Media and Communication. 6 (2): 154-176.

Tomlinson, J. (1995). "Homogenisation and globalization." History of European Ideas. 20 (4-6): 891-897.
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Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Words: 24240 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17194104

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)


The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1


ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]


Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:

Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:

Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:

Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:
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Pop Sov John S Inventing

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86743160

Morgan's argument is largely based upon the legislature and people in power holding American power. hen it comes to popular sovereignty, the people were given the absolute right to decide, and although these decisions were no doubt influenced by the legislative, they were the people's decisions. Furthermore the notion of popular sovereignty according to Morgan includes the "independent authority of the state governments" and thus the way the states or future states were given the opportunity to decide for themselves if they want slavery or not was in fact the practice of popular sovereignty (Morgan 280). The conclusion to draw from this is that if in fact Morgan's belief that popular sovereignty was a myth is to be accepted, it was a myth in its earliest days, and perhaps later it became more of a reality, particularly on the issue of slavery in new territories.

Ultimately Morgan may have a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Morgan, Edmun S. Inventing the People. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1988.
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Alexis Tocqueville Association Theory and

Words: 1878 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33611388

These organizations have championed global labors standards prior to becoming an agency promoting UN's newly formed standards and policies.

Out of all the major facets of association, the rights of trade unions have continued to contribute to the growth of equality and liberty across the world. Recently, freedom experienced by trade unions is fundamental in the consolidation and the emergence of democracy in countries such as South Africa, Serbia, Philippines, Nigeria, Chile, and Poland. With the increasing force of great repression and risk, employees are seeking to arrange themselves in free trade associations. Free trade associations strive to expand democracy, overthrow dictatorship, and halt the economic oppression after organizing themselves. It is unsurprising that authoritarian states try to curb the formation of free trade associations. They often impose state dominated associations in controlling the workforce.

Currently, free associations are portraying a politically and economically anachronistic, something that belongs to the…… [Read More]

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Prophets in Speech We Often

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47201013

In chapters 8-11 he shows that the glory of God has to be focused in temple, which represents unity of man and God. In chapter 8 he shows that God doesn't stand those who disobeyed him and who refused from him. It's a clear point in chapter 8: God would never stand rivals (Ezekiel 8:6).

Isaiah and Jeremiah describe sovereignty of God through the subject of paganism and idolatry critics, but their arguments have mainly theoretical basis and lack personal experience. This makes them different from arguments of Ezekiel. Arguments of Isaiah are based on religious rationalism: "God is supreme over all things"(Isa. 40:25, 26), which means that he has to be supreme over people. In Isaiah 48, verses 9 to 11 it's said:

For the sake of My name I delay My wrath, and for My praise I restrain it for you, in order not to cut you off.…… [Read More]


The Holy Bible

Wenham, G.J. New Bible Commentary 21st Century, InterVarsity Press 1994

Major Prophets
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Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80916514

interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
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Unresolved UAE Iran dispute

Words: 2757 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86329181

longstanding territorial disputes between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Iran, regarding three islands in the Persian Gulf. The first dispute is with respect to the island of Abu Musa, which is claimed by Sharjah. The other is with respect to Greater Tunbs and Lesser Tunbs, both of which are claimed by as al-Khaimah. All three are presently viewed by the international community as territory of Iran. The issue dates back to the formation of the UAE. The former colonial power, the United Kingdom, transferred the islands to Iran at this time, in 1971, ostensibly in exchange for Iran dropping its claim to Bahrain. This paper looks at the dispute between the UAE and Iran over these islands, both in its historical context and in terms of its modern manifestations.

Historical Context

The dispute over the status of Abu Musa pre-dates the formation of the UAE. The island was under…… [Read More]

References (no date) Abu Musa. American University. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from (2000) Abu Musa island. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from

Kaikobad, K. (no date) The Abu Musa and Tunb Islands dispute. Strategics International. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from

Shoichet, C. & Castillo, M. (2016) Saudi Arabia -- Iran row spreads to other nations. CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from
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Christians Struggle With the Dichotomy

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22522480

Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation fom God. They wee inspied to wite as they wished, but the outcome was still detemined by God's ultimate will: "Fo the pophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they wee moved by the Holy Ghost." (2 Pete 1:21). In the same way, the wods of the pophets wee thei own, but the message behind these wods was inspied by God. This is the natue of the inteaction between God's will and human feedom in tems of the Bible.

In this way, Feinbeg uses the Bible to substantiate eveything he says about divine and human will, and I am theefoe convinced that his aguments ae supeio to those of Reichenbach…… [Read More]

references to God's sovereignty and omnipotence. Clearly, passages such as Psalm 115:2-3 indicates that God imposes no limitations upon his own power or knowledge even in the face of non-belief: "2 Why should the Gentiles say, / 'So where is their God' / 3 but our God is in heaven; / He does whatever He pleases." Psalm 139:16 states that God knows absolutely everything regarding the outcome of events: " Your book they all were written, / the days fashioned for me, / When as yet there were none of them."

Surely what Reichenbach attempts to prove is directly in contradiction to the above. In the light of this, therefore, I believe that Feinberg presents a much stronger biblical argument for the manifestation of human freedom and its interaction with God's will. The Bible contains no passages that indicate God's limitations; either self-imposed or otherwise. In contrast to Reichenbach, Feinberg accepts God's unlimited knowledge and power and basis his philosophical arguments upon this rather than attempting to contradict biblical truth. The latter author's argument is therefore stronger in biblical terms.
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Institutions Describe the Characteristics of

Words: 2557 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91351476

After the WWII, there was need to bring back peace to Europe in a lasting manner. There was need to bring a halt to international hatred and bring conditions necessary for a lasting peace into being. This was seen to fruition in the 1950s and one of the vehicles towards achieving this was European Union.

The wars that took place un Europe highly ravaged the economy of the country hence there was need to revitalize the economy of the region hence the formation of the EU was not only a political device to forging peace but an economic tool to ensure that the natural resources like coal that are found in abundance in Europe are well utilized to bring the economy of the region to higher levels than even before the war regime (EUOPA, 2011). These were the two major reasons for the formation of the EU apart from the…… [Read More]


EUROPA, (2011). Why the European Union. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from

Conjecture Corporation, (2011). What is a Nation-State? Retrieved September 14, 2011 from 

Global Policy Forum, (2011). What Is a "Nation"? Retrieved September 16, 2011 from

Friedrich Balke, (2007). Restating sovereignty: On America's Regaining the Old Sense of the Political. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from
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Globalization the Term Globalization Is a Debatable

Words: 1937 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10389779


The term "globalization" is a debatable one. Some view globalization as a process that is beneficial -- fundamental to future world economic development -- and also inevitable and irreversible (IMF, 2000). Others regard it with hostility, and sometimes fear, arguing that it increases inequality within and between nations, threatens employment and living standards and disturbs social progress. This paper offers an overview of some aspects of globalization and aims to identify ways in which countries can optimize the gains of this process, while remaining realistic about its potential and its risks.

Globalization offers many opportunities for future worldwide development. However, it is not progressing evenly. Some countries are becoming integrated into the global economy faster than others. Countries that have been successful at integration have reaped the benefits of faster growth and less poverty.

For instance, global-oriented policies resulted in dynamism and greater prosperity for much of East Asia,…… [Read More]


Daly, H. (2001) Globalization and Its Discontents. Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly, 21, 2/3.

Danaher, K. (1997). Corporations are gonna get your mama: globalization and the downsizing of the American dream. Monroe, Me.: Common Courage Press.

World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington D.C., May 2000.

International Chamber of Commerce. (November, 2000). ICC brief on globalization.
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Lisbon Treaty Democratization and State

Words: 6166 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9358526

Political legitimacy derives from the peoples of the Member States and thus from the states themselves; (b) the primacy of European law: this is not 'absolute' and the Court reserves the right to block European legislation in order to protect sovereignty and 'constitutional identity', which is, moreover, enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty itself; and (c) ring-fences certain sovereign powers for the Member States: in the areas of criminal law and procedure, policing, military matters, fiscal policy (thus precluding 'economic government') and social, cultural, religious, educational and media affairs; and (5) Emphasizes that the formal creation of a European federal state and the transfer of such powers to that state would require a change in the Constitution and therefore a referendum. (eaudouin, 2009)

eaudouin reports that the Lisbon Treaty makes the EU "considerably more powerful by merging the three pillars, endowing the Union with legal personality, extending its competences, establishing the…… [Read More]


Beaudouin, Christopher (2009) Presentation of the German Federal Constitutional Court Judgment of 30 June 2009 on the Lisbon Treaty. Online available at:

Coughlan, Anthony (2009) 13 Facts About the Lisbon Treaty. 21 Aug 2009. Corbett Report -- Open Source Intelligence News. Online available at:

European Parliament and the Lisbon Treaty (2009) European Parliament. Online available at:

McConalogue, Jim (2009) Ireland's 100 Reasons to Vote 'No' to the Lisbon Treaty. The European Journal. Sept 2009. Online available at:
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Ponca Indians the History of

Words: 3207 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35567463

The precariousness of their relationship with the Dakota was evidenced in 1843, when "the Omaha and the Ponca were considering a union, 'to live together as one people' [….] no doubt as a defensive strategy against the Dakota" (Wishart 1994, 85). However, this ultimately never came about, "and the Ponca again joined the Dakota to raid the Omaha," because "in the chaotic years of the 1840s when starvation confronted all the Indians, warfare became the primary means of the spreading the subsistence base," and allying with the Dakota, who were one of the most powerful tribes in the region, made the most sense (Wishart 1994, 85).

Despite the Ponca's alliances with the Dakota, the latter group became increasingly hostile, resulting in the Ponca gradually returning to their ancestral base near the mouth of the Niobara river, "likely [because] the Dakota had cut them off from the bison range and forced…… [Read More]


Wishart, David. An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians. Lincoln:

University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Treaty with the Ponca 1825. Accessed November 23, 2011. .
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New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination European

Words: 7020 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96921841

New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective

The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…… [Read More]


Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper,

Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.

Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73

Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
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U's Iraq Elections Strategy Since the

Words: 1856 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13689569

This is significant, because the two elements will directly determine the overall extent that these issues will play in deciding when American forces will withdraw. It is through examining this complex role that United States is playing in Iraq, that provide the greatest insights as to what challenges will be faced in the future.


"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq. Http:// .

Accessed 2 April 2010.

"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. C. Http:// Accessed 2

April 2010.

"Lebanon, Israel and the Greater West Asian Crisis." 17 August 2006. Open Democracy.

Http:// Accessed 2 April 2010.

"Obama Keeps U.S. Troop Withdrawal Plan after Iraq Poll." 7 March 2010. Reuters.

Http:// Accessed 2 April 2010.

"PKK Surrender Test Turkey Plan." 19 October 2009. C. Http:// Accessed 2

April 2010.

"U.S. Commits to Iraq Withdrawal by 2011, but Could Seek an Extension."…… [Read More]


"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq.  Http://  .

Accessed 2 April 2010.

"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. BBC. Http:// Accessed 2

April 2010.
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International Organizations Compare and Contrast

Words: 900 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5363363

However, although the institutionalist perspective may marginally be the more persuasive, it too has a flaw in the sense that it does not allow for sufficient diversity of interests that may transcend borders and impede international cooperation -- a Jewish supporter of Israel in the U.S. may not support his or her nation's attempt to facilitate economic and political cooperation with Saudi Arabia, and an unemployed American factory worker may support protectionism, even though many Americans may want to buy cheaper cars from Japan, and Japanese manufactures may be eager to meet this demand.

Are you convinced by the argument that states have lost a significant measure of their sovereignty to supranational institutions like the TO, the UN or the IMF?

The answer to this question is likely dependant upon what state you are a member of -- a nation opposed to the U.S. invasion of Iraq might state that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Theories of IR." PowerPoint Lecture. PSC 124. Syracuse University. 10 May 2007.,8,Rationalcooperation
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American Government & Institutions Should

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77137251

S. Constitution. The court ruled, "Proposition 8 served no purpose, and had no effect, other than to lessen the statutes and human dignity of gays and lesbians in California" (Dolan, 2012). Hence, the will of the people can become law through popular initiatives, but on the other hand, the argument can be made that if citizens object to the constitutional amendments enacted in any given state -- for any political or social issue -- they have the power of the judiciary to address grievances and sue to reverse the decision.

But should citizens have the power to make public policy through initiatives and state constitutional amendments? Is direct democracy the answer for citizens that feel their elected officials are out of touch? This paper believes that passing propositions and altering state constitutions is indeed a way to bring the voter "…in closer touch with great affairs" and allow the voter…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dolan, Mura. "Prop. 8: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional, Court Rules." Los Angeles Times.

Retrieved March 9, 2012, from

Levin, Daniel Lessard. Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American

Political Culture. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.
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Wars of Principles the Falklands and Malvinas

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76082748

Wars of Principle in the Falklands and Malvinas

Although the age of imperialism has slowly, but inexorably, been consigned to history books, with the great ritish, Spanish and Portuguese empires that once dominated the globe now largely defunct after the revolutionary spirit swept through colonies from America to Argentina, vestiges of this age-old system still remain to this day. Despite withdrawing from the vast majority of its former colonies after successful campaigns for independence were waged, the United Kingdom has strived to maintain a semblance of its former power by maintaining control over small areas of land within the nations it previously ruled over. Hong Kong in China, Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula, and a half dozen Caribbean islands from ermuda to Turks and Caicos, the custom of leaving behind ritish territories in the wake of widespread independence movements was instituted to ensure that the United Kingdom's dogged pursuit of…… [Read More]


Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of

1982. Faber & Faber, 1990.

Gustafson, Lowell S. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Oxford University Press, 1988.
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Social and Political Theory

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67504373

Social and Political History

How do the functionalist and conflict theories relate to the conceptualizations of government and sovereignty presented by Heywood? How much is enough government? What level of government do we need to get our collective business done? How much sovereignty is appropriate for the American government to have, particularly in view of terrorist threats in the post 9/11 environment? When does government and sovereignty interfere with the full functioning of individuals in a free society? When and how might government be used to favor particular groups within the social order at the expense of others? How might this kind of favoritism be covered up? How does politics reflect, magnify and sometimes even hid social conflict?


The social or "conflict" theory is one that is based on "how society motivates people and places in their proper position in the stratification process. The political or "functionalist" theory focuses…… [Read More]

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U S President Foreign Policy Decision

Words: 8528 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55687351

The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran


Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.


Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…… [Read More]

Reference list

Alterman, Eric. 1998. Who speaks for America?: why democracy matters in foreign policy.

Ithaca [u.a.]: Cornell Univ. Press.

Beisner, Robert L. 2003. American foreign relations since 1600 a guide to the literature.

Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
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hawaiian education pedagogy and critical pedagogy

Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55305529

Education can reinforce hegemony or be used to facilitate political resistance and catalyze social justice. Students and faculty at the University of Hawaii have empowered themselves through education, through changes to curriculum and also to the norms of public discourse. In “Native Student Organizing,” Trask also describes how political structures in education have a direct bearing on community empowerment. Left alone, university politics can too easily reflect the dominant, colonialist, and typically white discursive practices. Trask describes how concerted efforts at building campus organizations of resistance and decolonization can and will yield results that extend far beyond campus boundaries. In fact, education is often the breeding ground for broader social and/or political revolutions like the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, which Trask recalls. During processes of transformative change in universities, it is important to create pathways for harmonious exchanges of ideas. Indigenous empowerment and the Hawaiian sovereignty movement can…… [Read More]

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Systems the Concept of Freedom

Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91721707

In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…… [Read More]


1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006

2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005.

3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006.

4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006.
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Texas Constitution of 1876 Texas

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43675340

omen, for example, only gained their right of suffrage in 1920 and Article VI of the Constitution of 1876 only gives "male persons" over the age of 21 who have "resided in Texas for at least one year" the right to vote.

Compact Theory: The compact theory holds that the formation of the Union of the United States was through a "compact" of all the States individually and the creation of the national government was believed to be a creation of the states. Hence the states were the final judge of whether the national government had overstepped the boundaries of the "compact." One of the versions of the compact theory (the unilateral compact theory) was used by the Confederate secessionists to declare their secession from the Union, which signaled the start of the Civil ar (Lind, para 11). In the Texas Constitution of 1876, the compact theory is used to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ARTICLE III- Legislative Department: Constitution of the State of Texas (1876)." The University of Texas at Austin. March 11, 2005. July 26, 2006.

Dye, Thomas R. Politics in America. Sixth Edition, 2004. Pearson Prentice-Hall: New York

General Characteristics of the Texas Constitution." Liberal Arts Instructional Services: University of Texas at Austin. 2006. July 26, 2006.

Lind, Michael. "Do the People Rule?" New American Foundation. February 1, 2002. July 26, 2006.
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Madison's Dilemma What Was Madison's Dilemma and

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84593834

Madison's Dilemma

What was Madison's Dilemma and what was his solution to it?

James Madison's dilemma primarily hinges on the idea that "men are not angels," that if the contrary was true, then no form of government would be needed. However, because men are truly not angels, government is a necessary system. This brings about a dilemma to Madison, who views this roundabout thinking as a paradox: even with government, how does one prevent man from his non-angelic, corrupt behaviors? What separates government from the common man? Madison's solution, then, is a separation of powers, a "checks and balances" system in the judicial, legislative, and executive branch. In this manner, each branch limits powers of the other branches, and can also resist major influences within the separate branches.

What is the process of incorporation and what is its constitutional basis?

The incorporation doctrine -- or the "incorporation of the Bill…… [Read More]

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Canadian Foreign Policy A Policy

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86837357

These climatic changes in turn impact negatively on the economy and the people within the region. There is need hence for the environmental protection for sustainable development. Though there have been significant measures like the formulation of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) which was geared towards protection of the marine environment especially tackling pollution and shipping safety laws to be in place (Justice Laws Website, 2013), there is still more that Canada can do to ensure a sustainable economic growth of this region.

Canada must therefore resort to ecosystem-based management system within the Artic region. There is need to ensure an approach that will take into account the co-management of the species in the Artic region that may cross the international borders like the polar bear and the Arctic birds. The collaborative approach to the ecosystem should also include the Arctic research and science ventures conducted in collaborative…… [Read More]


Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, (2013). Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from 

Geopolitics in the High North, (2013). Statement on Canada's Arctic policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from

Justice Laws Website, (2013). Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-12). Retrieved August 10, 2013 from
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Illegal Immigrants in the U S

Words: 2196 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39582268

So who is an American and what an America can or cannot do are questions which are critical to the issue of legalizing immigrants. Does being an American mean you cannot show allegiance to any other country? The images of people raising and waving Mexican flag had enraged many but it need not have. It should be accepted that people who come from different countries would forever hold in their hearts a deep respect and love for their homeland. However to put the interests of home country ahead of your adopted country or to work in a way that benefits the home country but not the new country would definitely cause serious concern. It would be definitely foolish to direct or guide the behavior of illegal immigrants regarding countries and allegiance, but they should be expected to not work against the interests of their adopted land. That is fair and…… [Read More]


Johnson, Leahy Colleen. Growing Up and Old In Italian-American Families, page 223, 1985

Michael T. Lempres. "Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration." National Review 46.3 (1994): 52.

Ted Hayes. "Illegal Immigration Threatens U.S. Sovereignty, Economy and Culture." Insight on the News 16.36 (2000): 46.

Michelle Malkin. "Dismissing the Dangers of Illegal Immigration." Insight on the News 18.32 (2002): 46.
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Civil War Even When the

Words: 1743 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47953776

Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.


Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at ( Accessed on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at on 26 May, 2005

The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at ( Accessed on 26 May, 2005

United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at ( on 26 May, 2005

United States (History):…… [Read More]


Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at ( Accessed on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at on 26 May, 2005

Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at on 26 May, 2005

The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at ( Accessed on 26 May, 2005
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Oxfam International Is a Confederation

Words: 1769 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70541036

This news story has a positive impression of Oxfam works.

Analysis.- Oxfam has a record of 60 years in increasing worldwide public understanding of economic and social justice as crucial elements to sustainable development. Its 12 confederates are located in their respective regions and undertaking international goals and policies according to the requirements of the regions. The confederates work with poor people so that their lives may be improved and they may govern their own lives. Oxfam struggles to influence governments and powerful people in a straightforward manner without infringing upon their sovereignty. And it joins hands with all people for the universal good through open and popular campaigning, alliance building and media work in arriving at earnest and workable solutions to global poverty, to motivate as many people as possible to actively participate in the movement for change and to create a sense of global citizenship. Oxfam's work method…… [Read More]


Courier Mail, the. Oxfam Unveils New Sense of Giving. Queensland Newspapers, May 12, 2005.

Nabi, Rashed un. Oxfam's Fair Trade Report: Rigged Rules and Double Standard. Holiday Editorials. Holiday Publications Ltd., 2005.

Oxfam International. Who We Are, 2002.

About Us, 2002.
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Citizens of a Stateless Nation the Emergence

Words: 1781 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30069769

Citizens of a Stateless Nation

The emergence of stateless nations around the world and their impact on geopolitical issues, both on a regional and a global scale.

With ethnic minorities such as the Basque and Catalonian separatist movements of Spain, the Quebecois of Canada, the Palestinians of the Middle East, and the Kurds of Iraq and Turkey all staking their claim to autonomy through acts of civil protest, shows of electoral strength, and even militarized means, the issue of stateless nations has become a global priority. The currently hostile engagement between Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip, and their Israeli neighbors, demonstrates the consequences of ignoring the identity of culturally and ethnically unique groups. By studying the distinct circumstances underlying each of these four stateless nations, including their claims to sovereignty and grievances with their parent nation, it is possible to formulate effective solutions which may eventually effect the brokering…… [Read More]

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International Policies and Laws

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86323620

Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.

Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…… [Read More]


Alexey V.Y.; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. (2009). Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Wiley-Blackwell.

Berger, E.M. (2010). The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1), 1-8

Davletbaev, R (2001). Last shift Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or chance? Moscow: Energoatomizdat.

Jargin, S. (2012). Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation. International Journal Of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 42(1), 29-34
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Living in the Middle Ages What New

Words: 2349 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76123751

living in the Middle Ages. What new things are available for you to experience?

The prelude to modernism

The history that establishes origin and evolution of the modern society has its basis from the ancient time. Initially, the world and society featured various practices that today we may perceive as being barbaric and outdated. However, it is essential to acknowledge that it is through the various ages of revolution that the world has what it enjoys today. The beginning of the revolution era was the period of modernization, which began towards the end of the tenth century. Living in that era of modernization, the following are some of the experiences and events that happened to shape the society and world at large. In this year, there was increased danger to the Roman Catholic Church, which at that moment had the overall authority and recognition over the world dynasties. Thus, living…… [Read More]

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Empire an Global Race Relationships

Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73475654


The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.

Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…… [Read More]

references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.

The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.

Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.

gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)

2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)
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Mexican War

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55263176

Mexi War

The term "manifest destiny" was coined by John L. O'Sullivan during the administration of President James Knox Polk in the middle of the 19th century. However, the concept of manifest destiny seemed to have guided the original settling of the European colonies in North America, with the accompanying sense of entitlement to the lands and people therein. Manifest destiny suggested that God ordained America to be special, and wanted Americans to conquer and amass as much land as possible. Territorial acquisition became the cornerstone of American politics in the 19th century. Under President Polk, the boundaries of the United States stretched as far as they could possibly go, warranting war with a neighboring state: Mexico. Therefore, the events leading up to the Mexican War were directly linked to the overall concept of Manifest Destiny.

However, there were other precursors to the Mexican War. ebellions in California led to…… [Read More]


University of Virginia (2013). American president. Retrieved online:

"War Fever and Antiwar Protests." Digital History. Retrieved online:
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Canada USA Relations

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25399065

International Politics

Expanding the United Nations' mandate

The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.

However, the above functions…… [Read More]


Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from

United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from
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Rhetoric Postmodern Rhetoric Postmodern Rhetoric

Words: 1775 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52357320


In the final analysis the film under discussion can be deconstructed and critiqued from a postmodern perspective. This refers to the underlying ideologies and metanarratives that inform the narrative and imagery of the film.

From a postmodern point-of-view truth is never static or fixed and is always relative to a certain context or stance. The film in question makes use of a number of rhetorical devices to put forward its central argument. These include aspects such as the metanarratives of science as well as environmental nostalgia. There are many other ways in which this film could be deconstructed to reveal fissures in the apparent logic and coherence of the documentary. hat is clear is that even a discursive postmodern reading of the film indicates that Gore unconsciously or consciously makes use of various cultural predilections and ideologies in estern culture to support his stance in this film.

orks Cited…… [Read More]

Works Cited

An Inconvenient Truth ( 2006). Direction: Davis Guggenheim. Paramount Classics.


ARGUMENT ( Book Review). 26 January, 2010.
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Dred Scott v Sanford Should

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59213759

Thus, Scott was always a slave in areas that were free" ("Classifying arguments," Landmark Supreme Court Cases, 2009).

After the Scott decision, advocates of compromise between slave and free states such as Senator Henry Clay found their views legally invalidated. Clay had advocated the doctrine of popular sovereignty: that states should decide whether slavery was prohibited or permitted within their borders. As a result of Scott v. Sandford Northern states that had abolished slavery would now be forced to harbor slaves within their borders, if residents of slave states transported their 'property' to free states. To a slave-holder, being able to transport his or her property to the north was akin to being able to take a piece of luggage across state borders and retain his or her control over the property.

Southern states had always stressed the inclusion of slavery within the Constitution, and generally disregarded the Supremacy Clause,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Classifying Arguments in the Case." Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Landmark Supreme Court

Cases. November 17, 2009.
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Invention of Peace Discussion 1

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54023333

When Serbia refused, Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia, forcing the mobilization of ussia to prevent the destruction of Serbia.

German forces mobilized in support of Austro-Hungary by prior agreement, and declared war on ussia in response to her mobilization of forces.

To avoid a war on two fronts, Germany attacked France because of the fear that France would attack Germany once Germany and ussia went to war against each other.

Britain entered the war against Germany because Germany invaded Belgium to bypass the most fortified approaches into France. By 1917, German attacks on neutral shipping bound for England provoked the U.S. To enter the war as well. Some of the first action of the wider war was the occupation of German colonies in Asia and Africa. By the end of the war, England was poised to rule much of the Middle East until after World War II, which control was…… [Read More]


Howard, M. (2000) the Invention of Peace: Reflections on War and International Order. London: Yale University Press.
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Entrance of the Czech Republic

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2134050

This could have a negative impact on the ability of the new economy to survive.

There are advantages and disadvantages to joining the EU, depending on how ready the country is to make the leap into a competitive market. Differences forced former Czechoslavakia to separate. Now, each of the fledgling republics must be evaluated on their own merits. The Velvet evolution of 1989 destroyed the socialist republic. By the 1990s, the Czech epublic's GDP per capita was 20% higher than Slovakia's. This may indicate better readiness to move into the European Union and the capital market system. Prior to 1991, transfers were made from the Czech budget to help finance Slovakian interests. This indicates a greater state of readiness for the Czechs than for Slovakia.

Feelings in the country are mixed as to whether the two countries should be completely independent or whether they should continue with shared interests. The…… [Read More]


Central Intelligence Agency. Global Factbook. Slovakia. Retrieved from . Accessed December 21.

Fidrmuc, J. & Fidrmuc, J. 2000. "

Macroeconomic Developments in the Czech Republic and the EU Accession Process,"

Working Papers ir00008, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
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Divine Foreknowledge in the Old

Words: 364 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98117666

The fact that God seems to be taken surprise by human action, and the fact that the Lord can also change his mind in the last verse of the passage, Exodus 32: 14, suggests free will exists, or the ability of humanity to change the world through prayer, and the idea that not all of the future is already decided -- the 'maybe' exists in the form of humanity's to show free will to obey or disobey, and to beg for forgiveness.

In Numbers 14:11-23, God again seems taken by surprised by the sins of His children, in this case Moses' sister Miriam and his brother Aaron, who criticize Moses for marrying a Cu*****e woman. God punishes Miriam with leprosy, and Moses and Aaron beg God to heal their sister. God bargains with the men, refusing to heal her outright, but agrees to heal her after seven days, showing the…… [Read More]

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Apocrypha Psalm 151 in Terms

Words: 943 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49575126

Storfjell states that verse one which: "speaks about the size and age of David in comparison to his brothers and about his appointment to the work of Shepherd" (1987) is confirmed in verse 10 "which contrasts the fact that size and age are not criteria for being appointed to the position of leaders over Israel.

IV. The Attitude of deSilva Toward the Apocrypha

The work of deSilva reveals his attitude toward the Apocrypha in his statement of:

the Apocrypha, while not of the status of sacred Scripture have much to teach us about God, ethics, challenges to faithful living, and the developments in Jewish history, culture, and though that provide the matrix for the early church' (p.40) deSilva is stated to have summarized "the various genres contained therein which are those of:

1) History;

2) Wisdom literature;

3) Liturgical pieces;

4) Thematic essays; and 5) Apocalyptic texts"

Summary and Conclusion…… [Read More]


Yamauchi, Edwin (1973) the Stones and the Scriptures. Leicester: IVP, 1973, p.11.

Priestly, William (nd) the Dead Sea Scrolls - Biblical Studies. Online available at .

M. Burrows, (1956) the Dead Sea Scrolls. Secker & Warburg, 1956, p.262.

Storfjell, J. Bjornar (1987) the Chiastic Structure of Psalm 151. Andrews University Seminary Studies 25.1 (1987) 97-106.
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Zionism on the Peace Process

Words: 3968 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89525035

Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.

1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Slater, Jerome Can Zionism be Reconciled with Justice for the Palestinians Article Tikkun July 2003

2. Zuncs, Stephen Defending Zionism in a Time of Occupation and Oppression Article Tikkun p.54 April 2004

3. Starobin, Paul Rethinking Zionism Article National Journal p.1240 April 24, 2004

4. Hazony, Yoram the Zionism Idea and its Enemies Article Commentary may 96, Vol. 101, Issue 5 p.30
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Sociology the Shifting Definitions of

Words: 3386 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41556052

eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.

One sign that is frequently taken…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 4 June 2005.

1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
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Civil War After the War

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30786382

California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.

The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at .

The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at .

Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at .

Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at
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Whigs vs Democrats Slavery Freedom Crisis Union

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52886147


Slavery, Freedom, crisis Union 1840-1877 Democracy America: The Whigs Democrats Many Americans half nineteenth century a powerful federal government a threat individual liberty supported sovereignty state local government.

Slavery, freedom, and the crisis of the Union 1840-1877: Considering economic policies and the balance of power between national and local government, how did Whigs and Democrats differ in their definitions of American freedom and its relationship to government authority? Use two examples from both the Democrats and Whigs to support your claims.

Ever since the birth of America, two competing strains of thought ran through the American consciousness. The first was the Jeffersonian idea that the government which governed best, governed least and that a relatively weak central government was a facilitator of liberty. The contrasting Hamiltonian notion stressed that a strong federal government was required to protect individual liberties and the state as a whole. These tensions…… [Read More]


Baker, William D. (2007). Whig Party. Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved: 

Democrats v. Whigs. (2012). Tennessee 4 Me. Retrieved:
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Community and Social Justice

Words: 2163 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43556512

Community and Social Justice

Since the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it has continued to be engaged with human rights as proven by the struggle for decolonization, self-determination, and independence of the African continent. Embodied with this, obviously, is the fact that those fighting and agitating for independence sought human right principles to justify their struggle because colonialism disregarded human rights of the colonized persons. In contrast to the OAU, the African Union (AU) made human rights an explicit component of its obligation as encoded in its Act and human rights in its mainstream programs and activities. However, with no doubt, the current approaches require strengthening with a perspective of creating a holistic, integrated and comprehensive methodology to ensure respect for all human rights.

OAU to AU: An overview

The OAU charter is grounded on the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty. It stipulates the battle for…… [Read More]


Bachir, S. (2009). Individual, Community, and Human Rights: a lesson from Kwasi Wiredu's philosophy of personhood. Transition, Issue 101, 2009, pp. 8-15 (Article) Published by Indiana University Press.

Diagne, S.B. (2010). Islam and open society: Fidelity and movement in the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal. Dakar: CODESRIA.

Harris, G. (2009). Organization of African Unity. Oxford, England: Clio Press.

Nmehielle, V.O. (2011). The African human rights system: Its laws, practice, and institutions. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff.