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Sovereignty of God
Many Christians struggle with the issue of God's supremacy as opposed to the apparent free will that the same God has given to humanity. The Garden of Eden seems to be a case in point. Why did God give Adam and Eve the ability to choose if he knew they were going to make the wrong choice? In the same way one could ask why sin is part of society, and indeed part of the lives of devout Christians. Why do we sometimes choose to do wrong? Why do we have a choice in the first place? Why does God let us do wrong things? The answers to these questions I believe are complicated and many, but one can also attempt to find satisfactory answers using one's own God-given common sense in combination with biblical teaching.
In Romans 9 Paul attempts to explain not only to himself,…
This comes as a result of the idea that along with the right to limit foreign interference the state also has the duty to ensure the safety and security of its population (uzan, 1983). In the moment when the security of its people is not ensured, the state can no longer be considered sovereign and in control of the country; thus, international forces must intervene in order to reestablish equilibrium, disregarding the sovereign status of the state.
From this perspective, it is rather hard to say that there is one subject which is in complete control of the internal apparatus. We live in a world which is in a continuous state of interdependence. Francis Fukuyama pointed out this aspect in regard to the reconstruction of failed states. In this sense, he argued that poor states or those who have a weak system of governance cannot achieve a proper system of…
Bull, H.1992. Hugo Grotius and international relations. In Kingsbury, B. And Adam Roberts (eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Buzan, B.1993. People, states, and fear: an agenda for international security studies in the post Cold War Era. Wheatsheaf, Brighton.
Cole, W.M. 2005. "Sovereignty Relinquished? Explaining Commitment to the International Human Rights Covenants, 1966-1999." American Sociological Review, Vol. 70, No. 3, pp. 472-495.
Donnelly, J. 1986. International Human Rights: A Regime Analysis. International Organization, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 599-642.
Managing the Effects of Globalized Proliferation on State Sovereignty
What are the essential elements of an effective strategy to address proliferation?
Effectively managing the cultural, economic and sociopolitical effects of globalization needs to begin prior to its proliferation across a culture. The emphasis on ensuring consistency and balance between the cultural norms and values of a nation or region vs. The benefits of globalization need to be defined through constructs and frameworks (Nef, 2002). The essential elements of an effective strategy to address the proliferation of globalization need to include a very clear definition of state sovereignty, especially in the most critically important areas of economic policy (Hobson, amesh, 2002). This is essential for balancing the needs of a sovereign state and the clarity and stability of economic policies relative to the continual economic pressure to continually become more consolidated into a regional trading block or operating region…
Falk, Richard. 1995. Toward obsolescence: Sovereignty in the era of globalization. Harvard International Review 17, (3) (Summer): 34.
Higgins, Winton, and Kristina Tamm Hallstrom. 2007. Standardization, globalization and rationalities of government. Organization 14, (5) (09): 685-704.
Hobson, John M., and M. Ramesh. 2002. Globalisation makes of states what states make of it: Between agency and structure in the state/globalisation debate. New Political Economy 7, (1) (03): 5-22.
Lentner, Howard H. 2010. Globalization and sovereignty. Political Science Quarterly 125, (1) (Spring): 135-137.
Sovereignty vs Self-ule: Crimea eignites Battle
Inclusion of ussia into Georgia in 2008 provoked political fear among the west political arena and the media. They dreaded that similar intervention by the ussian military would be possible in other CIS (Commonwealth Independent States) with minority states such as Crimea of the larger ussian community. Crimea was part of the imperial ussia until 1954 when it was handed over to soviet Ukraine by Nikita Khrushchev, the secretary general of communist party and Soviet Union. In 1991 it joined the independent Ukraine community while concurrently the Soviet Union broke apart. The question of Crimea region is often interpreted as a problem from the ussian community. Fear arose due to the Ukrainian domestic politics as well as the ussian external ambitions. The Crimean situation is interlinked and inseparable to the ussian-Ukrainian political relations (Hedeskog, 2008).
An interesting element of the argument amid ussia and…
Bukkvoll, Tor. (2001). Off the Cuff Politics: Explaining Russia's Lack of a Ukraine Strategy. Europe-Asia Studies, 53 / 8: 1141- 1157.
Cakmak, Cenap. (2014). The Crimean Crisis and International Law. The Wise Men Center for Strategic Studies (BILGESAM).
D'anieri, Paul, Kravchuk, Robert and Taras Kuzio. (1999). Politics and Society in Ukraine. Bolder: Westview Press.
Hedeskog, Jacob. (2008). Crimea after the Georgia Crisis." FOI. Stockholm: Swedish Defence Research Agency.
This means that the states have a certain amount of sovereignty, but not complete autonomy to simply do as they wish. States are free to adopt their own laws, but they must do so within the confines of the larger body.
The development of the United States and the Civil ar resulted in a new definition of sovereignty. If one compares the philosophy that arose in the United States to that of feudal England it appears that there are different levels of sovereignty. Once could consider feudal England to be a case of complete sovereignty of the King over the local peasants. However, the Civil ar proved that complete state sovereignty and complete unity cannot exist side by side. The end result was a case where the Federal law still has sovereignty over state law, but the states do have some form of sovereignty and self-determination. One could consider this…
Bayefsky, Anne F., ed. 2000. The UN Human Rights Treaty System in the 21st Century. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Brooks, S. And Wohlforth, W. 2002. American Primacy in Perspective. Foreign Affairs,
July/August 2002. 81: 21-33.
Donnelly, J. 2006. State Sovereignty and Human Rights. Accessed January 12, http://www.du.edu/~jdonnell/papers/hrsov%20v4a.htm .
One of the reasons for the lack of political success for any of the groups that support Hawaiian sovereignty is that there is no cohesive, united, group. Much as ussia in 1916 had over 100 parties, until Lenin and the Bolshevik/Menshevik groups coalesced, there was not enough entropy to bring about change. In the 21st century, and with the history of Hawaii, this is even more difficult. A broad overview of these groups would include:
Kingdom of Hawaii Exile
1893-85, now defunct
Used as historical tradition for restoring the monarchy
Home ule Party of Hawaii
Extreme nationalism, popular early 1900s
Largely used as an historical basis for rule
Democratic Party of Hawaii
Moderate version of Home ule Party
Using land to secure benefit for natives
Aboriginal Lands of Hawaiian Ancestry (ALOHA)
eparations for native peoples
Unclear if still in existence…
Budnick, R. Stolen Kingdom: An American Conspiracy. Honolulu: Aloha Press, 1992.
Coffman, T. The Island Edge of America: A Political History of Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2003.
Dougherty, M. To Steal a Kingdom. Oahu: Island Style Press, 2000.
Fein, B. "Hawaii Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand." 15-16 June 2005. Hawaiian Congressional Record. .
Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God
Packer's latest work is a brief, nontechnical discourse about how God's sovereignty and responsibility of humans impacts evangelism. It is not a guide to the latest in evangelistic action. The primary objective here is to quell the ideal that faith in God's sovereignty barricades evangelistic initiatives and demonstrate it strength to evangelism. The book is laid out in four chapters. The concepts explained therein are[footnoteRef:2]: [2: Naselli, Andy (2008)]
eing a devout Christian, you have a staunch faith in God's sovereignty as you pray. Therefore, you already accept that God is sovereign due to two reasons: you thank God for being a Christian and pray for others' conversion as well. Conflict arises when an attempt is made to combine God's sovereignty with responsibility of humans[footnoteRef:3]. [3: Ibid 1]
Antimony exists, which is an inherent mismatch between two diverging truths, not viewed as a paradox,…
Boa, Kenneth. "Divine Sovereignty vs. Human Responsibility." May 11, 2006. Accessed June 7, 2015. https://bible.org/article/divine-sovereignty-vs.-human-responsibility .
Naselli, Andy. "Summary and Outline of J.I. Packer's "evangelism and the Sovereignty of God." Andy Naselli. February 17, 2008. Accessed June 7, 2015. http://andynaselli.com/summary-and-outline-of-j-i-packers-evangelism-and-the-sovereignty-of-god
Packer, J.I. Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God.IVP Books, 2012.
Piper, John. "A Response to J.I. Packer on the so-called Antinomy between the Sovereignty of God and Human Responsibility." Desiring God. Accessed June 7, 2015. http://www.desiringgod.org/articles/a-response-to-ji-packer-on-the-so-called-antinomy-between-the-sovereignty-of-god-and-human-responsibility .
American Indian Studies
Native American Sovereignty
Sovereignty, in the truest definition of the word, is that which has complete independence and self-government. In a nutshell, it is a territory existing as an independent state, free to govern its self with dignity and justice. For the nation of Native American tribes in the United States, it is a dangling carrot held up by a government notorious for its broken promises, and centuries of lying and civil abuse.
Things weren't always like this for the Native American nation. "During the ritish colonial period, Indian tribes were considered foreign nations by the ritish crown and were dealt with by treaty. This relationship worked so well that the majority of the tribes allied with the ritish during the Revolutionary War" (ulzomi, 2001). After the colonists won the war, and in turn gained their independence, they continued to respect the tribes as sovereign nations, but…
Tribes Unite to Open Native American Bank
Indian Life, Nov-Dec 2001 www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0JJC/3_22/81835568/print.jhtml
Native son: Notah Begay III finds success, but only after experiencing his share of knocks
Golf Digest, Oct 2000 www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0HFI/10_51/65486547/p1/article.jhtml
Trade Agreements on State Sovereignty
State sovereignty is an issue that has attracted numerous concerns in the recent past largely because of globalization, which has become a definitive component of the contemporary society. These concerns have also been fueled by aggressive trade policies and practices that have been adopted by various governments and business organizations. Generally, state sovereignty is under severe threat because of diminishing barriers between countries and increased integration of domestic and international spheres of government. Aggressive trade policies and practices that threaten state sovereignty include trade agreements, which are entered into between countries. As trade agreements between countries are increasingly established, they fuel a conflict between free trade and state sovereignty.
Trade Agreements and State Sovereignty
Global trade and investment are the two pillars of the contemporary economic world given the increased interdependence of world economy in the recent past. This interdependence is one of the most…
Jones, C.W. (n.d.). Trade Pacts Threaten Sovereignty. Retrieved January 15, 2016, from https://www.boilermakers.org/resources/commentary/V40N3
Peet, R. (2009). Unholy trinity: the IMF, World Bank and WTO (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Zed Books Ltd.
Rodrik, D. (2011). The globalization paradox: democracy and the future of the world economy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Stiglitz, J.E. (2006). Making globalization work. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Introduction to International elations
Written by: OCdt Jennifer Wotherspoon
Early 20th century explorer Vilhalmur Stefannson was correct in his assertion that the Arctic was essentially a treasure chest of natural resources, and in his corresponding prediction that the far North would become a vital national interest for Canada and the British Empire. Stefannson urged Britain, Canada and the U.S. To acquire Wrangel Island and to set up naval and air bases there as early as 1919, claiming that the island could be a strategic vantage point in future wars, in addition to a plentiful source of natural resources.[footnoteef:1] His views were not appreciated in Ottawa, where government officials regarded his as an adventurer and self-promoter, and he found that "the wheels of government were to turn very slowly" whenever he offered his advice.[footnoteef:2] He later established a private company for the purpose of exploiting Wrangel Island…
1. Byers, Michael. Who Owns the Arctic? Understanding Sovereignty Disputes in the North. (Douglas-McIntyre, 2009).
2. Churchill, Robin R. "Claims to Maritime Zones in the Arctic -- Law of the Sea Normality or Polar Peculiarity? In Elferink, Alan G. Oude and Donald Pothwell (eds), The Law of the Sea and Polar Maritime Delimitation and Jurisdiction. (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2004), pp. 105-24.
3. Diubaldo, Richard J. Stefannson and the Canadian Arctic (McGill-Queens University Press, 1978, 1998).
4. Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. "Interview with Donald McRea on the Arctic." Accessed March 29, 2011. http://www.international.gc.ca/cip-pic/video/arctic-arctique/mcrae.aspx?lang=eng
According to various sources, the human rights situations has not progressed in China over the past few years, and in fact has grown worse in some areas (Young 2009). The Chinese deny this completely, and say that there are no human rights violations. They also add that the President has no right to interfere with Chinese affairs, and the Chinese Foreign Minister suggested that the United States address its own issues of alleged human rights violations before its leaders start accusing other countries of abuses (Young 2009).
Though the Chinese responses to these rather similar attacks on sovereignty were remarkably different in substance, they actually provide evidence of the same basic attitude on the part of the Chinese. After Obama's address, which might have carried a little more weight with the international community as it was not tainted by Guantanamo, Abu Grahib, or other human rights scandals of the Bush…
Abramowitz, M. (2008). "U.S. In 'firm opposition' to Chinese human rights policies, Bush says." The Washington post, Thursday 7 August. Accessed online 30 September 2009. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/06/AR2008080601055.html
Young, E. (2009). "Obama brings up human rights as U.S., China leaders meet." The Christian post, Monday 27 July. Accessed online 30 September 2009. http://www.christianpost.com/article/20090727/obama-notes-human-rights-in/index.html
Hobbes, Locke, And Democracy
There once was a time when kings ruled and their people were subject to the absolute authority of that king. The king literally was the law, whatever he said became law. All of his subject had an obligation to be loyal to their king simply because God had appointed him king. Kings claimed their authority from God, and therefore possessed the ultimate authority. However, beginning in the 1600's in England, the people began to see the relationship between king and subjects a bit differently. A new ideal emerged, the idea that a king's authority came from the consent of the people, not from God. It was Thomas Hobbes, in his book Leviathan who first broached the subject that the relationship between the king and the people was a two way relationship. The king and people formed a "social contract" and each had it's responsibilities to the…
Hobbes, Thomas, and J.C.A. Gaskin (ed.). Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.
Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print.
Sovereignty by Consensus
In Sao Paolo, homicide detectives do not serve the same function as they do in the U.S. or any other wealthy and wealthy country; they have a different means of classifying deaths. They cannot and do not investigate crimes in the same way as in wealthy countries. Violence and homicide are pervasive and common in Sao Paolo; they are even considered "normal" (Willis 6).
Police tend to investigate two types of homicides: one with an unknown assailant, and police killing citizens, which is very common, at a rate of more than one per day. These types of homicide are ironically crimes perpetrated by the police, and they are labeled as "resisting arrest"
The PCC -- essentially the mafia -- handles everything else.
The author introduces the theme of the book as being about "cities, social relations, and the patterns of urbanization common in the Global South," (p.…
Such an example
cannt be refuted withut statistical research t make an argument against
Urmetzer, and thus his arguments refuting the impact f glbalizatin n
eliminating the natin-state's svereignty are strengthened.
This sets up Urmetzer's primary pint, and the thesis f his argument-
it is a myth that because f glbalizatin "natinal brders have becme s
prus that gvernments are n lnger able t prperly manage their wn
affairs" (Urmetzer 2005: 123). In the case f Canada, a welfare state,
Urmetzer even maintains glbalizatin strengthens the welfare state. T
reach this pint, and t prve that ecnmic freedm des nt ultimately
cmpletely eliminate plitical pwer frm the ecnmic spectrum, Urmetzter
evaluates the effects f glbalizatin n the different prgrams f
gvernment invlvement within the ecnmy. Fr example, in regards t the
afrementined welfare-state services, Urmetzer ntes hw this is an ften
verlked aspect t glbalizatin (Urmetzer 2005: 142). By tuching…
Urmetzer, Peter. Globalization Unplugged: Sovereignty and the Canadian
State in the Twenty
First Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005.
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
892). This Western ethnocentric view is equivalent to the private interests that control media conglomerates such as Google and its Google Earth, which underscores the degree of inequity that ultimately is found when these new media conglomerates garner power within and over individual nation states.
The conceit that Kumar utilizes repeatedly throughout his essay to emphasize the thesis that new media enables private interests to slowly dissolve the traditional governmental authority of nation states is that such media is akin to a military, with its advancements in countries akin to conventional military takeovers. In much the same way that Google Earth leverages its authority and technology (in the form of aid and increased trade within a needy foreign country), "military interventions conducted around the world in the name of universal values of 'democracy' and 'freedom'" (Kumar, 2010, p.157) do the same thing.
The sense of power that new media presents…
Kumar, S. (2010). "Google Earth and the nation state: sovereignty in the age of new media." Global Media and Communication. 6 (2): 154-176.
Tomlinson, J. (1995). "Homogenisation and globalization." History of European Ideas. 20 (4-6): 891-897.
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
Morgan's argument is largely based upon the legislature and people in power holding American power. hen it comes to popular sovereignty, the people were given the absolute right to decide, and although these decisions were no doubt influenced by the legislative, they were the people's decisions. Furthermore the notion of popular sovereignty according to Morgan includes the "independent authority of the state governments" and thus the way the states or future states were given the opportunity to decide for themselves if they want slavery or not was in fact the practice of popular sovereignty (Morgan 280). The conclusion to draw from this is that if in fact Morgan's belief that popular sovereignty was a myth is to be accepted, it was a myth in its earliest days, and perhaps later it became more of a reality, particularly on the issue of slavery in new territories.
Ultimately Morgan may have a…
Morgan, Edmun S. Inventing the People. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1988.
These organizations have championed global labors standards prior to becoming an agency promoting UN's newly formed standards and policies.
Out of all the major facets of association, the rights of trade unions have continued to contribute to the growth of equality and liberty across the world. Recently, freedom experienced by trade unions is fundamental in the consolidation and the emergence of democracy in countries such as South Africa, Serbia, Philippines, Nigeria, Chile, and Poland. With the increasing force of great repression and risk, employees are seeking to arrange themselves in free trade associations. Free trade associations strive to expand democracy, overthrow dictatorship, and halt the economic oppression after organizing themselves. It is unsurprising that authoritarian states try to curb the formation of free trade associations. They often impose state dominated associations in controlling the workforce.
Currently, free associations are portraying a politically and economically anachronistic, something that belongs to the…
In chapters 8-11 he shows that the glory of God has to be focused in temple, which represents unity of man and God. In chapter 8 he shows that God doesn't stand those who disobeyed him and who refused from him. It's a clear point in chapter 8: God would never stand rivals (Ezekiel 8:6).
Isaiah and Jeremiah describe sovereignty of God through the subject of paganism and idolatry critics, but their arguments have mainly theoretical basis and lack personal experience. This makes them different from arguments of Ezekiel. Arguments of Isaiah are based on religious rationalism: "God is supreme over all things"(Isa. 40:25, 26), which means that he has to be supreme over people. In Isaiah 48, verses 9 to 11 it's said:
For the sake of My name I delay My wrath, and for My praise I restrain it for you, in order not to cut you off.…
The Holy Bible
Wenham, G.J. New Bible Commentary 21st Century, InterVarsity Press 1994
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
longstanding territorial disputes between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Iran, regarding three islands in the Persian Gulf. The first dispute is with respect to the island of Abu Musa, which is claimed by Sharjah. The other is with respect to Greater Tunbs and Lesser Tunbs, both of which are claimed by as al-Khaimah. All three are presently viewed by the international community as territory of Iran. The issue dates back to the formation of the UAE. The former colonial power, the United Kingdom, transferred the islands to Iran at this time, in 1971, ostensibly in exchange for Iran dropping its claim to Bahrain. This paper looks at the dispute between the UAE and Iran over these islands, both in its historical context and in terms of its modern manifestations.
The dispute over the status of Abu Musa pre-dates the formation of the UAE. The island was under…
American.edu (no date) Abu Musa. American University. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://www1.american.edu/ted/abumusa.htm
FAs.org (2000) Abu Musa island. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://fas.org/nuke/guide/iran/facility/abu-musa.htm
Kaikobad, K. (no date) The Abu Musa and Tunb Islands dispute. Strategics International. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://www.strategicsinternational.com/Sem_Islands.pdf
Shoichet, C. & Castillo, M. (2016) Saudi Arabia -- Iran row spreads to other nations. CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/04/middleeast/saudi-arabia-iran-severing-ties-whats-next/
Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation fom God. They wee inspied to wite as they wished, but the outcome was still detemined by God's ultimate will: "Fo the pophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they wee moved by the Holy Ghost." (2 Pete 1:21). In the same way, the wods of the pophets wee thei own, but the message behind these wods was inspied by God. This is the natue of the inteaction between God's will and human feedom in tems of the Bible.
In this way, Feinbeg uses the Bible to substantiate eveything he says about divine and human will, and I am theefoe convinced that his aguments ae supeio to those of Reichenbach…
references to God's sovereignty and omnipotence. Clearly, passages such as Psalm 115:2-3 indicates that God imposes no limitations upon his own power or knowledge even in the face of non-belief: "2 Why should the Gentiles say, / 'So where is their God' / 3 but our God is in heaven; / He does whatever He pleases." Psalm 139:16 states that God knows absolutely everything regarding the outcome of events: "...in Your book they all were written, / the days fashioned for me, / When as yet there were none of them."
Surely what Reichenbach attempts to prove is directly in contradiction to the above. In the light of this, therefore, I believe that Feinberg presents a much stronger biblical argument for the manifestation of human freedom and its interaction with God's will. The Bible contains no passages that indicate God's limitations; either self-imposed or otherwise. In contrast to Reichenbach, Feinberg accepts God's unlimited knowledge and power and basis his philosophical arguments upon this rather than attempting to contradict biblical truth. The latter author's argument is therefore stronger in biblical terms.
After the WWII, there was need to bring back peace to Europe in a lasting manner. There was need to bring a halt to international hatred and bring conditions necessary for a lasting peace into being. This was seen to fruition in the 1950s and one of the vehicles towards achieving this was European Union.
The wars that took place un Europe highly ravaged the economy of the country hence there was need to revitalize the economy of the region hence the formation of the EU was not only a political device to forging peace but an economic tool to ensure that the natural resources like coal that are found in abundance in Europe are well utilized to bring the economy of the region to higher levels than even before the war regime (EUOPA, 2011). These were the two major reasons for the formation of the EU apart from the…
EUROPA, (2011). Why the European Union. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://europa.eu/abc/12lessons/lesson_1/index_en.htm
Conjecture Corporation, (2011). What is a Nation-State? Retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-nation-state.htm
Global Policy Forum, (2011). What Is a "Nation"? Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations-a-states/what-is-a-nation.html
Friedrich Balke, (2007). Restating sovereignty: On America's Regaining the Old Sense of the Political. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://www.parrhesiajournal.org/parrhesia03/parrhesia03_balke.pdf
The term "globalization" is a debatable one. Some view globalization as a process that is beneficial -- fundamental to future world economic development -- and also inevitable and irreversible (IMF, 2000). Others regard it with hostility, and sometimes fear, arguing that it increases inequality within and between nations, threatens employment and living standards and disturbs social progress. This paper offers an overview of some aspects of globalization and aims to identify ways in which countries can optimize the gains of this process, while remaining realistic about its potential and its risks.
Globalization offers many opportunities for future worldwide development. However, it is not progressing evenly. Some countries are becoming integrated into the global economy faster than others. Countries that have been successful at integration have reaped the benefits of faster growth and less poverty.
For instance, global-oriented policies resulted in dynamism and greater prosperity for much of East Asia,…
Daly, H. (2001) Globalization and Its Discontents. Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly, 21, 2/3.
Danaher, K. (1997). Corporations are gonna get your mama: globalization and the downsizing of the American dream. Monroe, Me.: Common Courage Press.
World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington D.C., May 2000.
International Chamber of Commerce. (November, 2000). ICC brief on globalization.
Political legitimacy derives from the peoples of the Member States and thus from the states themselves; (b) the primacy of European law: this is not 'absolute' and the Court reserves the right to block European legislation in order to protect sovereignty and 'constitutional identity', which is, moreover, enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty itself; and (c) ring-fences certain sovereign powers for the Member States: in the areas of criminal law and procedure, policing, military matters, fiscal policy (thus precluding 'economic government') and social, cultural, religious, educational and media affairs; and (5) Emphasizes that the formal creation of a European federal state and the transfer of such powers to that state would require a change in the Constitution and therefore a referendum. (eaudouin, 2009)
eaudouin reports that the Lisbon Treaty makes the EU "considerably more powerful by merging the three pillars, endowing the Union with legal personality, extending its competences, establishing the…
Beaudouin, Christopher (2009) Presentation of the German Federal Constitutional Court Judgment of 30 June 2009 on the Lisbon Treaty. Online available at: http://www.efdgroup.eu/uploads/file/German%20Federal%20Const-Court%20Judgement/788816EN.pdf
Coughlan, Anthony (2009) 13 Facts About the Lisbon Treaty. 21 Aug 2009. Corbett Report -- Open Source Intelligence News. Online available at: http://www.corbettreport.com/articles/20090821_lisbon_facts.htm
European Parliament and the Lisbon Treaty (2009) European Parliament. Online available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?language=EN&refreshCache=yes&pageRank=1&id=66
McConalogue, Jim (2009) Ireland's 100 Reasons to Vote 'No' to the Lisbon Treaty. The European Journal. Sept 2009. Online available at: http://europeanjournal.typepad.com/my_weblog/2009/09/irelands-100-reasons-to-vote-no-to-the-lisbon-treaty.html
The precariousness of their relationship with the Dakota was evidenced in 1843, when "the Omaha and the Ponca were considering a union, 'to live together as one people' [….] no doubt as a defensive strategy against the Dakota" (Wishart 1994, 85). However, this ultimately never came about, "and the Ponca again joined the Dakota to raid the Omaha," because "in the chaotic years of the 1840s when starvation confronted all the Indians, warfare became the primary means of the spreading the subsistence base," and allying with the Dakota, who were one of the most powerful tribes in the region, made the most sense (Wishart 1994, 85).
Despite the Ponca's alliances with the Dakota, the latter group became increasingly hostile, resulting in the Ponca gradually returning to their ancestral base near the mouth of the Niobara river, "likely [because] the Dakota had cut them off from the bison range and forced…
Wishart, David. An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
Treaty with the Ponca 1825. Accessed November 23, 2011.
New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective
The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…
Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf
Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73
Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
This is significant, because the two elements will directly determine the overall extent that these issues will play in deciding when American forces will withdraw. It is through examining this complex role that United States is playing in Iraq, that provide the greatest insights as to what challenges will be faced in the future.
"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq. Http://en.aswataliraq.info/?p=129534 .
Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. C. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5052138.stm. Accessed 2
"Lebanon, Israel and the Greater West Asian Crisis." 17 August 2006. Open Democracy.
Http://www.opendemocracy.net/conflict/westasia_crisis_3833.jsp. Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Obama Keeps U.S. Troop Withdrawal Plan after Iraq Poll." 7 March 2010. Reuters.
Http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6261YI20100307. Accessed 2 April 2010.
"PKK Surrender Test Turkey Plan." 19 October 2009. C. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8315088.stm. Accessed 2
"U.S. Commits to Iraq Withdrawal by 2011, but Could Seek an Extension."…
"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq. Http://en.aswataliraq.info/?p=129534 .
Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. BBC. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5052138.stm . Accessed 2
S. Constitution. The court ruled, "Proposition 8 served no purpose, and had no effect, other than to lessen the statutes and human dignity of gays and lesbians in California" (Dolan, 2012). Hence, the will of the people can become law through popular initiatives, but on the other hand, the argument can be made that if citizens object to the constitutional amendments enacted in any given state -- for any political or social issue -- they have the power of the judiciary to address grievances and sue to reverse the decision.
But should citizens have the power to make public policy through initiatives and state constitutional amendments? Is direct democracy the answer for citizens that feel their elected officials are out of touch? This paper believes that passing propositions and altering state constitutions is indeed a way to bring the voter "…in closer touch with great affairs" and allow the voter…
Dolan, Mura. "Prop. 8: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional, Court Rules." Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com .
Levin, Daniel Lessard. Representing Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution in American
Political Culture. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999.
Wars of Principle in the Falklands and Malvinas
Although the age of imperialism has slowly, but inexorably, been consigned to history books, with the great ritish, Spanish and Portuguese empires that once dominated the globe now largely defunct after the revolutionary spirit swept through colonies from America to Argentina, vestiges of this age-old system still remain to this day. Despite withdrawing from the vast majority of its former colonies after successful campaigns for independence were waged, the United Kingdom has strived to maintain a semblance of its former power by maintaining control over small areas of land within the nations it previously ruled over. Hong Kong in China, Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula, and a half dozen Caribbean islands from ermuda to Turks and Caicos, the custom of leaving behind ritish territories in the wake of widespread independence movements was instituted to ensure that the United Kingdom's dogged pursuit of…
Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.
Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of
1982. Faber & Faber, 1990.
Gustafson, Lowell S. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Oxford University Press, 1988.
The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran
Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.
Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…
Alterman, Eric. 1998. Who speaks for America?: why democracy matters in foreign policy.
Ithaca [u.a.]: Cornell Univ. Press.
Beisner, Robert L. 2003. American foreign relations since 1600 a guide to the literature.
Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. http://ebooks.abc-clio.com/?isbn=9781576075302 .
Education can reinforce hegemony or be used to facilitate political resistance and catalyze social justice. Students and faculty at the University of Hawaii have empowered themselves through education, through changes to curriculum and also to the norms of public discourse. In “Native Student Organizing,” Trask also describes how political structures in education have a direct bearing on community empowerment. Left alone, university politics can too easily reflect the dominant, colonialist, and typically white discursive practices. Trask describes how concerted efforts at building campus organizations of resistance and decolonization can and will yield results that extend far beyond campus boundaries. In fact, education is often the breeding ground for broader social and/or political revolutions like the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, which Trask recalls. During processes of transformative change in universities, it is important to create pathways for harmonious exchanges of ideas. Indigenous empowerment and the Hawaiian sovereignty movement can…
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
omen, for example, only gained their right of suffrage in 1920 and Article VI of the Constitution of 1876 only gives "male persons" over the age of 21 who have "resided in Texas for at least one year" the right to vote.
Compact Theory: The compact theory holds that the formation of the Union of the United States was through a "compact" of all the States individually and the creation of the national government was believed to be a creation of the states. Hence the states were the final judge of whether the national government had overstepped the boundaries of the "compact." One of the versions of the compact theory (the unilateral compact theory) was used by the Confederate secessionists to declare their secession from the Union, which signaled the start of the Civil ar (Lind, para 11). In the Texas Constitution of 1876, the compact theory is used to…
ARTICLE III- Legislative Department: Constitution of the State of Texas (1876)." The University of Texas at Austin. March 11, 2005. July 26, 2006. http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/constitutions/text/IART03.html
Dye, Thomas R. Politics in America. Sixth Edition, 2004. Pearson Prentice-Hall: New York
General Characteristics of the Texas Constitution." Liberal Arts Instructional Services: University of Texas at Austin. 2006. July 26, 2006. http://texaspolitics.laits.utexas.edu/html/cons/0302.html
Lind, Michael. "Do the People Rule?" New American Foundation. February 1, 2002. July 26, 2006. http://www.newamerica.net/index.cfm?pg=article&DocID=719
What was Madison's Dilemma and what was his solution to it?
James Madison's dilemma primarily hinges on the idea that "men are not angels," that if the contrary was true, then no form of government would be needed. However, because men are truly not angels, government is a necessary system. This brings about a dilemma to Madison, who views this roundabout thinking as a paradox: even with government, how does one prevent man from his non-angelic, corrupt behaviors? What separates government from the common man? Madison's solution, then, is a separation of powers, a "checks and balances" system in the judicial, legislative, and executive branch. In this manner, each branch limits powers of the other branches, and can also resist major influences within the separate branches.
What is the process of incorporation and what is its constitutional basis?
The incorporation doctrine -- or the "incorporation of the Bill…
These climatic changes in turn impact negatively on the economy and the people within the region. There is need hence for the environmental protection for sustainable development. Though there have been significant measures like the formulation of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) which was geared towards protection of the marine environment especially tackling pollution and shipping safety laws to be in place (Justice Laws Website, 2013), there is still more that Canada can do to ensure a sustainable economic growth of this region.
Canada must therefore resort to ecosystem-based management system within the Artic region. There is need to ensure an approach that will take into account the co-management of the species in the Artic region that may cross the international borders like the polar bear and the Arctic birds. The collaborative approach to the ecosystem should also include the Arctic research and science ventures conducted in collaborative…
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, (2013). Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/arctic_policy-canada-politique_arctique.aspx?lang=eng
Geopolitics in the High North, (2013). Statement on Canada's Arctic policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=138:statement.
Justice Laws Website, (2013). Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-12). Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-12/
Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html#s85Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History):…
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
This news story has a positive impression of Oxfam works.
Analysis.- Oxfam has a record of 60 years in increasing worldwide public understanding of economic and social justice as crucial elements to sustainable development. Its 12 confederates are located in their respective regions and undertaking international goals and policies according to the requirements of the regions. The confederates work with poor people so that their lives may be improved and they may govern their own lives. Oxfam struggles to influence governments and powerful people in a straightforward manner without infringing upon their sovereignty. And it joins hands with all people for the universal good through open and popular campaigning, alliance building and media work in arriving at earnest and workable solutions to global poverty, to motivate as many people as possible to actively participate in the movement for change and to create a sense of global citizenship. Oxfam's work method…
Courier Mail, the. Oxfam Unveils New Sense of Giving. Queensland Newspapers, May 12, 2005. http://www.thecouriermailnews.com.au/printpage
Nabi, Rashed un. Oxfam's Fair Trade Report: Rigged Rules and Double Standard. Holiday Editorials. Holiday Publications Ltd., 2005. http://www.weeklyholiday.net/190702/edit.html
Oxfam International. Who We Are, 2002.
Citizens of a Stateless Nation
The emergence of stateless nations around the world and their impact on geopolitical issues, both on a regional and a global scale.
With ethnic minorities such as the Basque and Catalonian separatist movements of Spain, the Quebecois of Canada, the Palestinians of the Middle East, and the Kurds of Iraq and Turkey all staking their claim to autonomy through acts of civil protest, shows of electoral strength, and even militarized means, the issue of stateless nations has become a global priority. The currently hostile engagement between Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip, and their Israeli neighbors, demonstrates the consequences of ignoring the identity of culturally and ethnically unique groups. By studying the distinct circumstances underlying each of these four stateless nations, including their claims to sovereignty and grievances with their parent nation, it is possible to formulate effective solutions which may eventually effect the brokering…
Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.
Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…
Alexey V.Y.; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. (2009). Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Wiley-Blackwell.
Berger, E.M. (2010). The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1), 1-8
Davletbaev, R (2001). Last shift Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or chance? Moscow: Energoatomizdat.
Jargin, S. (2012). Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation. International Journal Of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 42(1), 29-34
The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.
Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…
references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.
The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.
Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.
gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)
2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)
The term "manifest destiny" was coined by John L. O'Sullivan during the administration of President James Knox Polk in the middle of the 19th century. However, the concept of manifest destiny seemed to have guided the original settling of the European colonies in North America, with the accompanying sense of entitlement to the lands and people therein. Manifest destiny suggested that God ordained America to be special, and wanted Americans to conquer and amass as much land as possible. Territorial acquisition became the cornerstone of American politics in the 19th century. Under President Polk, the boundaries of the United States stretched as far as they could possibly go, warranting war with a neighboring state: Mexico. Therefore, the events leading up to the Mexican War were directly linked to the overall concept of Manifest Destiny.
However, there were other precursors to the Mexican War. ebellions in California led to…
University of Virginia (2013). American president. Retrieved online: http://millercenter.org/president/polk/essays/biography/1
"War Fever and Antiwar Protests." Digital History. Retrieved online: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3266
Expanding the United Nations' mandate
The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.
However, the above functions…
Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/parliament/senatoreugeneforsey/inside_view/canada_usa-e.html
United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/pkmandates.shtml
In the final analysis the film under discussion can be deconstructed and critiqued from a postmodern perspective. This refers to the underlying ideologies and metanarratives that inform the narrative and imagery of the film.
From a postmodern point-of-view truth is never static or fixed and is always relative to a certain context or stance. The film in question makes use of a number of rhetorical devices to put forward its central argument. These include aspects such as the metanarratives of science as well as environmental nostalgia. There are many other ways in which this film could be deconstructed to reveal fissures in the apparent logic and coherence of the documentary. hat is clear is that even a discursive postmodern reading of the film indicates that Gore unconsciously or consciously makes use of various cultural predilections and ideologies in estern culture to support his stance in this film.
An Inconvenient Truth ( 2006). Direction: Davis Guggenheim. Paramount Classics.
FOUCAULT, DERRIDA, WOMEN'S SPEAKING JUSTIFIED AND MODELLING LEGAL
ARGUMENT ( Book Review). 26 January, 2010.
Thus, Scott was always a slave in areas that were free" ("Classifying arguments," Landmark Supreme Court Cases, 2009).
After the Scott decision, advocates of compromise between slave and free states such as Senator Henry Clay found their views legally invalidated. Clay had advocated the doctrine of popular sovereignty: that states should decide whether slavery was prohibited or permitted within their borders. As a result of Scott v. Sandford Northern states that had abolished slavery would now be forced to harbor slaves within their borders, if residents of slave states transported their 'property' to free states. To a slave-holder, being able to transport his or her property to the north was akin to being able to take a piece of luggage across state borders and retain his or her control over the property.
Southern states had always stressed the inclusion of slavery within the Constitution, and generally disregarded the Supremacy Clause,…
"Classifying Arguments in the Case." Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Landmark Supreme Court
Cases. November 17, 2009. http://www.landmarkcases.org/dredscott/arguments.html
When Serbia refused, Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia, forcing the mobilization of ussia to prevent the destruction of Serbia.
German forces mobilized in support of Austro-Hungary by prior agreement, and declared war on ussia in response to her mobilization of forces.
To avoid a war on two fronts, Germany attacked France because of the fear that France would attack Germany once Germany and ussia went to war against each other.
Britain entered the war against Germany because Germany invaded Belgium to bypass the most fortified approaches into France. By 1917, German attacks on neutral shipping bound for England provoked the U.S. To enter the war as well. Some of the first action of the wider war was the occupation of German colonies in Asia and Africa. By the end of the war, England was poised to rule much of the Middle East until after World War II, which control was…
Howard, M. (2000) the Invention of Peace: Reflections on War and International Order. London: Yale University Press.
This could have a negative impact on the ability of the new economy to survive.
There are advantages and disadvantages to joining the EU, depending on how ready the country is to make the leap into a competitive market. Differences forced former Czechoslavakia to separate. Now, each of the fledgling republics must be evaluated on their own merits. The Velvet evolution of 1989 destroyed the socialist republic. By the 1990s, the Czech epublic's GDP per capita was 20% higher than Slovakia's. This may indicate better readiness to move into the European Union and the capital market system. Prior to 1991, transfers were made from the Czech budget to help finance Slovakian interests. This indicates a greater state of readiness for the Czechs than for Slovakia.
Feelings in the country are mixed as to whether the two countries should be completely independent or whether they should continue with shared interests. The…
Central Intelligence Agency. Global Factbook. Slovakia. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lo.html . Accessed December 21.
Fidrmuc, J. & Fidrmuc, J. 2000. "
Macroeconomic Developments in the Czech Republic and the EU Accession Process,"
Working Papers ir00008, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
The fact that God seems to be taken surprise by human action, and the fact that the Lord can also change his mind in the last verse of the passage, Exodus 32: 14, suggests free will exists, or the ability of humanity to change the world through prayer, and the idea that not all of the future is already decided -- the 'maybe' exists in the form of humanity's to show free will to obey or disobey, and to beg for forgiveness.
In Numbers 14:11-23, God again seems taken by surprised by the sins of His children, in this case Moses' sister Miriam and his brother Aaron, who criticize Moses for marrying a Cu*****e woman. God punishes Miriam with leprosy, and Moses and Aaron beg God to heal their sister. God bargains with the men, refusing to heal her outright, but agrees to heal her after seven days, showing the…
Storfjell states that verse one which: "speaks about the size and age of David in comparison to his brothers and about his appointment to the work of Shepherd" (1987) is confirmed in verse 10 "which contrasts the fact that size and age are not criteria for being appointed to the position of leaders over Israel.
IV. The Attitude of deSilva Toward the Apocrypha
The work of deSilva reveals his attitude toward the Apocrypha in his statement of:
the Apocrypha, while not of the status of sacred Scripture have much to teach us about God, ethics, challenges to faithful living, and the developments in Jewish history, culture, and though that provide the matrix for the early church' (p.40) deSilva is stated to have summarized "the various genres contained therein which are those of:
2) Wisdom literature;
3) Liturgical pieces;
4) Thematic essays; and 5) Apocalyptic texts"
Summary and Conclusion…
Yamauchi, Edwin (1973) the Stones and the Scriptures. Leicester: IVP, 1973, p.11.
Priestly, William (nd) the Dead Sea Scrolls - Biblical Studies. Online available at http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/article_dss.html .
M. Burrows, (1956) the Dead Sea Scrolls. Secker & Warburg, 1956, p.262.
Storfjell, J. Bjornar (1987) the Chiastic Structure of Psalm 151. Andrews University Seminary Studies 25.1 (1987) 97-106.
Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…
1. Slater, Jerome Can Zionism be Reconciled with Justice for the Palestinians Article Tikkun July 2003
2. Zuncs, Stephen Defending Zionism in a Time of Occupation and Oppression Article Tikkun p.54 April 2004
3. Starobin, Paul Rethinking Zionism Article National Journal p.1240 April 24, 2004
4. Hazony, Yoram the Zionism Idea and its Enemies Article Commentary may 96, Vol. 101, Issue 5 p.30
eber made appoint of recognizing that, even something so seemingly objective and abstract as the law, was, in reality, a substantive tool in the hands of judges and politicians. Judges are not "automata of paragraphs' (eber) because they are of necessity implicated in the values they are compelled to adjudicate. Substantive judgments and discretionary, extra-juristic evaluations are smuggled in under the camouflage of formal legal rationality." (Baehr 2002) the law, as it was printed on the page, was objective - it always said the same thing. However, it was the various judges, each of whom brought to the bench a unique collection of experiences, who necessarily interpreted those words in different ways. All of this was thus, a completely natural and "scientific" process. Each part of the machine performed as it was supposed to - it just depended on how you assembled the machine.
One sign that is frequently taken…
Baehr, Peter. 2002. In the Grip of Freedom: Law and Modernity in Max Weber. Canadian Journal of Sociology 27, no. 4: 587+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/.Internet. Accessed 4 June 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49065068
1990. The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94050575
Grusky, David B., ed. 1994. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007673311
California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…
Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html .
The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html .
Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/scott/impact.html .
Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ka/KansasNe.html .
WHIGS vs. DEMOCATS
Slavery, Freedom, crisis Union 1840-1877 Democracy America: The Whigs Democrats Many Americans half nineteenth century a powerful federal government a threat individual liberty supported sovereignty state local government.
Slavery, freedom, and the crisis of the Union 1840-1877: Considering economic policies and the balance of power between national and local government, how did Whigs and Democrats differ in their definitions of American freedom and its relationship to government authority? Use two examples from both the Democrats and Whigs to support your claims.
Ever since the birth of America, two competing strains of thought ran through the American consciousness. The first was the Jeffersonian idea that the government which governed best, governed least and that a relatively weak central government was a facilitator of liberty. The contrasting Hamiltonian notion stressed that a strong federal government was required to protect individual liberties and the state as a whole. These tensions…
Baker, William D. (2007). Whig Party. Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved:
Democrats v. Whigs. (2012). Tennessee 4 Me. Retrieved:
Community and Social Justice
Since the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it has continued to be engaged with human rights as proven by the struggle for decolonization, self-determination, and independence of the African continent. Embodied with this, obviously, is the fact that those fighting and agitating for independence sought human right principles to justify their struggle because colonialism disregarded human rights of the colonized persons. In contrast to the OAU, the African Union (AU) made human rights an explicit component of its obligation as encoded in its Act and human rights in its mainstream programs and activities. However, with no doubt, the current approaches require strengthening with a perspective of creating a holistic, integrated and comprehensive methodology to ensure respect for all human rights.
OAU to AU: An overview
The OAU charter is grounded on the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty. It stipulates the battle for…
Bachir, S. (2009). Individual, Community, and Human Rights: a lesson from Kwasi Wiredu's philosophy of personhood. Transition, Issue 101, 2009, pp. 8-15 (Article) Published by Indiana University Press.
Diagne, S.B. (2010). Islam and open society: Fidelity and movement in the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Harris, G. (2009). Organization of African Unity. Oxford, England: Clio Press.
Nmehielle, V.O. (2011). The African human rights system: Its laws, practice, and institutions. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff.
THE BLACKFEET NATION INDIANS
This is a five page paper dealing with the Blackfeet Nation Indians. It will explore the tribe's history and early lifestyles. It will also cover the health and education of the tribe now. Problems facing the tribe and methods used in preserving their culture will also be addressed. There are seven references used.
The Blackfeet Indians are a Native American tribe that live in Northern Montana. They have a history rich in traditions and rituals. There is some controversy on how they became known as Blackfeet, but many believe it is because of the black moccasins they wore. It's not sure how these moccasins became black, but two suggestions are the Indians painted them or they were darkened by prairie fire (www.blackfeetnation.com).
The original home of the Blackfeet is believed to have been in the eastern woodlands "north of the Great Lakes (www.blackfeetnation.com)."…
(Origins and Early History of the Blackfeet (accessed 10-01-2002) http://
Ritter, John. "Blackfeet plan USA's only offshore bank." USA Today. (2000): 03 April.
Nijhuis, Michelle. "Tribal immersion schools rescue language and culture." The Christian
Science Monitor. (2002): 11 June.
gaining an understanding of Mary Crow Dog, what did you find most interesting about this chapter? Be sure to explain why you found it most interesting.
This chapter provides a lot of insight into gender roles and norms in the society, beyond learning about how these norms impacted Mary Crow Dog on a personal level. The phenomenon of child marriage, and of the lack of power women had over their own destinies, is evidence from the very first sentence of Chapter 12 "Sioux and Elephants Never Forget." The first sentence is tellingly written in the passive voice, when Mary Crow Dog writes about her marriage to Crow Dog. She writes, "I became Crow Dog's wife," not "I married Crow Dog," which would be the active voice phrasing. Mary Crow Dog purposely uses the passive voice because she was not even eighteen years old when she married. And more than that,…
Crow Dog, M. (1990). Lakota Woman. New York: Harper.
Mankiller, W. (1993). Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin's.
Legal egulation Conservation Laws on UN Countries Territories
For a long time, the roles of the UN in managing state affairs and world peace have evolved. There are more state and non-state actors in the process of developing and imposing UN laws in sovereign states. This research paper aims at evaluating legal regulation of the conservation laws of UN of the countries territories. The essay argues that the regulations are not sufficient in conserving country progress.
ussia is noticeable in the modern world through its interventions during the post-Soviet era with the special focus of the current leadership. China is trending towards becoming increasingly authoritarian through its military-geopolitical or oil/gas-motivated expansionist diplomatic offensives on neighboring or trading countries propelled by the current leader. The authoritarian behavior appears to be supported by a strong sovereignty sense (Ferris, 2011). The UN has taken it to be a case of economic weakness within…
Browne, M.A. (2011). United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Ferris, E.G. (2011). The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action. New York: Brookings Institution Press.
Freedman, R. (2013). The United Nations Human Rights Council: A critique and early assessment. New York: Routledge.
Ramcharan, B.G. (2009). The Protection Roles of UN Human Rights Special Procedures. New York: BRILL.
international relations: idealism vs. realism
The theories of international relations have been seen as a mechanism thru which practitioners in the area of international politics as well as scholars tried to explain the way in which international politics function and how the behavior of states and actors on the international scene can be anticipated.
The beginning of the 20th century was a period of deep consideration for international politics, given the First World War and its aftermath. The idealistic approach on international politics tried to explain the behavior states had after the end of the war and also define the period between the two conflagrations. The realist theory on the other hand appeared as a result of the Second World War and its aftermath and, although it took into account similar elements, the points made in reference to these elements were somewhat in contrast. There are several key issues that…
Griffiths. M. 1999. Fifty key thinkers in international relations. Routledge, London.
Guzzini, S. 1998. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. Routledge, London.
Kissinger, H. 1994. Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster, London.
First, six countries (including France and Germany, significantly) signed the Coal and Steel Treaty, which meant that no country could never develop enough military power on their own to mount an invasion of another, this preserving each state and nation in Europe (Europa 2009). The Council of Europe also emerged as an entity in the West (the part of Europe not under Soviet control) that increased political and economic cooperation. Today, all of the major countries in Europe including Great Britain, Italy, France, and Germany (and many others) are members of the European Union, without giving up sovereignty or combining cultures.
Most of the European Union's member states (with the notable exception of Great Britain) now uses a standardized currency, the Euro, and trade and travel between member nations has also been made much easier. In this way, one of the primary functions of the European Union is to create…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: people, places and environment (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Europa. (2009). Gateway to the European Union. Accessed 21 October 2009. http://europa.eu/index_en.htm
U.S. Dept. Of State. (2009). Diplomacy in action. Accessed 21 October 2009. http://www.state.gov/
Perry, J.A, & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: an introduction to social science (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.