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Analysis of Event, Sponsor, Consumer elationship
Private organizations may be enticed to provide a share of the funding necessary to design and construct a sport facility or support the planning and operational phase of an event until the first revenues arrive. Companies may become involved in financing for three chief reasons. First, the company may seek to provide a facility within which to deliver its own products or services or its own major event. This is essentially a method of vertical integration.
A sport organization may wish to construct a facility that can be used to house its own events: The ugby Sevens. The relationship can also work the other way around: for example, a facility might independently organize events to help contribute towards better- capacity utilization. Many larger multi-purpose arenas not only solicit the interests of event promoters but also operate their own event…
Armstrong, K.L. (2002). An examination of the social psychology of Blacks' consumption of sport. Journal of Sport Management, 16, 267-288.
Abratt, R., B.C. Clayton, and L.F. Pitt (2007), Corporate Objectives in Sports Sponsorships, International Journal of Advertising, 6, 299-311.
Baldwin, R. (2006), Taxing Aspects of Sports Sponsorship, Management Accounting, 10, 36-37.
Bagozzi, R. (2009), Marketing as Exchange, Journal of Marketing, 39, 32-39. 4.
Sports management is defined as a coordination of technologies, resources, personnel, processes, and situational contingencies to enhance efficient exchange and production of sports services. Typically, sports management is related to other business management that involves planning, organizing, evaluating and using managerial skills to achieve the organizational objectives. Chelladurai, (1993) classifies sports management with references to the services delivered, which include participant services, consumer services, professional services, spectator services, and sponsorship services. The author also points out that the sports management has overlapped the recreation and health administrations leading to the interrelationships with other disciplines. While Chelladurai, (1993) evaluates the taxonomy of sports management in the 80s and early 90s, however, sports management has changed in the last 20 years because it has integrated the sport merchandising services, and sport facilities services.
The objective of this paper is to explore the taxonomy of sports management over the last 20 years.
The master of the ceremony will be the key agent of advertisement during the event (Argenti 37). He will adorn himself at four different times with attires that are representing the brands of each of the four key sponsors.
The event is expected to cost an estimate of $8,000, which is inclusive of the token of appreciation given to the artists and the total cost incurred in running advertisements via the various media outlets (Tassiopoulos 21).
Courvoisier S.A, 2 place du Chateau,
16200 Jarnac, France
Tel +33 (0)5-45-35-56 16
As an organizer of Go-Go Music Show, which is an event held annually in ashington DC, I would like to invite the support of Courvoisier as one of the event sponsors. The event would be held on 10, November 2012.
As a sponsor in this event, you will have a chance to advertise the various brands offered by your…
Tassiopoulos, Dimitri. Event Management: A Professional and Developmental Approach. Sydney: Juta and Company Ltd., 2005. Print.
Skinner, Bruce and Rukavina, Vladimir. Event Sponsorship. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Print.
Tarlow, Peter. Event Risk Management and Safety. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Print.
Kahle, Lynn and Close, Angeline. Consumer Behavior Knowledge for Effective Sports and Event Marketing. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 2010. Print.
Sport Promotion Mix
Kotler's promotion mix consists of advertising, publicity, personal contact, incentives, and atmospherics as well as licensing, sponsorship, and community relations to represent the contemporary sport promotion mix (Irwin, 2008). The New York Yankees the contemporary promotion mix. They have advertising of ticket sales, news articles and videos as publicity, blogs for personal contact with fans, discounts on tickets as incentives, and atmospherics with a showcase of bleachers, licensing with team logo items, sponsorships with corporations, and community relations with donations and fund drives.
Advertising is done for ticket sales (Home Page) and team logo items (New York Yankees), such as t-shirts, hats, etc. The advertised items serve two fold in the promotion mix. Ticket sales contain incentives in 12-game and group packages that offer discounts to consumers. The team logo items are advertised for sale, but also contain the licensing of the team logo. The team logo…
New York Yankees. (2013). Retrieved from ESPN MLB: http://espn.go.com/mlb/team/_/name/nyy/new-york-yankees
Yankee Publications. (2013). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.: http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/nyy/fan_forum/publications.jsp
Bryant, A. (1993, Apr 5). The Media Business: Advertising; For a Major League Baseball Team, the Season's First Pitch Comes Well Before Opening Up. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/1003/04/05/business/media-business-advertising-for-major-league-baseball-team-season-s-first-pitch.html
Home Page. (n.d.). Retrieved from Heros Remembered. Legends Born.: http://newyork.yankees.mlb.com/inde , jsp-c_id=nyy
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved
June 28, 2009, from http://www.aauw.org . (2004).
Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-
Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
The Chinese sport has been identified as one of the most dynamic sectors in China based on the market value of the sports industry. In 2013, the market value of the Chinese sports industry was more than $2.91 Billion and increased to $3.44 Billion in 2014 revealing an increase of 18.01%. Typically, Chinese sports industry also recorded the market values of $3.43 Billion at the end of 2015 fiscal year. Although the Chinese sports industry only contributes to 0.63% of the GDP in 2013, however, since 2000, the sports industry has recorded more than 4% annual growth rate based on the increase in the household spending. After the Olympic game in 2008, the market value of the Chinese sports industry has increased by 20%. A report by the Chamber of Commerce (2015) shows that before the success of Lina's, the CSSM ("Chinese Sports Sponsorship Market") value (p 1) was approximate…
Ambush Marketing: Should Tough ules be introduced to Protect Sports Sponsors?
This is a paper that describes the concept of ambush marketing and outlines how it can be detrimental for the official sports sponsors of events such as the World Cup, Tournaments etc. It argues whether there should be laws for curbing this marketing tactic. It has sources.
Lack of business ethics is a problem that is of growing concern in the field of business today. Many individuals and organizations either easily forget or ignore ethical codes when they see business opportunities. This is an issue of immense concern because of the fact that millions of dollars can be jeopardized easily on the part of rightful contractors. Speaking more specifically, this refers to the manner in which sports sponsors at major events are denied their total rights over an event due to interfering investors. These rights are denied as the…
Aaker, David. A. Building Strong Brands, New York, NY: The Free Press, 1996.
Donaldson, Michael. Crik: Ambush marketers face jail in South Africa. AAP Sports News (Australia). 2002.
Greising, David. "Run, Jump and Sell: Commercial Exploitation of Sports Explodes." Business Week, July 29, 1996.
Gwinner, Kevin. "A Model of Image Creation and Image Transfer in Event Sponsorship." International Marketing Review 14, 3: 145-58. 1997.
Traditional Media Strategies
The use of traditional media in sports marketing remains popular. Indeed, sports marketers spend a great deal of resources on television, print, and radio advertising, with sports comprising a substantial portion of ad spending for television and radio channels. A significant percentage of sports fans actually watch sports events for the commercials. They tend to enjoy the commercials more than the game itself. Traditional media enables sports marketers to reach geographically dispersed consumers at a fairly low cost per exposure (Swayne, 2011). Take an event like the FIFA World Cup, for instance. The event has following from virtually every corner of the world. Without television, radio, and the print media, it may be quite difficult to communicate with such a geographically dispersed fan base. For this plan, it would be important to incorporate traditional media. In fact, traditional media should be allocated a significant fraction of the…
Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: http://www.yconomie.com/aspara/articles/aspara-2009_stock_ownership_brand_loyal_behaviors.pdf
In this work, Aspara investigates the psychological motivations underlying stock ownership and its influence on brand loyalty as well as finding empirical evidence to support the explication of these motivations. The author points out that, although consumption and investment psychologies, respectively, have been seen as separate realms, the study reveals that they can have a significant mutual influence. Indeed, the author has found that many individuals who become stockowners in a company also experience a positive and increased motivation towards brand loyalty for that company. Positive word-of-mouth has also been found among individuals becoming stock owners in a company.
What this means for the study to be conducted on brand loyalty among the youth in the United States and Kenya may not be considered in terms of…
Sports and Sexual Stereotypes
Anger and the WNA
Whatever women do they must do twice as well as men to be thought half as good. Luckily this is not difficult.
P.E. -- to me there was nothing closer to my seventh-grade conception of hell than that infernal class. There, wearing the requisite blue short-shorts and pulled up tube socks, facing forty-five long minutes of humiliating (to my adolescent sensibilities) sweat-inducing activities, I learned it would be better to be a lousy jump-roper, dodge-ball player, or atrocious relay racer, than to actually attempt excellence at these endeavors.
Even at such a young age, I already knew that it simply "isn't attractive," to exert oneself physically in front of the opposite sex, unless, that is, the exertion does not detract from culturally-accepted ideals of beauty -- after all, cheerleaders, gymnasts, and figure skaters could be pretty (perhaps because…
Cahn, S.K. (1993). From the 'Muscle Moll' to the 'Butch' Ballplayer: Mannishness, and homophobia in U.S. Women's Sports. Feminist Studies. 19, (343-368).
Martin, Chris. (2000). Arizona Daily Wildcat. "WNBA, what a joke!" Web site: http://www.wildcat.arizona.edu/papers/94/6/02_7_m.html .
Schlussel, Debbie. The Jewish World Reviewjewishworldreview.com taken at http://www.dadi.org/ds_wnba.htm .
Steinem, Gloria. The Revolution Within. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, (1992)
The Wimbledon Tennis tournament as a hallmark-sporting event creates these social and cultural impact of the community. This is because according to theory transient and recurring events act as important methods of collecting identification of host communities. They present opportunities of asserting, reproducing, reinforcing, and contesting prevailing cultural values and beliefs and social norms (Quinn 2009). Hallmark events are identified as functions that support and reinforce the image of established social and cultural norms.
PR Newswire (2012) indicates the unpredictability of the effects of Olympics as its impact may be difficult to evaluate. However, in the case of London's 2012 Olympics, the games left a lasting impression on the socio-cultural context of ritain. According to Dhar (2012), the games led to the unification and social spirit of unity among the ritish during 2012, as compared to the divided and lawlessness associated with urban riots in 2011. The games increased the…
Akerlund, U 2008. Implementation of hallmark events among tourism stakeholders: the discourses of Umea's bid for European Capital of Culture 2014
Andersson, TD, Armbrecht, J and Lundberg, E, 2008. Impact of Mega-Events on the Economy. Asian Business & Management, 7(2), pp. 163-179.
Andrea, C, Andrew, F, Munday, M, and Roberts, a 2007. Assessing the Environmental Consequences of Major Sporting Events: The 2003/04 FA Cup Final. Urban Studies, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 44(3), pp. 457-476.
Anonymous 2012, Apr 18. Olympics 2012: The Economic Impact Market Assessment 2012. PR Newswire.
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…
Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge
Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac, http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm last accessed on July 6, 2010
2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
marketing plan a sports enterprise (e.g. professional, school, community program). You select a "real" enterprise a fictitious . You position manager develop a plan implement employees / contractors.
The modern day society is nowadays characterized by numerous challenges, one of the more notable of these being increasing health problems among the population. And these health problems are more severe not only as they attack more people, but especially since they come to impact younger and younger generations.
A large majority of the health problems of today are related to an inadequate nutrition, combined with a sedentary life style. The youth of the day for instance consume more and more calories from the highly processed foods and they exercise less, as the leisure activities come to be centered on video games or other sedentary activities (Smith and Biddle, 2008).
In such a setting then, the current project proposed the…
Armstrong, N., Van Mechelen, W., 2009, Pediatric exercise science and medicine, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press
Longenecker, J.G., Loeza, M.A.T., Small business management, Cengage Learning
Kaser, K., Oelkers, D.B., 2007, Sports and entertainment marketing, 3rd edition, Cengage Learning
Smith, A.L., Bibble, S., 2008, Youth physical activity and sedentary behavior: challenges and solutions, Human Kinetics
Legal Structure and Management of a National Level Sporting Organisation
Sports activities in the world today are becoming more popular and are attracting huge crowd. This is one of the reasons that have made sponsors to come in so as to help such clubs that are not able to support themselves financially. Through sponsoring, the sponsor is able to market and advertise its products within the stadium where the club is playing among other benefits. It is worth noting that sports are viewed as a means of income to each stakeholder including the players. Essendon football club has made Australia to be known worldwide because of the good performance the club has exhibited over the years.
Essendon Football Club is rated as a dynamic world class club in the Australian sporting arena. The success and competitiveness of the club is dependant on its set legal structure and proper management that…
Books, H. 2011. Articles on Essendon Football Club Including: List of Essendon Football Club, Honours, Anzac Day Class. America, AM: Hephaestus Books.
Bools, L., & LLC, G.B. 2010. Essendon Football CLub: Essendon Football Club, List of Essendon Football CLub Honours. United States, U.S.: General Books LLC.
Clark, T. 2007. Stick This in Your Memory Hole. Doncaster East Victoria, VIC: aduki independent press.
Devaney, J.P. 2009. Full Points Footy: Encyclopedia of Australian Football Clubs. Lincoln, LN: Lulu.com.
Improving Competition and Community Engagement
Sports experts, analysts, and observers agree that club football, especially in Europe, is characterized by increased prosperity and popularity. Football has experienced tremendous prosperity and success over the past decade. The increased popularity and prosperity of football clubs has been characterized by the emergence of numerous commercial opportunities and more involvement of fans in the management/running of football clubs. Sports clubs are increasingly exploiting the commercial opportunities through lucrative sponsorship and television deals. Therefore, the success of football clubs in the current sports environment requires increasing capacities to compete with better funded clubs and enhanced community engagement.
Competing with Better Funded Clubs
As the sports industry has become more prosperous and popular, clubs have attracted lucrative sponsorship and television deals as well as other kinds of funding. Currently, there are better funded clubs in the league, which have the money to attract and keep the…
Octagon Sports Organization Structure
Octagon Sports Organizational Structure
The most fundamental aspect and/or tool for establishing a successful organization is the organizational structure. Organizational structure is a typical and hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, rights, duties, and communications within an organization, thereby defining how powers, roles, and responsibilities are assigned, coordinated, and controlled, and how information flows between the diversified levels of management. All these aspects are thereby directed towards the attainment or achievement of an organization's aims and/or goals. An organization's structure depends on the organization's core objectives and strategies. There are two categories of organizational structure comprising (i) centralized structure, and (ii) decentralized structure. Within a centralized structure, the top management owns, if not all then, most of the decision making powers, as well as staunch control over the organization's departments and divisions. On the contrary, in a decentralized organizational structure, the power for decision making is…
Hoffer, C.W., Hunt, C. & Collins, W. (2009). Strategic approach to sports globalization.
Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57-74.
Job, P., Woods, J. & Howard, C. (2008). Description of roles of sports agencies, operational and educational programs to prepare for a successful organizational and field performance. Journal of Sports and Entertainment, 45, 27-34.
Octagon Worldwide, (2013). Octagon executive biographies. Retrieved on 15th March, 2014
Octagon Sports Marketing Plan
Octagon Sports Marketing
Octagon Sports Company has been proud to be an industry leader in terms of events management, sports and entertainment marketing, and representation of athletes and personalities al over the world. It was founded in the year 1983 and after wards acquired as sports and entertainment event marketing arm of the Interpublic Group of Companies (IPG) in 1997 by the same company (IPG). Currently Octagon Company is able to employ more than 1000 professionals in the more than 60 offices across the globe.
Octagon Sports Marketing Company has been a pioneer in terms of full service sports and entertainment corporate consulting, bringing together various marketing disciplines and services in a single roof for the benefit of our clients. The in-house resources that our company offers are efficiency and convenience and this is apart from traditional and specialized services offered. In several occasion the company…
Davis. The business of sports agents. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
Frank Craighili (2000) Despite costs, buying binge not over yet Retrieved March 15, 2014. http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2000/05/20000529/No-Topic-Name/Despite-Costs-Buying-Binge-Not-Over-Yet.aspx
Los Angeles (CA) 2009) Entertainment PR/Marketing/Celebrity Consulting (First Call). Retrieved March 15, 2014 www.octagonfirstcall.com
McLean (2013) Athlete and Property Marketing. Retrieved March 15, 2014 www.octagon.com/AthletesPersonalities/13.
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
My marketing concept is event sponsorship. Event sponsorship is when a company agrees to pay money to event organizers in exchange for the opportunity to use the event as a marketing platform. There are many benefits to event sponsorship, including brand exposure, but the primary benefit is for brand associations to be created. Typically, the brand is associated with the event, which might be an athletic event, a charitable event or a community event. The sponsorship works on the principle of image transfer, where the positive associations of the event are transferred to the brand that has provided the sponsorship (Gwinner & Eaton, 1999). It has been argued that the greater the fit between the brand and the event, the better this image transfer will be (Haden, 2014).
There are several examples that can be found of event sponsorship. At very high levels, we can look to the…
Gwinner, K. & Eaton, J. (1999). Building brand image through event sponsorship: The role of image transfer. Journal of Advertising. Vol. 28 (4) 47-57.
Haden, J. (2014). Sponsoring an event? Tips to maximize your return. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/sponsoring-an-event-how-to-maximize-your-return.html
Mack, R. (1999). Event sponsorship: An exploratory study of small business objectives, practices and perceptions. Journal of Small Business Management. Vol. 37 (3).
The concept of dividing a mass market into homogeneous segments and targeting one or more with a distinct product offering and unique marketing communication is a fundamental precept of marketing theory. Market segmentation recognizes that different customer groups have different wants and needs that justify the development and offering of different products and services. The process of segmentation theoretically results in a much better understanding of users' needs, their decision criteria, and their approaches. Although much of the theory of market segmentation is appreciated and understood by sport marketers, it remains one of the more difficult marketing concepts to turn into profitable reality.
Consumer segmentation can help the sport marketer in the following areas. First, it allows an analysis of the marketplace, including a knowledge of competitors as well as how and why customers buy. Second, it can contribute to the strategic management of an organization in that it allows…
Wann, D.L., Hamlet, M.A., Wilson, T.M., & Hodges, J.A. (1995). Basking in reflected glory, cutting off reflected failure, and cutting off future failure: The importance of group identification. The Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 377-388.
Zimbalist, A. (1992). Baseball and Billions. New York: Basic Books.
All legal stipulations in regard to the usage of licensed and branded merchandise would be respected.
It is initially expected that the aerobics class would sell subscriptions to 1,500 customers. This high volume of sales would be due to promotional offers which promote the aerobics class at lower retail prices. As the promotions expire however, a small decline in the number of sales is expected. The company is however confident that it will manage to sell an estimated 1,300 products following the expiry of the promotions and that it will be able to sustain this level. Additionally, organizational improvements in the product offer and new marketing campaigns would also be implemented and they would attract new customers and as such generate more sales.
Three sponsorships contracts are to be signed -- they have already been negotiated and they would be completed as the project is launched.…
Beech, J., Chadwich, S., 2007, The marketing of sport, Pearson Education
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., 2010, Principles of marketing, 13th edition, Pearson Education
Luther, W.M., 2001, The marketing plan: how to prepare and implement it, 3rd edition, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn
Mills, G., 2002, Retail pricing strategies and market power, Melbourne Univ. Publishing Schlossberg, H., 1996, Sports marketing, Wiley-Blackwell
Marketing Research on Athletic Shoe- Industry
The brand caters a promise of reliability, in effect that one stand behind their product. Branding is not an action we can realize overnight. A successful brand is built over time from the hundreds of little things we do right. . The brand is, at its core, an declaration of a standard performance. It guarantees that the product or service carrying that brand will live up to its reputation. The merit of a brand rises or falls with the integrity of the people behind it. The principles of the principals build or rupture a brand.
When running shoes first came on the market, it was a marvelous development over the old sneakers and high-tops. But soon the market became crowded with shoes bearing a wide variety of features, at a wide range of price points. The main players in the sports shoe industry are…
Odor Beaters Athletic Shoes
The market for athletic shoes has grown into a multi-billion dollar global enterprise in the last several decades. Athletic shoes comprise about 33% of a $48 billion market, growing annually (National Shoe Retailers Association, 2012)
Athletic footwear includes athletic, sport, and active lifestyle footwear for men, women and children. It may be performance oriented, outdoor oriented, or even casual, but is designed to aid individuals in sporting activities.
One interesting fact about athletic footwear is that it has evolved over the last few decades to also become a fashion statement. Basketball shoes, for example, are worn not just on the court, but as everyday "urban" outfits, thus drastically increasing the size of the market.
Odor in shoes, particularly those worn in sporting events in which there is heavy perspiration, are considered one of the most irksome issues for athletic shoe wear, requiring regular inserts, use of…
Bible, L., Kerr, S., & Zanini, M. (2006). The Balanced Scorecard - Here and Back. Management Accounting Quarterly, 7(4), 18-29.
Bulgarella, C. (2005, February). Employee Satisfaction & Customer Satisfaction. Retrieved from Guidestar Research: http://meetingmetrics.com/research_papers/whitepaper_cs_es_relationships.pdf
Gruenwald, T., & Genz, D. (1999). Modern Methods of Ice Fishing. Channhassen, MN: Creative Publishing.
Kaplan, R., & Nortin, D. (1992, March). The Balanced Scorecard - Measures that Drive Performance. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review: http://www.stevens-tech.edu/MSISCourses/450/Articles/ValueOfIT/TheBalancedScoreCard.pdf
There are two major forces that exist in the United States and in other modern countries that cannot be missed or ignored. The first would be sports. There are millions and millions of people that love sports and that would include both watching them and actually participating in them. Common examples of this would include basketball, baseball and football. However, the focus of this report will be rodeo. The other major force that exists in modern countries is the corporate sphere. The common manifestations of these corporate entities are advertising and the products that are sold to people. hether it be cars, video game systems, homes or what have you, corporate powers make the economy run, they pay a lot of taxes and so forth. However, the two items mentioned above heavily converge in many ways and Jane Martin's lament is that this convergence is too excessive and…
Martin, Jane. Talking With -- . New York: S. French, 1983. Print.
Q2 Sports. "PRCA Fires Back At New Rodeo Tour, Vows To Terminate Memberships." "
Kpax.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Jan. 2016.
Stadheim, Carrie. "PRCA Takes A Stand Against Start-Up Rodeo Association --
Nike apparel company is a steadfast company in the minds of most athletic gear and apparel consumers and in the industry as a whole, with substantial earnings growth even in the last few years of recession it has still managed to record substantial growth. The company has even coined household phrases like "Just Do It" a mark of American influence over the global market. Much of this success has long been attributed to the solid nature of its upper management, namely its long time CEO and co-founder Phillip H. Knight. Nike recently made international news when it announced the retirement of Knight to the press, which in the business world can mean at least short-term trouble. The announcement was made with less than sixty days to pass before what would call a revolutionary change for the company. Though Knight will stay on as Chairman of the board, his intention is…
Brown, Carolyn M. "Serena Williams Aces Nike Deal Worth Approximately $40 Million." Black Enterprise Apr. 2004: 26. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Dionne, E.J. "A Victory over Nike: And a Win for Sweatshop Workers." Commonweal 5 June 1998: 7. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Hage, J.T. "Organizational Innovation and Organizational Change." Annual Review of Sociology (1999): 597. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Haley, Eric. "Exploring the Construct of Organization as Source: Consumers' Understandings of Organizational Sponsorship of Advocacy Advertising." Journal of Advertising 25.2 (1996): 19+. Questia. 8 Dec. 2004 .
Sales and Promotion
Blue Mountain Community College has been experiencing some difficulty in the area of developing a sales and promotion plan for the athletic department. The purpose of this discussion is to resolve this problem through the development of a detailed plan for promotion and sales of its teams. The plan will be inclusive of the five teams the community college has including football, baseball, softball, and men's and women's basketball.
Regardless of the sport being discussed in terms of promotion and sales, one of the key components in improving sales is associated with relationship marketing (Parvatiyar & Sheth 2001). According to Bee & Kahle (2006)
"Relationship marketing is important because it can be effective. It facilitates role enactment by providing definitions for types of influence and communication strategies that should characterize two participants in a relationship. Teams, leagues, athletes, marketing corporations, and fans have relationships with…
Bee C.C., Kahle, L.R.. (2006) Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 15, 102-110
Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2002). Environmental factors associated with attendance and sport consumption behavior: Gender and team differences. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 8-19
Fullerton S., Merz, G.R. (2008) The Four Domains of Sports Marketing: A Conceptual Framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly,, 17, 90-108
Irwin, R.L., Sutton W.A., McCarthy, L.M. (2008) Sport promotion and sales management. Human Kinetics
Business Plan -- ocky Mountain Sports Fishing, LLC
Definition of the Market
ecreational fishing is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States, both for salt and freshwater. Conservative estimates show that there are upwards of 30 million individuals with more than a 1-2 time/annum interest in the sport. This has an overall impact on the economy of $125 billion (Williamson, 2012). Consumer demographics show that it is primarily a male oriented event. Mobility and technology have improved the sport in the last two decades, as well as maps, surveys, and handheld sonar and GPS devices. For this reason, as an organized sport, it is chiefly an upper middle and above income sport that also may require several thousand dollars in travel expense. There are even contests for ice and sport ice fishing in the U.S. And Canada.
Sport fishing is…
Hummel, R. (1994). Hunting and Fishing for Sport: Commerce, Controversy, Popular Culture. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University.
Kotelnikov, V. (2001, January). Customer's Perspective of Quality. Retrieved from E-Coach: http://www.100ventures.com/business_ guide / corsscuttings / bizsys_customer.html
Skorupa, J. (1991, September). Eco-Tourism Arrives. Popular Mechanics, p. 92.
Turban, E. (2002). Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective. New York: Prentice Hall.
One of the most difficult paradigms in research is defining what exactly constitutes the idea of "theory." There are many different authors with many different views on this.
Harlow (2009) articulates the problem associated with defining "theory" is that there is no fixed, universal meaning for this concept. One of the guides towards identifying the components that constitute a theory could be the specific research direction at issue. In the natural science, for example, "theory" could refer to the law or system of laws. In a social sciences discipline, "theory" might suggest a construct or set to order and understand the phenomena under study.
While it is difficult to explain or define the concept of theory, Harlow also points towards the importance of understanding the concept of "theory" in terms of research, since it forms the central concept around which the research is conducted. Hence, understanding what is meant…
Best, H. (2013). Theories of Social Changes by Raymond Boudon.
Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (2009). On Being a Scientist: A
Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research. Washington D.C.: National
Figure 2: Using the BCG Growth/Share Matrix To Evaluate Eleftria Market Opportunities
Source: (Anantachart, 2004)
The e-retailing objectives for Eleftria Athletic shoes and their plans for attaining them are defined here. The first objective is to create an e-retailing strategy that capitalizes on multi-channel management, meaning that e-retailing site will be accessible over the Web, through specialized interfaces on Blackberries and PDAs, and also will have telephone ordering as well. The second objective is to create a completely integrated e-retailing system that connects to pricing, catalogs of shoe components, suppliers to validate the shoes being designed can be built, and shoe costs to ensure when compared to pricing the can be produced at a profit. This back-end system integration needs to be real-time as it allows for greater levels of responsiveness to the customer has a result. The third objective…
Saravudh Anantachart. (2004). Integrated Marketing Communications and Market Planning: Their Implications to Brand Equity Building. Journal of Promotion Management, 11(1), 101-125.
Sulin Ba, Jan Stallaert, Zhongju Zhang. (2007). Price competition in e-tailing under service and recognition differentiation. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 6(3), 322.
Ruby Roy Dholakia, Outi Uusitalo. (2002). Switching to electronic stores: Consumer characteristics and the perception of shopping benefits. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30(10), 459-469.
Charles F. Hofacker. (2008). E-tail constraints and tradeoffs. Direct Marketing, 2(3), 129-143.
5% of total liabilities. Their retained earnings, on the other hand, total $5.073 billion. The heavy use of retained earnings is partially explained by their view of themselves as a growth company. hile they pay a dividend, Nike prefers to re-invest much of its profits back into expansion. They do not feel that the market has matured sufficiently to stop their aggressive growth strategy. Another consideration in their capital structure is the cost of capital. On account of its low volatility, Nike has a low cost of debt, approximately 6.8% using CAPM. Their long-term debt is primarily a revolving credit facility. The rate, based on their a+ rating, is LIBOR + 0.15%, which would equate to 4.12% based on the October 15th price of the 1-year LIBOR. If anything, Nike could become more financially efficient by increasing their use of debt financing.
Nike places strong emphasis on human resources. They…
Cohen, Marshal (2007). USA: Athletic footwear is significant portion of overall footwear market. Fibre 2 Fashion. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/company-news/npd-group/newsdetails.aspx?news_id=32512
Some financial information, ratios from Reuters. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=NKE.N
Nike 2008 Annual Report. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/10/100529/Areports/ar_06/docs/10k.pdf
Nike 2006 Annual Report. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at
The world of advertisement has greatly revolved and there are several changes that each company must follow in order to have the market presence and be at par with the competition that are in the same market. This particular marketing and campaign strategy will be on electronics line that is yet to be produced.
The primary objective is to reach as many as possible people within the U.S.A. And across the world with the brand name hence sensitizing them of the entry of the brand name.
The new line will get involved in Sports sponsorship to give it a global platform to showcase some of its latest inventions and act as a brand ambassador for the company. Millions of dollars will be spent over years in aggressive advertisement at such sports events which will give the customers a chance to see the products hence creating more…
Macdermott, (2011). Modern Marketing Methods. Retrieved October 12, 2013 http://www.flyingsolo.com.au/marketing/business-marketing/modern-marketing-methods
Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) and Corporate Communication (CC)
The established limitations are severely customized by globalization: the size of the company (where there is not a major link with the area of the performance, delocalization and outsourcing and being dependent on the network), design of the product and sales (where the relation with the competitors may be competitive cooperative) somewhat similar to the frequency of motor industry), competitive relations of space-time, the consumer models (which is focused with a turn down in the analogical media. The increasing significance of digital media and internet is also included. The most important of them is the advertising of television and the television itself); the importance of communication in the competitive environment, less protectionist measures of the economic systems, open spaces of competition, complex differentiation (Walther, 2007).
The incorporation of the global markets struggle to remove the inert environment and change them with the…
Argenti, P. And Forman, J. (2002) The Power of Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Argenti, P.A. (2009) Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Argenti, P.A. (2009). Corporate communication. Singapore: McGraw-Hill
Argenti, P.A., Barnes, C.M. (2009). Digital strategies for powerful corporate communications. New York: McGraw-Hill
Managing Emotions Among Salespersons
Personal selling is a very dynamic line of work and the ability of a salesperson to manage their emotion is very important. This research will look at the role salespeople's ability to manage their emotion has on their performance and behavior. It will bring to light an emotion regulation strategy which is adaptive for the management of negative emotions. A conceptual framework will be built to bring to light the place of cognitive reappraisal on the emotional well-being of salespeople as well as their motivation. The expected results are that there is a positive relation between adaptive selling behavior and cognitive reappraisal. Moreover, there is a negative relationship between cognitive reappraisal and emotional exhaustion and ruminative implications (Kemp et al., 2012).
Salespeople operate in an environment with fluctuating stress levels. They have to play various role patterns and this subjects them to more than average…
PESTLE analysis: Fast food industry
The recent backlash against unhealthy eating could prove to be difficult for the fast food industry. There are calls to limit the marketing of fast food products to children and to limit the sale of fast foods in schools. Given that children are such an important driver of sales, this could curtail the efficacy of many fast food campaigns, particular those with tie-ins to children's films and television shows. Campaigns like Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" campaign underline the importance of healthy eating and eating minimally processed foods. Although President Obama and the First Lady have been photographed eating burgers and they say that they are not against all fast food, the overall emphasis on the administration has been on restricting access to 'junk food' (Michelle Obama loves fast food, 2010, Slashfood).
The economic uncertainty in America has proved to be…
David, Brennan & Christopher Carpenter. (2009). Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99 (3). Retrieved:
Fast food nation: The sequel. (2009). The Guardian. Retrieved:
Academy Sports + Outdoors
The project charter for this plan, "Operation Midnight Basketball" for Academy Sports + Outdoors, is provided below.
The official name of this project is "Operation Midnight Basketball" to be implemented by Academy Sports + Outdoors as described below.
Today, Academy Sports + Outdoors (hereinafter alternatively "Academy" or "the company") is a leading retailers in the sports, outdoor and lifestyle industry offering a wide range of high quality fishing, hunting, and other outdoor merchandise, including camping equipment and gear as well as sports and leisure products, footwear, and outdoor apparel (About Academy, 2014). Headquartered in Texas, Academy operates more than 185 stores in the United States, including stores in, alphabetical order, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas (About Academy, 2014). The company has a stated corporate social responsibility commitment that is congruent…
About Academy. (2014). Academy Sports + Outdoors. Retrieved from http://www.academy .
Academy basketball team sports. (2014). Academy Sports + Outdoors. Retrieved from
Tapping Into the
Bower, J.L. & Christensen, Clayton M. (1995). Disruptive technology: Catching the wave. Harvard Business Review.
Chesbrough, H.W. & Appleyard, M.M. (2007). Open innovation and strategy. California Management Review, 50(1): 57-76.
Shehabuddeen, N. (2007). Innovation in real life - a hands-on guide to genuine innovation. NY: Open Innovation Ltd.
von Hippel, E. (1988). The sources of innovation. NY: Oxford University Press.
As a sports management major, community service has provided me with an opportunity to enhance my understanding of sports, and to provide service to the underprivileged children in the community. I volunteered at a local high school, where the kids come from low income families and communities, and I help with fundraising projects that are aimed at acquiring new sports equipment or sponsoring football matches. I also coach high school football and I regularly give talks on perseverance and hard work, where I motivate youth to avoid negative influences despite their backgrounds.
From a young age, I have always believed that the world would be a better place if more people helped those who were in need. I always thought it would be an honor to put a smile on other people's faces and to give back to the community by doing what I loved. This learning experience,…
For instance, team allegiances and celebrity athletes may affect personal identity construction. Fans of a team often organize their social lives around sporting events. The Olympics is a special example of how media-sport is used to promote cross-cultural awareness or in some cases as a political tool.
Almost ten years after Moragas (1996) wrote, the media-sport phenomenon has proliferated. Dedicated sports channels on cable have become highly specified so that one type of sport (such as hockey or soccer) can have its own network, and in some cases more than one. The plethora of programming available and the number of paying customers proves how integral sports media and media-sport has become for the culture, the individual, and the marketplace.
Moragas, Miquel de. (1996). The new role of the mass media in the construction of sport and Olympic values. etrieved Feb 1, 2010 from…
Moragas, Miquel de. (1996). The new role of the mass media in the construction of sport and Olympic values. Retrieved Feb 1, 2010 from http://olympicstudies.uab.es/pdf/wp051_eng.pdf
On the other hand, we might be able to "incubate" a cable network by playing a Thursday night series of cable games, and such a network could be a long-run success that would strengthen our product as well." (Tagliabue, 2004)
Tagliabue states that prior to proceeding with a new package it is necessary to ensure that this new package is based on "sound television premises and that it is structured to complement our other television packages rather than to cannibalize our Sunday and Monday night audiences and move us down the road to commoditization. As previously mentioned, commoditization is ultimately very negative in a 400-channel universe, and the challenge we face is how to balance the need for revenue and viewers to ensure the long-run success of our sport. In theory, greater revenues are available from cable television, which is both advertiser and subscriber supported, than from broadcast television, which…
Badenhausen, Kurt, Ozanian, Michael K. And Rondey, Maya (2006) The Business of Football. Forbes. 31 Aug 2006. Online available at: http://www.forbes.com/lists/2006/30/06nfl_NFL-Team-Valuations_land.html
Barros, Carlos Pestana and Barrio, Pedro Garcia-del (nd) Efficiency Measurement of the English Football Premier League with a Random Frontier Model. Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia.
Brenner, Adam (2004) Welcome to the Club. The Business of Football. Forbes 2 Sept 2004. Online available at: http://www.forbes.com/2004/09/02/cz_ab_0902nflclubseats.html
English Football and its Governance (2009) All Party Parliamentary Football Group. April 2009. Online available at: http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/federation/01/05/04/18/apfgreportonenglishfootballanditsgovernanceapril2009.pdf
The advertising agency has been linked up with past event volunteers who have been approached to provide old video and film clips to be uploaded to Youtube and other video upload sites to aid in a viral video marketing strategy.
e will open ticket sales for the tournament several weeks ahead of the first matches so that spectators can plan for the event. e will highlight donations to charity and potential door prizes for ticket holders to increase interest for the event.
E. Personnel Scheduling.
e will have to line up contractors and necessary organizational employees. In addition, we have to draw up a core of volunteers to help us during the tournament. e will need to set up a seeding committee to assist. e will have to check to see if a racket stringer will is available. If this is not the case, we will have to hire out…
Abbott, J.L., & Geddie, M.W. (2001 ). Event and venue management: minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques. Event Management, 6,
Cavanaugh, J. (1993, August 15). Volvo tennis tournament returns. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volvo_International .
Getz, D. (2003). Sport event tourism: planning, development, and marketing. In S.
National Football League (NFL) is a powerful organization that has become embedded in American culture. The 2013 Super Bowl, the culminating event for the 2012-2013 season, captured more television viewers than any other televised event ever. Professional football is big business that brings billions of dollars in revenues to many different businesses worldwide. The NFL is primarily an entertainment outlet that relies on public opinion and massive sponsorship to maintain its powerful status within the business world.
There are many reasons therefore that the NFL stays conscious of public opinion as the fickle tastes of its consumers may drift if certain expectations are not met. In 2003 the NFL, facing the threat of many potential lawsuits, enacted what has become known as the Rooney Rule. This rule, named after the owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers Dan Rooney, mandated that for all coaching and general managing job openings a minority candidate…
5% and 2.35% over that period but opposite the trend of fluctuation in overall spending
The result is approximately $23.5 billion spend each year in the U.S. attending sporting events like the 82 games per year at the Boston Garden
Average U.S. households spent more attending sports events while incomes fell after 2007, and less as incomes increased since then
Households in the Northeast region including Boston spend higher on "apparel and services" and more or the same compared to all other regions and the national average for complementary local amenities "fees and admissions" (the Garden) and "food away from home" and "alcoholic beverages" (neighboring sports bar)
Bostonians spend higher than the region on entertainment and less on apparel and alcohol than the regional average, for the most recent years available, 2007-2008
Bruins season tickets are already sold out, which suggests weak 2010 economic fundamentals may take second place to…
Boston Redevelopment Authority. The Boston Economy in 2010. Boston: Boston
Redevelopment Authority Research Division, 2011. 8 Oct. 2011 < http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/Research/Research.asp >
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. "Sales and Use Tax." Department of Revenue, Mass.gov.
2011. 8 Oct. 2011 < http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=dorterminal&L=5&L0=Home&L1=Businesses&L2=Current+Tax+Year+Information&L3=Guide+to+Employer+Tax+Obligations&L4=Specific+Trustee+and+Excise+Taxes+Requiring+Registration&sid=Ador&b=terminalcontent&f=dor_business_taxguide_salesuse&csid=Ador >
Gender and Society
Sexism in the Media: Portrayal of Female Athletes in Media Coverage
Sexist portrayal of men's versus women's athletic events and sporting events has prevailed in the media for some time. Armstrong and Hallmark (1999) note that until very recently, women in profession NCAA Division I women's basketball teams, though popular, had received "virtually no television exposure" during key station segments; women also suffered unfavorable practice times and "hand me down uniforms" (p. 1). Perhaps no other area of media portrayal reveals as much gender inequality as the portrayal of women athletes. This is not because of a lack of interest in female sports necessarily. More and more women are participating in sports formerly considered male only. However the media portrayal or lack of adequate portrayal of women's events has contributed to the perceived lack of enthusiasm and interest in following women's events. The media utilizes sexist attitudes,…
Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662
Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.
Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114
Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44
Marketing Strategies London 2012 Olympic Games
Similar to the rest of the world, the United Kingdom has been faced with the devastating effects of the internationalized economic crisis. But as the crisis continues to unfold, the country moves on to address its other issues as well.
One of these issues is represented by the fact that the country's capital would represent the host of the 2012 Olympic Games. The preparations for organizing such an event are currently undergoing and they involve a series of efforts, resources and commitments.
The hosting of the 2012 Olympic Games is both an opportunity, as well as a challenge for the organizers. At this level, the process would be assessed from the marketing perspective and recommendations would be formulated based on the specifics of the problems identified.
Issues and problems
London would be hosting the 2012 Olympic Games and it is as such presented with…
Fullerton, S., 2009, Sports marketing, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill
Hoyle, L.H., 2002, Event marketing: how to successfully promote events, festivals, conventions and expositions
Mills, G., 2002, Retail pricing strategies and market power, Melborne Univ. Publishing Schlossberg, H., 1996, Sports marketing, Wiley-Blackwell
The London 2012 Olympic Games case
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
Larry Buckingham is about to launch his season ticket drive for the Springfield Nor'Easters, a minor league baseball team. The city's only other minor sports team, the Falcons hockey club, is threatening to move and is about to launch a high-profile season ticket drive of its own. The ticket drive is critical because tickets are one of only three major sources of revenue for minor league baseball clubs. Another source is concession sales, which are highly correlated with ticket sales. Season tickets form the basis of the attendance -- the higher the rate of season ticket sales, the more profitable a baseball club will be in general. There are only small amounts of advertising and sponsorship revenues, totaling $46,000.
The Springfield market is challenging. The city has seen its economic base slump, and as a result real earnings are down and 25% of the city's population lives below the…
This can be translated as a reaction to the issue of globalization.
Finally, soccer represents a series of common values. The ad campaigns promoted by major sports endorsements have transformed the game from a lawn practice to a global affair. Indeed, companies such a Nike and Adidas, the symbols of American street culture are no longer prevented from offering sponsorship deals to the Chinese teams, especially given the fact that such companies are strong supporters of the Chinese and Indian economies, with factories and subsidiaries all over the world.
On the other hand, Appiah discusses the idea of globalization from a philosophical point-of-view. Thus he argues that there is a strong relationship between individuality as seen in the works of ancient philosophers and in those of Mill and the social structure that we are today (Appiah, 2007). More precisely, he does not consider a clash between individuality and our social…
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. The ethics of identity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.
Foer, Franklin. How Football Explains the World: An Unlikely Theory of Globalization. London, Arrow Books, 2006.
This begins by asking a question. In that case, the question would be: Does Sensa cause weight loss without dieting? Background research would then need to be done. This would include any literature and other research information that could be found on Sensa from reputable sources. Information from InStyle and Good Housekeeping would not be considered for this type of research, because these are not reputable magazines from a scientific standpoint. A hypothesis would be constructed from the background research, which would be that Sensa causes weight loss without dieting. From that point, it would be necessary to conduct an experiment to prove or disprove that hypothesis.
An experiment to prove or disprove this hypothesis would need to include a control group, and that group would need to eat the same food and the same quantity of food as those using the Sensa. This is difficult, because everyone metabolizes food…
Braithwaite, J., & Jackson, J. (2006). What is pseudoscience?
Weight loss discovery making national headlines. (2012). How life works. Retrieved from http://www.howlifeworks.com/a/a/?cid=7425aa&AG_ID=520
Federal Forensic Data Analytics
There are definite advantages to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Digital Forensic Data Analytics program. Many of those advantages are well aligned with the integration of this program into the Strategic IT Plan for this organization. Essentially, the aforementioned program can increase the efficiency of the bureau's information technology initiatives, while simultaneously lowering costs and reducing the sort of infrastructure required to sustain this program. Additionally, this program can help this bureau maximize its current resources without needing to make substantial investments in other ones.
The analytics capabilities of the Digital Forensic Data Analytics program of the FBI far surpass those that it previously had for forensic analytics. One of the most immediate impacts of this program towards costs relates to the predictive capabilities of this program. By utilizing various components of cognitive computing including machine learning and other sophisticated algorithms such as deep learning and…
Cheng, W. (2016). What's a CFO's biggest fear, and how can machine learning help? www.analyticsweek.com Retrieved from https://analyticsweek.com/content/whats-a-cfos-biggest-fear-and-how-can-machine-learning-help/
Harper, J. (2016). Creating "Data Culture" with self-service analytics. www.analyticsweek.com Retrieved from https://analyticsweek.com/content/creating-data-culture-with-self-service-analytics/
Sports-elated Military ecruiting Initiatives Today
armed forces have traditionally had a lot to offer for new entrants into the job market, but in recent months, these benefits have increasingly been insufficient to sell the idea of military service to young people during a time of war. In response to this shortfall in recruiting levels, military recruiters have resorted to a number of alternative approaches to marketing military service as a viable option to qualified candidates. To determine the current initiatives being used by military recruiters today, this paper will provide a review of the military's use of sports, specifically racing such as NASCA and NHA for recruiting purposes. An examination of the effectiveness, associated costs, and the history of these sports-related initiatives will be followed by a summary of the research and an assessment of current and future trends in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Air Force Sports program. (2005). Official Site of the U.S. Air Force Sports Program.
Retrieved July 16, 2005 from http://usmilitary.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?
zi=1/XJ& sdn=usmilitary& zu=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.usafsports.com%2F.
About Us. (2005). The National Association for Stock Car Racing. Retrieved July 16, 2005
(1998). "The Trouble with Nike" Motley Fool. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://www.fool.com/Features/1998/sp980324TroubleithNike.htm
Parker, Mark. (2006). "Nike's Strategy for inning the Footwear Game" Nike F1Q Conference Call Transcript retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://seekingalpha.com/article/17559-nike-s-strategy-for-winning-the-footwear-game
Corporate author, Nike. (2008). "Company Overview" Nikebiz.com. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://www.nikebiz.com/company_overview/
Cox, Beth. (1999). "Nike Decides to Just Do it on the eb" InternetNews.com Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://www.internetnews.com/ec-news/article.php/67101
Barron, Kelly. (1996). "Nike to Enter Premium Sunglass Market" Orange County Register. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5553/is_199610/ai_n22323618?tag=content;col1
No author. (2007). "No Boys Allowed: ill Gender Segmentation be Nike's inning Strategy?" Seeking Alpha. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://seekingalpha.com/article/31899-no-boys-allowed-will-gender-segmentation-be-nike-s-winning-strategy
Roll, Martin. (2008) "Branding and Celebrity Endorsements" Venture Republic. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://www.venturerepublic.com/resources/Branding_celebrities_brand_endorsements_brand_leadership.asp
Doyle, Nelson. (2007). "The orld's Most Recognizable Symbols and Trademarks" Bizcovering. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://www.bizcovering.com/Marketing-and-Advertising/the-orlds-Most-Recognizable-Symbols-and-Trademarks.52644
Rayport, Jeffrey (1996). "The Virus of Marketing" Fast Company. Retrieved November 17, 2008…
Nike 2008 Annual Report. Retrieved November 17, 2008, 2008 at http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/10/100529/Areports/ar_06/docs/10k.pdf
Lowthian, Michaela. (1999). "Marketing Muscle." Willamette Week. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://wweek.com/html/25-nike.html
Surowiecki, Jim. (1998). "The Trouble with Nike" Motley Fool. Retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://www.fool.com/Features/1998/sp980324TroubleWithNike.htm
Parker, Mark. (2006). "Nike's Strategy for Winning the Footwear Game" Nike F1Q Conference Call Transcript retrieved November 17, 2008 at http://seekingalpha.com/article/17559-nike-s-strategy-for-winning-the-footwear-game
eebok and Nike are athletic apparel companies with differing promotional strategies and marketing. They sell similar products, particularly sneakers and are known globally as companies that promote athletic lifestyles through their sporting goods. The footwear industry, for which Nike and eebok have their niche is a tough industry to not only market in, but also sustain profits. Both companies although different in their approach, have managed to create a brand that appeals to a wide and broad market. esearching their promotional strategies and company profiles, the differences and similarities become visible lending to possible analysis of both of the companies' strong and weak points.
eebok's promotional campaigns are different from Nike's. A good example of this is eebok's 2002 promotional campaign using a well-known Irish footballer as the central focus. The company timed its advertisements with the footballer before the beginning of the World Cup of that same year. His…
Chu, S., & Huang, S. (2010). College-Educated Youths' Attitudes toward Global Brands: Implications for Global Marketing Strategies. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 22(2), 129-145. Doi: 10.1080/08961530903476188
Joshi, A., & Hanssens, D. (2010). The Direct and Indirect Effects of Advertising Spending on Firm Value. Journal of Marketing, 74(1), 20-33. doi:10.1509/jmkg.74.1.20
Knight, G., & Greenberg, J. (2002). Promotionalism and Subpolitics: Nike and Its Labor Critics. Management Communication Quarterly, 15(4), 541-570. Retrieved from http://mcq.sagepub.com/content/15/4/541.short
Rajiv, S., Dutta, S., & Dhar, S.K. (2002). Asymmetric Store Positioning and Promotional Advertising Strategies: Theory and Evidence. Marketing Science, 21(1), 74-96.
Vape Nation Business Plan
Mission of the Company
Keys to Success
Legal Form of Ownership
Location and Facilities
Products and Services
F. Financial Statements and Projections
F1. Forecasted Profit and Loss Statement
F2. Forecasted Balance Sheet
G. Financial eport
G1. Financial Projections
G2. Financial Position
G3. Estimated Capital/Investment Needs
Suggested length of 1-2 pages
Vape Nation, based in the U.S. in California is national start-up that expects to compete in the emerging vapor industry, utilizing vaping technology, e-liquids, and e-cigarettes to market itself to local, national, and online customers.
A2. Mission of the Company:
The mission of Vape Nation is to create brand awareness, brand loyalty, and capture market share in the emerging vaporizer market.
Allen, J., Flanigan, S., LeBlanc, M. et al. (2015). Flavoring chemicals in E-Cigarettes.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12): 23-29.
Boseley, S. (2015). Hon Lik invented the e-cigarette to quit smoking. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jun/09/hon-lik-e-cigarette-inventor-quit-smoking-dual-user
Chaudhui, S. (2015). Study finds e-cigarettes contain chemical tied to 'popcorn lung'.
Seeing more advertisements had a stronger effect on drinking than drinking had on noticing advertisements. The effect of alcohol advertising exposure on youth drinking was small and positive. The advertising effects were similar for the subset of underage respondents (Martin et al., 2002, 902 citing Snyder et (2006)."
In addition to Snyder et al. (2006) other researchers have examined the impact of alcohol advertisements on underage youth. For instance, in their study entitled "Alcohol Advertising and Youth: A Measured Approach," Jernigan et al. (2005) examined the advertisement of alcohol companies and the manner in which they expose youth to such advertisements. The study involved the impact of alcohol advertisements on youth age 15-20. The research found that most alcohol advertisement occurred in places where youth were more likely to see them than adults. In addition the research found that "much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in…
Adlaf EM, Kohn PM (1989) Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modeling look at Strickland's data. Br J. Addict
84:749 -- 757.
Aitken PP, Eadie DR, Leathar DS, McNeill REJ, Scott AC (1988) Television advertisements for alcoholic drinks do reinforce under-age drinking. Br J. Addict 83:1399 -- 1419.
Atkin CK (1993) Effects of media alcohol messages on adolescent audiences. Adolesc Med 4:527 -- 542.
12 Step groups
step programs are famous for their role in the breaking of addictions. The programs cover such areas of addiction such as gambling, drug, and alcohol. Below is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 step program in breaking addiction to alcohol.
Background of Alcoholism
Facts concerning the abuse of alcohol are often overlooked as it is a frequently used drug that can be obtained from the nearest store or ordered from a menu in a restaurant. Alcohol abuse statistics raise several alarms but focusing the attention of the public to the alcohol effects can help raise awareness and help in the fighting of alcoholism (Get The Facts).
Just a few drinkers of alcohol stop consumption with the first bottle. Also, an evening of heavy consumption is not always done alone (Get The Facts). Chronically consuming alcohol leads to a host of effects. When done over a…
Get the Facts on Alcohol Abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://drugabuse.com/library/get-the-facts-on-alcohol-abuse/
The Birth of A.A. And Its Growth in the U.S./Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://www.aa.org/pages/en_US/historical-data-the-birth-of-aa-and-its-growth-in-the-uscanada
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…
Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.
Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.
Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.
West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Kabul is a cosmopolitan center and demonstrates a willingness to modernize but outside Kabul old traditions remain strong and there is little interest in these rural areas for any change.
III. Social Factors
The rural nature of Afghan society cannot be over-emphasized. The population of the country is estimated at 24 million but it is highly fragmented into a variety of ethnic groups that are further broken down into tribal groups. This tribal fragmentation has been encouraged by the countries bordering Afghanistan that have, in order to promote their own political agendas, disturbed any efforts by the Afghan central government from uniting these tribes. hat has developed is a system of ethnically-based rivalries supported by localized Islamic religious sects.
Tribal traditions inside Afghanistan tend to be more powerful than either Islamic theology or political philosophy and these traditions can be harsh toward women (Rohde). Gender roles under tribal traditions are…
Bickers, Robert. The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914. New York: Penguin Global, 2011.
Cleary, Thomas. The Essential Confucius: The Heart of Confucius' Teachings in Authentic I Ching Order. New York: Book Sales, 2000.
Countries and Their Cultures. Afghanistan. 2011. 4 May 2011 .
Ellis, Deborah. Women of the Afghan War. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2000.
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…
Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS
Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.
Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.
The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.
Implication of the esults
If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…
Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.
Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null
Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.
Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.