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The students were asked to examine a case study and determine a treatment method for recovery. Each student was to present the situation based on their specific area of interest. The varied responses by the different students assisted all the participants by providing a much more comprehensive approach to the healing of the patient.
Another example of the effectiveness of the student-centered educational process is when the student is asked to examine the relevant goals and objectives of a specific course of study. This can be especially essential in gaining a perspective in nursing or nursing theories.
Most individuals understand, and desire, the benefits that can be derived from an education.
This is true in almost every setting or scenario; the more knowledge or understanding of a situation that can be attained, the more likely a positive outcome will be experienced from that situation. This is certainly true in the…
Cordero, V. & Kottke, K.; (2007) Mediating the relationship between diversity climate and workforce, American Psychological Association, Topic 35/Industrial Organizational
Nolbert, M.; Wells, P.; Hussein, G.; (2002) Impact of Leuprolide Acetate disease management programs on patient outcomes, Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 33 -- 42
Accountability Student Learning
Accountability Plan K-12 Learning
Staff esponsibility for Enhancing Student Learning
In a K-12 educational setting, staff are tasked with the responsibility of enhancing student learning to the best of their ability. There are many factors that impact student learning, including curriculum, student evaluation, teacher training and classroom environment (Webb & Norton, 2002). Each of these factors is a measurable component of the K-12 learning environment.
It is important when assessing the classroom environment that teachers and administrators consider all of these functions, in order to create the environment that is most conducive to student achievement. An adequate accountability program will necessitate collaboration between educators and administrators to consistently monitor the progress of student achievement over a designated period of time.
The primary focus of this accountability plan will be discussing the relevance of teacher and student evaluation and training on student achievement.
For an accountability…
Webb, L.D. & Norton, M.S. (2002). "Human Resources Administration: Personnel
Issues and Needs in Education., 4th ed." Prentice Hall
As the society has focused on relegating learning to one percentage score or letter grade for sorting and ranking students, learning is a complex process. Nonetheless, evaluating or assessing student learning has become more complicated because of the increase in the dealing with the purpose behind evaluating student learning. In the past few years, several types of assessments have been developed as part of evaluating student learning in a district, school, and classroom. These assessments types have formed the basis of curriculum evaluation practices that are adopted within the district, school, and classroom. While some of the assessments have been poorly developed, they have a significant impact on the perception of a student about the learning process. The increased focus placed on the various types of assessments has overshadowed the details involved in actual documentation and understanding of the student's learning process.
Curriculum Assessment Practices in San Diego,…
Gomez, E.L. (n.d.). Creating Large-Scale Assessment Portfolios The Include English Language
Learners. Retrieved from Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University website: http://www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/PolPerELL.pdf
"How Should We Measure Student Learning? The Many Forms of Assessment." (2008, March
16). Edutopia. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from http://www.edutopia.org/comprehensive-assessment-introduction
This is evident in the introverted, shy young man's progress to "owning" the role of Word War I expert in the class. If evaluated only on quantitative metrics, the students' potential would not have been observed and nurtured.
Based on these insights the following proposed Balanced Learning Assessment Framework has been created.
Balanced Learning Assessment Framework
This framework takes into account both the need on the part of educators to balance the quantitative and qualitative aspects of assessments while continually striving to be worthy of students' trust. It also shows the reciprocal nature of how effective an instructor is at their teaching duties, as reflected in how well students learn by combining quantitative and qualitative measures to define educational goal attainment. Those who are mathematically included could produce an equation or algorithm that could, with a fairly high degree of accuracy, define an aggregate education goal attainment score based on…
A devoted practitioner of Peer eview myself, I have found that students grow into the process. The more intelligent appear to latch onto it almost immediately, provided they are matched with students of similar intellectual prowess. As obert Bly predicted in his book of the same name, we do live in a Sibling Society (p. ix).
"Holistic Grading" involves looking at the paper as an entire document instead of distinguishing content from form. For peer review, the students are given a Evaluating Assessment on Student Learning 4
rubric based on the numbers 1 through 8, with the higher numbers indicating greater strengths and the lower numbers indicating lack of strengths -- number 4 represents the "average" grade (C+). The grid looks something like this:
Peer graders are encouraged to make comments and to stress at least one or two specific strengths in the paper, as well as any area(s)…
Bly, Robert. The Sibling Society.(1996) New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing
Dempsey, Dave. O'Sullivan, Kathleen. Concept Mapping Consolidation.
Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://www.serc.Carleton.edu.
Because they are not formal and have more of the quality of brainstorming, however it would be rare for a class to only require journals as a method of assessment.
hile essays, portfolios, and journals are useful methods of assessment to grade the writing process and product and all develop the student's ability in the English language, for other subjects more interactive presentations may be useful to enhance the learning process as a whole. In science classes, science fair projects are often one of the most popular methods of teaching the scientific method. The students must formulate a hypothesis, and test and prove and disprove that hypothesis by creating an experimental design in a hands-on fashion. This gives them a sense of how science can be applied to 'real life,' and how 'real' scientists operate in the world. Science projects teach skills that writing and examinations cannot convey.
Chapter 4: Specific student assessment techniques" (1991). From Student Evaluation:
Teacher Handbook. SaskEd e-book. Retrieved 20 Sept 2007 at http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/policy/studeval/chap4001.html
Mind maps. (2007, Jan). Creativity Web. Retrieved 20 Sept 2007 at http://members.optusnet.com.au/~charles57/Creative/Mindmap/Portfolios
What the research says about student assessment." (1996, Spring).
33). Investigations conducted by Wheelok, Bebell, and Haney (2000) provide overwhelming proof that students derive very little, if any, benefit from high-stakes testing.
Indeed, examining the self-portraits of students engaged in high-stakes testing show them to experience their environment in a way that makes them "anxious, angry, bored, pessimistic, and withdrawn" from the processes of learning and testing. Although almost nothing was positive in these assessments, older students were more pessimistic than younger students about the testing process as a tool for learning.
The main interpretation from this could be that cognitive development is smothered by high-stakes testing, resulting in the negative emotions associated with the experience, as mentioned above. Younger students are less aware of the infringement of their cognitive development, while older students are more likely to require cognitively stimulating activities to thrive in the classroom situation.
Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1992) has several implications for academic…
Much of the NCLB focus is based on the view that American students are falling behind in educational basis when scored are compared globally. The Act does not establish a national achievement standard; each State must confirm its own set of standards, but in order to receive funding, the States must meet basic criteria of performance (Abernathy, 2007).
The Case -- Maureen Hulbert faced a daunting task when she assumed her role as principal for one of the worst schools in her area. The demography shows a clear economic decline, collage of incohesive ethnic neighborhoods, and an unemployment rate exceeding 200% of the national average. The District serves almost 7,000 students, but has a dropout rate of almost 30%. Nearly 70 of the students qualify for free lunch, most being either African-American or Hispanic. Principal Hulbert's school has an enrollment just shy of 400 students, with 90% children of color.…
In the history of American education there have been several seminal legal issues that have defined both the contemporary educational systems as well as dramatically changed the rubric of U.S. Education Law and Policy. One of these, the so-called "No Child Left Behind" mandate, remains both controversial and impactful in contemporary education. The "No Child Left Behind Act" (Public Law 107-110, 115), is a Congressional Act signed into law by George W. Bush in January 2002. The Bill was a bi-partisan initiative, supported by Senator Edward Kennedy, and authorized a number of federal programs designed to improve standards for educational accountability across all States, districts, and increase the focus on reading. Much of the NCLB focus is based on the view that American students are falling behind in educational basis when scored are compared globally. The Act does not establish a national achievement standard; each State must confirm its own set of standards, but in order to receive funding, the States must meet basic criteria of performance (Abernathy, 2007).
The Case -- Maureen Hulbert faced a daunting task when she assumed her role as principal for one of the worst schools in her area. The demography shows a clear economic decline, collage of incohesive ethnic neighborhoods, and an unemployment rate exceeding 200% of the national average. The District serves almost 7,000 students, but has a dropout rate of almost 30%. Nearly 70 of the students qualify for free lunch, most being either African-American or Hispanic. Principal Hulbert's school has an enrollment just shy of 400 students, with 90% children of color. These students, 82% who qualify for free lunches, have the highest percentage of failing scores in the state proficiency achievement tests. The faculty is older (average of 53), set in their ways (over 2/3 have only taught at this school), and a clear and open debate faced Hulbert from both parents and faculty regarding performance expectations (Kowalski, 2007, 14-15).
Evaluation and Recommendations -- There are three blatant problems at Buchannan Elementary: teacher experience and morale, cogent and relevant student-centered curriculum, and, unrealistic standards from NCLB for this type of school at present. Two of these issues can be solved relatively quickly; one is a bit more challenging. As instructors and administrators we all have but one chance to reach students -- during class hours. We can neither control nor mandate what happens before or after school, but we can
Nationwide discussion within the last ten years on the subject of education has given considerable attention to the ideal means of evaluating pupil learning. Ever more intense deliberations are being carried out regarding how to determine the aspects undergraduate learners learn in the course of their degree program. The engineering program has emerged at the learning curve’s head (Breslow, Lienhard, Masi, Seering, & Ulm, 2008).
Pupils have feelings which may positively or negatively impact their learning, to the same extent as skill, efforts or knowledge. Motivated pupils show much greater likelihood to learn; further, motivation may be impacted greatly by how learners feel. Maslow’s 1943 need hierarchy theory cleverly explains this idea. While self- actualization is situated at the peak of this model, the theorist contends that the requisite drive to achieve self- actualization will surface only after the fulfilment of the prior four more essential and elementary…
Breslow, L., Lienhard, J., Masi, B., Seering, W., & Ulm, F. (2008). How Do We Know if Students are Learning? Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cross, K. P. (2012). WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT STUDENTS\\\\' LEARNING AND HOW DO WE KNOW IT? In C. Conrad, & J. Johnson, College andUniversity Curriculum: Placing learning at the epicenter of courses, programs and institutions (pp. 700–708). Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Rust, C. (2013). What do we think we know about student learning, and what are the implications for improving that learning? Oxford Brookes University.
Information Systems on Policies and Student Learning
Technology has pervaded the twenty-first century classroom. Textbooks are replaced by tablets, and students can now research virtually anything they desire on their smartphones. Technology use has utterly transformed the lives of students; social media is the ideal example of how technology now rules the way people lead their life. Educators have also seen technology's benefits in classrooms firsthand. A research by CompTIA -- the information technology trade association -- found that roughly three-quarters of educators believe that technology has positively influenced the process of teaching/learning (Alex, 2007). Further, educators acknowledge the significance of inculcating technological skills within today's students, in order to prepare them to join the modern, tech-intensive workplace after completing their education.
How technology does or will impact you in your current or future classroom
Technology has had a rather significant impact on present-day schools. Widespread technology adoption has completely…
Alex, J. (2007). Does Using Technology Help Students Retain Information They Learn? CompTIA.
Cox, J. (2016). Benefits of Technology in the Classroom. Retrieved March 15, 2016, from Teach Hub: http://www.teachhub.com/benefits-technology-classroom
Deubel, P. (2008, June 26). Students with Disabilities: Software and Learning Support for Math (Part 2). Retrieved from The Journal: https://thejournal.com/Articles/2008/06/26/Students-with-Disabilities-Software-and-Learning-Support-for-Math-Part-2.aspx?Page=2
Say, M. (2012, December 11). 5 Ways Technology Will Impact Higher Ed in 2013. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/groupthink/2012/12/11/5-ways-technology-will-impact-higher-ed-in-2013/#6bba9c536fba
culture affects the way students learn mathematics, and how different cultures learn differently. Students in Korea and Japan learn differently than students in the United States for a number of reasons. Statistically, Asian students seem to do better at mathematics than American children do, and they way they learn their mathematics at an early age may be on reason this is so.
Identification and Investigation
US students often show lower test scores in understanding mathematics, while Asian students consistently score higher. There are many reasons for this, from different cultures to different methods of instruction. For example, one researcher found that Japanese children think of numbers differently, and see their relationships in depth. She writes, "She discovered part of the reason was the way they named their numbers. Following ten, they say, "ten 1, ten 2, ten 3" for 11, 12, 13, and say "2-ten, 2-ten 1, 2-ten 2" for…
Bharucha, J. (2008). America can teach Asia a lot about science, technology, and math.
Chronicle of Higher Education; Vol. 54 Issue 20, pA33-A34.
Cotter, J. (2009). Right start mathematics. Retrieved 13 Nov. 2009 from the Abacus.com Web site: http://www.alabacus.com/Downloads/RightStart%20Mathematics.pdf . 1-5.
Editors. (2000). How Japanese students learn math. Christian Science Monitor; Vol. 92 Issue 127, p17.
A child can learn that pressing a button on remote changes a channel on a television set. The experiment used two set of participants where one set learnt from a machine while the others learnt from a human participant. It was evident that the use of a ghost machine yielded better results compared to the use of a participant (Nairne, 2011).
The method used to learn how observational learning influences children will be the use of questionnaires. Short questionnaires will be sent to twenty baby care centers to evaluate the observational learning skills possessed by the caregivers. The questionnaires will be filled by the participants using three main methods. Centers that are a long distance from researcher's location will be provided with the questionnaires through emails. Centers where the care giver is busy will be called when convenient and the questionnaire filled through a telephone conversation. Centers that are…
Mishra, B.K. (2008). Psychology; the study of human behavior. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Nairne, J.S. (2011). Psychology. Australia: Thompson/Wadsworth.
Teachers of fourth and fifth graders must re-insert a nurturing component into their classrooms, creative lessons that allow for student self-expression should be incorporated into the curriculum, and fostering a love of learning in students should be one of the goals established by fourth and fifth grade teachers. First, the snuggle up and read program's success made it clear that nurturing is an important component in any classroom. Coming to this issue with a constructivist approach, teachers should understand that the home life and school are deeply connected when it comes to nurturing, as well as academics. Thus, it is important that teacher-parent conferences take place in which the adults can decide on the most appropriate method of nurturing the students in the classroom. Second, the implementation of creative lessons in the fourth and fifth grade classroom is necessary, in that these lessons allow students to make choices that serve…
- 2 faxed articles (not enough information on articles for ciatation)
According to the University of Canberra's Academic Skills Centre (2008), learning is a highly complex process that "takes place at different levels of consciousness, and in different ways, in everything we do. Moreover, individual people learn in different ways and have their preferred learning styles." One of the keys to improving student learning is to understand the different types of learning styles and apply that knowledge to study habits and practices. Study skills are themselves behaviors that need to be learned like any other. Using a combination of disciplinary techniques and cognitive shifts, students can improve their capacity for learning. This will, in turn, help boost grades and test scores. However, learning in an academic context is about more than earning grades. Learning should ultimately enhance one's view of the world and increase tolerance of diversity.
The theory of multiple intelligences has formed the theoretical foundation for the study…
Armstrong, T. (2010). Multiple intelligences. Retrieved online: http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.php
Dartmouth College Academic Skills Center (2011). Managing your time. Retrieved online: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/time.html
Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons. Perseus.
Langer, J.A. (1986). Learning through writing: Study skills in the content areas. Journal of Reading. Feb 1986.
The ability to learn is one of man's most important talents, and, in order for one to improve this capacity, the respective person needs to focus on enriching his personal experience through any means available. Similarly, the respective person has to acknowledge that learning should be something that one longs for, regardless of the fact that many individuals tend to end their education after they finish high school. Learning should not be considered as being something exclusively connected to education, as people can gain important information from a series of environments other than educational institutes. Teachers are mainly responsible for the way that learners amass information, thus meaning that they have to develop methods of having students learn individually and on account of their personal values. Moreover, students need to be influenced in seeing learning as something positive and as something that they should gladly take on. In…
Students with ADHD
Education 518, Section B13
Dr. Carolyn McCreight
Qualitative article review: Students with ADHD
Homeschooling is one of the controversial approaches to educate children with 'special needs'. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are preferred to be taught at home by their parents. Instructors for homeschooling are also arranged for this purpose. However, there has been widespread criticism on this method of teaching attention-deficit students. The main purpose of this paper is to review a qualitative study conducted on the topic of providing homeschooling to attention-deficit students. Duvall, Delquadri and Ward (2004) conducted a study to investigate the appropriateness of homeschooling environment for instructing basic skills to children with special needs. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to ascertain whether or not parents of children having attention-deficit as well as hyperactivity disorder could provide their children with instructional environmental that was conducive for facilitating acquisition of…
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Home-school Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 140-158.
(American Lirary Association, 2006)
II. Skills that Students will Possess upon Graduation from High School
The work entitled: "Information Literacy Curriculum" states that upon graduation from high school the student will posses the following skills:
(1) Information literacy -- aility to identify, locate, access, retrieve, evaluate and use information from a variety of formats;
(2) Information management -- aility to use electronic lirary catalogs, microformats, periodical dataases, CD-ROM interfaces, school area network programs, INTERNET, and print materials;
(3) Research Strategies -- aility to use print and electronic lirary sources effectively;
(4) Classification and Grouping of Information -- aility to use word processing, manipulation of dataase files to download, copy, and print information, and note-taking skills;
(5) Organization of Information - aility to correctly cite sources and create note cards and iliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- aility to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes,…
bibliography; and (6) Effective Use of Media Equipment -- ability to operate OPAC, LAN, Microfilm / Microfiche, VCR and Videotapes, Audio Cassette Player and tapes, CD-ROM station, Copy Machine and Printer to retrieve, copy, or print materials.
Information Literacy Curriculum (nd) Clarkstown Central School District West Nyack, NY. Online available at: http://www.ccsd.edu/bardonia/CCSDLibraryCurriculum/hrdcpy/Final%20Draft1.pdf
Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning - Learning and Teaching Principles of School Library Media Programs (2006) American Association of Libraries. Online available at: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslproftools/informationpower/iplearningteaching.cfm
Learning Differences and Learning Needs
Learning Styles and Learning Preferences
For many years a great debate has existed in the field of education. Teachers and educators have attempted to uncover the best method for teaching students. The majority of evidence available suggests that multiple factors influence a student's ability to achieve in the classroom, none the least of which is learning styles and preferences. There is ample evidence supporting the notion that intelligence aside, most students have a learning preference related to their cognitive style of thinking that is ingrained or innate.
Because of this students will react to material presented to them in the classroom in different ways. It is vital that teachers begin recognizing the significance of these individual learning differences and uncover methods for coping with and addressing learning style differences and preferences within the classroom. Only then will all children be afforded the opportunity to learn…
Fields S.C. ( 1985, April 15-18). Assessment of aptitude interactions for the most common science instructional strategies. Paper presented at the 58th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, French Lick Springs, IN.
Grabowski, B.L. & Jonassen, DH (1993). Handbook of individual differences in learning and instruction. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Merrill M.D. ( 1973). "Content and instructional analysis for cognitive transfer tasks." A
V Communication Review, 21,109-125.
There are, for example, many ways for a student to present an understanding of the causes of the U.S. Civil War" (1999, p. 35).
The research showed high stakes standardized testing approaches are becoming increasingly commonplace in the nation's schools, and the outcome of these testing regimens has enormous implications for the students involved, as well as for their teachers and schools. The research also showed that by formulating standards to match these standardized tests, teachers run the risk of "teaching to the test" rather than providing their students with the type of education that is needed in the 21st century. While they are more complex and difficult to administer, the research also showed that portfolios and other assessment techniques such as capstone projects provide a more comprehensive and accurate way to determine how well students are learning and where they may need help.
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized…
Blasi, M. (2005). Standardized tests: A teacher's perspective. Childhood Education, 81(4), 242-
Garcia, N. & Fleming, J. (1999). Are standardized tests fair to African-Americans? Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 471-472.
Neill, D.M. (1999). Transforming student assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(1), 34-35.
Sacks, P. (2000). Standardized minds: The high price of America's testing culture and what we can do to change it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
This is when the university arranges for: providing educational, healthcare, and counseling services to all the students. The aim is to support wellness practices for the long-term health of everyone.
The establishment of conversations with teaching faculty that has resulted in model community "service learning" projects consistent with the mission of the college or university.
The drug and alcohol program supports coordination among: the students, university administration, and faculty members in different areas. As students are assisted by the faculty members to deal with different learning issues they could face. Where, they are encouraged to discuss their problems with the teaching staff or counselors, in order to receive help on: strategies and skills required to achieve success in the real world. This is significant, because we are creating different student learning projects that are a collaborative effort between: staff members and the students. This is in line with the mission…
Effective Strategies to Reduce High Risk Drinking. (2006). Forum On Public Policy. Retrieved from: www.forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivesum07/brinkley.pdf
Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on The Student Experience. (2004). Delsuggs. Retrieved from: http://www.delsuggs.com/articles/Learning%20Reconsidered.pdf
Student Affairs 8. (2011). Essaytree. Retrieved from: http://*****/education-theories/student-affairs-8/
DeJong, W.. (2005). A Typology for Campus-Based Alcohol Prevention: Moving toward Environmental Management Strategies. College Drinking Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/supportingresearch/journal/dejong.aspx
Learning Specialized Vocabulary
Educators that provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) must provide students with the primary concepts of English in the early stages of language development. As students progress and become more familiar with the language and its idiosyncrasies, advanced training is likely to acclimate students to much of the daily slang as well as complex vocabulary that they hear from native English speakers in routine conversation. It is the responsibility of the ESL instructor to provide this teaching at the appropriate juncture, and the most advantageous route is specialized vocabulary. The following paper will provide a discussion of the concept of word elements in the English language. The paper will continue with an analysis of the methods by which ESL instructors teach technical or specialized vocabulary in their coursework, including various learning strategies for students. Finally, a brief discussion of the importance of specialized vocabulary…
American Guidance Service, Inc. (1997). Building Vocabulary
Skills. Minnesota: American Guidance Service, Inc.
Cohen, A., & Steinberg, J. (1983). Effects of three types of vocabulary on readability of intermediate grade science textbooks: an application of Finn's transfer feature theory. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(1), 87-101.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL
Through the process of finding words and researching facts, a student learns to choose and discard information. By and large, young pupils tend to believe everything everyone says, and the ability to discriminate may be facilitated by a good teacher, as the child is led to question, analyze and discuss things which are read, rather than to remain passive receivers of information, as the ISTEP program tends to foster, in preparing for tests through memorization (Wade, p. 28).
Questioning and stretching one's mind around big questions is important for young minds. The future of the nation depends upon educating young minds to think critically. Democracy is a method of government in which each citizen must pick and choose the best candidate to represent him or her and to make judgments about civic and state affairs. It is important that good, discriminatory minds lead our country in the future, so education…
Cook, J. (2008). LinC program provides student-driven learning experience. McClatchy-Tribune Business News (Dothan Eagle, Alabama). March 11, 2008 Issue.
Wade, C. (1995). Using writing to develop and assess critical thinking. Teaching of Psychology. Vol. 22(1), pp. 24-28.
This research will fill in a gap that was discovered in the literature review. There have been many, even in an academic setting, that have made comments regarding the effects of email on the student environment. However, there have been no significant studies to substantiate these claims. This study will fill in the existing gap in research and will examine the actual importance of email to the academic setting.
Chapter 2: Literature eview
The importance of technology in the academic setting was an accepted fact from the inception of the internet. However, there have been few academic studies that have attempted to quantify its impact on student lives and success. In order to understand the importance of email and its impact on students lives, one must examine several areas of academic research on the topic. It has been implied that self-esteem and a feeling of satisfaction play an important role…
Beffa-Negrini, P., Miller, B., and Cohen, N. (2002). Factors related to success and satisfaction in online learning. Academic Exchange Quarterly. September 2002.
Borowitz S., & Wyatt J. (1998) the origin, content, and workload of e-mail consultations. JAMA 280: 1321-4.
CNN.com. (2003). Firm can e-mail at work. September 19, 2003. CNN.Com Retrieved October 29, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/internet/09/19/e-mail.ban/index.html
Ferguson T. (1996). A guided tour of self-help cyberspace. [monograph on the Internet]. Rockville (MD): Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Public Health and Science, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1996 Retrieved November 3, 2007 at http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/confrnce/partnr96/summary.htm
Another way of combining these two approaches is by having the students involved in the process of what is learned and how. Each learner brings something different to the classroom, so will want to take away something different as well. The teacher and student can work together to set goals of what is to be achieved. Similarly, the students need continual feedback, so they know how they are accomplishing these goals. Lastly, since all students do learn differently, the classroom environment has to be a place for sharing new ideas. Students can learn considerably by seeing how their peers perceive the same drawing, or science experiment or historical event. They gain both knowledge and acquire new learning about their own abilities and that of others in the room. More importantly, this gives each child a similar opportunity to express him or herself and build self-esteem, regardless of the students' varying…
Student Affairs as Both A Field of Study and a Profession
What is Student Affairs?
Tyrell (2014) believes student affairs professionals have a continually expanding and evolving role in community colleges, with recognition of increasingly complex student experiences and with broadening of community colleges' role in the way students are engaged outside of and within formal, institutional settings.
The student affairs domain is an extensive and complex part of college campus operations, covering several departments and involving professionals hailing from a broad range of academic backgrounds. Student learning does not occur only in classrooms; rather, it is interwoven all through students' experiences in college, right from their freshmen days to the time they leave its doors after earning their college diploma. College students are molded by these experiences, conflict management lessons learnt from sharing dorms with fellow students, critical thinking skills perfected through challenging coursework, leadership skills attained through leadership…
Hoffman, J. L., & Bresciani, M. (2012). Identifying What Student Affairs Professionals Value: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Professional Competencies Listed in Job Descriptions. Research & Practice In Assessment, Vol 7, 26-40. Retrieved from http://www.rpajournal.com/
Long, D. (2012). The Foundations of Student Affairs: A Guide to the Profession. In L. J. Wong, Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 1-39). Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries. Retrieved from http://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu
Long, D. (2012). Theories and Models of Student Development. In L. J. Wong, Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 41-55). Chicago: Association of College & Research Libraries. Retrieved from
Student Learning Styles
riting to Learn -- Real orld Issues
A university instructor that seeks to interest and motivate students through a lecture is sometimes on thin ice as far as keeping students' attention. Hence, it is incumbent on the alert contemporary instructor to present highly relevant material (in a way that engages students) while at the same time realizing there are vastly different learning styles.
Still, the job of the instructor is to present information that helps the student develop skills in critical thinking -- and helps the student learn to solve problems. There are many aspects to the vitally important environmental issue of climate change, and all aspects of this issue cry out for clarity. An instructor can create a worthy activity -- that informs while it stimulates -- from the various approaches to climate change. In this paper the emphasis on writing to learn assignments are relevant…
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical
Science Basis / The Fifth Assessment Report. Retrieved October 18, 2014, from http://www.ipcc.ch .
Nilson, L.B. (2010). Teaching At Its Best. A Research-Based Resource for College
Instructors. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
student data is vital to the student's readiness, interest, learning profile and affect. As studies have shown, the more comprehensive the data about a student, the more capable a teacher becomes in tailoring lessons to use each student's strengths and address each student's challenges. By assessing X with even a simple tool like "Learning Style Inventory" and discussing the student's strengths, weaknesses, likes and dislikes, a clearer picture is obtained for accommodating her strengths and addressing her challenges with unique lessons.
The Importance and Value of Collecting Data
Rather than relying on happenstance to discover information about our students, teachers are now consciously collecting pertinent data about students, for "research and experience in increasingly global classrooms are revealing the complex interplay of factors that influence a student's learning" (Powell & Kusuma-Powell, 2011). The goal of such data collection is "personalized learning -- to use what we find out about our…
Anonymous. (nd). Learning style inventory. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from www.personal.psu.edu Web site: http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm
Popham, W.J. (2009, May). Assessing student affect. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from www.ascd.org Web site: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may09/vol66/num08/Assessing-Student-Affect.aspx
Powell, W., & Kusuma-Powell, O. (2011). How to teach now: Chapter 1. knowing our students as learners. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from www.ascd.org Web site: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111011/chapters/Knowing-Our-Students-as-Learners.aspx
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…
Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.
Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.
Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
hat is the most appropriate way to assess student achievement? The commission of the National Middle School Assessment of student achievement suggests "authentic assessment refers to evaluation that makes use of real life tasks instead of contrived test items." (NMSA, 2000) In other words, rather than focus on testing students more, a greater interest and study of effective teaching practices are better employed in further research regarding education. The National Middle School Assessment Authentic assessment also suggests that while standardized testing may occasionally function as a rough means of evaluating all children, such as identifying children with possible special needs, assessment in a truly learner-centered classroom will vary. "Examples of types of assessment are performance tasks, portfolios, student self-assessment surveys and probes, peer assessments, journals, logs, products, and projects. Successful assessment improves learning, instruction and program effectiveness." (NMS 2000, citing Donald, 1997) In my own school district, located…
Ellis, Edwin & Lou Anne Worthington, Martha J. Larkin. (2005) "Executive Summary of the Research Synthesis on Effective Teaching Principles and the Design of Quality Tools for Educators." Area of Teacher Education, Programs in Special Education University of Alabama Report. Retrieved 23 Oct 2005
'Executive Summary." (2001) Child Left Behind Act' of 2001. Summary of research retrieved 23 Oct 2005
For many years, the college has collected and analyzed data for program evaluation and service provision. As the institution has grown, the established assessment systems have become focused on department functions and, in many instances, taking on the attributes of a work silo. It is easier today than it has ever been to integrate data and link analyses, a fact that highlights just how archaic the college's present approach to assessment has become. While the college can be proud of the rigor and continuity of many of our current assessment systems, the level of integration with institutional strategic planning and articulation across the various assessment systems is lacking. Improved cohesion among the assessment systems can only lead to a more penetrating look at the college's strengths and weaknesses. This is the nexus of my role in the position of Director of Assessment, Student Affairs: the creation of a…
Drucker, P. (2006). The effective executive: The definitive guide to getting the right things done. Harperbusiness Essentials.
____. (2010). ACPA / NASPA Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners.
____. (2006). Frameworks for assessing learning and development outcomes (FALDO). Washington, DC: Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). Retrieved http://www.cas.edu/index.php/index.php/index.php
15-17). For teachers of language and literacy, fine arts, and physical education this process is almost more important, as students probably come to these classes with pre-determined notions based on their learning styles. For instance, a student who is not a kinesthetic learner my frown on physical education. For this reason, teachers instructing in physical education should be sure to use a variety of visual, auditory, and other methods in conjunction with their physical instruction to engage all students. Some physical education teachers may do this through the inclusion of slide or light shows and music. Even in the study of music, Locklear (2008) suggests that diverse learning styles can be used. In fact, she suggests that, "music class immersion can positively address many of the concerns educators share," including the incorporation of various learning styles. Furthermore, using music to teach literacy, as both disciplines are "symbolic" is one way…
Locklear, S. (2008). Research-Based Justification for the Highline School District
Elementary and Secondary School Music Problems. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from New Horizons for Learning. Web Site: http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/arts/locklear.htm
Peng, L.L. (2002). Applying Learning Styles in Instructional Strategies. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from the National University of Singapore. Web Site: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/brief/v5n7/default.htm
Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47]
Advantages of Knowing the Learning Style
Now that we have seen the domination of different modalities resulting in different learning styles among students, it is pertinent to understand the implications of such differences in context of their academic performance. Several studies have attested to that fact that only 20% of students learn through their auditory modality while 80% are either visual or kinesthetic. [Donna Walker, pg 16] However, in stark contrast, most of higher education is…
1) Marcia L. Conner, (2004) 'Learn More Now: 10 Simple steps to Learning Better, Smarter and Faster',
2) Richard M. Felder, (2005), 'Understanding Student Differences', Journal of Engineering education, 94(1) 57-72, available online at, http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf
3) Donna Walker Tileston, (2005) 10 Best Teaching Practices: How Brain research, Learning Styles and Standards Define Teaching Competences', Published by Corwin Press.
4) Steve Garnett, (2005), 'Using Brainpower in the Classroom: Five steps to accelerate Learning', Published by Routledge
(Singer, 2003, p. 36) Education should be a constructive process. Palinscar states that the teacher must assume an active and directive role by establishing the pace, content, and goals of the lesson. (Palincsar, 1998) Byra also described such a process of "task progression" through which content is broken down and sequenced into meaningful learning experiences. (Byra, 2004) the lesson learned from receiving fifty percent credit on a late assignment is not necessarily the lesson intended.
Each step in the academic process contributes to the learning process. An assignment is not merely research. It is not merely a grade. It is the sum total of the student's entire experience vis-a-vis that experience. (Bailey, Hughes & Moore, 2004, p. 32) a student who receives a grade of fifty percent because he or she completed an assignment late sees that arbitrary judgment of his or her work as a "lesson" too. Studies show…
Alderman, M.K. (2004). Motivation for Achievement: Possibilities for Teaching and Learning (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bailey, T.R., Hughes, K.L., & Moore, D.T. (2004). Working Knowledge: Work-Based Learning and Education Reform. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
In conjunction with these perspectives on how to create a highly effective online learning platform that aligns to the specific needs of students, there is a corresponding area of research that concentrates on teaching resiliency in the teaching process. The work of Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University underscores the need for leading students to continually challenge themselves to grow and have a very strong growth mindset vs. A limited on. She draws on an empirically-derived research study that shows the greater the growth mindset of even the most talented and gifted mindset, the greater the long-term performance gains they make in life (Dweck, 2006). Her book, Mindset, challenges both students and teachers to create a culture of continual focus on excellence and continual striving to improve, never taking a closed or limited mindset to improvement. It is an inspirational book and shows that there is hope for continual improvement…
Ahlfeldt, S., Mehta, S., & Sellnow, T. (2005). Measurement and analysis of student engagement in university classes where varying levels of PBL methods of instruction are in use. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 5-20.
Basile, a. & D'Aquila, J.M. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a Principles of Financial Accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137.
Beard, L.A. (2002). Students perceptions of online vs. campus instruction. Education, 122(4), 658.
Dutton, j. d.; Dutton, m.; Perry, j. (2002). How do Online Students Differ from Lecture Students? JALN. Vol. 6, no. 1, July.
One result is that in spite of being told how to record a journal in the context of an independent format, most students used a format preferred by the teacher which demonstrates a possible "lack of proficiency with reflective writing" (2002, p. 343), meaning that almost all of the students were not at all familiar with reflective writing techniques and decided to adhere to a format more in line with what the teacher expected or preferred. Another result is that 55% of the submitted journals appear to have become more critical and self-reflective toward the end of the course, an indication that these students had actually become more proficient as reflective writers as a result of keeping a record of their thoughts and achievements.
As to strengths and weaknesses related to the article, it is clear that Langer is a master of academic extrapolation, due to his ability to write…
Langer, a.M. (2002). Reflecting on practice: using learning journals in higher and continuing education. Teaching in Higher Education, 7(3), 337-352.
Petersen, M.N. (2005). Non-traditional students in higher education. Journal of the American
Educational Board, 4(2), 223-227.
Wilson, J.P. (2004). The application of learning journals in a science classroom environment.
learning can be categorized into three distinct groups: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism refers to the student's interaction with the environment and focuses on the external aspects of learning and on that which encourages learning such as positive reinforcement on the one hand and punishment on the toehr. Cogntivism, on the other hand, focuses on attitudes, motivation, and ideas and refers to the brain's interaction with the academic environment and with subject taught. Finally, constructivism represents and describes the situation where the learner actively builds new ideas or constructs learning situations.
Other approaches include humanism (where the focus is placed on respecting and motivating the individual student as encouragement to learning) and social / situational (namely those situational / social constructs interact in shaping a student's motivation and classroom attitude.
Behaviorism believes that external actions and manner dominate if not replace cognition. adical behaviorists believe that mind / cognition…
Brown, B. & Ryoo, K (2008). Teaching Science as a Language: A "Content-First" Approach to Science Teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 45 (5): 529 -- 553.
Charles, C. (2005). Building classroom discipline. USA: Pearson Pub.
Baron, R.A., Byrne, D., & Branscombe, N.R. (2006). Social Psychology (11th Ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
Benson, N.C. (1998). Introducing Psychology. U.K: Totem Books.
How the Previous Experiences, Interests and Thought Processes of Students Influence the Learning of Current Content Area Concepts
The objective of this study is to examine how the previous experiences, interests, and thought processes of students can influence the learning of current content area concepts. This work will examine the link between past experiences of students, student interests and present learning and address key principles of brain-based learning including the importance of meaningful learning, knowledge background. This work will examine how consideration of past experiences, learning and student interest should be an important part of lesson planning for the teacher. Specific examples will be included.
Prior knowledge includes the learner's attitudes and experiences. Attitudes include the learner's beliefs about themselves as learners and the learners' awareness of their own individual strengths and interests. Experiences include normal activities that are relative to learning and the events in the lives of…
Critical Issue: Building on Prior Knowledge and Meaningful Student Contexts/Cultures (nd) NCREL. Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr100.htm
Haverila, M. (nd) The Influence of Experience, Ability and Interest on e-Learning Effectiveness. EURODL. Retrieved from: http://www.eurodl.org/?article=359
Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience. (2004) The National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, The American College Personnel Association. Jan 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/learningreconsidered.pdf
Prior Knowledge (nd) The Strategic Teaching and Reading Project Guidebook (Kujawa & Huske, 1995). Cited in: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1pk.htm
Many of the students at the school are intelligent, but they do not know how to put that intelligence to good use, because no one has ever taught them that they are capable of doing many things that they may want to do. Since this is the case, the teachers at the school must be given tools that are practical and can be easily incorporated into what they already do, which will help to stimulate the minds of the students that they work with when it comes to teaching them language literacy. While not an easy task, it is a worthwhile one that should be considered. Children are the future of this country and it seems wrong to neglect any of them, regardless of their race, ethnicity, background, language ability, or mental capabilities.
Those that can be educated should be educated, and ways must be found to ensure that this…
Special Ed Standard
eflective paper on student differences and learning style approaches
This paper provides a brief overview of different learning styles and the types of accommodations teachers can make in the classroom
Learning styles: An overview
"Students learn in many ways -- by seeing and hearing; reflecting and acting; reasoning logically and intuitively; memorizing and visualizing and drawing analogies and building mathematical models; steadily and in fits and starts. Teaching methods also vary. Some instructors lecture, others demonstrate or discuss; some focus on principles and others on applications; some emphasize memory and others understanding" (Felder 1988: 674). The idea of using multiple approaches to teaching the same material has become more and more popular as teachers are cognizant of the different learning styles students manifest. Some auditory learners may learn best through listening; students who are visual learners may learn best if the teacher uses graphs and…
Felder, Richard M. & L.K. Silverman. (1988) Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 78(7), 674-681. Retrieved June 26, 2011 at http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/LS-1988.pdf
Understanding different learning styles. (2011). NDT. Retrieved June 26, 2011 at http://www.ndt-ed.org/TeachingResources/ClassroomTips/Learning_Styles.htm
Student feedback offers essential verification for quality evaluation as I use it for supporting efforts for the improvement of quality and also because it is useful for potential students. I always try to use such feedback sources that could help me to keep focus on observation of key aspects of teaching. Also, I collect the feedbacks as soon as possible after every important learning activity. The questionnaires are constructed in a manner that has a very wide choice of applicability. The most important thing that I emphasize on while giving feedback to a pupil is that I highlight the particular features and worth of his/her work. Also, the feedback I give contains advice on the areas that need improvement.
Most importantly, I make use of my feedback to assess the individual traits of the pupils' work and avoid comparing the work with that of other pupils'. Moreover, the feedback I…
Family, School and Community Connections: Improving Student Learning. (2007, August). Retrieved August 9, 2012 from http://www.ia-sb.org/assets/6822accf01e64833a1a3f99b1fddd217.pdf
Nelson, M.M. (2007, June 14). The Nature of Feedback: How Different Types of Peer Feedback Affect Writing Performance. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-12072007-100802/unrestricted/NelsonMelissa061407.pdf
The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.
It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and atkins, p132-51) hile this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.
So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (aring and Evans, p117-28)
According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself.…
Lam, Y.L. Defining the effects of transformation leadership on organization learning: a cross-cultural comparison: School Leadership & Management, 2002, pp 439-52.
Marquardt, M. Action learning in action: Transforming problems and people for world- class organizational learning. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 1999, pp45-49.
Marsick, V.J., and Watkins, KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization's learning culture: The Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2003 5, pp132-151.
Evans, C. And Graff, M. "Exploring style: enhancing the capacity to learn?," Education & Training, Vol. 50, 2008, pp. 93-102.
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
If teachers fail to design connected scaffolds than the class will develop only limited capabilities. He explains that this can be done by choosing only those scaffolding tools which have similar structures, assignment objectives, and interactive styles (Tabak, 2004). Hence when considering the scaffolds for developing skills of weak students, I will make sure that the scaffolds are complementing not only the main learning objective but also one another.
Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information eview, 26(2), 108-127.
Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological esearch and Development, 50(3), 5-22.
Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.
Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information Review, 26(2), 108-127.
Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological Research and Development, 50(3), 5-22.
Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.
The study used student projects as the main vehicle for integrating active learning methods into the lecture. The study took place during a 10-week class, with four projects being assigned to groups of size four to six. Projects centered on (1) statistical tests of goodness-of-fit; (2) design of a simple experiment and analysis of variance using two factors; (3) factorial design experiment and analysis; and (4) regression analysis. In each project, there was emphasis placed on the purposefulness of the experiment, the design, and the ensuing collection of data. Each project lasted about two weeks, including around 90 minutes of in-class work used for project instruction, questions, and discussion. A primary weakness of the research was insufficient time in which to conduct classroom presentations by the students themselves concerning their projects and the learning processes that took place.
Extent to Which Findings Can Be Generalized to Student Population. While the…
Heron, Alison H. (2003). A Study of Agency: Multiple Constructions of Choice and Decision
Making in an Inquiry-Based Summer School Program for Struggling Readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(7), 568.
Kvam, P.H. (2000). The Effect of Active Learning Methods on Student Retention in Engineering Statistics. The American Statistician, 54(2), 136.
Lewis, V.K. & Shaha, S.H. (Spring 2003). Maximizing learning and attitudinal gains through integrated curricula. Education, 123(3), 537.
In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that…
Many studies have shown that PBL students experience greater motivation toward learning than their traditional counterparts (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Beachey, 2007, Rogal & Snider, 2008). Further PBL has been associated with greater satisfaction in the learning process by physicians than its traditional counterpart (Beachey, 2007; Op't Holt, 2000; Rogal & Snider, 2008). Evaluations of PBL programs have found that not only do students take pleasure in the process, they also believe that they have the capacity to out perform their peers from traditional curricula in clinical settings (Op't Holt, 2005; Kaufman & Mann, 1996). Studies have shown that the teaching method has little bearing on the learning of academically talented students (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Distlehorst, Dawson, Robbs, & Barrows, 2005; Op't Hoyt, 2005). In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that one would expect significant improvement in clinical knowledge and performance in order to advocate for the use of PBL in the classroom due to the extensive resources that are required to utilize PBL curricula.
One would expect that PBL students would be at a significant advantage over their traditional peers due to the clinical application in the classroom (Colliver, 2000). Some
personal reflection giving past experiences used in selecting an assessment method to evaluate learning. It further outlines how assessment can be used for both individual learner mastery and continuous quality improvement of the instruction. Moreover the paper discusses how critical reflection is essential in the assessment process not only for the educator, but for learners as well. Besides, it presents a profile of own current professional educator role as a reflective practitioner.
Assessment and Critical eflection
In my degree program, I have preferred the use of Personal Communication assessment method in evaluation of' learning progress. This method entails gathering information about what students have learned in the course of interacting with them. This assessment method, involves listening to students' views during classes; responding to their comments, as well as interviewing them (Brodie & Irving, 2007). The information gathered during such interactions provides descriptive feedback helpful in instructional planning, and self-reflection.…
Ash, S.L., & Clayton, P.H. (2004). The Articulated Learning: An Approach to Guided Reflection and Assessment. Innovative Higher Education, 137-154.
Brodie, P., & Irving, K. (2007). Assessment in Work-Based Learning: Investigating a Pedagogical Approach to Enhance Student Learning. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 11-19.
Copland, M.A., & Knapp, M.S. (2006). Connecting Leadership with Learning: A Framework for Reflection, Planning, and Action . Alexandria: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
Schon, D.A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. London: Temple Smith.
students of all ages and backgrounds have enrolled in distance learning degrees through the Internet. The two forms of college education, the traditional on-campus degree and this new distributed learning approach, differ in a number of ways. Yet they both offer specific advantages.
The composition of the student population has changed significantly since the 1980s. A large number of today's college students are older and more heterogeneous. They also demonstrate varying levels of academic preparation. Many would-be students graduated high school a number of years ago and, due to various family and employment commitments, no longer have the flexibility of attending a traditional university setting. Further, some individuals live in remote geographical areas or do not have appropriate transportation opportunities. Distance learning offers them a much more expedient way to further their education.
Distance learning offers such students the opportunity to learn online through their computers. Distributed learning programs are…
students develop their understanding of numbers as they perform preliminary counting activities in class? How will the teacher scaffold students' learning for deeper understanding of counting and number sense?
Students will count to 100 by ones and in multiples of 3 (to 99), 5 and 10. Students will demonstrate understanding by reading, writing and typing numbers correctly and by correctly comparing numbers using the words "fewer," "more," and "equal."
Strategies, easoning, Procedures
The student cannot count or counts with multiple errors.
The student struggles to read, write and type numbers correctly.
The student cannot correctly identify numbers using comparison words.
No evidence of a strategy (e.g., using fingers, looking at a number line or hundred board).
No evidence the student has made the connection between the spoken word and written symbols.
No evidence the student has sufficient number sense to make comparisons.
The student does not…
"General math rubric." (2011). Teacher Planet. Retrieved from http://www.rubrics4teachers
student motivation in the learning environment and what motivates students to study. The evaluation begins with a theoretical background on the issue of student motivation based on existing literature and studies on the issue. This is followed by a literature review of 10 studies that have been carried out on the student motivation in various classroom settings and learning environments. Through this review the author has identified various factors that motivate students to study including creation of a supportive learning environment, use of suitable teaching practices, and use of multi-level strategies. The article also includes a discussion regarding the significance of student motivation in the learning process.
One of the most important goals of an educational environment is to motivate students toward environmentally friendly behavior change. The need for student motivation in the high school setting is attributed to the fact that motivation creates positive experience, which helps in improving…
Daniels, E. (2011, November). Creating Motivating Learning Environments: Teachers Matter.
Middle School Journal, 32-37.
Darner, R. (2012, August). An Empirical Test of Self-determination Theory As A Guide to Fostering Environmental Motivation. Environmental Education Research 18(4), 463-472.
Hardre, P.L. (2012). Standing in the Gap: Research that Informs Strategies for Motivating and Retaining Rural High School Students. Rural Educator, 12-18.
The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.
Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.
Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.
In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…
Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.
Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.
Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.
Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
The natural environment provides students with a calm and quiet place to unwind from the noises of the classroom. It nurtures and supports animal-life all year round. This is critical for areas where commercial and residential development is reducing most natural areas. Wildlife especially needs help during the cold and snowy months. Students can also see how it benefits the environment. It also helps connect students to the world of nature. Increasingly, because children are spending more and more times indoors, they are losing touch with nature.
Humans, because they spent their first 14,000 years in nature, have a special bond with the outdoor world. When they are taken away from this environment, through cities, lack of parks, no outdoor play, there can be psychological affects. When taking time to enjoy nature, children will feel better about themselves and the world at large.
We are also going to put a…
Besecker, I. (June 11, 2000). Greensoboro News and Record. Insanity of Testing Mania.
Bredderman, T. (1985). Laboratory programs for elementary school science: A meta- analysis of effects on learning. Science Education, 69(4), 577-591.
Carpenter, R. (1963). A Reading Method and an Activity Method in Elementary Science Instruction. Science Education, April.
Hake, R. (1992). Socratic Pedagogy in the Introductory Physics Laboratory. The Physics Teacher 30(9), 546-552
The teacher is then given this goal oriented time specific goal development document to aide in supplementing or altering instruction to meet the needs of the specialized student in inclusion and seclusion. (Filler & Xu, 2006, p. 92) This document and its development are created whenever and individual child is observed and then designated to need such assistance based on his or her inability to meet age appropriate developmental goals, in large part based on standardized developmental scales that designate age appropriate ranges for physical and cognitive skill development and though they have been around almost since the inception of IDEA and the LE they were not always developed or used to their fullest extent for any given child. (Filler & Xu, 2006, p. 92) Filler & Xu also stress that inclusion is not successful if a child with special needs is simply placed in a classroom with average learning…
Filler, J., & Xu, Y. (2006). Including Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Education Programs: Individualizing Developmentally Appropriate Practices. Childhood Education, 83 (2), 93-102.
Kavale, K., & Forness, S. (2000). History, Rhetoric and Reality. Remedial Special Education, 21 (5), 279-291.
National Collaberative on Workforce and Disability. (2004, December). Special Education Law Enacted. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from ERIC: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1b/ac/d8.pdf
Odom, S. (2000). Preschool Inclusion: What We Know and Where We Go from Here. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20 (1), 20-25.
Responsibly," by Richard J. Shavel and Leta Huang, I find that I very much agree with the theme of this article. The primary point that the authors are conveying is that testing has become not so much about reflecting an accurate picture of what students are learning and retaining, but more about the test itself -- testing for testing's sake. As the authors put it, "From high-stakes testing in K-12 education...we know full well that what you test is what you get because teachers will teach to the test." (p. 11) The problem, as the authors see it, is that everyone has lost sight of what the goals and objectives of testing are -- or should be. Teachers will absolutely teach to a test because it is in results that funding lies.
The authors of this article propose a rather ingenious solution. The framework they offer would have schools look…
This helps them deal with administrative tasks such as applying for grants, reporting their progress, appeasing parents, etc. In addition, teacher-based methods of assessment have at least one positive implication for students. According to Flood et al., teacher-based assessments allow teachers to enter the process of scaffolding with significant foreknowledge. Flood et al. (2003). suggests that all good assessment includes a component in which a teacher plans and sets goals, and then collecting data and interpreting it. This can be done in the classroom or at the macro level -- applicable to either the school itself or the state. Teachers can use the data gleaned from teacher-centered assessment as a means by which to identify areas of weakness and address them (Kearns, 2009). Standardized testing and teacher-based testing in classrooms allows teachers to determine where most students are having problems and use scaffolding techniques to intervene on the student's behalf…
Chall, J.S. & Adams, M.J. (2002). The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really
Works in the Classroom. New York: Guilford.
Flood, J. et al. (2003). The Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language
Arts 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum.
The author of this report has been asked to offer a review of the graduate program that is in the process of being completed by the author. The author is to reflect on the "nature and extent of their professional growth and development." This is to include development when it comes to philosophies about education. There was also some observations to be made about the practicum that was undertaken. There was skill-building and strengthening of teaching skills as well as work with children. As part of this analysis the author will consult at least five scholarly journals and use them as a reference point that new teachers might face in the current culture, society and overall teaching paradigm. In particular, there will be a focus on data-supported instruction with children. While some people may think it is easy, learning to become a teacher and then actually starting to…
Admiraal, W., Janssen, T., Huizenga, J., Kranenburg, F., Taconis, R., & Corda, A.
(2014). E-Assessment of Student-Teachers' Competence as New
Teachers. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology - TOJET, 13(4), 21-
Teaching History -- Learning History
Teaching history -- as the quote from "Teaching History" correctly states -- is by way of cultivating respect among students for the way in which knowledge was gained and used in the past, and how it impacted society. This paper reviews the way in which teaching history can be most effective, and how a teacher can make history interesting because of its relationship to today. And because students really need to acquire necessary skills so they fully understand the significance of how and why what has gone on before impacts what is happening today.
Zeroing in on Solutions -- The Challenges of Teaching History
In the website www.tolerance.com (a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center) Jonathan Gold, a middle school teacher, makes a key point by asking students to approach this question -- "hat makes something or someone in history significant?" This is an…
Gold, Jonathan. "Teaching Students About Historical Significance." Tolerance.org. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from http://www.tolerance.org . 2015
National Center for History in the Schools. University of California at Los Angeles.
Retrieved May 20, 2016 from http://www.nchs.ucla.edu . 2015.
Social Context and Relationships in Culture-Based Education in Yup'ik Eskimo Teaching Style
Jerry Lipka's article, entitled, "Toward a Culturally-Based Pedagogy: A Case Study of One Yup'ik Eskimo Teacher," discusses the other facet of teaching styles that are dominantly used among collective societies and communities. In Lipka's case study, he focuses on the teaching styles among educators of the Yup'ik Eskimo communities in Alaska. The author's study yielded the result that in the context of the Yup'ik Eskimo culture, social interaction and relationships affect the effectiveness of learning among students and teaching styles and methods of the teacher/educator. This finding illustrates how social relationships provide students and teachers a "cognitive framework" with which they can relate to and use as basis for their (students) learning. The case study brought about the fourth R. Of learning -- which are social relationships, an essential factor to learning in collective societies such…
Explain in detail how you will address each of the needs identified in part 2 include changes necessary for environment, engagement, application, and tools. Make sure to include a list of technology resources currently available and those that must be purchased.
State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures
Environment The changes necessary for the environment involve going from one based on the physical environment to one that is predicated on a cloud-based environment. In this regard, the change is mostly one of architecture. Virtually all applications and requisite software the students and instructors will use will be accessed through the cloud.
Engagement The means of engagement will be the Bring Your Own Device phenomenon, in which students utilize their own mobile devices for the purpose of working in the classroom. Those without such devices will be provided the most accessible ones (a smart phone) via the…
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
Learning Styles -- Academic Performance
There has been a great deal of scholarly research done on how students learn, and how certain learning styles impact the academic outcomes. This paper delves into four scholarly research papers that describe learning styles and the subsequent academic achievements that result from those learning styles.
Deep Learning is Preferable to Surface Learning
Several learning styles were used in a research project involving 273 Social Science students at a British university. The learning styles being rated and observed (part of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles) included "deep learning," "self-regulated learning," "intrinsic motivation," and "constructivist conception of learning." In the research, these four styles of learning were seen as preferable to "surface learning," "teacher-centered learning," "extrinsic motivation," and "objectivist conception of learning" (Boyle, et al., 2003). The most acceptable learning style in terms of the student achieving positive academic gains was "deep learning," which requires the…
Boatman, K., Courtney, R., and Lee, W. (2008). "See How They Learn": The Impact of Faculty and Student Learning Styles on Student Performance in Introductory
Economics. The American Economist, 52(1), 39-52.
Boyle, E. A., Duffy, T., and Dunleavy, K. (2003). Learning styles and academic outcome:
The validity and utility of Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles in a British higher education setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 73, 267-290.