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According to the research conducted by Silverstein et al., (2000), the pressure used to place the probe tip at the base of the periodontal sulcus is approximately 50 N/cm2 and at the base of the junction epithelium is 200 N/cm2. A tip diameter of 0.6 mm is needed to reach the base of the sulcus. Clinical inflammation does not reflect the severity of histological inflammation, and the recordings may not illustrate probing depth. Therefore, probing depth does not identify anatomical locations at the base of the sulcus. Probe tips must have a diameter of 0.6 mm and a 0.20 gram force (50 N/cm2) to gain a pressure which demonstrates estimated probing depth. This pressure is useful for the measurement of the reduction of clinical probing depth, which includes the formation of a long junctional epithelium as a result of treatment. but, different forces or diameter tips are essential for the…
Chaves et al., (1993). Clinical oral research. Journal of Clinical Periodontol, 139-43.
Fowler, et al., (1982). Histologic probe position in treated and untreated human periodontal tissues. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 9, 373-385.
Gerber et al., (2009). Clinical Oral Implants Research. Journal of Periodontology, 20(1):75-8
Heins, et al., (1998). Pain threshold values during periodontal probing: assessment of maxillary incisor and molar sites. Journal of Periodontology, 69, 812-818.
Symptoms of DHD
Patrick is a ten-year-old boy and for the past nine months he has been developing a strange behavior. He gets easily bored when doing his school work especially when the work involves activity that he does not like. He is easily distracted and is very forgetful, he moves from doing one thing to another without completing them. This has led to his teacher complaining of inability to complete or turn in his homework assignments. Patrick has become a concern to his parents and appears less interested in school work; he talks all the time, moves around and has difficulty in performing tasks that require silence.
There is a possibility of mistaken diagnosis for DHD. Therefore, it is important for involved parties to ascertain that there are no cases of maturity level, personalities or temperaments. This is because this condition is not easy to diagnose, symptoms vary…
American Psychological Association. (2012). ADHD. Retrieved November 16, 2012, from www.apa.org.
Cook, R.E., Klein, M.D., & Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs. Boston: Mass: Pearson.
Quinlan, D.M. (2002). Assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbidities. In T.E. Brown, Attention-deficit Disorders and Comorbidities in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc.
symptoms and psychosocial aspect of the disease as well as what treatments are available. The writer examines one epidemic from history to detail the way syphilis affected society at the time compared to how it affects society today. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Over the last two or three decades the discovery and growth of the AIDS epidemic have effectively squashed concerns and knowledge about other STD's. This does not mean they are not around however, and it actually serves to open the doors for some of them to become more prevalent again as the focus is taken off of them and place on AIDS. One STD that has been around for many years and at one time was considered as dangerous as AIDS is today is Syphilis. Syphilis has been wreaking havoc on the world for hundreds of years and it is still one of…
From mercury to malaria to penicillin: The history of the treatment of syphilis at the Mayo Clinic, 1916-1955 by Jeffrey S. Sartin, MD and Harold O. Perry, MD http://www.imsdocs.com/syphilis.htm
The Great Scourge': Syphilis as a medical problem and moral metaphor, 1880-1916
Lesley A. Hall http://homepages.primex.co.uk/~lesleyah/grtscrge.htm
ORIGINS OF SYPHILIS
Pulsation in carotids visible. Temporal, carotid, apical, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial pulses are +2. Capillary refill
American Cancer Society. (2009, September 18). How to perform a breast self-exam. Retrieved from the American Cancer Society website: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6x_How_to_perform_a_breast_self_exam_5.asp
American Cancer Society. (2009, August 3). Can testicular cancer be found early? Retrieved
from the American Cancer Society website:
symptoms of a problem)?
NTN doesn't have a vision that appeal to people. It needs a new identity. For example, Upworthy appels to people on a moral level, yet NTN just focuses on the news.
Why is it of strategic importance to NowThis News (rather than simply an operational improvement)?
Because creating a new vision would open up an entirely new target market. It would necessarily have to change any of its core operations, just tweak the vision to be more relevant to people's lives and create content that is more appealing to the individual user.
How do you propose to develop a solution (your process for research, experimentation or product development )?
NTN definitely needs to do some target market research. First they need to define the target market and then through surveys or targeted interviews find out what they want in their media. Once some brainstorming has been…
Emotional Stress Triggers Symptoms in Hypertrophic
Cardiomyopathy: A Survey of the Hypertrophic
In the article titled: "Emotional Stress Triggers Symptoms in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Survey of the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association " written by achel Lampert, Lisa Salberg, and Matthew Burg, the authors discuss symptoms as being the most important factor impacting quality of life in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. They set out to create and send to several HCM patients via email, a survey. They did this so they can assess what kinds of symptoms these patients experienced with HCM. The survey also enabled patients to report emotional quality of life on a 1-10 Likert scale.
The hypothesis: can emotions trigger symptoms in patients with HCM along with decreasing quality of life? As explained in the introduction by Lambert et al. (2010): "Further, emotional stressors can alter electrophysiological properties of the myocardium associated with arrhythmogenesis in other populations,…
LAMPERT, R., SALBERG, L., & BURG, M. (2010). Emotional Stress Triggers Symptoms in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Survey of the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association: STRESS-INDUCED SYMPTOMS IN HCM. Pace-pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 33, 1047-1053. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.2010.02770.x
When the infected person has TB in other organs than the lungs or throat they are not usually considered to be infectious to others. For example, a patient who has TB in the kidney or spine will not spread the disease to others even though it is an active disease.
There are people who breathe in the TB bacteria and do not become ill though they do present as infected when tested.
For reasons not completely understood by medical science, those people have the ability to fight the infection and not become ill. The bacteria does not grow in their bodies. Once they are infected however, the bacteria remains in that person's body indefinitely and it can eventually become active.
People with latent TB infection have no symptoms don't feel sick can't spread TB to others usually have a positive skin test reaction can develop active TB disease…
Black Cohosh Efficacy for educing Menopausal Symptom Severity
Menopause occurs when women transition into late middle age, around the age of 51 years (reviewed by Leach and Moore, 2012). During this transition many women will experience a significant decline in quality of life due to the emergence of menopausal symptoms. This decline can be caused by the natural aging process or a medical procedure, but the symptoms are generally the same regardless of the cause. Menopausal symptoms arise when the ovaries gradually become unresponsive to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), thereby producing less circulating progesterone and estrogen. The symptoms include hot flashes and sweating (vasomotor), vaginal atrophy and dryness, and loss of libido.
Most women (? 85%) can expect the duration of menopausal symptoms to last between 5 months and 10 years, with an average of about 3.5 years (reviewed by Leach and Moore, 2012). Given the duration…
Borrelli, Francesca and Ernst, Edzard. (2008a). Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacological Research, 58, 8-14.
Borrelli, Francesca and Ernst, Edzard. (2008b). Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa): A systematic review of adverse advents. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 199(5), 455-466.
Guttuso, T. Jr. (2012). Effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies. Maturitas, 72(1), 6-12.
Kupferer, E.M., Dormire, S.L., and Becker, H. (2009). Complementary and alternative medicine use for vasomotor symptoms among women who have discontinued hormone therapy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 38(1), 50-59.
morbidity dual diagnoses., symptoms, assessment, impact, treatment June Porter. The purpose assessment undertake assessment a clinical scenario, demonstrating consolidating assessment problem solving skills.
Clinical case scenario -- Co-morbidity for neuropathy
The case of June Porter manifests many of the clinical complications associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. June's diabetes is attributed to her significant weight gain and inactivity. June's foot abrasions and blurred vision are causes for alarm, given that they are symptoms of neuropathy. (What you need to know about diabetic neuropathy, 2013, Scottsdale Neuropathy Institute). Smoking can further exacerbate neuropathy by causing narrowing and hardening of the arteries and smokers like June who take birth control pills while smoking further run the risk of blood clots (What you need to know about diabetic neuropathy, 2013, Scottsdale Neuropathy Institute; Cornforth 2009). To improve June's health, it is necessary to control her diabetes. Unfortunately, treating the symptoms of diabetes is…
Cornforth, Tracee. (2009). Smoking: Women's health perspective. About.com. Retrieved:
Ringold S, Lynm C, & Glass RM. (2006). Alcohol abuse and alcoholism. JAMA.
295(17):2100. Retrieved: doi:10.1001/jama.295.17.2100.
Myocardium is the special muscle that makes up the heart, and like other body muscles, this particular muscle requires constant oxygen supply. According to Roberts (2015) the arteries charged with supplying heart muscle with oxygen rich blood are referred to as coronary arteries. As a result of blockage of these arteries, oxygen rich blood cannot reach parts of the heart muscle, effectively starving the affected muscle of oxygen. It is the resulting damage or death of the affected muscle that triggers what is referred to as a myocardial infarction or heart attack. The extent of damage depends on whether the blockage affects a smaller branch artery or the main coronary artery (Roberts, 2015) – with the former affecting a smaller area of heart muscle. This particular blockage, according to WebMD (2017), could amongst other things result in heart failure, heart rhythms that are either abnormal or irregular, damage to critical…
Treatment of Psychological Disorder
The bipolar disorder is a mental disorder and alternatively known as manic depression elevates the mood and cause depression to the affected individuals. The symptom of bipolar depression is the elevated mood, and it is the significant symptom of the affected person. During mania process, the affected individuals behaves irritably, display abnormally energetic and happy. The affected individuals often make poorly decision with little or no regard to the consequences. During the depression period, the affected individuals may have a negative outlook on life, and having poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide is another symptom of bipolar disorder where between 30% and 40% of the victims attempt to inflict self -harm. Other mental issues include substance use disorder, and anxiety disorders. While it is difficult to establish the cause, however, the genetic and environmental factors have been responsible for the cause of bipolar…
Reference. Causes of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved June 5, 2017 from http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/bipolar-disorder-causes#1
Jenkins, M. M., Youngstrom, E. A., Youngstrom, J. K., Feeny, N. C., & Findling, R. L. (2012). Generalizability of Evidence-Based Assessment Recommendations for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 269 -- 281. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0025775
Kerner, B.(2014).Genetics of bipolar disorder. Appl Clin Genet. 7: 33 -- 42.
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…
Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html
Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html
Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004. http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html
Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
proj Management 7.2a
There are several symptoms of cultural communications problems. The first is that Sid did not want to be honest with Judy right away; she had to pry the information out of him. The second is that the hours were way more than was needed. The third is that Randy had added hours to the estimate that Sid had originally provided. The fourth is that Sid indicated that if he failed to meet the target for any reason, there would be neverending negative consequences. The fifth is that Sid is juggling many projects at once -- programming is the sort of work that requires intense concentration on a single task juggling multiple such projects simultaneously is not desirable for programmers.
The first step to changing the culture in the department is that the problem needs to be clearly identified so that everybody knows what the current culture is…
2004). In those cases, there was very early diagnosis and administration of intravenous and intrathecal or intraventricular amphotericin B. with intensive supportive care (2004). One survivor received miconazole intravenously and intrathecally and rifampicin orally (2004). Other treatment options include the drugs rifampicin and micoazole.
Khan (2008) notes that the mortality rate for PAM is 95%. Again, one of the major obstacles to effective treatment is the rapid progression of the disease. Another obstacle is the paucity of drugs that have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (Schuster & Visvesvara 2004; Khan 2008). Nevertheless, there have been documented recoveries from PAM (Seidel 1982; Wang 1993; Khan 2008). Early recognition and treatment of the disease appear to be the chief elements in successful outcomes (2008). At the time of Khan's (2008) writing, the drug of choice for treatment of human cases was amphotericin B. In conjunction with rifampin as well as…
Embrey, Martha., Hunter, Paul., Chalmers, Rachel., Sellwood, Jane., Wyn-Jones, Peter., & Percival, Steven. (2004). Microbiology of waterborne diseases:
microbiological aspects and risks. Academic Press; 1st edition.
Jarillo-Luna, a., Moreno-Fierros, L., Campos-Rodriguez, R., Rodriguez-Monroy, M.A.,
Lara-Padilla, E., & Rojas-Hernandez, Saul. (2008). Intranasal immunization with Naegleria fowleri lysates and Cry1Ac metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium and inceases IgA secretion. Parasite immunology,30(1), p. 31-38.
Also, they may have new but valuable information that members of the core group of decision makers lack.
To encourage all workers to feel free to openly speak their mind in public rather than in private (another symptom of the paradox), an organization must make free expression part of its public culture. Routinely soliciting criticism and comments from everyone creates an idea that speaking up is encouraged, rather than discouraged. Top managers and CEOs must show that they respect diverse views by actually listening to managers who disagree with their own points-of-view. They must not feel threatened by a challenge, and set a good example through their own behavior for all managers to follow in a positive way.
All leaders must take responsibility for when their predictions and actions are wrong, to circumvent the tendency towards blaming one another that another symptom of the paradox. They must communicate to their…
Harvey, Jerry B. (Summer 1988). "The Abilene Paradox." Organizational Dynamics. 17 (1).
S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated.
In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals.
Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…
Angiography;, Types Categories, , Signs & Symptoms, Treatment, Imaging Modality
An angiography involves the use of water-soluble X-ray contrast media by injecting it into blood streams in arteries or veins with the purpose of imaging blood vessels. The process is meant to observe normal or pathological conditions of the vessel organization. By seeing the lumen of blood vessels and organs, an angiography can provide information concerning conditions like luminal narrowing and aneurismal widening. Vessel access is essential and serious complications can appear if the substance is unable to pervade the veins and arteries, but this is rare and unlikely to occur. hile these are some of the conditions that are frequently detected through an angiography, it can also play an important role in analyzing sources of bleeding, tumors, and diverse malformations in veins and arteries.
The discovery of X-rays led to some of the first experiments with angiographies as…
Ford-Martin, P.A. (2002). Angiography. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/angiography#1
Osborne, A.G. (1999). Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Snellen, H.A., Dunning, A.J., & Arntzenius, A.C. (1981). History and perspectives of cardiology: catherization, angiography, surgery, and concepts of circular control. Leiden University Press.
Thomas, A.M.K. & Banerjee, A.K. (2013). The History of Radiology. Oxford University Press.
Mental therapy using non-intense video games and how it affects brain health among the aged population showing early symptoms of dementia.
The deterioration of cognitive abilities and brain tissue due to age could have several adverse effects on mental systems and could even lead to dementia. Thus, researchers are trying to discover methods which could help keep brain function, independence, health and cognition among aged people in its best shape. Usually, with age, the white and gray matter of the brain shrivels with this action seen more in its prefrontal cortex than other regions. Other affected brain parts are the cerebellum, the prefrontal cortex on the side as well as the central temporal lobe structure which includes the hippocampus. Despite this, the occipital cortices and the entorhinal do not experience any form of shrinkage (Ballesteros et al., 2015). Common symptoms of this shrinkage include reduced memory strength, lower mental processing…
There are five kinds: hebephrenic (disorganized), catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual. The disorganized kind is marked by confusion and inappropriate or absent emotional reaction with silliness and inappropriate laughter often present. The catatonic type shows gross motor changes, which may involve a stupor or markedly agitated movements. Paranoid schizophrenics develop an organized set of delusional beliefs supported by auditory hallucinations. If the person is schizophrenic but doesn't fit one of those categories, it is called undifferentiated.
In addition, schizophrenia is broken down into Type I and Type II. Type one shows primarily positive symptoms while Type I shows primarily negative symptoms. Type I patients typically have better adjustment prior to onset of the illness than Type II's, and are more likely to improve over time. Type I is also most closely linked to biochemical disturbances while Type II is tied to structural abnormalities in the brain.
Clinical explanations for schizophrenia:…
The following questions pertain to:
McMillan, S.C., & Small, B.J. (2007). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 313-21.
What is the purpose of this research?
The purpose of this research was to describe the unexpected and distressing symptom experiences that women may have after undergoing breast cancer treatment, with the goal of enhancing follow-up care through practitioner education and an increase of the knowledge base.
What is the research question (or questions)? This may be implicit or explicit.
What symptoms may be experienced after breast cancer treatment that contribute to symptom distress and psychological stress that are may be temporal, situational, or attributive -- and that may be ameliorated during follow-up care?
What theories, frameworks, models or concepts may have influenced the researchers' choice of a research design?
The qualitative approach stems from a phenomenological philosophical background…
Motivation to Change and eduction of Symptoms in Adolescents Suffering from Bulimia Nervosa
In research published by Castro-Fornieles (et al., 2011) the relationship between recovery from bulimia nervosa and motivation to change in adolescence sufferers is examined. The authors of the research had not found any similar research which had looked at this specific area of study. However, the research is based on previous research where strong links between behavioral changes in adults suffering from eating disorders and level of motivational for change. The importance of motivation has been generally accepted as an important influence and predictor of successful change in a range of health issues, such as smoking, which rely on patients implementing and maintaining behavioral changes. When looking specifically as bulimia nervosa, further research has found that relapses are more likely where adults suffering from the condition. In adolescents there has also been research examining motivation and the…
Castro-Fornieles, Josefina,; Bigorra, Aitana; Martinez-Mallen, Esteve; Gonzalez, Laura; Moreno, Elena; Font, Elena; Toro, Josep, (2011), Motivation to change in adolescents with bulimia nervosa mediates clinical change after treatment, European Eating Disorders Review, 19, 46-54
Those who suffer from it become red in the face, with their skin extremely agitated. Moreover, "they may have flushing of the face, when they are hot, drink alcohol or hot drinks, or eat spicy foods. This flushing causes the face to appear red" (AZ Network, 2013). Blood vessels under the skin often become visible along with the flush of redness experienced by rosacea sufferers. These symptoms tend to get worse with time, with multiple cyclical outbreaks.
A number of treatments exist to try to counter act the effects of rosacea. Here, the research suggests that "you can help keep rosacea under control by keeping a record of things that cause it to flare up. Try to avoid or limit these triggers as much as you can" (AZ Network, 2013). Understanding what triggers a flare up can be crucial in helping to avoid them. Yet, medical treatments also prove effective,…
AZ Network. (2013). Rosacea: Facial redness. News Medical Net. Web. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Rosacea-Facial-Redness.aspx
Clinical Reference Systems. (2004). Rosacea. Columbia University. Web. http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/student/health/pdf/R-S/Rosacea.pdf
Cole, Gary W. & Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. (2012). Rosacea. EMedicine Health. Web. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rosacea/article_em.htm
MacKenzie, Debora. (2012). Rosacea mat be caused by mite feces in your pores. New Scientist. Web. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn22227-rosacea-may-be-caused-by-mite-faeces-in-your-pores.htmlt
Physical Examination of Patient with Hemorrhoids
History of Present Illness: he patient states that she has been suffering from hemorrhoids for more than 10 years. But recently she had more severe pain and bleeding than usual after a bowel movement.
he patient stated that she experienced discomfort from the hemorrhoid on and off for years, roughly 10 years ago, the symptoms became more severe after the birth of her child birth. Since the patient experiences constipation, she suffers pain every time she has a bowel movement. She has been using a hemorrhoid ointment and a topical wipe pad for her hemorrhoid.
Cold-dampness stagnation due to spleen qi deficiency
he patent stated that she experiences difficulty digesting greasy, fried foods. In addition, she continuously craves fried food and sweets such as chocolate and candy bars. Eating in response to these cravings caused the patient to gain 40 pounds over…
The patient stated that she suffered from hemorrhoids since she was 22 years old. When she first began having symptoms, the hemorrhoid would come out after a bowel movement. Over time, however, the hemorrhoid would come out again, causing symptoms of stinging pain and swelling. These symptoms occur most frequently when the patient has to stand for a long period in a cold environment or when she feels tired. The patent stated that since she was little, she used to delay the urge to empty her bowels when she was outside of her home. In addition, she tends to sit and read for a prolonged time on the toilet. These habits seem to have made the symptoms worse.
2. The blood stasis due to spleen qi deficiency.
She often has had severe sharp pain around the CV-10 area. Whenever she experiences pain on the abdomen, she takes famotidine, which she reports does help soothe the abdominal pain. She has a history of a duodenal ulcer and has taken the medication since 2009.The patient states that if she skips a bowel movement for a day or two, she strains to move her bowels just as she might in childbirth. The patient stated that sometimes there is fresh red blood with her bowel movement. She can also feel the external hemorrhoid tissue become swollen, painful, and burn, all of which, makes it difficult for her to sit correctly. When she has to stand or sit for a long time, the patient reported that the hemorrhoid tissue becomes more irritated
Sickness Can be Good for You," raises the question of whether treating the symptoms of common illnesses with medication is good for the body. He argues that many diseases are actually defenses that have been developed over time to prevent susceptibility to worse malady; that coughing and vomiting are simply the impact of Darwinism. Nesse points out that coughing clears bacteria from lungs, those with Shigella infections are more likely to suffer longer if medicine for diarrhea is taken, that rats and rabbits deprived of a fever response will likely die from an infection, and that the chance of birth defects are higher with a mother who had less morning sickness.
Based on the information presented in web investigation 3, it may not be beneficial to our survival to always treat the symptom. Sometimes the miserable conditions suffered turn out to be beneficial in the long run. If a child…
Anorexia and Bulimia
Factors Influencing the Incidence of Anorexia and Bulimia
The two primary eating disorders in Western countries are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Women constitute the primary sufferers of these diseases, with 0.5% to 3.7% and 1% to 3.7% suffering from anorexia and bulimia, respectively (Scott, Hardman, and Berrett, 2007, p. 14). Men also suffer from these eating disorders, but at about one-tenth the rate.
Anorexia is defined by a subnormal body weight (
Scott, Richards P., Hardman, Randy K., and Berrett, Michael E. (2007). Spiritual Approaches in the Treatment of Women with Eating Disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false
Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false
Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false
Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
Women and Depression
Depression is among the most studied psychiatric disorders in the world. While it is known that every person will go through periods of mild, short-term depression (following a death, divorce, etc.), there is a growing number of individuals who are experiencing depression on a much more serious scale. Among the research findings is a curious finding that women suffer the condition at a much greater rate than men. Again, this means that women suffer clinical depression at a much greater rate than men. The research has tried to determine the causes, symptoms and treatments for the condition, and there has been some success in this endeavor. In this paper, depression's causes, symptoms and treatments modalities will be examined as they apply to women as a body.
It may seem necessary to discuss symptoms before causes since it is easier to delineate what the symptoms…
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Edition). Washington, DC: Author
Cirakoglu, O.C., Kokdemir, D., & Demirutku, K. (2003). Lay theories of causes and cures for depression in a Turkish university sample. Social Behavior & Personality, 31(8), 795-799.
Craig, C.D. (2009). Depression, sociocultural factors, and African-American women. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 37(2), 83-91.
Grote, N.K., Bledsoe, S.E., Larkin, J., Lemay, E.P., Jr., & Brown, C. (2007). Stress exposure and depression in disadvantaged women: The protective effects of optimism and perceived control. Social Work Research, 31(1), 19-35.
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…
1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.
2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.
3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .
4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
Epilepsy Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.
Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…
Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.
332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf
Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,
Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
client, whose name is Kate and is the main character in the 2013 film Smashed, displays compulsive behavior and a marked addiction towards alcohol and the classic symptoms of alcoholism in the scene in which she parks her car before going to teach elementary school. This scene takes place early one in the film, and indicates the sort of behavior that will characterize Kate's descent into alcoholism. Despite the fact that she is late for work because she is hung over, she still cannot refrain from consuming more alcohol -- in the form of whiskey, straight. This scene indicates that not only is Kate psychologically addicted to this substance, but it is also affecting her ability to engage in normal activities (such as work). Drinking hard liquor prior to beginning a work day in which one will be grooming the future of young children is extremely dysfunctional behavior. So is…
Beseler, C.L., Aharanovich, E., Keyes, K.M., Hasin, D.S. (2008). Adult transition from at-risk drinking to alcholo dependence: the relationship of family history and drinking motives. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 32(4), 607-616. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/~dsh2/pdf/AtRiskDrinking.pdf
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.(2003). The genetics of alcoholism. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa60.htm
Saunders, L.L, Krause, J.S. (2011). Psychological factors affecting alcohol use after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 49(5): 637-642. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090503/
Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…
Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2
Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002
Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974
Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
Taxi Driver: A Case Study
Travis Bickle: An Introduction
The facts that are presented to the spectator about Travis Bickle in the most general sense do paint a portrait of a certain level of pathology. Travis Bickle is a decorated Vietnam veteran, and appears to suffer from PTSD. The spectator also quickly learns that Travis does not have many friends: he's socially very isolated and this appears in part to be connected to the fact that he has trouble starting and maintaining friendships.
The spectator learns very quickly that Travis Bickle is given to disturbances in his judgment and perception, as well as in his decision-making process. In fact, the very reason he takes a job driving a taxi, thus bestowing the film with its very title, is because he has trouble sleeping (suffering from insomnia, a common symptom of PTSD). Bickle claims that he got lonely just walking around…
Berry, K., Band, R., & Corcorran, R. (2007). Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample. Psychology & Psychotherapy:
Theory, Research & Practice.,80(4), 563-576.
Filmsite.org. (2013). Taxi Driver (1976). Retrieved from Filmsite.org: http://www.filmsite.org/taxi3.html
Hurst, R., Nelson-Gray, R., & Mitchell, J. (2007). The relationship of asperger's characteristics and schizotypal personality traits in a non-clinical adult sample. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1711-1720.
Edwards Syndrome, Trisomy 18 8 sources ( 4-5 Print Sources 3-4 online Sources) All questions answered essay ( mandatory): -What ? (Discription genetic disorder) -What genes chromosomes linked disorder? -Describe populations affected Edwards Syndrome (Include gender, age & number affected USA wordwide.
Edwards syndrome which is also known as Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder that is caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 18 instead of the normal two copies. The extra 18th chromosome comes as a result of nondisjunction of the chromosomal material during meiosis. As a result of failure in the segregation of a chromosome to the daughter cells, there can be errors in the meiotic division leading to an extra chromosome. This extra chromosome usually occurs before conception and it is the second most common autosomal trisomy that carries to term after Down syndrome though it is more common in females than males…
Buyse, M.L. (Ed.). (1990). Birth Defect Encyclopedia Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Canfield, M.A., Honein, M.A., Yuskiv, N., Xing, J., Mai, C.T., Collins, J.S., . . . Kirby, R.S. (2006). National estimates and race/ethnic-specific variation of selected birth defects in the United States, 1999-2001. . 2006 Nov;76(11):747-56. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology, 76(11), 747-756.
HealthStar PR. (2012). First Peer-Reviewed Data For New Noninvasive Prenatal Test Published By Aria Diagnostics. Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/240123.php
Merritt, T.A., Catlin, A., Wool, C., Peverini, R., Goldstein, M., & Oshiro, B. (2012). Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13: Treatment and Management Decisions. NeoReviews, 13(1), e40-e48. doi: 10.1542/neo.13-1-e40
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…
Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.
Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
The data collection methods were grounded in scientific theory and enabled collection of accurate information based on the results of the questionnaire's provided to patients participating in the study.
This study deals with a very private and thus ethical issue. The researchers took great care to ensure that high standards of moral and ethical virtue were maintained for purposes of this project. The authors point out that they acquired approval prior to initiating the study. In addition, intensive training was required prior to commencement of the study.
The author would have done well to detail in greater detail the exact methods that were adopted to ensure the privacy and anonymity of each of the mothers participating in the study.
Presentation of Data/Conclusions
The presentation of the final data and conclusions could be improved upon. The author would have benefited by comparing each of the result segments with…
Horowits, J.H., & Bell, M. et. al. (2001)."Promoting responsiveness between mothers with depressive symptoms and their infants." Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33 (4), 323-329
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.
DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.
Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
Patient, Mr. D., is a 74-year-old male Caucasian, married and retired. Mr. D. complains of dizziness and weakness. Type-2 diabetes was diagnosed in 1994, hypertension in 2002, and arthritis in 2007. Mr. D. is currently taking 20mg Lipitor/daily; 81 mg Aspirin/daily; 333mg Calcium/daily; 5mg zinc/daily, and 500mg Vitamin C/3X day. He denies any drug or herbal use, and uses 650 mg of Tylenol for pain as needed. He has no known food allergies, does not use tobacco or illicit drugs, but has a family history of diabetes and heart disease with both mother and father. His general health acuity is strong (bowels, urinary, etc.), but has occasional slurred speech, weakness in right lower limb, syncope, vertigo, and vision fluctuations. Mr. D. reports that his wife complains he asks the same question repeatedly within a short time period.
Areas for Focused Assessment- The combination of syncope, vertigo, vision, and memory issues…
Hypoglycemia. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved from: http://symptoms.webmd.com/#./conditionView
Ezzo, J., et.al. (2001). Is Massage useful in the Management of Diabetes? Diabetes Spectrum -- The American Diabetes Association. 14 (4): Retrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/14/4/218.full
Madden, S., Loeb, S. (2009). An integrative literature review of lifestyle interventions for the prevention of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(2), 2243-56.
Polin, B. (2011). Why Water Aerobics is Good Exercise. Diabetic Lifestyle. Retrieved from: http://www.diabeticlifestyle.com/exercise/why-water-aerobics-good-exercise
ithin the field of nursing there are many theories that receive a great deal of attention for the manner in which they assist nurses in treating patients. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms was developed many years ago and has proved to be beneficial to nurses treating patients with various ailments. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms as it relates to cancer patients. This subject was chosen because of the substantial number of patients that are affected by cancer. As a result of the presence of so many cancer patients, Nurses must understand how to effectively treat people with this disease. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms is one of the tools that can assist in the treatment of cancer patients.
Overview of theory
According to Smith & Liehr (2008) Middle range theory is defined as "a…
Dirksen, S.r, Belyea, M.J., Epstein, D.R. (2009)Fatigue-Based Subgroups of Breast Cancer Survivors with Insomnia. Cancer Nurs. 32(5): 404 -- 411
Kim, H., Barsevick A.M. (2009) Predictors of the Intensity of Cluster Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer J. Nurs Scholarsh. 2009; 41(2): 158 -- 165.
Otte, J.L. And Carpenter J.S. Theories, Models, and Frameworks Related to Sleep-Wake Disturbances in the Context of Cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2009; 32(2): 90 -- 106
Smith, M.J. & Liehr P.R. (2008) Middle Range Theory for Nursing. http://www.springerpub.com/samples/9780826119162_chapter.pdf
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…
Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740
Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms .
Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF
KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).
The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm .
Feltes, T.F. And Sondheimer, H.M. (2006) Palivizumab and the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus illness in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 7(9): 1471-1480.
Flynn, J.D., Akers, W.S., Jones, M., Stevkovic, N., Waid, T., Mullett, T. And Jahania, S. (2004) Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: Case report and review of literature. Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482817?src=mp .
Health-Cares.net (2005) "How is RSV infection diagnosed?" Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/rsv-infection-diagnosis.php .
quasi-randomly selected population, tests it under laboratory conditions using a reliable instrument to do so, and uses statistical data to assess results.
There is little reliable and consistent data existent on women's prodromal symptoms before acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rendering diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women a challenging task. The problem statement in this study is relevant to nursing in that accurate description of women's prodromal and acute symptoms of CHD is crucial in providing a clear presentation of the situation. Researchers, accordingly, set out to determine the most frequent prodromal symptoms of AMI as well as to identify how these symptoms related to CHD risk factors and to determine whether prodromal symptoms were predictive of AMI condition.
The main variables in this study are independent variable -- prodromal symptoms, Dependent variable - acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Control factors were risk factors that may have been involved in…
Finally, implications of this study for nursing practice are that accurately describing the women's prodromal and acute symptoms of CHD is crucial in providing a clear presentation of the situation. Lack of this can result in inaccurate diagnosis and cause women to delay in seeking treatment.
McSweeney, J. et al. (2010). Racial differences in women's prodromal and acute symptoms of myocardial infarction. Amer Jour of Crit Care,19(1), 63-73.
In addition to the therapeutic armamentarium, CAM reported to have a great role to treat interstitial cystitis (IC). It is multimodal and individualized and includes various treatment methods including: Neuromodulation, dietary modification, acupuncture, surgical methods, medications etc. The objective of this literature review is to discuss the possible causes of the IC, diagnosis, prevalence, the symptoms, and CAM treatment options.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) also called as painful bladder syndrome is an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall with typical ulceration of the urothelium. The interstitial cystitis (IC) is generally regarded as an elusive disease picture with inadequate therapeutic options. Critical to improving the prospects for therapy is the early diagnosis of the disease, which may involve only a careful history taking and clinical examination. CAM suggests multimodal treatment strategies in the early stage of disease (Abrams, Cardozo, & Fall, 2002).
Due to definition similarity, IC is often referred…
Ahrams, P., Cardozo, L., & Fall, M. (2002). The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the Standardization Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society [Electronic version]. Neurourology & • Urodynamics, 21(2), 167-178.
Astroza Eulufi, C, Velasco, P.A., Watson, A., & Guzman, K.S. (2008). Enterocistoplastia por cystitis intersticial: Resultados diferidos [Enterocystoplasty for interstitial cystits: Deferred results] (Electronic version]. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, .32(10), 1019-1023.
Elizawahri, A., Bissada, N.K., Herchorn, S., Aboul-Enein. H., Ghoneim, M., Bissada, M.A.Glazer. A.A. (2004). Urinary conduit formation using urinary diversion of intestinal augmentations: II. Does it have a role in patients with interstitial cystitis? The Journal of Urology, 171, 1559- 1562.
Fall, M., Oberpenning, F.. & Pecker, R. (2008). Treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis 2008: Can we make evidence-based decisions? European Urology, 54, 65-78.
estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…
Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.
Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.
Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.
Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…
ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health
Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html
CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.
28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
Schizophrenia in Neuropsychology
Schizophrenia is a rare but complex type of mental disorder which often has life-altering ramifications. Even though less than 1% of people all over the world are at risk of developing schizophrenia those who do may end up suffering from hallucinations, delusions and end up having difficulties in occupational and social situations they are in. with the knowledge of the symptoms and risk factors of the disorder which includes the onset of manifestation of the symptoms one can be able to spot the warning signs of this disorder.
Schizophrenia distorts the way a person thinks, expresses their emotions, acts, perceives reality and relates to other people. Those who have chronic schizophrenia have a problem when it comes to their functioning in the society, at their places of work, in schools and even within their relationships. Schizophrenia can leave an individual that is suffering from it frightened…
Sajatovic M, Mullen JA, & Sweitzer DE. (2006). Schizophreniform Disorder;Diagnostic Features. Retrieved April 30,2014 from http://www.health.am/psy/schizophreniform-disorder/
Ford, J, Krystal, J & Mathalon, D.(2009).Oxford Journals Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol.33,Issue 4.Pp 848-852. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/4/848.full
Krans, B.(2010). Understanding Schizophrenia. Retrieved April 30,2014 from http://www.healthline.com/health-slideshow/schizophrenia
Medwire News.(2011). MRI highlights neural basis for schizophrenia deficits in social cognition. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.medwirenews.com/47/95129/Psychiatry/MRI_highlights_neural_basis_for_schizophrenia_deficits_in_social_cognition.html
Taking the history of a patient is a crucial aspect of patient assessment and treatment. A good history can mean the difference between a successful patient outcome and unsatisfactory outcomes. However, taking a complete and useful history is a skill that is developed by means of training and practice; it is not some talent that is innate (Bickley & Szilagyi, 2007; McKenna et al., 2011). According to Craig (2007) nurses are increasingly being asked to take patient histories. Given these growing responsibilities nurses need training and guidelines to taking an adequate patient history. The following is a summary and critique of Craig, L. H, (2007), A "Guide to Taking a Patient's History" in Nursing Standard, volume 22, issue 13, pages 42-48.
Craig (2007) takes a comprehensive approach to explaining the interview and history taking process. This approach is applicable for most any patient population; however, Craig does not…
Alarcon, R.D. (2009). Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: Review and projections. World Psychiatry, 8, 131 -- 139.
Bickley, L.S. & Szilagyi, P.G. (2007). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History
Taking. 9th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Craig, L.H. (2007). A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard, 22 (13), 42-48.
Diane seems to be undergoing many different problems that are present today because of her past. The way she was treated by her family and her husband now has gone to affect her psychologically and emotionally. The combination of post traumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective symptoms and previous satanic ritual abuse is very severe and psychological intervention is greatly required.
One of her presenting complaints is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a form of anxiety disorder that occurs as an emotional reaction to something that occurred in the patient's life. This trauma could be pain, injury, threat, or death of a loved one. (Valente, 2010) Some common examples of traumatic disorders are natural disasters, military combat or terrorist incidents. It is normal to have an adverse or a stressed response to a traumatic event. Normally, people come to back to their usual state of mind…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Brewin, C. And Holmes, E. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical psychology review, 23 (3), pp. 339 -- 376.
Clark, D. And Ehlers, A. (2004). Posstraumatic stress disorders from cognitive theory to therapy. In: Leahy, R. eds. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, pp. 141-160.
Clohessy, S. And Ehlers, A. (1999). PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (3), pp. 251 -- 265.
Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces has declared that the country should put in more effort to treat the occurrences of Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicides among soldiers. In just a span of one week, there were four Canadian military suicides (Fekete, 2013). These soldiers went on to commit suicide after returning from war. It is known that hundreds and thousands of men and women have lost their lives in numerous battles till date. Suffering even after war is over and not being able to take over one's nerves is just horrible. Countries like Canada and U.S. are quite concerned over the increasing rates of PTSD amongst veterans. This event shows that PTSD amongst veterans is a serious problem and is becoming quite common.
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after a person experiences one or more traumatic events. PTSD is…
Douglas, J. (1993). Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Am J. Psychiatry, 150 235 -- 239.
Fekete, J. (2013). Military's 'stiff upper lip' attitude over PTSD needs to stop, Governor-General David Johnston says. [online] Retrieved from: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/12/12/militarys-stiff-upper-lip-attitude-over-ptsd-needs-to-stop-governor-general-david-johnston-says / [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].
Kardiner, A. (1941). The traumatic neuroses of war.. Psychosomat Med Mono, 11 (111).
Dermatology Differential Diagnoses
Dermatology Differential Diagnosis
Skin conditions can be notoriously difficult to diagnose. It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and pathology of common conditions in order to make a thorough diagnosis of the current case. Here, the research states that "key questions for the patient include the time of onset, duration, location, evolution, and symptoms of the rash or lesion. Additional information on family history, occupational exposures, comorbidities, medications, and social or psychological factors may be helpful" (Goldstein et al., 2012). All of this knowledge provided by the patient can ultimately help lead to differential diagnoses that can then prepare treatment.
In this current case study, there is a 33-year-old male suffering from a rash. The patient has a rash of 2-weeks duration located behind the knees and elbows bilaterally. It is itchy, red, somewhat raised, and dry. At times it has had clear drainage. Thus, the "papules…
Dunphy, L., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (2011) Primary care: The art and science of advanced practice nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2013). Treatment of Psoriasis.
Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2014). Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriasis.
This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).
Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Appendix C - Screening for Depression
If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html .
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
The exact regimen depends on the type and severity of symptoms, and whether the disorder is of depressive or bipolar type. Medications are usually prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, stabilize mood and treat depression, while psychotherapy can help curb distorted thoughts, teach social skills and diminish social isolation. ("Schizoaffective Disorder," 2006)
Medication: Medications generally include antipsychotic drugs prescribed to alleviate psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, paranoia and hallucinations. Mood-stabilizing medications are prescribed in bipolar disorder, which help to level out the highs and lows of manic depression. Anti-depressants such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac) and escitalopram (Lexapro) are normally prescribed for depressive subtype schizoaffective disorder, as they are likely to alleviate feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or sleeplessness and lack of concentration. (Ibid.)
Psychotherapy and Counseling: Although there has been far less research on psychotherapeutic treatments for schizoaffective disorder than in schizophrenia or depression, the available evidence suggests that cognitive behavior…
Brannon, G.E. (2005). "Schizoaffective Disorder." E-Medicine. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3514.htm
Facts About Schizoaffective Disorder." (2001). Family Social Support Project at UCLA. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.npi.ucla.edu/ssg/schizoaffective.htm
Grayson, C.E. (2004). "Schizoaffective Disorder." Mental Health America. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/schizophrenia/schizoaffective-disorder
Schizoaffective Disorder." (2006). Mayo Foundation for Medical Educational and Research. Retrieved on April 18, 2007 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/schizoaffective-disorder/DS00866
Depression: Not just a Bad Mood
MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood
The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.
Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…
Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York, NY: Plume.
Cornes, C.L., & Frank, E. (1994). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. The Clinical
Psychologist, 47(3), 9-10.
Cuijpers, P, van Straten, A, Hollon, S.D., & Andersson, G. (2010). The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=13&sid=568ccfe5-0fe6-4429-92a3 - cb159b2e4044%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3
Crazy Like Us
Mental illness is still misunderstood by much of the world, including by those who study the field. Many people have written about various mental illnesses, as well as how it might be treated or studied. Ethan atters writes in his book Crazy Like Us that:
People at a given moment in history in need of expressing their psychological suffering have a limited number of symptoms to choose from, a symptom pool. hen someone unconsciously latches onto a behavior in the symptom pool, he/she is doing so for a very specific reason: the person is taking troubling emotions and internal conflicts that are often indistinct and frustratingly beyond expression and distilling them into a symptom of behavior that is a culturally recognized signal of suffering."
He asserts that people who have serious issues and traumas take up certain symptoms that they see exhibited either by other people they…
Watters, Ethan. Crazy like Us. London: Robinson, 2011. Print.
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.