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" For the more scholarly mind, however, such an interpretation might be less than entirely valid.
What most critics appear to agree on when examining these principles is the fact that there must be some sort of literary interdependence among the Synoptic Gospels.
The verbal agreement among the Gospels is one very strong indicator of such interdependence. Wallace regards both the independence theory and the Spirit Inspired hypothesis, generally held by laypeople, as naive from a scholarly viewpoint. Had the three Gospels simply been eye witness accounts of the same event, for example, there could not have been such very specific and frequent verbal agreements among them. Furthermore, the sequence and interpretation of events would likely have differed far more significantly.
The inspiration of the Holy Spirit, on the other hand, is regarded as naive for its lack of critical focus; providing a reasons for the similarities among the texts,…
Bratcher, Dennis. 2011. The Gospels and the Synoptic Problem: The Literary Relationship of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The Voice. Web: http://www.crivoice.org/synoptic.html
Carlson, Stephen C. 2004. Synoptic Problem. Dec. 22. Web: http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/faq.htm
Farnell, F. David. 2002. How Views of Inspiration have Impacted Synoptic Problem Discussions. The Master's Seminary Journal, Spring. Web: http://www.tms.edu/tmsj/tmsj13b.pdf
Just, Felix. 2007. The Synoptic Problem. June 12. Web: http://catholic-resources.org/Bible/Synoptic_Problem.htm
Scholars have repeatedly stated that the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are linked together by various similarities. As such, the three writings have been united under the entitlement Synoptic Gospels. The majority of literary investigations rely on equivalences in content, style, and order of events being similar and frequent in the Synoptic Gospels to such extend that they appear vastly separated from John's. Cursive analyses of the gospels have defined the questioning of the interrelationship between the three as problematic. There are those who claim various priorities, such as Matthew's preceding Mark's and vice versa, while other scholars, specifically Christians, avoid addressing the matter. The latter deny the existence of a literary interrelationship and maintain strong beliefs that the three gospels were written independently. From a religious point-of-view, there would be no need to explain or emphasize on similarities because of the gospels' divine nature. Our goal for this…
Berkhof, Louis. 2004. Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. April 2004. Accessed September 5, 2013.
Farnell, F. David. 1999. The Synoptic Gospels in the Ancient Church: The testimony to the Priority of Matthew's Gospel. The Master's Seminary Journal 10, No. 1 (spring): 53-86. Accessed September 5, 2013. http://www.tms.edu/tmsj/tmsj10e.pdf
Ladd, George Eldon. 1993. A Theology of the New Testament (Revised Ed.). Edited by Donald H. Hagner. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
While the Gospel of John bears some similarities to the Synoptic Gospels, as Barrett (1974) points out, it also sets itself apart in several unique ways by focusing on the mystical nature of Christ and the importance of the Church. Even the Synoptic Gospels offer differing details of the life and teachings of Christ, and in many instances, John agrees or is more in line with Mark, while Mark differs from Matthew and Luke. Still, Barrett (1974) affirms that “John’s aim was not literal accuracy, and he therefore cannot be expected to show detailed respect for the wording of any source” (p. 228). John’s aim, rather, was to illustrate the divine nature of Christ in a way that showed how the Son of God was infinitely unique in the history of the world—and how that uniqueness was to stay with the world through the sacraments of the Church.
synoptic problem" and explain how the 2-source theory provides a solution for it.
The synoptic problem refers to the differences and similarities that exist between the synoptic gospels, those being the books of Matthew, Mark and Luke. hile there are marked similarities between the three books, there are also very significant differences. The differences with John, the one gospel book that is not synoptic, are even starker. Thus, this is why it is not included with the other three gospels that form the synoptic trio. Anyhow, the two-source solution is a way to deal with the differences and similarities that exist between the books. As explained by the Blue Letter Bible website, the two-source theory is one of the more "widely accepted" solutions to conflicts that arise. They state that "it settles the problems that arise with Matthean priority, while confronting the difficulty of double tradition. The Blue Letter website…
Bible Hub. 'Topical Bible: Beatitudes'. Biblehub.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 18 July 2015.
BLB. 'Study Resources:: The Synoptic Problem And Q'. Blue Letter Bible. N.p., 2015.
Web. 18 July 2015.
Oxford. 'Infancy Narratives - Oxford Biblical Studies Online'. Oxfordbiblicalstudies.com.
John and the Synoptic Gospels
Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
All Biblical text presents its own set of challenges in understanding and relating to modern day incidences. hen examining the Bible, it is interesting to still see major differences that can complicate a modern interpretation of the Bible and Jesus' message. The major differences between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John show obvious differences that further complicate our understanding of the figure of Jesus.
The Synoptic Gospels are made up of the texts of Matthew, Mark, and Luke with Mark being thought to have been the first out of the three written. They all share incredible similarities in the themes and events described within their cannon. Essentially, they follow Jesus during a very similar point in his life and travels, and thus parallel each other in terms of content and the underlying message they wish to…
Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. Doubleday Publishing. 1997.
The New Oxford Annotated Bible: With the Apocryphal / Deuterocanonical Books, New Revised Standard Version. Michael D. Coogan, ed. 2001.
Synoptic Gospels: A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels: The Synoptic Gospels
A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
Matthew, Mark, Luke (Synoptic Gospels)
These cover some important episodes in Jesus; life and ministry that are notable excluded from John. These include the institution of the Lord's Supper (Matt 27: 17-25; Luke 22: 7-14; Mark 14: 12-20), the Transfiguration (Matt 17: 1-13; Mark 9: 2-13; Luke 9: 28-36), and the Temptation of Jesus (Mark 1: 12-13; Matthew 4: 1-11; Luke 4: 1-13)
These provide examples of Jesus casting out demons (Matt 8: 28-34; Mark 5: 1-17; Luke 8: 28-37)
Narrative parables are presented (such as the parable of the sower in Matt 13: 1-23; Mark 4: 1-25 and Luke 8: 4-18), as well as the Lord's Prayer (Matt 6: 6-13; Luke 11: 1-4) and the Sermon on…
Matson, M. A. (2002). John. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.
Pate, C. M. (2011). The Writings of John: A Survey of the Gospel, Epistles and Apocalypse. Grand Rapids, Eerdmans.
The Gospel mainly consists of the first four New Testament books in the bible but it's only the first three that are considered to have synoptic problem i.e. Matthew, Mark and Luke. These books literally relate the story of Jesus in similar ways including the order of material, the stories told, sayings of Jesus, and using the same words in similar accounts resulting in the fact that they are referred to as the Synoptic Gospel. The difference now comes in the Gospel of John where the story of Jesus is shown in different format; events are viewed differently and with its own unique language and approach. Due to the different view and description of events, the book of John is not included in the Synoptic problem. Generally, a principle of only scripture had to be practiced as the cornerstone of reformation and practice of church and it should…
Bratcher, Dennis. "The Gospels and The Synoptic Problem." The Voice: Christian Resource Institute. CRI / Voice, Institute, 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 20 July 2012. .
Just, Felix. "The Synoptic Problem & Proposed Solutions." Catholic Resources for Bible, Liturgy, Art, and Theology. Catholic Resources for Bible, Liturgy, Art, and Theology, 12 June 2007. Web. 20 July 2012. .
This is evidenced in the first chapter's list of Jesus' linage, recalling similar lists in the Old Testament, tracing the line of Israel. Second is the nativity gospel, or story of the hero's extraordinary origins, along the lines of Moses' story of persecution and salvation from death as a baby from Genesis. Jesus' Sermon on the Mount is a dogmatic illustration of the role of Jesus as teacher to his followers. Jesus also teaches his disciples and others through parables, through miracles, and by quoting and interpreting scripture in a prophetic style. The final genre of the Gospel of Matthew is that of the Passion story, the narrative present in all of the gospels, of Jesus' death and resurrection.
Atmosphere: The atmosphere of the Gospel of Matthew is of a world of great hypocrisy. There is a tension between the exterior world and the interior world. Jesus teaches his followers…
Rst: New Testament
the passion in synoptic gospels vs john'S GOSPEL
The Synoptic Gospels, which are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke, are called "Synoptic" because their patterns and stories show similar themes as well as differences. Placing them side by side, which has been done many times, can give a quick "historical" synopsis of Jesus' life. hile the Synoptic Gospels use many of the same patterns and stories, each author stresses his own themes, particularly in describing Jesus' Passion: his suffering and death. Mark emphasizes Jesus' suffering. Matthew focuses on Jesus' kingship and the jealous plotting against him. Luke stresses Jesus' innocence and its recognition by several of Jesus' key oppressors. The Synoptic Gospels use common historical patterns and stories to convey their messages.
In contrast to the Synoptic Gospels, John's Gospel is less historical and more poetically, theologically developed. John's Gospel does not use the same patterns…
Just, Felix. The Passion and Death of Jesus. 15 August 2014. Web. 15 August 2015.
King James Bible Online. John Chapter 18. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
-- . John Chapter 19. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
-- . Luke Chapters 22 and 23. 2015. Web. 14 August 2015.
Matthew and Mark
The synoptic Gospels of Matthew and Mark differ significantly in their perception of Jesus, but share great similarities in the way in which they state salvation should be sought. ithin Matthew, Jesus is described as Godlike, but within Mark Jesus is seen as a special man, but not as a God. Mark and Matthew are similar in their perception of the attainment of salvation. Matthew describes salvation through repenting, keeping the commandments and giving to the poor and needy, while Mark also describes the attainment of salvation through keeping the commandments and good works. Together, the similarities and differences that exist within these closely related texts serve to highlight the challenges of the interpretation of the Bible.
Matthew describes Jesus as Godlike. In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus is not shown as fallible or limited in power or authority, as he is in Mark. Further, Matthew's Gospel…
Bible, King James Version (KJV). Gospel of Matthew. 04 may 2004. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/matthew-kjv.html
Bible, King James Version (KJV). Gospel of Mark. 04 May 2004. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/mark-kjv.html
As with the Gospel of Mark’s theme of impending darkness and suffering, what is the Good News? Is there a message of joy here? How do you talk to your parishioners about embracing the cross, even as we approach life with joy and hope?
Darkness and suffering are recurrent themes throughout the Bible. God’s love is offered as a resolution to the suffering endemic to human existence. The Gospel of Mark’s unique apocalyptic vision simultaneously presents the Good News to teach the truth about Jesus as the Son of Man. Depending on how the text is read and interpreted, there is certainly a message of joy embedded within the Gospel of Mark. I would therefore communicate the key themes related to the Son of Man, the identity of Jesus, and the means to salvation while disseminating the Good News to parishioners.
The beauty of the Gospel lies in its fantastic…
Encountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective provides a remarkably thorough explication of John's gospel from multiple perspectives and points-of-view. The book is divided into five main parts, in addition to the appendices, indexes, and study tools. Author Andreas J. Kostenberger formats Encountering John as a textbook, and yet the tome also serves as a reference book that complements exegetical works and Biblical commentaries.
In the preface materials, Kostenberger clearly states that the book is intended for an audience of students. However, the tone is personal, informal, and familiar, rather than strictly scholarly or academic. This is due to in part to the fact that Kostenberger writes as a believer for believers, resisting the temptation to secularize biblical studies. The primary audience for Encountering John is students in biblical, theological, or seminary school who seek deep understanding of the gospel.
Part One of Encountering John covers…
Kostenberger, A.J. (2006). Encountering John: The Gospel in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective (Encountering Biblical Studies). Baker Academic.
The four gospel books in the New Testament are the principal foundation of the information regarding the life of Jesus. These books include Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The four books tell the story of the life of Jesus, but from different perspectives. Christian faith depends on the four gospel books that narrate the historical life of Jesus. As a result, if the provisions in these four books are a correct historical account of Jesus, then the faith of Christians is practical. Moreover, if indeed Jesus rose on the third day from the departed, the claim that Jesus is the Son of God is rational. If the claim that Jesus taught the people many things highlighted in the four gospel books, then believing in Him is the only means through which Christians can have everlasting life. Although the gospel books particularly Matthew, Mark and Luke demonstrate the synoptic problem,…
Bible Society in Australia Staff 2008. Holy Bible: New international version. Australia: Bible Society in Australia Incorporated.
Donahue, J., & Harrington, S.J 2002. The Gospel of Mark: Texas: Liturgical Press.
Dunn, J 1985. The evidence of Jesus. Westminster: Westminster John Knox Press.
Green, J., Turner, M 1999. Jesus of Nazareth: Lord and Christ: Essays on the historical Jesus and the New Testament Christology. New York: Wipf & Stock Pub.
He does not, however, say where the text came from.
Another main way of seeing the problem is to claim that the writer has used different sources to create his gospel. These sources preceded him in the Christian tradition, and may have included both the synoptic gospels and other non-canonical or lost texts. In putting different sources together, he has been forced to make decisions. When he relied on tradition and not his own account, he is not able to make a coherent well-flowing narrative. It comes out disjointed.
Schnackenburg proposes perhaps the most satisfactory solution. His view is that John 15-16, and John 17 separately, were later insertions to the text done by an editor. He accepts that there is some continuity of content in the discourses following 14:31, which makes chapters 15-17 appropriate. ut he accepts also that the transition is overly abrupt, and that the more original…
Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Trans G.R. Beasley-Murray, R.W.N. Hoare, & J.K. Riches. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971.
Haenchen, Ernst. John 2: A Commentary on the Gospel of John Chapters 7-21. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.
Schnackenburg, Rudolf. The Gospel According to St. John. Vol. 3: Commentary on Chapters 13-21. New York: Crossroad, 1990.
Rudolf Bultmann, the Gospel of John: A Commentary, trans G.R. Beasley-Murray, R.W.N. Hoare, & J.K. Riches (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971), 625-631.
The Gospel of Luke, as has been mentioned here, is very similar to that of Mark in its narrative and in describing Jesus, the man. This is an element of the Gospels about which authors Nickle and Brown agree. There is, too, a strong belief that the Gospel of Luke was written by a "missionary colleague of the Apostle Paul (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The Book of Luke is the most extensive and detailed account of the life of the historical Jesus of any other book in the Bible. "hen this Gospel is joined by its companion volume, Acts and Apostles, they together make up about twenty-seven percent of the New Testament (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The most distinctive characteristic of the Book of Luke, is that it is sequenced with Acts and Apostles (Nickle, 1980). Luke is unique in that his book goes beyond the life of Jesus, into…
Brown, Raymond E. The Community of the Beloved Disciple. New York: Paulist Press, 1979. Questia. 21 July 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104676653 .
Nickle, Keith F. The Synoptic Gospels: Conflict and Consensus. Atlanta, GA: John Knox Press, 1980. Questia. 21 July 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=74641618 .
Search of Jesus of Nazareth
The Four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John are four of the most controversial books in what makes up what we know as the modern Bible. They are the first four books of the New Testament and depending upon the view of the interpreter, form the basis of the modern Christian religion itself. There are two conflicting views of the four Gospels. The first is the fundamentalist view, which takes the incredible happenings contained in these books on faith. They contend that the miracles performed are indeed factual and literal accounts of the events that transpired. The other view is the historical-critical view of the four Gospels. This view presents the happenings in the four Gospels as a type of myth. It takes the viewpoint that the happenings are allegorical, or political satire, as opposed to being factual accounts of the events and that Jesus…
The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version College Edition. Coogan, M.,
Brettler, M., Newsom, C. And Perkins, P. (Eds.) Oxford University Press; New York,
New York. Revised edition 1994.
Brown, Raymond, The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Bantam Books, New York, New York. 1999.
Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.
Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.
John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…
Raymond Brown, "Does the New Testament Call Jesus God?" Theological Studies.26: 1,
Clark, N. Interpreting the Resurrection. (London: SCM Press, 1967).
Hamilton, James. God's Indwelling Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Old and New Testaments.
The Book of Mark
According to Burton Mack's analysis of the synoptic gospels, A Myth of Innocence: Mark and Christian Origins, the Gospel of Mark was likely written in 70 CE in Syria. The Gospel of Mark tells the story of a Jesus who is not born in an overly divine fashion in the sense that it contains no story of Mary's impregnation by the Holy Spirit nor Jesus persecution by Herod. Nor does it contain an extensive Judaic linage of the figure of Jesus, or extensive sermons, like the book of Mark. Instead, it begins with Jesus' baptism as a teacher by the hands of John the Baptist.
According to Mack, the Jesus of Mark's envisioning is an angry, rather terse parable-teller and speaker of wisdom literature, designed to be obscure in meaning than easily understood. He is a man whom stands outside of conventional, Judaic society and…
Cameron, Ron. The Other Gospels. Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1982
Mack, Burton. A Myth of Innocence: Mark and Christian Origins. Fortress Press, 1988 Edition.
Robbins, Vernon K. "Last Meal: Preparation, betrayal, and Absence." (Mark 14: 12-35)." In The Passion in Mark: Studies on Mark 14-16, edited by Werner h. Kelber, 21-40.
Dante, Boethius, And Christianity
Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy, of which the Inferno is the first of three books, called Boethius, an early Christian, "The blessed soul who exposes the deceptive world to anyone who gives ear to him." But Boethius was not a non-conflicted Christian, and it seems, neither was Dante, who wrote the Divine Comedy at least partly as a sort of historical-political payback. (For example, in Canto VI of the Inferno, Ciacco mentions Pope Boniface VIII, the reigning Pope of his time, "whose intervention in the affairs of the city was, in Dante's view, a main cause of its miseries" (Sinclair, p. 95). St. John, on the other hand, was a non-conflicted Christian, who believed wholly in Jesus as the son of God, and entertained no other ideas. Although he likely wrote, and therefore thought in Greek, his devotion to Jesus, as one of Jesus'…
Alighieri, Dante. The Inferno (from the Divine Comedy). In The Norton Anthology of World Literature, Vol. B (Pkg. 2). Sarah Lawall et al. (Eds.) New York: Norton,
Boethius. The Consolation of Philosophy. Trans. W.V. Cooper, 1902. Electronic
Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 21, 2005, from:
plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…
Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.
Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007
Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.
Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980
Paul, which were written by a converted Sadducee who preached that gentiles did not need to follow Mosaic Law and convert to Judaism to follow Jesus. Although all of these gospels, epistles, and works such as the Book of Revelation were canonized because of their perceived accuracy and continuity, their different authors, historical contexts, and influences also have conspired to create a Christian Bible that is open to many alternative interpretations, and has spawned many different sects that define Christianity differently.
Defining Christianity remains difficult -- does it mean following Jesus, following the teachings of a particular book, or a particular church? Is following Jesus enough, or must a Christian believe Jesus died for the sins of all of humanity? Must a Christian believe that Jesus is the Son of God the Father, and is the holy, anointed one, the Messiah prophesized about in the Old Testament, or can a…
Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the World's Religions. Fourth Edition. New York: McGraw/Hill,
The book of Luke is largely regarded as one of the synoptic gospels that provide a different account of the ministry of Jesus Christ. The author of the book not only provides a different account of the events and life of Jesus Christ but also adopted a biblical approach to his writing instead of a classical style. This book has attracted considerable attention among biblical scholars because of its different approach and account of the life of Jesus. The considerable attention is also attributed to the fact that approximately 40% of the content of this book is not found in the other synoptic gospels. Some of the differences in this book as compared to the other synoptic gospels include the stories of the life and times of Jesus, the Good Samaritan, and the Prodigal Son. The differences in the book of Luke in comparison with other synoptic gospels are…
Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale
University Press, 1998
Crossway Bibles. ESV Study Bible: English Standard Version, Trutone: Natural Brown.
Wheaton, Illinois, Good News Publication, 2008
In his exegesis, Cullman associates what he deems an "exact" parallel between Matthew 16:17-19 and Luke 22:31-34.
He finds that this is evidenced by Peter's solemn vow that he will go with Jesus to prison and onto death, the prediction of Peter's betrayal, and Jesus' command to Peter to encourage conversion.
Opposing debate comes from Robert undry, who contests that parallel is neither direct nor intended.
undry makes this point by saying that while Luke is blessed by od, he is not done so by the divine act of blind devotion that encapsulated the Matthew account of Simon Peter.
Additionally, if not more importantly, Luke warns of the coming three-fold betrayal of Christ by Peter, while Matthew only speaks of his blessing.
"The major objection by Cullman against Matthew's narrative framework fails to recognize that Jesus' congratulatory words refer to the bare confession of Jesus' messiahship -- apart from misconceptions,…
Gundry, p. 331.
Hagner, p. 467.
France and Wendam, R.T. And David. Gospel Perspectives, Vol. 5. Sheffield, England: JSOT Press, 1981. p. 24
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. This invocation, accompanying the sign of the cross, marks the beginning and end of every Roman Catholic prayer. It has become synonymous with Catholicism -- a celebration of the crucifix as representative of the lessed Trinity. While, every good Catholic takes this Triumvirate for granted, it is left to theological scholars like Jurgen Moltmann to dissect and analyze the salient features of the Trinity. Is the Trinity a Pneumatological or Christological entity? Is it a combination of the two? Where is God in the scheme of Moltmann's thesis? The theoditic question challenged the omnipotence, omnipresence and omniscience of God in his relationship with man. Is this question revisited in relation to Jesus Christ as the carrier of the Holy Spirit during his life on earth? Moltmann presents a clear interpretation of the relationship between Christ and the Holy Spirit…
Dabney, D. Lyle. "The Advent of the Spirit: The Turn to Pneumatology in the Theology of Jurgen Moltmann." Asbury Theological Journal 48 (1993): 81-107.
Hume, David. The Theodice Problem. 2002 n.d. God And Science. org. Available. December 7, 2002. http://godandscience.org/apologetics/nogod.html#01
Macchia, Frank. "the Spirit and Life: A Further Response to Jurgen Moltmann." Journal of Pentecostal Theology 5 (1994): 122.
McWilliams, Warren. "Why All the Fuss About Filioque? Karl Barth and Jurgen Moltmann on the Procession of the Spirit." Perspectives in Religious Studies 22 (1995): 176.
The Kingdom of God annotated bibliography And Essay
Part I: Introduction with Thesis Statement
The Kingdom of God is a much different kingdom than the earthly kingdom the Pharisees were expecting. What characterizes the kingdom of God? Isaiah 11:1-9 describes a restoration of innocence, in which there is no more disharmonic world but rather a world in which everyone and everything is at peace. Romans 14:16-19 relates to this passage, as it also tells Christians that the Kingdom of God is focused on peace and serving God in the Holy Spirit. Psalm 72:5-14 describes a kingdom that is without end, that covers the whole world, and that is served by all men. These two passages from the Old Testament were selected because they touch both on the spirit of the kingdom—it is oriented towards restoring peace and innocence and love—and on the earthly aspect of the kingdom: it is not…
Abernethy, Andrew. The Book of Isaiah and God’s Kingdom: A ThematiTheological Approac. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2016.
Dempster, Stephen. Dominion and Dynasty: A Theology of the Hebrew Bible. New Studies in Biblical Theology. Downers Grove,IL: IVP Academic, 2003.
Goldsworthy, Graeme. The Goldsworthy Trilogy: Gospel and Kingdom, Gospel and Wisdom, The Gospel in Revelatio. Exeter, UK: Paternoster, 2011.
Hahn, Scott. “Kingdom and Church in Luke-Acts: From Davidic Christology to Kingdom Ecclesiology.” In Reading Luke: Inter-pretation, Reflections, Formatio, edited by Bartholomew, Joel Green, and Anthony Thiselton, 294–326. Scripture and Hermeneutics 6. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005.———.
The Kingdom of God as Liturgical Empire: A Theological Comentary on 1–2 Chronicles. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012.
Jipp, Joshua W. Christ Is King: Paul’s Royal Ideology. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2015.
Kupp, David. Matthew’s Emmanuel: Divine Presence and God’s People in the First Gospel. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 146 For Further ReadingLadd, George Eldeon. Gospel of the Kingdom: Scriptural Studies in the Kingdom of God. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerd mans, 1959.
McCartney, Dan. “Ecce Homo: The Coming of the Kingdom as theRestoration of Human Vicegerency.” Westminster TheologicalJournal 56.1 (1994): 1–21.
DaSilva's analysis of the figure of Jesus in these tales illustrates the historical context and exegetical differences of these books, and his interpretation also implies that the fullest vision of contemporary Christianity is one that embraces all versions of Christ across all four gospel narratives. For example, an individual seeking Biblical counseling may first find psychological respite in the image of Mark of the suffering Christ, crying out in despair upon the Cross. Next, there is an attempt, as in Matthew, to tie an individual's mission, suffering, and life to a larger familial and national tradition of hope, of fulfillment, faith, and redemption, through talking and emotional healing. Then, through discussing the Jesus as presented in Luke, the heart in a less intellectual and verbal fashion is opened up, to a mission of forgiveness and hope and return to the Father anew. And finally, a greater understanding of the self…
ender to Ceasar the Things That Are Ceasars
ender unto the Caesar the Things that are Caesar's
"ender unto Caesar what belong to the Caesars" is the beginning a phrase ascribed to Jesus in the synoptic gospel, which fully reads, "ender unto the Caesar what are Caesar's, and unto God what belong to God." This phrase has been a widely quoted and controversial summary on the relationship between the contemporary secular authorities and Christianity. The origin of this message was from the response posted to a question on how lawful it was for the Jews to pay taxes to the Caesar. This phrase gave rise to all possible and multifaceted interpretations (obert & Miller 1995, 421) concerning the conditions under which it could appear desirable for Christians to earthily commit themselves to earthly authorities. All the three synoptic gospels elicit a group of hostile questioners who tried to trick Jesus…
Alfred, Luis & Tennyson, Maurice. (1994). Not in vain the distance beacons: Singing hymns of the living tradition. Boston: Beacon Press.
Anne, Sidneys & Desmond, Elias. (1993). Titus silence and courage: Income taxes, war and Mennonites. MCC Occasional Paper, 16: 34-39.
Brown, Levis & John, Derrick. (1839). The law of Christ respecting civil obedience, especially in the payment of tribute. London: William Ball.
Calvin, Huningtone., George, Festus & Kennedy, Moreno. (1986). The Prophet-hood of all believers. Boston: Beacon Press.
Pericopes From Mark and Matthew on Divorce
A pericope, hermeneutically speaking is defined as a selection or extract from a biblical book such as one of the gospels. It is especially used to reference a selection from the Bible, appointed to be read in the churches or used as a text for a sermon used to teach or instruct upon a specific rather than a general matter of Church doctrine and comes from the Greek meaning a "cutting" or a textual extract. ("Pericope," The American Heritage Dictionary, 2004) The synoptic Gospels of Mark and Matthew show many parallels in their relating of the events of Jesus' life in their selection of such textual extracts. However the order of these two gospels is slightly different in terms of the way they set and vary the different blocks of Jesus' teachings. ("Introduction to the New Testament," p. iii)
The overall chronology of…
"Introduction to the New Testament." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.
"The Gospel According to Matthew." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.
"The Gospel According to Mark." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.
Analysis How clear is the argument? Does it flow logically? Are there gaps, inconsistencies, or contradictions in the discussion or argument?
The author's argument that the Bible was inspired by the Holy Spirit, of course, cannot be proved or disproved. However, their use of exegetical techniques, and information about the historical context of when the Bible was written is valuable, and persuasively made. Merely because the Bible was affected by history does not mean that it cannot teach lessons for all time, provided one understands how historical context may give certain words or teachings a meaning present for today, that did not exist in the past.
Conclusion: Of what value is book? What does it add to the discourse?
Every chapter is helpful because of its focus on specific passages and genres for advancing the author's argument. The author's willingness to focus on differences in the Bible in terms of…
The Jews, of course, were as antagonistic to hearing Stephen preach the life of Christ as they were to Christ Himself -- ho is the way of salvation, and hom they have rejected. Stephen's speech is fiery and full of love and fury -- love for Christ, fury for the Jews who rejected Him: "You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised." (Here Stephen as much as says, "You are not real Jews. Real Jews would have recognized their Redeemer.) "You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" The reaction of the Jews is to stone Stephen to death. Stephen accepts his martyrdom and dies as Christ died, with a prayer for his persecutors -- and out of that prayer comes (through the mercy of God) the conversion of St. Paul.
In conclusion, "we may say that perseverance as a Christian is the only…
Fitzmyer, Joseph. The Gospel According to Luke (I-IX), vol. 28. Garden City, NY:
Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1981. Print.
Hamm, Dennis. "Are the Gospel Passion Accounts Anti-Jewish?" Journal of Religion
and Film vol. 8, no. 1 (Feb, 2004). Print.
Spiritual Transformation Through Community
Importance of Community for Spiritual Transformation
Process of Growth
iblical and Theological Foundations
The broad theme that this research project will endeavor upon is to what extent is there a necessity of community within spiritual transformation. Transformation can be thought of on many different levels that include on a personal as well as a corporate level transformation. It is reasonable to assume that every individual in the ody of Christ must align themselves fully on an individual basis so they are in a position to make their optimal contribution to the community and the church can move in its fullness of power and purpose. However, it is also reasonable to believe that the power of the collective Christian community is far greater than just the sum of its parts; that ultimately, there should be a Christian community transformation…
American Experience. (N.d.). People & Ideas: Walter Rauschenbusch. Retrieved from God in America: http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/walter-rauschenbusch.html
Armstrong, C. (2008). How John Wesley Changed America. Retrieved from Christianity Today: http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/2008/august/how-john-wesley-changed-america.html
Barton, R. (2011, January 6). What We Believe About Spiritual Transformation. Retrieved from Transforming Center: https://www.transformingcenter.org/2011/01/what-we-believe-about-spiritual-transformation/
Bonheoffer, D. (1959). The cost of discipleship. New York: Simon & Schuster.
exterior actions would have a profound effect on Christianity's worldview, which stressed outward asceticism and interior humbleness and spiritual cultivation. In Protestantism, the division between the exterior and interior self would also create a divide between the secular and sacred world. In the secular world a human being could engage in a mundane life, provided he or she still attended to the spiritual world of the church and Jesus. Thus, the commonly expressed cliche that it is 'inside that is what is important, not what is outside' could be said to have its roots in Pauline philosophy.
Jesus' expressed relationship with Judaism is far more ambiguous than Paul's. In fact, he praises Mosaic Law at times, particularly the commandments: "Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches…
Fredriksen, Paula. "Was Jesus Jewish?" Frontline: From Jesus to Christ. April 1998
November 27, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/jesus/bornliveddied.html
"Parallel translations: New International Version." Biblos. 1984. November 27, 2009.
Dead Sea Scrolls and the Identity of Jesus in the Isaiah Scrolls
The Dead Sea scrolls reference the ancient scrolls found in the Qumran caves by a shepherd named Mohammad adh-Dhib (Baigent 247). At the time of the discovery of the scrolls, and because of the way in which they had been handled after their discovery (for profit), there were many questions raised as to the authenticity, origin, and date of the scrolls (Shanks 9-10). The Isaiah scrolls were amongst those found in Cave 1, and the first scroll of the two Isaiah scrolls was in the best condition (Shanks 14). Because of its completeness, the first Isaiah is often referred to as "Isaiah A (Shanks 14)." Shanks says that the importance of the scrolls is not that they tell us something we didn't know, but they tell us much about what we did not know about the period during…
Abegg, Martin G., Flint, Peter, and Ulrich, Eugene. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Bible Translated for the First Time into English. HarperOne, New York, 1999. Print.
Baigent, Michael. The Jesus Papers: Exposing the Greatest Cover-Up in History. 2007.
Knohl, Israel and Maisel, David. The Messiah before Jesus: The Suffering Servant of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Berkley and Los Angeles, CA: 2002. Print.
Motyer, J.A. The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary. 1998. Print.
Paul’s writings are naturally cosmopolitan, his being influenced by Hellenistic culture and philosophy as well as Judaism. As a result, Paul’s contributions indelibly and significantly transformed the mode, meaning, and implications of Christ’s message. As Scholz (2013) points out, Paul penned almost half of all New Testament texts: thirteen books. Paul’s theology is “one of the cornerstones upon which the Christian Church is built,” (Zetterholm, 2009, p. 1). What also makes Pauline texts different is that unlike the synoptic gospels, Pauline letters reflect the author’s own theology. Reading and re-reading Pauline theology offers insight into how early Christian theology evolved and was influenced inevitably by historical, cultural, and contextual variables. Moreover, the Pauline letters show how later Christian theologians would revise and reinterpret the teachings of Jesus and his disciples.
Most likely, Paul viewed himself as a theologian, one who felt an intense personal responsibility to travel, preach, and teach…
Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz bridge a gap between trade book and scholarly discourse with their 642-page tome The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. This joint effort by Theissen and Merz explores the subject matter of the historical Jesus in light of primary sources, especially relying on the Gospels, both canonical and apocryphal. The book is divided into four main sections, in addition to a meaty Introduction, a "Retrospect" called "A Short Life of Jesus," and two helpful indexes, one of Biblical
Theissen, Gerd, and Merz, Annette. The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998.
Areas to Compare
The Gospel of Mark
Mark 1:16-20, the Calling
Why should we focus on the First Disciples' Calling? This calling was the first of Jesus' ministry to the public. The act of Jesus was a distinction in Jewish society. According to Jewish tradition it was not a norm for Jewish teachers to go to the field and recruit disciples. It is the disciples that sought teachers. Jesus is particular in calling out his first disciples, i.e. Peter, Andrew, John and James. According to Mark, the initiative for recruiting and training to become a disciple always comes from Christ.[footnoteRef:1] [1: J. Donahue, The Theology and Setting of Discipleship in the Gospel of Mark. (Milwaukee, WI:Marquette University Pres, 1983), 15.]
Jesus did not call these disciples to repent. He only asked them to follow him. He transformed the lives of fishermen by asking them to pursue new lines of activities…
" When he rolls up the scroll and sits back down, everyone in the synagogue looks at him. He then says, "Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." This is when the people say, "Is not this Joseph's son?"
The rejection narrative of Luke 4:16-29 is very different than Matthew (and Mark's as well). The people begin by being amazed by the gracious words that Jesus is speaking because it seems that they are not used to this Jesus they knew as a carpenter being a teacher. However, the congregation turns very quickly on him and attempt to drive him out of town with the goal of hurling him down the edge of a cliff. This quick change of feeling in the congregation leads us once again to believe that the people could not stop thinking about Jesus as a carpenter. He was one of the Nazarene family…
Bloomberg, Craig L. (1992). The New American Commentary Volume 22 -- Matthew.
Schweizer, Eduard. (1975). The Good News According to Matthew. Westminster John
This is an expectancy coming into its form in the context of the passage from Matthew 28:19. (Hagner, 421)
Scriptural testimony shows the chosen passage to be ensconced in the symbolic importance of the narrative Jesus to the Christian identity. Most particularly, Matthew 28 is concerned with the resurrection of Christ and the command associated with it to go forth and preach the word of this miracle. So is this recorded in the text by Davies & Allison which tells that the disciples were "instructed by the risen Lord to make disciples of all nations, 'teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.'" (Davies & Allison, 639)
Interpretation of Others:
The interpretations of others would help to drive the importance of this passage and the broader importance of the whole gospel of Matthew. Here, Luz & Linss remark that "because Matthew is the chief Gospel of…
Davies, W.D., and Dale C. Allison. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to Saint Matthew. 3 vols. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1988, 1991, 1997.
France, R.T. The Gospel of Matthew. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007.
Hagner, Donald A. Matthew 14-28. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, 1995.
Luz, Ulrich. Matthew 1-7: A Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1989.
As Spong has closed his career as a formal minister, retiring from the bishop position in 2000 have has become even more controversial than ever before:
Spong believes in a transcending reality at "the very heart of life" that presses toward life and wholeness. He describes God as the "Ground of Being" and "universal presence" that undergirds all life and is present in all that is. He regards heaven as a symbol standing for "the limitlessness of Being itself," describes Jesus as "a God presence" whose burning awareness of God made him a doorway to divine reality, and believes that the divine source of life calls human beings to live fully, love wastefully, and have the courage to be. Spong describes his project in classic liberal terms -- walking the "razor's edge between orthodox overbelief and losing the 'Christ experience'..."I do so not because I reject the church, but because…
The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: Revised Standard Version. Rev. ed. Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1952.
The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: King James Version. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1984.
Bakker, Jay. & Brown, Marc. "What the hell happened to Christianity?"
December 18, 2006 CNN.com at http://www.cnn.com/2006/U.S./12/13/bakker.brown.commentary/index.html
Pastoral Theology: What it means to 'read the signs'
One basic belief that lies behind the social teaching of Catholics is that the Almighty has shaped human history. This biblical era perception transcends time, prevailing even today. Indeed, it holds true in areas and among civilizations wherein God's word is accepted as well as among civilizations that were completely unaware of Christ or the gospel. God is in action, redeeming and healing humanity and inviting it to contribute to this work. Perceiving God's historical actions and understanding His invitation, is now, typically called: "reading the signs of the times." In the modern social thought of Catholics, this term is based on the following statement of Christ's to Sadducees and Pharisees: "You know how to read the face of the sky, but you cannot read the signs of the times" (Matthew 16:4). Pope Saint John XXIII first utilized this phrase in…
Armstrong, A., 2009. Everyday Theology: Money is the root of all evil - Blogging Theologically. [online] Blogging Theologically. Available at: [Accessed 28 May 2016].
Beth, L., 2004. Catholic Social Teaching - Theological Context: Reading the Signs of the Times - FAMVIN News. [online] FAMVIN News. Available at: [Accessed 28 May 2016].
Cassidy, J., 2013. Pope Francis's Challenge to Global Capitalism. [online] The New Yorker. Available at: [Accessed 28 May 2016].
Cox, H., 2006. Keeping faith with the secular city. [online] Keeping faith with the secular city. Available at: [Accessed 28 May 2016].