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Violence and Sex in Television Programs
In 'Programs Do Not Sell Products in Advertisement,' Brad J. Bushman provides the primary hypothesis regarding the study. He alleges that televised sex and violence impair the memory for the advertised products. Besides, there is a supplementary hypothesis that functions as the framework of the study. Bushman hypothesizes that incorporating an advertisement in a program that contains sex or violence decreased the viewer's possibility of remembering the advertised brand. Besides, this would reduce their interest in purchasing the advertised brand and their likelihood of choosing a coupon for that brand (Bushman, 2005).
The hypotheses emanate from a meta-analysis of 16 studies that considered 2474 participants. The assessment illustrated that the memory for advertised brands was 27% lower if ads were embedded in violent programs unlike if the same ads were integrated into non-violent programs. According to Bushman, the most plausible reason for the memory…
Bushman, B.J. (2005). Violence and Sex in Television Programs Do Not Sell Products in Advertisements. American Psychological Society. Vol. 16 -- No.9. 702-708
Quality of Television Programming in the United Kingdom
During its heyday during the 1970s through the 1990s, British television programming help model the way in comedy, news reporting, action features and drama that remain influential today. Indeed, programs such as "Upstairs, Downstairs," "Doctor Who," "Fawlty Towers," and for "something completely different," Monty Python and its zany band of performers were enormously popular at home and abroad, especially in the United States where fan clubs for these shows still exist. Alas, the golden era of television programming in the United Kingdom appears to have faded in recent years, with current offerings representing poor substitutes for their former hits. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to support the contention that the quality of television programming has declined in recent years, followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
During the 1970s, the quality of…
Balinksa, M. (2010, Fall). "It's the Audience, Stupid!' Using a New Approach to Storytelling
'We Managed to Broaden Our Audience, Expand Our Coverage And-This Is Critical-Not
"Dumb Down" in the Process.'" Nieman Reports, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 16-19.
Blake, A.D., Lovegrove, N.C., Pryde, A. & Strauss, T. (1999, Autumn). "Keeping Baywatch at Bay." The McKinsey Quarterly, p. 18.
Controlling TV Programmes:
The debate on whether or not to adopt stricter means of controlling television programmes arises from the impact of certain programmes on the viewers. This debate also emanates from the cultural and ethical concerns raised by various people regarding the suitability of certain television programmes. According to research on television, it has emerged that programme-makers and broadcasters sometime fail to draw the line when showing certain programmes. As a result, certain sections of the public has lost their degree of trust in television programming arguing that there should be stricter measures to control television programmes while others differ with them.
Arguments Supporting Stricter Control of TV Programmes:
The increased loss of trust and ethical concerns regarding television programming has resulted in various people supporting the adoption of stricter mechanisms of controlling TV programs. The proponents of such measures point at the following reasons & #8230;
Hayes, D.A. (n.d.). The Children's Hour Revisited: The Children's Television Act of 1990.
Retrieved from Indiana University website: http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v46/no2/hayes.html
Kiisweko, O. (2011, August 19). The Dilemma of Children Hooked Onto TV. Retrieved August
31, 2011, from http://dailynews.co.tz/feature/?n=22940&cat=feature
The range of television programs that I watch includes HBO dramas like "Six Feet Under," animated comedies like "The Simpsons" and "South Park," and occasionally the news and "The Daily Show." I also enjoy watching professional sports on TV too. The shows I watch occasionally relate to my daily life but usually they do not. For example, "Six Feet Under" portrays relationships and family more realistically than any other show I know but for the most part the shows I watch, including "The Simpsons" are exaggerated, which is why they are funny. I enjoy shows that make me laugh, but some dramas like "CSI" are occasionally fun to watch, even if they have no bearing on my every day life. In generally I like shows that entertain me for whatever reason, whether they make me laugh or whether they simply distract me for an hour or two.
Convenience rather than creating cuisine is the priority of Kraft ads. Adult tastes are given less of a priority than suiting the palate of children. Nutrition is paid homage to, but only in the sense of giving a family a starch, protein, and vegetable on a plate in the Hormel TV dinner advertisement.
One ad that occurred towards the end of the show, a Domino's Pizza advertisement, seemed to clash with the demographic of the other advertisement. However, the cheapness of Domino's many specials enables a mother to feed a large family quickly.
It is interesting to compare the Martha advertising with the advertising for later-night television programs aimed at a younger demographic, with a larger male audience. These ads favor snack food like sodas, have hipper and more conceptual features, and in the case of many fast food advertisements like KFC and McDonald's, often feature minority actors, even those…
(eilly, 1980) The program had the highest per episode viewer ratings of any before it and the plot has been called "the shot cheered round the world." (eilly, 1980) Another great example is the M.A.S.H. season finale, as the program held a huge record for most viewers of any finale in television history and the viewership record has served as an enduring benchmark in television until the Super Bowl XLIV, in 2010, when the battered city of New Orleans LA sent the Saints to the super bowl and the whole nation was rooting for triumph for the city, and the team. Many contend that the viewership rating was skewed in large part due to the expansion of the Nielsen system as well as the vast number of televisions in homes today, as compared to the M.A.S.H. finale in 1983. According to the record the M.A.S.H. finale had 105.97 estimated viewers…
Fishman, M., & Cavender, G. (1998). Mark Fishman, Gray Cavender. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Klowden, K., Chatterjee, A., & DeVol, R. (2008, June). The Economic Impact of Digital Distribution. Retrieved August 1, 20010 from http://www.milkeninstitute.org/pdf/writers_strike.pdf
NFL Wire Reports. (2010, February 8). Super Bowl XLIV beats 'M-A-S-H' finale for U.S. viewership record. NFL.com, Retrieved August 1, 20010 from http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/story/09000d5d8164bc7b/article/super-bowl-xliv-beats-mash-finale-for-us-viewership-record .
Reilly, S. (1980). Who Shot JR? People, 14 (2), Retrieved August 1, 20010 from http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20076970,00.html .
That relieves all the pent-up anxiety of a Trump wannabe. Therefore, such a viewer remains content with his or her current life, acquiescing to (and as a result reinforcing) current hegemonic power structures (i.e., the real power of big corporations, and corporate players like Trump, over all the rest of us)).
"The Apprentice" is especially successful at pro-hegemonic reinforcement, moreover, since it focuses on a subject we all (except for those born independently wealthy, or winners of huge lotteries) recognize and experience day-to-day: work. Hegemonic power of corporate workplaces, and, by association, a national government that allows, and encourages, corporate uses and abuses of power, are validated by "The Apprentice's" implicit suggestion that a high-powered corporate career, the higher paid and more prestigious the better [the stuff that makes the Ken Lays of the world tick], is exciting, fun, glamorous, where the winners are, and something to aspire to, rather…
"Dinsdag." November 30, 2004. Swerve Left. Retrieved May 11, 2005, from:
"Inkwell." Independent Women's Forum. Retrieved May 11, 2005, from:
It said that most parents would support new limits to be established on content of television programs and shows. Approximately half of the surveyed parents and their peers expressed concern that their own children saw what they saw on TV. More lack and Hispanic parents expressed this concern than did white parents. More than three-fourths of them said that inappropriate television and media material worried them the most. Two-thirds of them said they closely watched TV shows their children watched. Those who said they could not do very much said that the exposure had gone too widespread to be controlled or that they were too busy. The Kaiser study also reported that one in four of the parents surveyed admitted that the media were the main negative influence on their children. The rest said it had positive influence and the rest said it had little impact. Four in the 10…
Better Nutrition (2002). TV Bashed. 2 pages. PRIMEDIA Intertec: PRIMEDIA Company
Bower, B. (1985). Social Channels Tune in TV's Effects. 2 pages. Science News: Social Science Service, Inc.
Etzioni, a. (1993). Lock Up Your TV Set: Violence on Television. 4 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Fram, a. (2007).Most Parents Concerned About Violence in Media. 2 pages. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…
There was also significant risk of increased attention problems associated with watching nonviolent television for the same age group, but no risk was associated with viewing educational programming. Older children ages 4 and 5 showed no increased risk five years later for attention problems from watching violent or non-violent programs. This second study was based on data collected from parents of 933 children and shows that the effect of violent television content on attention problems is much higher than previously estimated when program content was not identified." (Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008)
The work of Josephson (2005) entitled: "Television Violence a Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages" states that children at the preschool age, or between three and five years of age "...begin watching television with an "exploration" approach. They actively search for meaning in the content, but are still especially attracted to vivid production features,…
Reebye, Pratibha (2005) Aggression During Early Years - Infancy and Preschool. T h e C. A n a d I a n C. h I l d a n d a d o l e s c e n t P. s y c h I a t r y R. e v I e w F. e b r u a r y 2-0 0-5 (1-4): 1. Online available at http://www.irm-systems.com/onottaca/doc.nsf/files/B5699D7CBA111CF48725712D00526DF5/$file/Feb05AggressionDuringEarlyYears.pdf
Watching Violent TV at Pre-School Age Linked to Aggression in Young Boys (2008) Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008. Online available at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/87763.php
Josephson, W.L. (2005) Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. Online available at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/familyviolence/html/nfntseffevage_e.html .
Screen Violence Tied to Boys' Aggression: Study (2007) Reuters News. 5 Nov 2007. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSN0460670820071105
Attitudes and practices varied by age of the child and the gender of the parent.
Colorito, Rita. (2002) "Violence on elevision News Programs is a Serious Problem." Is Media Violence a Problem? Ed James orr San Diego: Greenhaven, 2002. 24- 30.
Colorito says that even though rates of crime decreased in the 1990s, television news coverage of violent crime increased. V news shows like 20/20 and Dateline frequently show stories on horrible crimes, sometimes with bloody crime scenes and re-enactments of the crime. his makes people think that there is more violent crime than there really is.
Felson, Richard. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22. 1996. [Electronic Version]
he topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. here are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of V on aggression. However, no review looked at the…
The topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. There are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of TV on aggression. However, no review looked at the criminal aggression. The author concluded that even though the possibility of TV and film violence can lead to violent crime remains, most of the studies show that viewing violence does not cause crime.
Kirsh, Steven. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. A Crtical Look at the Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006
This book gives a very good overview of variety of studies about media violence and children and adolesence. The book includes information on what is aggression and different theories about aggression and human behavior. Kirsh wants readers to be critical of the studies they read and make sure they are scientific. Although he does not believe that violence in the media is harmful based on the studies, he does say that it should not be ignored. He concludes by saying that there should be more positive media for younger children when they will be effected most.
Television and Cultural Plagues in America
American society is both one of the most litigious and one of the most violent in the world. ut violence is not the only cultural quagmire: Sexual promiscuity -- along with the itinerant sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies -- is another cultural minefield. And of course, racism, drug use and alcohol abuse are other major, seemingly unsolvable problems.
A common thread behind these social problems is the fact that social critics and activists blame television and its centrality to American culture for all. Television's pervasiveness especially among children is the concern. Today, often with both parents working and out of the house, latchkey kids come home from school and immediately turn on the television and start absorbing its disparate and often uncontrolled and only lightly censored messages.
Consequently, activists point their finger at television for corrupting the minds of our youth and steering…
American Academy of Pediatrics: Television and the Family. http://www.aap.org/family/tv1.htm
American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org / .
Christenson, Peter. Substance Abuse in Popular Prime Time Television. Mediascope, Inc.: 2000.
Collins, Rebecca L., Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, Dale Kunkel, Sarah B. Hunter, and Angela Miu, "Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiation of Sexual Behavior," RAND Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 3, September 2004.
In contrast, TV influences children in abandoning the theories they were taught and embrace other concepts, most related to violence. Also, after being exposed to TV violence children feel that it is perfectly natural for them to behave similar to the characters on TV (Langone, 1984, p. 48).
It is extremely important for a child to be assisted by an adult when watching TV. Studies have shown that children are influenced by the way adults perceive TV programs, meaning that a child is likely to gain a better understanding of right and wrong when he or she is supported by a mature individual. Even with that, TV violence can negatively influence children, as they will merely hide their aggression in the cases when they are assisted by an adult who disapproves of violent behavior in watching TV (Langone, 1984, p. 56).
Children are generally willing to do anything in ordered…
1. Barker, M. & Petley, J. (2001). Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. New York: Routledge.
2. Hoffman, A.M. (1996) Schools, Violence, and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Josephson, W.L. (1995). "Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages." Retrieved August 16, 2010, from the Media Awareness Network Web site: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/research_documents/reports/violence/tv_violence_child.cfm
4. Langone, J. (1984). Violence!: Our Fastest-Growing Public Health Problem. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown
Children (boys especially) are predisposed to watching scenes of violence for long periods of time without feeling the need to change the program. Consequent to this, they are expected to display antisocial behavior.
Cartoons are essential in influencing children, given the fact that most seem innocent to most parents, thus preventing them from wanting to change the channel. Studies have shown that cartoons have a more negative influence on children in comparison to violence seen directly on TV. hile cartoons do not necessarily influence a violent behavior in children, they are apparently responsible for children having a decreased capacity to create neurotic connections.
Advertising is yet anther domain which catches children of guard, taking into consideration that they are less capable of ignoring advertisements. hen they are specially made for children, advertisements have an even greater influence, as they can affect their "beliefs, values, and moral norms" (Moniek Buijzen, Patti…
1. Buijzen, Moniek and Valkenburg, Patti M. "The Impact of Television Advertising on Children's Christmas Wishes," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.3 (2000)
2. Gunter, Barrie; Charlton, Tony; Coles, David and Panting, Charlie. "The Impact of Television on Children's Antisocial Behavior in a Novice Television Community," Child Study Journal 30.2 (2000): 65.
3. Johnson, Marilou M. "The Impact of Television and Directions for Controlling What Children View," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45.4 (2001).
4. Reis, Raul "The Impact of Television Viewing in the Brazilian Amazon," Human Organization 57.3 (1998).
TELEVISION'S ELATIIONSHIP TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Television's elationship to Science and Technology
Scientific knowledge has led to the development of machinery, and equipment among other provision of technology. Notably, computer technology is a product of scientific knowledge: the advancement of the science and the engineering knowledge has led to the increase in the practical application of knowledge. As a result, the technology has continued to advance leading innovation and modernization. Television is a product of scientific knowledge and thus led to the transmission of knowledge of science from one region to another. Television has had gradual improvement in different time. For example, in the ancient time, the transmission of news and entertainment was limited and only in the black and white. As seen in the modern society, television has advanced from black and white images to colored photographic images (Williams, 1974). The improvement in the mode of transmission of images…
Dick, P. K. (1982). Blade Runner. Random House LLC
Jonze, S., Kaufman, C., & Burwell, C. (1999). Being John Malkovich. Universal Studios.
Williams, R. (1974). "The Technology and Society" from "Television: Technology and Cultural Form." New York: Schocken, pp. 35-50
Story Pitch: Supporting the Development of Hell's Kitchen
Today, more and more people are acutely conscious of the need to improve the lives of residents of our inner cities. This proposed story will showcase the positive activism surrounding the development of the Hudson Yards Business Improvement District (BID), including the "open space" movement to bring more parks and preserved greenery the neighborhood of Hell's Kitchen so residents can exercise, enjoy time with their children, and experience a respite from the pressures of their lives. At a time when people are growing increasingly cynical about the ability of government to help them, they are crying out to hear a story like this, one which indicates how local residents can make a change. BID is committed to providing district-wide services for community improvement and will extend from West 30th Street to West 42nd Street, from Ninth Avenue to the east side of…
Too bad the only thing suave about him was his outfit. Even if it was only as suave as it could have been if he'd kept the Armani from Barney's" (qtd in Naugle 52).
In addition to this, is the constant spreading of lies and rumors to climb up the social ladder and the constant intrusion into the lives of other people could also teach teenagers to be uncompassionate and cruel in order to get the things that they desire.
It is true that Cecily von Ziegesar wrote about her own teenage experiences (Naugle 19). She also and tried to avoid preaching to teens and creating overly good characters, as she herself hated these types of novels (Ibid). The Gossip Girl novels and the television show do not intend to cause the readers or viewers harm or expect them to imitate what they see on television or read in books.…
Barnett, Rosemary V. Helping Teens Answer the Question "Who Am I?": Physical Development in Adolescents: Part 1. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. 2008
Barnett, Rosemary V. And Sally Moore. Helping Teens Answer the Question "Who Am I?": Physical Development in Adolescents: Part 4.University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. 2009
"Frenemies, Season 3." HBO: Sex and the City. 2009. Home Box Office, Inc., May
This in turn adds more pressures on the Australian social and economic structure, making diabetes the seventh most fatal disease in the country. The diagram below proves that fact.
Diabetes deaths, 1984-2004
The main objective of this research included:
An increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst the sample within the six months allotted for the program. The percentage aimed at was at least 80%
To record decrease in the overall body mass and weight of the participants within six months
To record increase in the overall physical activities of the participants within six months, either through engaging in riding or running (National Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults 1999)
To follow up on the research and make sure that the participants are doing well and still implementing what they learned in the program
Strategies for the Friends with Diabetes Program, Derived From the Ottawa Charter for Health…
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Diabetes in Australia: A snapshot, 2004-05,
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, National Health Survey: Summary of results, 2007-2008,
City of Onkaparinga 2006, Individual incomes, 2006,
City of Onkaparinga 2006, SEIFA index of disadvantage,
(Fishman & Cavender, 1998) To some degree this, as well as the fictional license many "reality" and "reality based" programs take with technology applications put a great deal of pressure on real law enforcement and force public scrutiny that many find unwelcome. (Arcuril, 1977)
The challenge is then placed squarely on law enforcement as well as their support systems, like crime scene investigators (usually for legal reasons a completely separate entity), to resolve crime in hours rather than days, months or years. Most people who have been victims of crime are fundamentally aware that these images are functionally unrealistic, and yet they and others are still building a case, through viewership for the value and continued desire for such programming. The visual imagery, possible through technology has also challenged the public to learn to stomach, and even covet more and more Technicolor representations of "reality." Where Perry Mason utilized static…
Arcuril, A.F. (1977). You Can't Take Fingerprints Off Water: Police Officers' Views Toward "Cop" Television Shows. Human Relations, 30 (3), 237-247.
Fishman, M., & Cavender, G. (1998). Mark Fishman, Gray Cavender. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Surette, R., & Otto, C. (2002). Journal of Criminal Justice, 30 (5), 443-453.
Television and America
There have been many technological advances within the past sixty years that have fundamentally influenced the way that we live in the United States. Among the most influential is the invention and proliferation of the television.
Though there are other advances which, are equally important it is still the television that dominates the background noise of nearly every home. In fact most homes have more televisions than they have bathrooms. It is not unusual for television to be the single most used avenue for national and international information. "From its early position as a new medium for political coverage in the 1950s, television quickly supplanted radio and eventually newspapers to become by the early 1960s the major source of public information about politics."
This information includes political, social and popular issues that have helped shape the culture of America. It is through the influence of television and…
Lynda Lee Kaid. "Political Process and Television." 2003
Paul Schatzkin "Television is 75" 2002 http://www.philo75.com
The Contest" draws attention to the level of humor that pervades the lives of television show characters, especially characters on sitcoms. hile many people do enjoy hearty laughter and excitement with their friends on a regular basis, few in real life do so to the extent of the Seinfeld characters. It is possible that people who watch the show are attempting to discover ways to enliven their real-life friendships, to infuse more humor and outrageousness in them. hether through devising masturbation contests or not, individuals use ideas from shows like Seinfeld to add color and lightness to their often troubled lives. hen our relationships fall short of being as lighthearted as the relationships depicted on Seinfeld, we may be disappointed.
In the spirit of "The Contest," when we claim that we are "master of our domain," we are relying on Seinfeld to provide us with euphemisms related to sex. Seinfeld…
Crawley, Mark. "Favorite Seinfeld Episodes." Movieprop.com. Retrieved July 21, 2005 online at http://www.movieprop.com/tvandmovie/Seinfeld/favorite.htm
David, Larry. "The Contest." Dir. Tom Cherones. Starring: Jerry Seinfeld, Michael Richards, Jason Alexander, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Estelle Harris (as Mrs. Costanza), and Jane Leeves (as Marla). Broadcasted November 18, 1992. Script retrieved online July 21, 2005 at http://www.seinfeldscripts.com/TheContest.htm
TV & Internet
Mass media technology has become omnipresent in our society. It is not uncommon for children to now be raised with personal electronics, constant television and an overall barrage of sensory stimulus. Moreover, electronic devices are becoming the main means of communication for the younger generation, which can challenge their ability to relate to others. While many in the media have called into question the impacts of these socio-technical changes, others point the benefits that technology offers, and note that change is inevitable and the negative effects are overblown. This paper will take a look at the effects of television and Internet consumption on the young generation.
There are a number of different influences the have been hypothesized for children based on their exposure to television and the media, none more prevalent than the argument that children are exposed to much more violence throughout their childhoods than…
AAP. (2011). Children, adolescents, obesity and the media. Pediatrics. Vol. 128 (1) 201-208.
Castillo, M. (2013). Parents' TV time may be the biggest influence on kids' viewing habits. CBS News. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/parents-tv-time-may-be-the-biggest-influence-on-kids-viewing-habits/
Donnerstein, E. (2010). The media and aggression: From TV to the Internet. University of Arizona. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.sydneysymposium.unsw.edu.au/2010/chapters/DonnersteinSSSP2010.pdf
Harris, J., Speers, S., Schwartz, M. & Brownell, K. (2012) U.S. food company branded advergames on the Internet: Children's exposure and effects on snack consumption. Journal of Children and the Media. Vol. 6 (1) 51-68.
As children are our future, showing violent and frightening images on television has a negative impact on society because it aids in the creation of a society that is both aggressive and fear. And what causes war and conflict other than aggressive fear?
n addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a…
In addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a book published in 1999, adds to this data by arguing that the television could have been a great educational tool. Tha I t is not, and is rather a tool commonly seen as eroding academic ability, certainly speaks volumes to its nature. Neuman argues that three arguments have been made, associating television with negative affects on society. Some have argued that television takes time away from more academic pursuits like reading and imagining, while others suggest that it shapes the way that students' think. The other argument holds that TV makes students exhibit poor behavior during class. Clearly, one of the most important pursuits of a child or adolescent's life is education. Without it, society will be doomed to malfunction. Because television impacts education negatively, it has a negative impact on society.
Now that we've established how television can have a negative impact on society through encouraging violent behavior and poor academic performance, we can start to consider what can be done. Clearly, children are the focus of television's negative affects on society. Therefore, it must be children that are targeted in order to improve this situation. The burden must fall on parents, who should closely monitor what children watch and how much television they watch a day. Parents should encourage children to engage in other, more intellectually stimulating behavior, such as reading. By doing this, the negative societal affects or television can be removed. So make sure the children in your life aren't watching too much TV or shows that are inappropriate for them.
Thus, the television has been a wonderful invention that has helped us travel to other worlds. But the amount of children watching televisions for periods as long as their parents go to work is causing problems, impacting society negatively. In order to create future leaders who are not aggressive or intellectually stunted, parents must strictly monitor children's television watching.
Television has become a necessity in today's world. From news to entertainment, from gossips to drama, from cooking to adventure, everything is showcased on it and this grab the attention of everyone despite of the race, gender, age, ethnicity or nationality they belong to. Almost all the people consider TV as their friend and an essential part of their lives and scientists, theorists and researchers have proved that what is shown on TV changes the viewer's perceptions and attitudes over the period of time. As rightly pointed out by Hammermeister, Winterstein, and Page (2005) in their research, "aside from occupational duties and sleep, the American nation spends more time watching television than at any other activity." (p.253) They also highlighted the fact that a normal American spends around 3-4 hours daily on watching TV which makes it 7-10 years of watching TV by the time he turns 70.…
Aber.ac.uk (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/cultiv.html [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Fisherhouse.com (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.fisherhouse.com/courses/cultivation_theory.pdf [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Gulisano, L. (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Gulisano.htm [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Hammermeister, J., Brock, B., Winterstein, D., Page, R. And Y (2005). Life without TV? Cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts. Health communication, 17 (3), pp. 253-264.
Television Advertising on 20-Something Females
Effectiveness of Television Advertising
Television is a traditional, yet the largest communication medium used by business corporations to promote their products and services to their potential customers. Advertisements done on television reach large target audience in both urban and rural areas. Every television advertisement has a specific target audience which constitutes the most potential customers for the company. The response rate and reaction of audience to television advertising is much greater than all other traditional and contemporary marketing mediums. Companies use targeted advertising on this medium to achieve better results of their marketing efforts.
This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of television advertising to young female consumers with age group of 18-25. It is widely believed that television advertising largely influences the behavior of young females which then becomes their attitude. Young females with age group of 18 to 25 are highly active viewers…
Debra Trampe, Diederik A. Stapel, Frans W. Siero. "The Self-Activation Effect of Advertisements: Ads Can Affect Whether and How Consumers Think about the Self," 2011. Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (6): 1030-1045. Print.
Frith, Katherine & Mueller, Barbara. "Advertising and societies: global issues, 2nd Edition. New York: Peter Lang. 2010. Print.
Gary, Austin, Witt. "High Impact: How You Can Create Ads that Sell!," Marketing Psychology Group, Inc., 1999. Web. December, 04, 2013.
Hanan, Jessica. Coping with changing roles for young men and women, 1st Edition. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. 2000. Print.
Quality TV generates interest about social problems
Quite often, fictional TV programs can raise national consciousness and awareness about social problems. Through fiction, viewers care about people far away because problems and issues are personalized and humanized. For example, the HBO program Oz about life in prison has generated compassion about the fate of incarcerated individuals and motivated calls for prison reform in a way that seeing someone in handcuffs on the nightly news cannot. The Sopranos was not simply a high-quality TV drama, its location in a suburban community also forced viewers to think more critically about their daily lives, like the lies, pain, and murder that lay behind the closed doors of affluent suburban New Jersey. The use of violence in these shows is designed to accurately depict life
Quality TV is cinematic
Violence has become part of the cinematic vocabulary, and modern television dramas with legitimate aspirations…
One study revealed Berry (2003) found that young children's retention of emotional information was greater in children viewing family sitcom than those who just watch an animated films or moppet program. This result justifies the fact that children are more likely to learn more due to the presence of human characters in family sitcoms as they find these characters more close to the reality than either cartoon or Muppet characters.
On investigating the type of family interaction shown in family sitcoms it was revealed that majority of family interactions were constructive or supportive in nature. Nonetheless, just about one fourth of these interactions were found to involve argument or negativity. Research shows that even though large amount of verbal and nonverbal interactions between siblings in family sitcoms were positive, nearly 40% of the examined behaviors were found to be negative (e.g., bullying, inappropriate remarks). (alma, Molen and Juliette, 171) As…
Berry, Gordon L., Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, ISSN 1099-9809, 11/2003, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2003, pp. 360-366
Bryant, J, A., Television and the American Family, Routledge, 2nd edition, 2000, 300- 350.
Corrigan, C, The impact of television viewing on young children, 2010, ISBN 9781124298979, 2010, 50- 70.
D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto. Attitudes toward TV advertising: A measure for children, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, 2009, Volume 30, Issue 4, 2009, pp. 409-418
Friends TV Series 1994
Friends TV Show
FIENDS TV SEIES
Crux of the Series
Popularity and Viewership
Critics on "Friends"
Christianity Perspective of the Show
The paper is all about the TV Show "Friends," an American sitcom about six friends living in Manhattan, New York. We will be viewing the show's happenings, critics and fans' views on the show, its popularity, its progress, the main storyline and its implications in accordance with the religion Christianity. The sitcom is a comic sitcom that goes around the lives of these six friends and how they deal with the problems they face in their lives and the happiness they share together. It is all about loving, sharing and caring for friends and has a very positive approach towards life. This is the major concept behind the show and this is what we will be analyzing and highlighting upon in…
F.R.I.E.N.D.S.W.I.K.I. Friends. wikia.com. http://friends.wikia.com/wiki/Friends (accessed 27 August, 2012).
Burbank, Calif. 2004. Synopsis of 'Friends' TV Show. HollywoodJesus.com (May 11). http://hollywoodjesus.com/friends.htm (accessed 27 August, 2012).
Hammond, Maggie. 2000 . Critical Analysis of Friends. Maggie.jp. http://maggie.jp/PhillipsMaggieFriends.pdf (accessed 27 August, 2012).
IMDb Users. User Ratings for Friends. IMDb.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0108778/ratings (accessed 27 August, 2012).
future of broadcast network television is and suggest some possible strategies that networks (not cable) might engage in to increase their viewership and maximize their profit potentials
What is the future of broadcast television?
Traditional broadcast television, for all intents and purposes is dead. Yes, it still exists in some forms: there have been 'must see' shows in recent years, such as Lost and Modern Family. But the nation will never again huddle around a few television stations, all united by a common bond of viewership. During the 1970s and 1960s, television was the central uniting thread linking Americans of all races, creeds, and economic classes. Everyone stopped to watch the Vietnam War unfold on the news, to see racial issues dramatized in All in the Family or to watch hot new artists on American Bandstand. Today, television is atomized and segmented. Moreover, even the best of television does not…
Hilmes, Michelle. "Audiences." TV History Book. London: BFI, 2003.
Hilmes, Michelle. "U.S. television in a multichannel age." TV History Book. London: BFI, 2003,
Lotz, Amanda. The Television Will Be Revolutionized. NY: NYU Press, 2007.
TV Series and the Society
The social set up in most communities in the world is indeed eroded with lots of images and teachings especially from the media. Among the major influences the lives of individuals in the society are affected by television programs and series. Most of the TV series that are relied to the individuals of a family in a particular setting basically influence the decision and the activities of the many individuals in either a negative or a positive manner. Indeed the most affected are the minor in the society, which are the children1.
From the healthcare providers' point-of-view, the media especially the television play a very important role in the escalation of the chances of teenage pregnancies and adolescent malpractices among the youths in America. These youth frequently use the media like television series, music movies and magazines in their plight for…
Government officials and elected officers become unwilling to provide limited public funds to broadcasters whose audiences are becoming smaller, forcing public service programmers to reach for larger audiences with different types of program content. "While multiple program sources -- cable, home video -- make it unlikely that these systems will move toward "mass audience programming" it is the case that the face of broadcasting is changing in these contexts" (Narrowcasting, 2012).
Digital signage networks for narrowcast advertising are becoming part of the mainstream and not some sort of on the edge experimental medium reserved for the daring and advanced. ather than being seen as a risk in the eyes of media buyers, they are becoming a vital communications path for marketers and advertisers wishing to sway consumer spending decisions at the point of purchase. It isn't particularly surprising that narrowcast digital signage networks are entering the mainstream. Advertising buyers and…
Little, D. (2007). Digital signage -- InfoTrends sees significant growth for narrowcasting.
Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Digital-Signage-InfoTrends-Sees -
Narrowcasting. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=narrowcasting
Flow' still relevant? Television studies
Flow, as Csikszentmihalyi (1990) has instigated, portrays the condition in which populace are so engaged in an action that nothing besides it appears to be of major concern (p. 4). Flow was originally referred to elaborate the emotions of individuals who are associated to sports or a profession which requires utmost dedication during a most exuberant occurrence. Csikszentmihalyi (1977, p. 72) illustrates the status of flow as a tapering of the focal point of consciousness, so that extraneous observations and beliefs are cleansed away, by the absence of reticence, and by receptiveness to unequivocal objectives and explicit responses, and by a sagacity of management over the environment. Csikszentimihalyi's flow constituents have been sorted by Hoffman, Young and Novak (2000) into three basic phases, which namely are flow antecedents, flow occurrence, and flow consequences. long with this sorting it also emphasizes that attentiveness and power are…
As deduced by Csikszentimihalyi (1990), the constructive flow effects are likely to occur in listening to songs, as well as being busy and energetically meeting the medium on numerous occasions, with meticulous targets (e.g., in what manner bass portion from the Chicago Symphony is analogous to the Los Angeles Philharmonic?). At the similar instance Csikszentmihalyi (1990), belittles the inert action of television viewing by explaining that Television can offer uninterrupted and effortlessly reachable information that will attract the viewer's interest, at a very minimal expenditure in terms of the intuitive energy that requires being endowed (p. 119). This is further increased, in my opinion, when the viewer has a choice of what he watches. This simply means that while watching television does leave the viewer with wasting time, watching something that they might not necessarily like and let their mind drift; that is not the case when watching something that they downloaded or recorded hence they will have more mental stress during that session. Furthermore, the limited level of time in this fast paced world does leave for more and more interest in watching only that which the viewer personally downloads or records as opposed to tuning for live coverage when time is of the essence to get something more important done.
Even though the possibility that television can offer the types of objectives and regulations that are incumbent in flow actions (p. 120) like a few types of amusement sources cannot be eliminated. Csikszentmihalyi (1990) indicts a remarkable relaxation industry (p.162) with offering more inert expense for the populace at a bigger magnitude with the introduction of recording and downloading options.
Whilst sitting in front of a television and watching a particular program does not augment our mental capabilities but instead corrodes the existing ones. Many believe that this is due to the lacking
Due to the reliance on the chronology of events, cinematic productions
also have all the events connect with each other until the conclusion is
reached. One event leads to another, with the characters remembering the
previous events and reacting to them accordingly. In television
productions, the characters are often always reacting to new events without
remembering what happened to them in previous episodes. The conflicts
between the characters can often occur repeatedly, but the circumstances
surrounding those conflicts change from week to week. It's part of
television's reliance on the segment that makes this necessary to keep the
With any presentation, there is a reliance on the series of events that
happens and the order in which those events happen. With cinema, that's
what happens with each production. When looking at television, however,
the series of events relies more on the interplay between the characters
than it does…
Ellis, John. Visible Fictions: Cinema, Television, Video (London:
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982) Ch.9.
The Effects of Watching Television in Young Children
The current technological era has ensnared the young generation into a web of virtual reliance, making them dependent on various types of media outlets. The user – friendly components of media outlets have equipped the youngsters with the ability to customize any content into their own individual preferences. Young people are not limited to feeding but also they are able to design media materials which suit them. This situation is a far cry from what the older generation was inclined to while growing up, hence in most cases, this creates a generational conflict (Radesky, 2015).
The prevalence of technological and digital devices has created exposure among youngsters, with some being as young as 4 months. This is in comparison to children in the 1970s who became exposed to media such as the television from the age of 4 years. Research has shown…
The governments of China clearly believe that if they do not ban shows where the premise is based on the voting then it could lead their citizens to want the right to vote in the government on their own opinions. The influence that television has, in this case by indirectly helping Chinese citizens move in the direction of being slightly more "democratic," is seen as a threat- it is hard to believe that television could threaten the national security of a world super power.
The current influence that television has on individual's lives is only growing stronger as technology continues to develop. Recent developments have shown that television will now be in "three-dimensions," so that individuals who view TV can be full immersed in the movie or show they are watching ("ho Needs It"). But is that even necessary when nine out of ten homes have televisions in their homes…
Adams, Paul C. "Television as a Gathering Place." Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 82.1 (1992): n. page. Print.
"An Interactive Feature." Economist. 29 April 2010: n. page. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. .
Blockbuster Bankruptcy, . "Blockbuster Bankruptcy 2010." Blockbuster, 2011. Web. 18 Oct 2011. .
Chen, Jason. "Google TV Review: It's Kinda the Future." Gizmodo, 26 Oct 2010. Web. 18 Oct 2011. http://gizmodo.com/5672946/google-tv-review-its-kinda-the-future .
For small amounts of viewing, achievement increased with viewing, but as viewing increased beyond a certain point, achievement decreased. That function was found for each of the 3 ages studied, but optimal viewing time -- the apex of the function - was different at each age and decreased with the age of the students. (Razel, 2001)
Research Showing Positive Effects on Children
On the other hand, there is some research that disagrees that television has a profound negative effect on a child's behavior, health and cognitive ability. This research does not support the hypothesis that television is bad for children. There is observation
Television and Children 7 research that shows that television can be a positive influence in a child's learning process. The television can inform, entertain, and educate children in many ways.
Even though there is an abundance of children's shows that promote violence and other generally un-educational topics,…
1. Comstock, George A., Eli A. Rubinstien, and John P. Murray. Television and Social Behavior: Television's Effects: Further Explorations. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1972.
2. Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Press, 1985.
3. Children and the News Retreived July 26, 2006 at http://aacap.org/page.ww?name=Children+and+The+News§ion=Facts+for+Families
4. Razel, M. (2001). The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 371-379.
This allows them to spread the costs of producing high quality shows around dozens of countries, such that each country can receive the show more cheaply than it would cost to produce a program of comparable quality domestically. The author of that article make a moral judgment on the fairness of this practice, but the idea is entirely rooted in intelligent economic theory. The U.S. television industry is able to produce better programming for less per viewer, specifically because it cultivates these economies of scale. By producing with an audience of hundreds of millions in mind, the U.S. television industry is seeking those economies of scale as a source of competitive advantage. Today, most such programs are produced by media conglomerates that can offset the initial production cost of a new program with profits from other, established revenue streams. This allows them to take more risks with respect to research…
Adler, T. (2008). 'House' set to be most popular U.S. TV export to Europe for 2nd year running. Deadline London. Retrieved October 14, 2010 from http://www.deadline.com/2010/01/house-set-to-be-most-popular-u-s-tv-export-to-europe-for-2nd-year-running/
Hoskins, C.; Mirus, R.; Rozeboom, W. (1989). U.S. television programs in the international market: Unfair pricing. Journal of Communication. Vol. 39 (2) 55-75.
Allen, D. (2009). UK television exports up 25%. Tech Watch. . Retrieved October 14, 2010 from http://www.techwatch.co.uk/2009/12/02/uk-television-exports-up-by-25/
Violent TV Effect on Kids
Effects of Violent TV Programming and How to Impose Limitations to Exposure
"Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?" By the American Psychological Association (APA) provides an introspective view into how violence on television affects children and presents an argument that exposure to violence should be monitored. Alternately, Tim Goodman provides an argument based upon personal opinions and observations in which he defends television programming and shifts the blame of exposure onto the individual. Both articles provide an insight into violence on television and what can be done to limit exposure to said violence.
In "Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?," the American Psychological Association provides evidence that supports their claim that exposure to violence on television has a negative impact on children, provided these children are exposed to violent television programming. According to…
Did your view of media literacy change over the course of the class? How will your consumption of media be affected?
As a result of taking this course, I think I have become a more critical consumer of the media. When I see a commercial, I am hyper-aware of how the product is being positioned in the market, and what types of narratives are being used to play upon the goals and aspirations of the target audience, such as being a 'good mom,' or 'hip and sexy' or even to live pain-free into one's old age. Although I was always aware of advertising, now I am better able to see how advertising works upon the psyche of the consumer. I also notice how certain ads are featured during certain kinds of television programs, or on certain Internet sites, to specifically reach a demographic.
I think I may also be slightly…
Television has a significant influence on the way that we speak. Entertainment is a strong cultural influencer of how we communication, and television has for decades been among the most prominent entertainment mediums in our society. Our speech patterns are influenced by the norms of our society in that not only do we imitate the way we hear others talk, but we also learn from it. Stamou et al. (2012) note that television is often a leader in changing societal norms, and this influence extends not only to the way we talk but how those ways change our view of the world around us.
Profanity is a good example to use, because of television's longstanding ban on the use of profanity. Specific words were long-deemed obscene (a few still are) and were not allowed by the FTC on public broadcast. In that way, television essentially defined the line between…
Stamou, A., Maroniti, K. & Dinas, K. (2012). Representing "traditional" and "progressive" women in Greek television: The role of "feminine" and "masculine" speech styles in the mediation of gender identity construction. Women's Studies International Forum. Vol. 35 (2012) 38-52.
Babel, M. (2009). Phonetic and social selectivity in speech accommodation University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from http://www.linguistics.berkeley.edu/phonlab/annual_report/documents/2009/Babel_dissertation_2009.pdf
LA Internship Program
Throughout the course of the program, I have gained great insight into the technical, cultural, and academic aspects of entertainment, media, and production. This insight, coupled with my experience, has helped me to better understand the demands of production, and has allowed me to understand the planning that is needed to successfully complete projects. The courses I have taken, and am currently taking, have contributed to my academic success, and have afforded me with the experience and knowledge necessary to continue to pursue a career in electronic media and production. Furthermore, I believe the LA internship program will further strengthen my development and understanding of production by allowing me to see how the process is utilized outside an academic environment.
Presently, I am enrolled in a number of classes including Script Writing, Videography, Media Arts II, and Hip Hop: A Race, Gender, and Class Perspective. Script Writing,…
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…
Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm
History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2
Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History
PBS Pogams: Summay and analysis of a elationship to global entepise
Lidia's Family Table
Despite the populaity of the Food Netwok, many popula cooking pogams still emain on PBS. Lidia's Family Table is one of the most successful. Ove the couse of this pogam, the Italian-Ameican chef Lidia Bastianich cooks vaious Italian delicacies of he homeland, often with membes of he family, including he own mothe, son, daughte, and gandchilden. Howeve, what is so emakable about Lidia is the way she has geneated inteest in authentic Italian egional dishes, vesus the standad spaghetti and meatballs and pizza that have become accepted staples in so many households. Lidia has been known to cook meatballs but with a much wide vaiety of othe meats than is taditional fo Ameicans to eat. She has made lasagna with peaches, homemade gnocchi, and even cooked with abbit. Lidia makes genuine Italian cuisine accessible to all…
references this when she notes that dishes with butter and cream and not nearly as bad as we might thing. She also always ends her meal with a class of wine.
Television on Society
Television has helped to create and perpetuate perceptions of gender and race.
Television and Perceptions of Gender
How children form ideas about gender
Perpetuating gender myths through entertainment programming
Gender portrayals on prime time news
Racial Stereotypes on Television
Television in shaping the perception of black people
Television and stereotyping Asian-Americans as the model minority
Television played a great role in colonial domination of American Indians.
Conclusion and change - where to now?
In his famous dictum of the medium is the message, Marshall McLuhan illustrated how mass media, as an extension of human capabilities, has tremendous personal and social consequences (McLuhan: 23).
Television is in a particularly strong position to initiate such consequences. After all, the great majority of American homes have at least one television set, putting the medium in an unparalleled position to affect American society.
Television also has a power to shape an…
Bird, S. Elizabeth. "Gendered construction of the American Indian in popular media." Journal of Communication. (49) 3: 61-83. Proquest. Proquest Direct. Los Angeles Public Library, California. http:proquest.umi.com/pdqweb.
Comstock, George and Erica Scharrer. Television: What's On, Who's Watching, and What it Means. London: Academic Press, 1999.
Dow, Bonnie. Prime Time Feminism: Television, Media Culture, and the Women's Movement Since 1970 Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Fujioka, Yuki. "Television portrayals and African-American stereotypes: Examination of television effects when direct contact is lacking." Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. (76) 1: 52-75. Proquest. Proquest Direct. Los Angeles Public Library, California. http:proquest.umi.com/pdqweb.
Television on Children and Youth
As one of the most easily accessible, affordable entertainment forms, television is one thing people everywhere in the world have in common. Regardless of the way television has been described over the decades since television has entered regular people's houses, anyone who has witnessed children watching TV knows that it captures children's and adolescents' attention with excessive force and it holds the power to keep them glued to the screen. Even today, in 2014, when the internet claims a good portion of the viewing time dedicated to television in the past, television is reported to have kept a good deal of its influence. Parental control is thus crucial to the way television influences children's minds and shapes their development.
According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, children in the United States watch an average of three to four hours of television a…
Works Cited page:
The American School System. Grades, School Hours and Terms. Available at: http://www.justlanded.com/english/United-States/USA-Guide/Education/The-American-school-system retrieved: Oct. 7th, 2014
Ferguson, Christopher J. 2013. Adolescents, Crime, and the Media: A Critical Analysis. Springer Science & Business Media
PMC. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
National Institutes of Health Impact of media use on children and youth. 2003. Paediatrics Child Health. 2003 May-Jun; 8(5): 301 -- 306. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792691/#b1-pch08301 Retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014
("hat do I Need..." para on "How big a presence...") The "American Academy of Pediatrics" believes that too much television at such an early age can negatively affect brain development since the first 2 years of a child's life are especially important in the growth and development of the brain and a child needs good, positive interaction with other children and adults in this period. (Ibid.)
The link between violence on television and violent behavior in children has been well established in numerous studies and is particularly disturbing. Statistics indicate that the typical American child is exposed to 12,000 violent acts on television a year and children's TV programming alone contains about 20 violent acts an hour. (Ibid.) Children imitate what they see and watching violent TV programs teaches children that violence is an acceptable way to solve problems. According to the "American Psychological Association," besides learning aggressive behavior, children…
Alexander, Allison. "Children and Television." The Museum of Broadcast Communication. 2005. November 13, 2006. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/C/htmlC/childrenand/childrenand.htm
Fact Sheet: Television's Effect on Reading and Academic Achievement." National Institute on Media and the Family. July 7, 2002. November 13, 2006. http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_tveffect.shtml
The Good Things About Television." Media Awareness Network. 2006. November 13, 2006. http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/parents/television/good_things_tv.cfm
How Television Viewing Affects Children." Bulletin #4100: University of Maine Cooperative Extension. 2006. November 13, 2006. http://www.umext.maine.edu/onlinepubs/htmpubs/4100.htm
This behavior was observed in more than eighty eight percent of the children. In order to show that learned behavior is not necessarily short-term, when the children were reintroduced to obo a few months later, 40% showed the violent behavior.
In assessing whether watching excessive violence on television causes long terms aggressive behavior, research studies should be more comprehensive. They should take into account factors such as chemical or neurological imbalances, family history of violence, emotional and physical abuse or genetic factors. Whether it is indisputably proven that watching violence on television causes aggressive behavior or whether it isn't, one should realize that over indulgence is never a good thing. They can have physical, emotional and sociologically negative impacts.
Parents have an important role to play. Instead of relying on federal guidelines for television program ratings, parents should make up their own minds about whether a child should watch a…
Bandura, a. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Funk, J.B. (1993). Reevaluating the Impact of Video Games. Clinical Pediatrics, 32(2), 86-90.
Siegel, L.J. (2003). Criminology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Watch at least three different episodes of the same television program. Analyze what behaviors are repeatedly observed, what influence these behaviors may have on individuals who watch the program regularly, what stereotypes are reinforced by the program, and what long-term effects may result from the program. Also examine the advertising content with regard to the target market of the ads (gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES)). Be sure to include SCHOLALY* research to help make sense of your results (with proper citations).
History of the Simpsons
The Simpsons is a TV sitcom that is full of stereotypes and that has been used for entertainment for years. In fact, it is the longest running sitcom in American history (Susman, 2003). The show is ranked 17th of today's most popular shows and is ranked 25th of all time. The program features the typical American dysfunctional family exaggerated to a comedic extent. There is…
Davis, Brian. (2009, October 12). Ratings: The Great Wife Hope. Message posted to http://www.simpsonschannel.com/2009/10/ratings-the-great-wife-hope/
Graves, SB (1999) Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference? Journal of Social Issues
Volume 55, Issue 4, pages 707 -- 727,
Susman, Gary. (2003, January 17). Ay, Carumba. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,409190,00.html
Quasi-Experimental Design on the Effect of TV Adverts on Children
This study carries out the evaluation of a research titled "A quasi-experiment assessing the effectiveness of TV advertising directed to children" (Goldberg, 1990 p 445). The paper examines the extent the research hypotheses have been able to address the study. The paper also examines the research dependent variables and independent variables. Moreover, the study investigates the extent the author has adhered to both external and internal validity for the research.
esearch question the study Addresses
Goldberg, (1990) carries out the experimental research to investigate the potential impact of television advertising on children. Although, the author does not provide the research questions, nevertheless, the author tests two hypotheses using the quasi-experiment to assess the effectiveness of television advertising that has been directed to children.
ationale for the study
The rationale of the study is to assess whether children exposed to higher…
Goldberg, N. (1990). A Quasi-experiment Assessing the Effectiveness of TV Advertising directed to Children. Journal of Marketing Research JMR, 27 (4): 445
Khandker, Shahidur R., et al. (2010). Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices, World Bank, Washington, D.C: 53-103.
Morgan, G. A. (2000). Quasi-Experimental Designs. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: pp. 794-796.
Shadish, William R., et al. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston: 103-243.
Social Identity on Television
Keeping up with the Karashians is a reality television program that illustrates several different aspects of social identity as it is conceived of and witnessed in the United States today. One of the most salient factors of social identity that is regularly evinced on this particular television show pertains to notions of class. In fact, one can posit the notion that the very premise of the show is that it allows viewers to literally watch the life and times of those who are exceedingly rich. Social identity is represented in Keeping up with the Karashians as wealth and fame, as the most eminent members of this show inadvertently are.
From the show's inception, as well as the inception of many of its more notorious characters, wealth and fame have featured fairly prominently in its depiction of reality. Almost all of the major characters have enjoyed wealth…
Hill, A. (2005). Reality TV. London: Routledge.
Mills, N. (2004). Dissent. Retrieved from ***
Portrayal of omen in Music, Tv, Film, Advertising, & Other Media Since 1990
This essay addresses how the portrayal of women has changed in one segment of the media (music, tv, film, advertising) from the early 1990's when the book here the Girls Are: Growing Up Female ith the Mass Media by Susan J. Douglas was completed. Discussed are the commonalties between women currently important to American pop culture and the women examined in the book, the differences or changes that have occurred, whether conditions have improved for women, and whether there has been a continued backlash against feminism in American popular culture over the last decade. Four sources are used. APA.
here the Girls Are: Growing Up Female ith the Mass Media
Susan J. Douglas in her book "here the Girls Are" examined the portrayal of women in the pop culture of the last part of the 20th century.…
Body as Commodity: Media Craze." Body icon. http://nm.server.jrn.columbia.edu/projects/masters/bodyimage/commodity/media_page1.html.(accessed08-12-2002).
Douglas, Susan J. Where the Girls Are: Growing Up Female With the Mass
Media. Random House, Incorporated. March 1995.
The Representation of Women in Advertising. http://www.albany.edu/~cc4176/ .
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin to lay the outlines if this thesis for a Master's degree.
I see the wonder in a child's eyes as he imagines a world unfolding in a grain of sand as I read a story to him; an hour reading in a class of children translates into infinity as the children in that class become readers themselves, changing the hours into infinity as they develop the habit of infinite reading.
Voluntary in-school free reading program - elementary level" is the subject of this thesis proposal, and the objective is to prove that voluntary in-school free reading programs result in positive effects on elementary students' attitudes toward reading.
Statement of the Problem
To be able to identify the strengths and…
Durrell, Donald. D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (New Edition).
Kottmeyer, William. Evaluation Handbook: Levels in English. Webster.
Kottmeyer, William. Guide for Remedial Reading. Webster Strang, Ruth, et. al. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Mc GrawHill.
Steiger, Ralph. New Directions in Reading. New York: Bantam Books.
Television, the four powers of television are characterized as the power to entertain, the power to socialize and educate, the power to inform, and the power to create community and consensus. The four are not mutually exclusive and can be found operating in pairs or larger groupings on individual shows.
The power to entertain is understood by everyone and is the primary power for most people. The television networks have played to this power from the beginning, carrying over what they had been doing on radio into the new medium to create programs that would gather large audiences around comedies, dramas, variety shows, and the like. This primary power has continued into the cable era, with many cable networks imitating the broadcast networks in these terms by presenting movies, dramatic shows, and comedies or by shaping non-fictional programs so they entertain, seen in the many so-called reality shows that are…
Television, the Plug-in Drug": Negative Effects on "Plugged-in" Children and Families
Based on Marie Winn's essay, "Television, The Plug-In Drug," the all-too-frequent role of television on our lives today is that of either (1) babysitter; (2) too-frequent family entertainer; and (3) emotional narcotic. Moreover, according to Winn, television, when watched excessively or as a substitute for human interaction, is a negative "plug-in drug," in its mind-numbing effect on individuals and families alike. Therefore, I agree with Winn that the role of television in our lives is too often to distract us; numb us, and keep us preoccupied and distant from one another, compromising (if not destroying) communication within families, and among people in general. I therefore agree with Winn's overall view that television is capable of damaging (and often does damage, or even destroy) interpersonal; family, and other relationships among peers and within society. Viewing television, especially for long periods,…
television has brought irreversible damage to the American family in t least two ways, by corroding marks, and by making the 'good enough' family less likely to be 'good'.
There are, she says, three types of families: the 'spectacular' -- that which eats together with children, reads aloud to them, plays with them, is simply the uncommonly ideal family that you read about in books. To the other extreme is the failing family where the father may be an alcoholic, the mother may be depressed, the children are on the streets, and the family can barely function, if at all, as a unit. On the contrary, they function as a badly meshed unit. In the middle, is the 'good-enough' family which most of us are just trying to do our best and rear ourselves and our children in the best way whilst coping with the survival demands of the routine…
Dr Heller.com Parenting and marital advice Is Technology Destroying Family Life?
television media research of Nielsen, Scarborough, & Arbitron
This is an essay comparing the pros and cons of television media research. Discussed are Nielsen, Scarborough, and Arbitron research. Two sources are used. APA.
Scarborough Research is a leader in consumer and media research tools.
It provides a syndicated research service on a local, regional and national level to newspapers, television and radio stations, cable systems, outdoor media, Internet companies, advertisers, agencies and sports teams and leagues. It conducts on-going studies in the top seventy-five markets and interviews over 200,000 adults annually (http://www.scarborough.com/scarb2002/press/pr_partner.htm).Itdelivers twice yearly updates of its local market reports to a diverse client base that spans all major media, advertisers and their agencies. These reports examine a variety of characteristics including online and offline consumer habits, local consumer shopping patterns, traditional and online media usage, demographics and lifestyle activities. Scarborough Research is a partnership between VNU Marketing…
Nielsen Media Research and Scarborough Partner for Qualitative Measurement Service to Local TV Station." Scarborbough Research. November 8, 2001. http://www.scarborough.com/scarb2002/press/pr_partner.htm .(accessed08-12-2002).
Interactive Television Research Institute. Murdoch University Perth Australia. http://www.itri.tv/.(accessed08-12-2002).
The most important complementary product for TV sets is represented by the Home Theater System. The demand for such products is increasing. The increase is also due to a diversity of suppliers, which led to reduced prices.
Another product that can be considered TV set's complement is the VCR, or the DVR, its modern and more searched for version. Just like in the case of TV sets, the DVR comes in a very wide range, there are numerous suppliers fir this product, the prices vary in accordance with the quality and degree of technology advance. The demand for this product has a similar evolution as the demand for TV sets. However, the demand for DVRs is smaller than that for TV sets.
Given the circumstances presented above, one may conclude that the demand for TV sets is an inelastic one. The characteristics that generate this situation are: the reduced availability…
1. The U.S. television set market (2007). Goliath. Business Knowledge on Demand. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-7000795/the-U-S-television-set.html .
2. Richards, David (2009). 3D TV Set to Be in Big Demand. Smarthouse. The Lifestyle Technology Guide. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://www.smarthouse.com.au/TVs_And_Large_Display/3D_TV/C4W2G8V7.
Therefore there should be more in-depth research into the types of content that are associated with television addiction.
The analysis of this article and other sources also raises the important issue of whether one can or even should avoid the influence of television in the information age. Television and other related media have become part of our everyday world and the problem of possible television addiction should be dealt with in terms of a healthy balance in television viewing. ather than a carte blanche condemnation of television there should be a more intensive focus on the negative forms of content that may lead to forms of addiction and other problem areas.
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. etrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Brock, B.J. (1994). Recreation Programming for the '90S Family: Demographics and Discoveries. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65(6), 64+. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449752
Bryant, J. & Bryant, J.A. (Eds.). (2001). Television and the American Family. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449755 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704
Gambling Ads on TV Will Fuel Addiction'. (2007, August 10). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 1. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001238566
program cultivate personal a 6-month period. In developing program draw reference relevant theory research. The include following sections Description well-being (definition outcomes) measurement well-being processes reflections.
Cultivating personal wellness
Description: My definition of wellness
Wellness is defined as a state of optimizing one's physical, mental, social, and civic health. With this in mind, I have decided upon the following plan to cultivate my own state of physical wellness.
Physical and mental wellness: Measurement of well-being and well-being processes
Exercise must be the core of every physical wellness prescription. It is important to maintain a healthy weight and regular exercise can significantly impact longevity. According to the American Heart Association, "Intensive exercise prevented shortening of telomeres, a protective effect against aging of the cardiovascular system, according to research reported in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association" (The anti-aging benefits of exercise, 2009, LA Times). egular physical activity increases high-density lipoprotein…
7 benefits of physical activity. 2011. The Mayo Clinic. Viewed 8 April 2011 at:
The anti-aging benefits of exercise. 2009. Los Angeles Times. Viewed 8 April 2011 at: