Old and New Theories of Addiction
CLEARING THE PATH
Connections between the Old and the New Theories of Addiction
Addiction in the Earlier Centuries, Early Theories
the Temperance Movement
In the 17th century, alcohol did not have a bad name (Sturt, 2009). It was even more respected and considered safer than water and more healthful. This made the innkeeper of spirits a valuable member of the community in those days. Moreover, man was perceived as distinct from nature. Man has a soul and free will and a sense of responsibility for his actions. Animals, in contrast, only possess biological drives. This perception of man viewed alcoholics as too indulgent in the habit and, therefore, must be punished. In the late century up to the early 20th century, the formation of the temperance movement introduced the view of drinking as evil, which makes alcoholics victims. The first disease concept surfaced at this time and viewed alcoholism as an illness. It condoned drinkers as merely passive and giving in to the power and influence of alcohol (Sturt). The temperance movement advocated abstinence, particularly alcohol, so strongly that it led to the passage of prohibition laws (ProCon, 2014). Banning the use of alcohol became a problem to the authorities. Its growing popularity also presented as a source of high levels of taxes. Stern attitudes towards drinking and errant human behavior were becoming lax. Only a small minority who drank alcohol to excess were considered problematic and had to be treated. But the greater part of society...
Harrison, called the Harrison Act, to remedy the drug problem (ProCon, 2014). It required physicians who prescribed opium or any of its derivatives to add a serial number obtainable only from the Internal Revenue Department on every prescription. They also had to register with the federal government every year. By 1936, the use of marijuana was replaced by other pain killers, including opium-derived drugs (ProCon).
This theory states that addiction or dependence on drugs develops as a result of unnecessary prescribing by physicians and pharmacists (Mustro, 1985). It also developed from dosing children and infants and the prescribing of opiates for dysmenorhea or menstrual pain. This view prevailed until 1914, especially among the upper and middle classes (Murton). From this followed the social contagion theory.
Social Contagion Theory
This theory holds that individuals are influenced by the behavior, attitudes and values of others (Tarter, 2014). The influence can be in the form of direct role modeling or from observation of behaviors in the media. Watching violent films on TV, for example, enhances the likelihood of violence. This theory suggests that this influence is particularly intense among adolescents, who are most susceptible to the influence of drug use. It is not easy for them to…
" (Teasdale, 1995, pg. 25) These elements are important, because they are showing how this form of treatment can be effective in dealing with patients that are recovering. The problem is, making sure that there is: consistent follow up and dealing with some of the changing the thoughts they will experience over the long-term. (Teasdale, 1995, pp. 25 -- 39) As a result, this approach is effective at dealing with
cannot control the urge, then the employee might consider seeking outside professional help with the addiction. Since a person's car is private property, however, it is unlikely that any non-smoking ban would extend to that area. However, the smoker would need to take steps to ensure that their clothing and work supplies did no retain the odor of smoke. In essence, other than in the privacy of one's own
Most of the time in families as the one that Jay come from, they separate making it harder for them to come together as a family in order to fix the issue. Research does show that children of alcohol injuring individuals report a higher occurrence of emotional and school-connected difficulties. Legal History of Jay: The parents of Jay began taking a great concern about their son right after he had
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). Without empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical
However, boys played almost two times the amount of hours as girls. Gentile stated, "It is important that people realize that playing a lot is not the same thing as pathological play. For something to be an addiction, it has to mean more than you do it a lot. It has to mean that you do it in such a way that it damages your life. This is why we-based