Victimology Essays (Examples)

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Criminology Annotated Bibliography

Words: 2044 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16866171

Victimology

Annotated Bibliography

Campbell, K.W. (2010). Victim Confidentiality Promotes Safety and Dignity. Journal of the Missouri Bar, 69(2), pp. 76-83.

Being the president of the Missouri Victim Assistance Network (MOVA), Campbell, the author of this particular article, is an authority on the topic at hand. In the past, she has actively been involved in various aspects of victim assistance, including, but not limited to, presenting a workshops touching on the issue of victims and confidentiality. She is a University of Missouri-Colombia School of Law graduate.

In this particular piece, Campbell concerns herself with the relevance of victim confidentiality as far as the safety and well-being of the victim is concerned. The article, in basic terms, highlights "the legal authority in place that provides for victim confidentiality with regard to non-disclosure of identity, location and certain confidential communications…" Further, the article puts a strong case for the application of the laws…… [Read More]

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Restitution for victims of crime

Words: 1679 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26664205

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

The study of victimology has been extensively done and various facts have been drawn or reached on concerning the victim blaming, theories have been put forth and legal outlines and guidelines on the protection of victims from further blame have been stipulated. It is important however, to know and have in place a comprehensive and holistic victim restitution plan order to ensure that the victims of crime are adequately compensated and restored as much as possible to their previous nature and status.

The intimate partner crime victimization is common within the society hence the need to fully understand the meaning of intimate partner abuse and the possible restitution plan that can help in compensation of such victims within the required period of time.

The main paper will hence look at the following major areas in order to fully understand intimate partner crime and victimization of the…… [Read More]

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Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

Words: 3442 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71441693

The knowledge of the evolution and starting point of the field of Victimology is of utmost worth. Three different ancient epochs describing the Victims' position inside methods of justice were reviewed by some foremost Researchers including Moriarty and Jerin. The Epochs are the Golden Age, the Reemergence of the Victim and the Dark Age. There is a proposition that the Golden Age has been before the time when laws were documented and governments founded and when ethnic law was in power. In most of the ethnic law, victims' position in defining the penalty for the criminal dealings that another person executed on them or their belonging is direct. This time is reckoned to be when the only judgment for unlawful events is individual justice. This means that the victims request payback or return for their damages right from their offenders. The Evolution of the Dark Ages of victimology was solely…… [Read More]

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Reflection on Holistic Victim Restitution Plan

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68859483

Holistic Victim Restitution Plan Reflection

Victimology is one of the disciplines that has emerged in the criminal justice field to examine situations and vulnerabilities that make it more likely for people to become victims of crime. Additionally, this discipline also focuses on examining and understanding the harm people suffer due to being victims of crime or illegal activities. One of the core components of victimology is understanding who and/or what are crime victims in light of situations that increases vulnerabilities to crime. The rise of victimology today's society is attributable to the increased vulnerabilities that certain individuals and/or groups face, which increases their likelihood of being targeted by criminals. Victim surveys have shown that some individuals and groups are at high risks of being targeted by criminals because of certain vulnerabilities. Some of these vulnerabilities that contribute to increased victimization include living in certain neighborhoods, social economic status, and ethnicity…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice System Issues

Words: 1201 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19363245

.....abuse and/or neglect of children and the elderly is a major issue in the American criminal justice system because of increased prevalence of such cases. However, getting accurate information regarding the extent of child and elder abuse is increasingly challenging in the United States. Some of the major issues contributing to this problem include the fact that most child and elder abuse cases are not reported, misreporting of these cases, seeming inability of victims to report the cases, and the fact that most perpetrators are caregivers. Children and senior adults are more likely to be victims of abuse, neglect or maltreatment because of lesser physical and mental capabilities, dependence on caregivers, and tendency to trust easily. The likelihood of vulnerable children and the elderly to fall victims to abuse can be decreased through establishing suitable prevention and intervention measures that effectively identify and deal with risk factors and improve reporting…… [Read More]

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protection of the victims of crime

Words: 2299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64609056

Victim blaming is one demeaning and devaluing act of putting the victim of a crime as being responsible, in part or in full for a crime or harm that actually affects them. It portrays the victim as being responsible for their own harm caused by another person. The blame emanates in the form of unexpected or negative social responses from the mental health, legal, medical professionals. This negative response can also be from the media or the immediate family as well as other friends and people he relates to. The responses towards victims of crime are often founded on the misunderstood positions taken by others, especially the outside spectators. This lack of understanding will then lead the observers to believe that the victim actually deserved to have faced the harm that befell them, or categorizes them as individuals with low self-esteem who are out to intentionally look for violence. These…… [Read More]

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Crime Investigators Often Use a

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81518133



If any of the above are present, or if family members concur that the deceased was significantly depressed it is important to consider the death for evidence of final exit suicide instead of a homicide.

First Degree Murder

An investigator would rely on one question to determine whether to charge someone with first degree murder or with manslaughter. Did the killer decide to kill, and then act on that decision resulting in the victim's death?

If a person was in a club and someone bumped into him and he angrily hit the man in the head with his beer bottle and the man died, that would be manslaughter, because the man committing the act did not plan to kill anyone when he entered the club that night and he didn't think through the moment he reacted.

A difference scenario would be if the man found out his wife was having…… [Read More]

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Offenders the Ritualistic Offender Causes

Words: 2396 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31393542



ape in Conflict

There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict;

Patriarchy

The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through time has resulted in the increasing use of violence in order to ensure that women are put women "in their place" as indicated by Sheffield (1987).The resulting fear of violence has therefore made women to modify their way of living since they are depraved of certain fundamental freedoms.

acial oppression

Slavery has been note to be a key factor in the occurrence of rape cases. The African-American women were exposed to institutionalized rape while the African-American men…… [Read More]

References

Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Davis, a., (1981), "Rape, Racism, and the Myth of the Black Rapist," in Women, Race, and Class, New York: Vintage Books

Fattah, E.A. (1994). Some problematic concepts, unjustified criticism and popular misconceptions. In G.F. Kirchhoff, E. Kosovski, & H.J. Schneider (Eds.), International debates of victimology (pp. 82-103). Moenchengladbach, Germany: World Society of Victimology.

Funk, RE (1993)Stopping Rape: A Challenge for Men (Philadelphia: New Society, 1993), p19.
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Human Nature How Do They

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37655691

Similarly, a married man, though he has a wife, can feel a sense of lack sexually. This sense of lack can lead him to rape a female subordinate at work.

Describe the core behavioral characteristics of the criminal psychopath. Name and describe any five instruments used to measure psychopathy. What is the difference between criminal psychopathy and mental disorder?

a. The core characteristics of the criminal psychopath are a lack of empathy, egocentricity, lack of shame or remorse, and tendency for lying and manipulation

b. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is a psycho-diagnostic tool used in tandem with the broader PCL-R inventory to measure a person's psychopathic profile.

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory is a self-report survey used to comprehensively index personality traits without explicitly referring to anti-social or criminal behaviors themselves.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures various components of person's personality with a self-report inventory. Each component is measured by…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Associates Program When

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23144061



I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.

While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…… [Read More]

References

City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police

Department website:  http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/ 

Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North

Carolina Wesleyan College website:
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Doctor of Philosophy -- Focuses

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54914542

00" (p. 5). She didn't mean the complaints were a fraud, but rather than the complainant had been treated fraudulently.

Meanwhile, another key point Gray makes is that current studies have failed to examine: a) whether or not victims had contributed to their own victimization; b) the poor response by law enforcement to victims; they don't investigate these crimes as a rule; c) the fact that law enforcement agencies assert that the banks and credit card companies are the real victims; and d) that banks are suspicious that the "victim" is attempting to scam the banks to retrieve money from the alleged crime (Gray, 6-8).

Summary of the Article's Conclusions

The point of the research was to determine if the "victim participation theory" holds sway against the "institutionalization of laws" when it comes to blame for these unsolved identity theft incidents. Gray makes some very good points and quotes authorities…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gray, K. (2010). Internet Identity Theft: An Insight into Victimology and Law Enforcement

Response. Capella University. ProQuest / UMI Number: 3391484.
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Roles in an Investigation

Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62121472

Police Psychologist

oles in an Investigation

In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…… [Read More]

References

Durand & Barlow. (2007). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Mason, Ohio.: Cengage Learning.

Feldman, F. (2013). A PSYCHOLOGIST'S ADVENTURES, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(1), 119-124. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.1.0119

Hansen, M. (2000). Suicidal Missions: Psychological autopsies to uncover motivation in suspicious deaths are themselves now suspect. ABA Journal, 86(3), 28-29. doi: 10.2307/27841067

Hartwig, M., Granhag, P.A., Stromwall, L.A., & Kronkvist, O. (2006). Strategic Use of Evidence during Police Interviews: When Training to Detect Deception Works. Law and Human Behavior, 30(5), 603-619. doi: 10.2307/4499497
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Analyzing Victims Rights Movement

Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73817511

Victims' ights Movements and its effect on the criminal justice system and the offenders' rights.

VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT

VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT

VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT

The United States Victims' Movement was a product of the increasing social awareness in the 60s that unleashed the idealistic generation's energy in that era and the next decade. Its continued energy has originated from the very social forces from where it started and from extraordinary individual's leadership, some of these individuals have survived personal tragedy, and several others who have brought unusual insights and compassion being witness to these types of tragedies. In the international arena, this has remained a source of both criticism and praise (Young). etrospectively, it is right to assert that the United States victims' movement original involved the coming together of 5 independent developments: the introduction of compensation programs for compensating state victims; the development of a new academic field known…… [Read More]

References

Goldberg. (1970). Preface: Symposium on Governmental Compensation for Victims of Violence. Southern California Law Review, 43.

Morgan, A. (1987). Victim Rights: Criminal Law: Remembering the "Forgotten Person" in the Criminal Justice System. Marquette Law Review, 70(3). Retrieved, from http://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article

Young, M. (n.d.)? (?

/UNAFEI). A HISTORY OF THE VICTIMS MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/RS_No70/No70_08VE_Young1.pdf
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Pennell v State of Delaware

Words: 1776 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39326738

" (Douglass & Munn, 1992). Furthermore, the signature aspects of a case can be more important than M.O. Or victimology in linking crimes, because criminals often change M.O. As they become more adept at committing their crimes. (Douglass & Munn, 1992). In addition, signatures can be more significant than differences or similarities between victims because "the offender expresses anger through rituals, not by attacking a victim who possesses a particular characteristic or trait." (Douglass & Munn, 1992).

The Pennell decision did not decide several related issues. For example, because the trial court limited the scope of the expert's testimony, the higher court did not have to determine whether or not profile evidence would be admissible. Although the Court did suggest that profile evidence would not be admissible, as the science of profiling becomes more advanced, such evidence may become admissible under Del. . Evid. 702 and under Frye. Furthermore, the…… [Read More]

References

Del. R. Evid. 404(b).

Del. R. Evid. 702.

Douglas, J.E. & Munn, C. (1992). Violent crime scene analysis: modus operandi, signature,

And staging. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
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Violent Crimes Analysis From the

Words: 1310 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18249175



The term signature aspect is used to refer to unique behavior that is exhibited by the criminal that is peculiar to that particular criminal though may not be necessary in committing the crime. One of the most common signature aspects is the calling card, or tattooing of the dead bodies, use of excessive force, leaving notes behind and many more. These are not necessary in killing of victims but are a sign of claiming the crime (John E. Douglas, 2011).

The components of crime classification that I learnt about and are central in the crime classification are finding out the defining characteristics of the crimes and the crime scenes, this will be instrumental in telling the motive behind the crime and in the case of multiple motives, the most outstanding will guide the profiling. The other component is victimology which is the complete history of the victim which will help…… [Read More]

References

Anthony Lantosca, (2006) IAFEI: The truth about Deception Detection. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from  http://www.iafei.com/deception-detection/ 

Encyclopedia of mental Disorders, (2012). Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Retrieved February 11,

2012 from  http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Hare-Psychopathy-Checklist.html 

Hwakins, (2012). The Baseline Killer. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/predators/baseline-killer/1.html
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Justice Mean to Me What

Words: 1377 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54198216

If the convicted criminal feels that his sentencing was not just and fair, he can 'appeal', and his case would be tried again, if necessary. (Justice and Prisons, how justice works)

It must be remembered that in general, when a crime is committed, it can mean that there has been a violation of a local or a state or a federal law, and for which there was no real justification. However, the term 'justice' can mean different things for different people, and there is no real agreement on what exactly it means. This has what, in fact, led to the many controversies in the criminal justice system today. There are some individuals who conceptualize justice as meaning 'equality for all', that is, everyone must have the same amount, no matter what amounts they have produced. Some others define justice in terms of 'equity' wherein a person must get benefits in…… [Read More]

References

Baumgarth, William P; Aquinas, Thomas. On law, morality and politics.

Hackett Publishing. 2002.

Feibleman, James Kern. Justice, law and culture.

Springer. 1985.
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Domectic Violence in the United States Domestic

Words: 2471 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54613415

Domectic Violence in the United States

Domestic Violence in the United States: A esearch Proposal

Domestic Violence in the United States:

Domestic violence is not a new phenomenon associated with modern times. It has been a common occurrence throughout history. From a social/cultural point-of-view, the woman was considered the property of the man and his duty was to discipline her and the children (and slaves/servants) with thorough beatings. Consistent with eighteenth-century English common law, the only concerns about this related to the thickness of the stick that the law allowed for the beatings. Although there were some earlier unenforced laws against spousal abuse, it was only as recently as the 1970s that the U.S. justice system began to view the problem with any seriousness and consideration of domestic violence as a crime. Until that time, social services for the victims of domestic violence were almost nonexistent (Bronfman, et al., 2005).…… [Read More]

References

Bronfman, Lois Martin, David Butzer, and Brian Stipak. (2005). The role of police in combating domestic violence in the United States: A case study of the Domestic Violence Reduction Unit, Portland police bureau.

Ellison, Louise. (2002). Prosecuting domestic violence without victim participation, Modern Law Review 65 834-858.

Karmen, Andrew. (2010) Crime victims: An introduction to Victimology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole Publishing Co.

Rennison, Callie M. (2003) Intimate Partner Violence, 2000-2003. U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 197838.
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Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal

Words: 3624 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19427336

Canadian Policies to Thwart Terrorist and Criminal Activities

Canadian Policies to Combat Crime and Terrorism

Problems being faced due to Cyber-Crime in Today's World

What is Identity Theft?

How and Why Cyber-Crime Occurs?

Why Cyber-Crime has become an Important Issue?

How elease of Personal Information makes an Individual vulnerable to Identity Theft?

Future Implications

Since time immemorial, crime and criminal activities have been found at an accelerated pace, however, with the penetration of the world into the twenty first century with numerous technological advancements and innovations, these acts have taken a new form. This evidently signifies that crime through cyberspace has become one of the widespread and prevailing activities of the today's fast paced world, where the entire human race is moving towards the industrial and hi-tech progressions at a constant speed. Moreover, the criminal and terrorist activities in a more sophisticated version have become a common aspect of mundane…… [Read More]

References

Balkin, J.M. (2007). Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment. Edited Version. New York, USA: NYU Press.

Brenner, S.W. (2010). Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace. USA: ABC-CLIO.

Burgess, A., Regehr C., & Roberts, A. (2011). Victimology: Theories and Applications: Theories and Applications. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Clough, J. (2010). Principles of Cybercrime. 1st Edition. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
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Feminine Criminology

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18500397

Feminist Criminology and Victimization Theory

Feminist Criminology

Feminist criminology theory proposes that social and ethnic structures that lead to gender oppression will increase the prevalence of criminality among the oppressed (Bernard, 2013). In most cultures, including the west, there exists a history of subjugation of women at all levels of society. The feminist movement in the United States and elsewhere accordingly sought to reduce or eliminate the power of these social, legal, and religious sanctions that relegated women to second class citizenship. This was the driving force behind the emergence of the feminist criminology model.

In support of the feminist criminology model, Bernard (2013) points out that some women within society have a higher risk of incarceration. In the U.S., this high-risk demographic is non-white, young, living in poverty, under-educated, and unmarried with children. There also tends to be a multi-generational history of drug/alcohol problems and domestic violence. This demographic…… [Read More]

References

Bernard, April. (2013). The intersectional alternative: Explaining female criminality. Feminist Criminology, 8(1), 3-19.

McCollister, Kathryn E., French, Michael T., and Fang, Hai. (2010). The cost of crime to society: New crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 108(1-2), 98-109.

Simpson, Sally S., Yahner, Jennifer L., and Dugan, Laura. (2008). Understanding women's pathways to jail: Analysing the lives of incarcerated women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 41(1), 84-108.

Wilcox, Pamela. (2010). Victimization, theories of. In Bonnie S. Fisher and Steven P. Lab (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Treating Codependency the Current Diagnostic and Statistical

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12810155

Treating Codependency

Codependency

The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (2000) does not contain a section describing the symptoms of codependency. The closest in terms of symptoms is dependent personality disorder (301.6); however, a diagnosis with this disorder implies the symptoms are interfering with the person's ability to function in a way that would be consistent with cultural norms and realistic expectations. Despite this caveat, the symptoms associated with dependent personality disorder can be instructive.

A person with dependent personality disorder may (1) need the assistance of others to help them make decisions, (2) will prefer to let other take responsibility for their own lives, (3) tend to go along with what others decide to avoid loss of support, (4) lack sufficient self-confidence to initiate their own activities, (5) are capable of engaging in demeaning tasks in order to gain or retain the support and nurturance of others,…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Ballis, Tab. (n.d.). Codependency: The most basic addiction. CapeFearHealthyMinds.org. Retrieved 22 Jun. 2013 from  http://www.capefearhealthyminds.org/library.cgi?article=1118181493 .

Dear, Greg. (1996). Blaming the victim: Domestic violence and the codependency model. In C. Sumner, M. Israel, M. O'Connell, and R. Sarre (Eds.), International Victimology: Selected Papers from the 8th International Symposium (pp. 285-290). Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.

GoodTherapy.org. (2013). Issues treated in therapy: Codependency. GoodTherapy.org. Retrieved 22 Jun. 2013 from http://www.goodtherapy.org/therapy-for-codependency.html.
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Tom Shulich Coltishhum a Comparative Study on

Words: 9196 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33144233

Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")

A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre

ABSACT

In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…… [Read More]

References

Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from  http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html 

Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.

Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.

Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
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Why Victim Compensation

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70799466

Victim Compensation

Proponents of victim compensation have philosophical bases for believing that the government has the obligation to provide victim compensation. Choose two of these reasons and briefly discuss.

Victim compensation programs entail giving payments to the victims of violent crimes (Doerner & Lab 2014: 20). The intention behind them is to create a system which enforces justice and restores the victim as much as possible to his or her original state. Also, the victims of many violent crimes such as domestic violence and child abuse often suffer a profound psychological impact for which they need additional support, just to feel normal again. "The rationale for victim compensation rests on a moral concern for the welfare of the injured citizen, and the current lack of any effective compensation provisions results in punishment for crime victims" (Schultz 1975). Simply incarcerating the perpetrator does not undo the often irreparable harm to the…… [Read More]

References

Doerner, W & Lab, S. (2014). Victimology Routledge, 2014

Schultz, L. g. (1975). Violated: A proposal to compensate victims of violent crime. From Considering the Victim. NCJ-27690

Victim compensation fund. (2015). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from:

http://www.restorativejustice.org/university-classroom/01introduction/tutorial-introduction-to-restorative-justice/outcomes/compensation
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What Is the Best Way to Record Crime

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36109532

NIBS

National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS)

The National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS) is a database of crime statistics compiled and maintained by the National Institute of Justice. It records and analyzes specific categories of crimes reported to law enforcement agencies within the United States. "For each crime incident coming to the attention of law enforcement, a variety of data are collected about the incident. These data include the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident" ("About," 2015). The focus of the NIBS are so-called 'index crimes.' These are significant crimes involving serious damage to life and property. "Index crimes include murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. These eight crimes serve as a common indicator of the nation's…… [Read More]

References

About the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). (2014).

Retrieved from: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/NIBRS/

Doerner, W & Lab, S. (2014). Victimology. Routledge, 2014

Michigan Incident Crime Reporting. (2014). Retrieved from:
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Unfairness American Judicial System

Words: 3777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62719450

Unfairness in the American Judicial System

The objective of this study is to examine unfairness in the American Judicial System. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of the literature in this area of inquiry that is academic and professional peer-reviewed literature.

There is an existing myth in today's American society that the American Judicial System is 'fair'. However; the belief of this myth is due to societal conditioning and traditionally held beliefs about the American Judicial System and is not based on the reality of today's American Judicial System and its practices, principles, and processes.

There is presently a high level of unfairness in the American Judicial System evidenced by diverse sentencing guidelines and laws and by the mass incarceration of individuals from vulnerable poverty stricken communities and specifically mass incarceration of those of a minority race and those who have committed drug offenses highlights the present…… [Read More]

References

Malese, M. (2013) Principles of Justice and Fairness. Original Publication July 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/principles-of-justice

Crossroad on Alliance for Justice (2011) Brennan Center for Justice. Retrieved from: https://www.brennancenter.org/blog/courts-matter-and-so-do-rules-keep-them-fair

Hang, N. (2012) RACE AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM: A STUDY OF RACIAL BIAS AND RACIAL INJUSTICE. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1104&context=socssp

Kozy, J. (2011) The American Legal System: A Ball Game Played by Lawyers and Jurists. Global Research. 15 Nov. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-american-legal-system-a-ball-game-played-by-lawyers-and-jurists/27684
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Victim Precipitation and How it Can Be Avoided

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81969559

Victimization can be prevented in cases of victim precipitation, wherein the victim is a catalyst in their own attack (Fisher, Lab, 2010). This is especially true in cases of homicide in cases where the victim and the attacker had "some sort of interpersonal relationship" or in cases where there is a sex difference (typically with the victim being the female) (Fisher, Lab, 2010, p. 1006). In fact, victim precipitation is common when gender differences are in play according to the research on this subject and question.

This sort of victimization can be prevented, however, by understanding the patterns in which victimization occurs. Say, if victimization occurs primarily in a specific neighborhood, or following a specific series of events, or if it is connected with a particular lifestyle or life choices, these are all things that a person can control and avoid if he or she so desires. Preventing victimization is…… [Read More]

References

Curtis, L. (1974). Victim precipitation and violent crime. Social Problems, 21(4): 594-

605. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/799995.pdf?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Fisher, B., Lab, S. (2010). Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. LA:

SAGE.
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International Criminal Justice Discipline

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54081573

International Criminal Justice Philosophies

International criminal justice is a relatively new field in the criminal justice system since it deals with issues that go beyond the local or national level. This field of criminal justice examines several crimes and criminal justice responses from an international or global perspective. As a result of incorporating a global perspective in examining criminal justice issues and responses, this field is multidisciplinary in nature and relatively complex. In essence, the international criminal justice field can be described as a discipline that examines crimes and criminal justice responses to these issues from a global perspective (Kiriakova & Gross, 2005). Additionally, international criminal justice field focuses on how the international community and states react to atrocious international crimes like war crimes, human rights abuses, crimes against humanity, and genocide.

There are several aspects included in the field of international criminal justice including international crimes, transnational crimes, conventional…… [Read More]

References

Boas, G.J. (2012). What is International Criminal Justice? Retrieved February 15, 2017, from https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=245087086113076022082095092070068103113043039055000059064096010000067018031031115064102049096037117024113117120120097001007001057081030030036089108004024083015010009005005029109007019102080106082079117026120105107086079082006025005026006083000013008&EXT=pdf

Henn, M., Weinstein, M., & Foard, N. (2009). Critical Social Research. In A critical introduction to social research (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd.

John Jay College of Criminal Justice. (n.d.). International Criminal Justice: A Research Guide. Retrieved from Lloyd Sealy Library website:  https://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/research/International/ 

Weber, R. (2004). Editor's Comments: The Rhetoric of Positivism Versus Interpretivism: a Personal View. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 28(1), pp. iii -- xii
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Criminal Justice Human Trafficking What

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36917584

They may be sold to another owner after they arrive, and since most agreements are verbal, they are easily broken. Another startling fact in human trafficking is how many victims enter the trade willingly, because of the need to provide income for their families. esearchers Cwikel and Hoban note this is especially true in ussia, where many former Soviet Union countries have privatized education and health care facilities. ussian women often enter the sex trade via trafficking as a way to earn wages for education and health care expenses for the rest of their family. Often, victims come from poor, third-world countries. esearcher Miller states, "Desperate and gullible populations, especially in developing and transitioning countries, are susceptible to the promises made by recruiters (including family members) of a better life in another place, especially promises of paid work, marriage, or domestic service" (Miller). Thus, the practice preys on the most…… [Read More]

References

Cwikel, Julie, and Elizabeth Hoban. "Contentious Issues in Research on Trafficked Women Working in the Sex Industry: Study Design, Ethics, and Methodology." The Journal of Sex Research 42.4 (2005): 306+.

Matthews, Stacey. "International Trafficking in Children: Will New U.S. Legislation Provide an Ending to the Story?." Houston Journal of International Law 27.3 (2005): 649+.

Miller, John R. "Slave Trade: Combating Human Trafficking." Harvard International Review 27.4 (2006): 70+.
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Victims and Criminal Justice Victimization Victims and

Words: 2878 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44031505

Victims and Criminal Justice

Victimization, Victims and Criminal Justice

Based on your understanding of routine activity theory, discuss (1) why or why not this theory can be used to guide our research on the victim-offender overlap and (2) what theory (or theories), beyond the routine activity theory, will be useful for advancing our understanding of the victim-offender overlap based on your assessment of what we do not know about the victim-offender overlap.

outine activity theory requires that there be thee conditions present at the same time and in the same space. As one author puts it "Crime is a complex phenomenon that occurs when an offender, a victim and a law intersect in time and space" (Andresen, 2006). Another interpretation is that it is the offender, a target (this does not have to be a person but has to be something that offers itself to the opportunity) and the absence…… [Read More]

References

Andresen, M.A. (2006). A Spatial analysis of crime in Vancouver, British Columbia: A synthesis of social disorganization and routine activity theory. The Canadian Geographer, 50(4), 487+.

Blondel, E.C. (2008). Victims' rights in an adversary system. Duke Law Journal, 58(2), 237+.

Bouchard, M., Wang, W., & Beauregard, E. (2012). Social capital, opportunity, and school- based victimization. Violence and Victims, 27(5), 656+.

Campbell, R. (2005). What really happened? A validation study of rape survivors' help-seeking experiences with the legal and medical systems. Violence and Victims, 20(1), 55+.
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Legal Psychology and Victimization

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65337631

The impact of the psychological profiles of the offender and victims on the court evidence presented by the prosecutor and defense teams and witness use

Psychological profiling involves developing a composition of behavioral attributes. It combines psychological and sociological review of the offender. The process of profiling is anchored on the premise that if the crime scene is analyzed carefully and accurately, there is a good chance that the type of person involved in the offence will begin to surface. Therefore, it is based on the idea that some types of people manifest certain behavior tendencies and patterns. A jury informed of such patterns, is better equipped to ascertain probale suspects (Ebisike, 2007).

Profiling driven by psychological processes has an impact on the strategies and suggestions for evidence presentation by both offenders and victims. In the offender's case, profiling suggests the most effective style of interviewing to apply when such…… [Read More]