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Where the Domino Fell: America and Vietnam 1945-1995
In Where the Domino Fell: America and Vietnam 1945-1995, James S. Olson and andy oberts provide a compact history of the war and its resulting aftermath. The authors work to explain one of the most important and difficult issues in war history - the U.S. And its involvement in the Vietnam War. Throughout the years since the war ended, people have said that it was the wrong war, the wrong time, and the wrong place. That sentiment is accurate in explaining the basic gist of the book, as well. The entire ordeal is explained by the authors, and the historical facts to back it up are provided. Since there is so much confusion that often surrounds talk of the Vietnam War, Olson & oberts (2008) sort out the information and allow the reader to simply see the facts and interpret…
Olson, James S. & Roberts, Randy. Where The Domino Fell: America and Vietnam 1945-1995. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. 2008. Print.
Vietnam -- Rules of Engagement
There are many reasons given for the fact that the United States lost the war in Vietnam, and that America was basically pushed out of the country by the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army even though the U.S. had far more firepower. Among the more credible reasons America lost the war was the failure on the part of the political leaders back in ashington to allow soldiers, marines, Air Force pilots and others to take the fight to the enemy. In short, the rules of engagement (ROE) were misguided. The rules of engagement were those authorized by politicians, and not only were they very difficult to follow, they tied the hands of those men fighting the war. This paper reviews the ROE from the perspective of: a) the soldiers on the ground; b) battalion commanders; c) division commanders; d) General illiam estmorland; e)…
Birtle, A.J., U.S. Congress, Armed Services Committee, and Center of Military History.
U.S. Army counterinsurgency and contingency operations doctrine, 1942-1976.
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Dranke, R.J. (1992). The Rules of Defeat: The Impact of Aerial Rules of Engagement on USAF Operations in North Vietnam, 1965-1968. School of Advanced Airpower Studies.
To that end, the northern Vietnamese forces and the Viet Cong in the south were looking to actually unify with the southern portion of this country -- which is evinced by the fact that shortly after the end of the war Vietnam was indeed united once again. Although this conception of the significance of the war is primarily political in nature, U.S. military forces could have used a more savvy understanding of the culture of the Vietnamese and their viewpoint of this martial conflict to its advantage, which perhaps could have shortened this encounter that was both lengthy and costly to virtually all of its participants.
Even the involvement of the Marines, which was initially sent to Vietnam to protect the Air Force which was conducting aerial raids, could have been utilized more effectively. This occasion was one of the few in which this military branch (or virtually any in…
Courtwright, David T. (2005). Sky as frontier: adventure, aviation, and empire. College Station: Texas a&M University Press.
Herring, George C. (1971). The Pentagon Papers. Boston: Beacon Press. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon2/pent4.htm
Prados John. (2003). "JFK and the Diem Coup." The National Security Archive. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB101/index.htm
South Vietnam, it believed, could be a base for the desired ability to mount military and economic operations throughout the globe and regardless of the insidious presence of communist influence, a premise which stood in direct contrast to Ho Chi Minh's dream.
Indeed, as an official policy, leaders in ashington considered that the fall of South Vietnam to communism would be a pathway to the prevalence of communism in other venues, such as Cambodia, Laos and even France, where the ideological movement was very robust amongst student movements. As stated a U.S. Department of State representative during the period in between the first and second Indochina wars, "the recognition by the Kremlin of Ho Chi Minh's communist movement in Indochina comes as a surprise. The Soviet acknowledgment of this movement should remove any illusions as to the 'nationalist' nature of Ho Chi Minh's aims and reveals Ho in his true…
Allen, D. & Long, N.V. (1991). Coming to Terms: Indochina, the United States, and the War. Westview Press.
Cady, J.F. (1954). The Roots of French Imperialism in Eastern Asia. Cornell University Press.
Joes, a.J. (2001). The War for South Viet Nam, 1954-1975. Praeger.
Karnow, S. (1997). Vietnam: A History. Penguin.
Minorities tended to live in more impoverished and less urban areas. The Hoa and ethnic Chinese were the exception to the rule however, typically living in more urban areas, and isolated from mainstream Vietnamese culture for some time. However, despite these seemingly unsolvable problems, there is ample evidence suggesting the government has continuously worked to help end discrimination and support a unified front. In recent years policies have been developed in an effort to restore relationships with the formerly isolated Hoa and Chinese; this has resulted in a better economy in Vietnam, suggesting ethnic minorities may realize a better quality of life in the coming years.
In an earlier observation of Vietnam, Mackerras (2003) suggests that discord in the country resulted in part because of the government's lack of realization as to the poor quality of life endured by many ethnic minorities especially those living in the highlands. Schrock, et…
Banister, Judith. 1992. Vietnam Population Dynamics and Prospects. Washington, D.C.,
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Researcher, CIR Staff Paper, 65.
Keyes, Charles. 2002, Nov. Presidential Address: The People's of Asia - Science and Politics in the Classification of Ethnic Groups in Thailand, China and Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Studies, 61(4): pp. 1163-1203.
Mackerras, Colin. 2005. Study Guide, PAC32: Ethnic Questions in East and Southeast
S. mission in Vietnam. Whenever he had the chance, he restated the nation's moral commitment. His morally-grounded idealistic rhetoric gained him definite advantages. His arguments made him sound tough and pleased those with an equally hard-line position against communism in Southeast Asia. He could also use these arguments to justify and support his policies, such as when Congress threatened to reduce foreign aid. He insisted that foreign aid was an all-or-nothing proposition because principles were at stake. He pressed that Congress could provide all the aid he believed should be given or Congress must assume the responsibility and culpability in the event of a victory of Communism and the defeat of freedom in those nations at risk. He maintained that representatives and senators must make policy decision in the light of the larger moral consequences to which these policies would inevitably lead. At the Economic Club of New York in…
Bostdorff, Denise and, Steven. Idealism and Pragmatism in American Foreign Policy.New York: Presidential Studies Quarterly. Vol 24 Issue 3, 1994
Eisenhower, Dwight. The Importance to the United States of the Security and Progress of Viet-Nam. Address at Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 1967. http://mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/eisen.htm
Rotter, Andrew J. The Causes of the Vietnam War. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. http://www.english.uuc.edu/maps/vietnam/causes.htm
Smitha, Frank E. The United States and Vietnam. Macrohistory, 2005. http://www.smitha.com/h2/ch26.htm
Given the prevailing view today, though, that the war was an error and achieved nothing except to destroy a lot of lives on both sides, Lind's belief that his view will one day prevail seems disingenuous at best. The biases of the time are not as strong today as they were 30 years ago, and yet no real change in how the war is viewed has taken place. The idea that Vietnam was a morass into which the United States should not have ventured is strongly held by millions of Americans today, and the idea is reinforced through repetition so that it seems unlikely that one or two generations more will make that much difference. Many of the people repeating this idea today do not really remember the Vietnam War at all except as a history lesson, and the lesson is not being given as Lind predicts it will.
As has been apparent all semester, Vietnam had a profound and individualized effect on vast numbers of people. hen you consider the stories we have read do you think these are purely the result of people living through a war, or are there distinctive features of the Vietnam ar that shaped their experience?
Dang Thuy Tram's diary Last Night I Dreamed of Peace, offered a view from the opposing side of the Vietnam ar that Americans have almost never heard, either during or after the war. Originally from Hanoi, from 1968-70 she worked as a surgeon in South Vietnam where she died in combat with American forces. Military intelligence officers captured her diary and ordered it burned, but Frederic hitehurst disobeyed this order and kept for 35 years, finally arranging to return it to Tram's family in 2005. Naturally, the Vietnamese government made use of the story of a…
Caputo, Philip. A Rumor of War. Henry Holt and Company, 1977, 1996.
Ellsberg, Daniel. Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers. Penguin Books, 2002.
Emerson, Gloria. Winners and Losers: Battles, Retreats, Gains Losses, and Ruins from the Vietnam War. W.W. Norton and Company, 1976, 1992.
Tram, Dang Thoy. Last Night AI Dreamed of Peace. Three Rivers Press, 2007.
It is most likely that we can conclude that the Vietnamese currency was more or less unaffected by the sending money trend.
1. Anh, Dang Nguyen. Migration in Vietnam. Migration Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia. June 2003. On the Internet at http://www.livelihoods.org/hot_topics/docs/Dhaka_CP_7.pdf.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006 http://www.oanda.com/convert/fxhistory.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006
3. Pham Duc Trung et co. Regulation of Interest Rate by the State ank of Vietnam. June 2006. On the Internet at http://www.globalfinance.org/publications/papers/Interest_rate_regulation.pdf.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006
4. Vietnamese Government Warns ird Flu Spread May Hurt Economy. loomberg.com. January 2005. On the Internet at http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000080&sid=a6b16Q.JpHt4.Last retrieved December 6, 2006
Anh, Dang Nguyen. Migration in Vietnam. Migration Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia. June 2003. On the Internet at http://www.livelihoods.org/hot_topics/docs/Dhaka_CP_7.pdf.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006
On the Internet at http://www.oanda.com/convert/fxhistory.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006
Pham Duc Trung et co. Regulation of Interest…
1. Anh, Dang Nguyen. Migration in Vietnam. Migration Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia. June 2003. On the Internet at http://www.livelihoods.org/hot_topics/docs/Dhaka_CP_7.pdf.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006 http://www.oanda.com/convert/fxhistory.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006
3. Pham Duc Trung et co. Regulation of Interest Rate by the State Bank of Vietnam. June 2006. On the Internet at http://www.globalfinance.org/publications/papers/Interest_rate_regulation.pdf.Last retrieved on December 6, 2006
4. Vietnamese Government Warns Bird Flu Spread May Hurt Economy. Bloomberg.com. January 2005. On the Internet at http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000080&sid=a6b16Q.JpHt4.Last retrieved December 6, 2006
Anh, Dang Nguyen. Migration in Vietnam. Migration Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia. June 2003. On the Internet at
The Vietnam Syndrome also made the public suspicious of the government, distrusting official government pronouncements. Many Democratic politicians also questioned the necessity of fighting Communism all over the world and in its all manifestations.
The syndrome also manifested itself during the eagan Administration when it became harder for the eagan government to support anti-Communist guerilla forces in El Salvador and Nicaragua. The government could not convince the public of the necessity to send U.S. troops to either of the countries, and because of the public and congressional constraints placed upon the government activities, the eagan Administration was involved in the Iran-Contra affair to finance the Nicaraguan anti-Communist rebels. The Vietnam Syndrome continued to influence America during the first Persian Gulf War. The U.S. military used overwhelming force against the forces of Iraq, relying heavily on air power, to secure an easy and quick victory, with minimal losses to American lives.…
Sitkoff, H. (1999) The postwar impact of the Vietnam in Chambers II, J.W. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 15 December 2011 from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/postwar.htm
Lessons learned from the American experience of the Vietnam War.
Vietnam has been called America's first and only completely 'lost' war, even though it was never officially declared to be a war at all. The clumsy diplomatic relations which characterized American involvement in Vietnam from the beginning were a harbinger of troubles to come. The roots of the conflict can be traced to the aftermath of World War II, when French-backed forces seized control of Vietnam in the South while Ho Chi Minh's Viet Cong seized the North. Even after the French were driven out, the U.S. thought it could successfully bolster the fanatically anti-communist Catholic leader Ngo Dinh Diem, despite Diem's lack of popularity amongst his own people and the taint of colonialism that all European powers harbored in the eyes of the Vietnamese. "In December 1960, Diem's opponents within South Vietnam -- both communist and non-communist --…
Moss, G.D. (2010). Vietnam: An American ordeal. (6th Ed.)
Vietnam War. (2012). History.com. Retrieved:
Since the end of orld ar II, the United States and some of the other western countries were agreed that Communism was the greatest scourge and danger to the free world that was currently in existence. Following the creation of the Truman Doctrine and the heightened fear of Communism in the 1950s and early 1960s, the United States made it clear that they would do whatever was necessary to prevent the spread of Communism. The Domino Theory was one wherein the people believed that if Asia fell into Communism, then the rest of the world could potentially fall to it as well. France was the colonial ruler of Vietnam and had a continued presence in that country well into the twentieth century. Negotiations between various leaders established the creation of North and South Vietnam in the hopes that the Communist Vietcong would remain satisfied with dominion in…
Moss, George (2009). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Prentice Hall.
Moral and Ethical Issues
Clearly technological development, especially in terms of IT, has significantly impacted social and family life within Vietnam. In terms of family life, the structure and view of the family as a unit has changed in several ways. In terms of society, the globalization as a result of IT development has significantly impacted on Vietnamese philosophy and ethics.
Globalization and Social Pressure
According to Duiker (119) the dominant philosophy of Confucianism resulted in an increased rigidity within the social and family structure. The preceding philosophy of uddhism on the other hand emphasized the individual to such an extent that women for example had many of the rights enjoyed by men. Confucianism had the opposite effect, and women were severely oppressed under its prevalence.
The development of telecommunications however resulted in an increase of global business and contacts. The relative isolation in which Vietnam conducted its business…
Business Asia. "Vietnam must embrace IT, says Wolfensohn." March 3, 2000. First Charlton Communications Pty Ltd. Database: www.findarticles.com.
Duiker, William J. Vietnam: Nation in Revolution. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983.
Ramsay, Randolf. "Vietnam ideal for "leaf of faith" - Country Focus." In Business Asia, July, 2003. First Charlton Communications Pty Ltd., 2003. Database: www.findarticles.com
Stevens, Robert Warren. Vain Hopes, Grim Realities: The Economic Consequences of the Vietnam War. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976.
Cultural Social Contexts:
Something that would become all to apparent as the ar in Vietnam wore on, and that should perhaps be more immediately evident to us in reflection, would be the pointed cultural pride and identity that distinguished the people of Vietnam. In all aspects of the Cold ar, there was a clearly stated imperative on the part of both the United States and the Soviet Union to impose certain cultural norms upon those nations over which they fought. For each, the channel of popular governance would be seen as a way to infuse such developing nations as Vietnam with inherently American or Soviet features. But a reflect on the history of Vietnam and its people would demonstrate this to be a culture poorly suited to this imposition.
So denotes the text by Moss, which reports on its history of violent opposition to foreign occupation. This would be true…
Moss, G.D. (2005). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Prentice Hall.
Although Diem initially appeared to assist the esterners in their efforts to install democracy in the country he proved to be corrupt, being more interested in his own well-being and in his financial situation than in conditions in the country.
The Vietnamese were determined to support theories relating to personal leadership because they could no longer accept being controlled by the French, the Japanese, or by the Americans. It was not necessarily a matter of who provided the most for the country at the time, but of who granted it independence. Because of the support it received from communist states in declaring its independence and because estern powers were against Vietnam's independence, the Vietnamese were sympathetic toward Ho Chi Minh.
hereas the Vietnamese simply considered Ho Chi Minh and Ngo Dinh Diem to be individuals assisting them in their struggle to achieve independence, the Americans saw presidents Dwight Eisenhower and…
1. Moss, G. (2009). "Vietnam: An American Ordeal (6th Edition)." Prentice Hall.
Vietnam and 20th Century History
Turning Point in the History of the Vietnam War
American indirect involvement in the Vietnam affairs began under the Administration of Harry Truman. Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy took a more direct role, politically and economically supporting the provisional South Vietnamese regime and sending American Special Forces as well as CIA agents to Vietnam. It was Lyndon Johnson who turned American involvement into a full-scale war. To understand the decision of President Johnson, one needs to look at the preceding events. Of those events, the North Vietnamese attack on the U.S.S. Maddox was crucial, as it made American full-scale involvement inevitable. One may justifiably argue therefore that the attack on the U.S.S. Maddox was the turning point in the history of Vietnam War.
Before the U.S.S. Maddox attack, the United States government was committed to preserving a non-Communist South Vietnam and the American public supported government…
Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam, an American ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
During the latter half of the 20th century, the country of Vietnam became a warzone. North Vietnam, led by the Communist leader Ho Chi Minh, invaded the Capitalist governed South Vietnam and it embroiled the United States into an armed conflict from which the world would not soon recover. From 1955 until 1963, South Vietnam was led by a man named Ngo Dinh Diem who was made president of the country following the French decolonization of the country. Despite his support from other Capitalistic governments, Diem was a vastly corrupt man who created a governmental policy based on religious intolerance and severe restrictions of personal freedoms. On November 2nd, 1963 a coup d'etat overran Diem's government and resulted in his death. hat makes this moment a turning point in world history rather than a singular historical event is the fact that it led to the southern invasion of the…
Hammer, E. (1987). A Death in November: American in Vietnam, 1963. EP Dutton: New York
Jacobs, S. (2006). Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of America's War in Vietnam, 1950-1963. Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham, MD.
Vietnam Strategic Culture
The conflict in Vietnam was part of a larger global strategy on the part of the United States and the Communist nations of the Soviet Union and China. The Communist's sought to spread the ideology of Communism through their support for likeminded revolutionaries throughout the world. On the other hand, the Free World, led by the United States, instituted a policy of containment and actively supported those nations fighting Communist uprisings. The most famous of these conflicts was the war in Vietnam, where the United States supported the South Vietnamese while the Communists supported the North Vietnamese. Vietnam was an example of the strategic culture of both the United States and the Communist Bloc played out in the real world.
In the aftermath of the Second World War the Soviet Union, followed in 1948 by Communist China, sought to spread Communist ideology by actively encouraging Communist revolutions…
Black, Michael. 2005. War Since 1945. London: Reaktion Books.
Carver, Michael. 1990. War Since 1945. Dublin: Ashfield Press.
Moyar, Mark. 2009. A Question of Command: Counterinsurgency from the Civil War to Iraq. New Haven, CT: Yale UP.
Leadership of Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy in the Post-War Era
The United States emerged after the end of World War II as the most powerful nation on earth and in the history of mankind. American political, economic, and military power was unmatched by any other nation, although the Soviet Union eventually built a comparable nuclear force. With that enormous power also came great responsibility to lead the Western world in the struggle against International Communism. Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy acted within the context and confines of this historical development. Their actions and leadership styles were strongly influenced by world events and also domestic concerns. In George Moss's Vietnam: an American ordeal, Eisenhower emerges as a decisive leader whose liberty to act was contained by domestic politics, while Kennedy emerges a weak decision-maker although pressured by international events and domestic politics.
Eisenhower was a military…
Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam, an American ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
This connects with the physical layout of the Mall, which appeas to connect each monument in elation to all the othe monuments. This is the pemise that Giswold uses fo his thid section, whee he connects his discussion of the VVM with the peceding sections. In this way, the aticle in many ways esembles the elationship between the diffeent monuments in the Mall.
The aticle concludes by addessing the unique effect of the VVM upon visitos, and its concomitant meaning fo the Ameican people. Like the othe monuments, it seves both as a eminde and an educational tool. In addition, thee is a thid, unique element: the inteogative quality of the monument, which also holds a waning. The monument, in inspiing a theapeutic patiotism, also inteogates the visito in tems of the meaning of wa. It asks whethe the sacifice was tuly woth it, and whethe it would be necessay…
references to the patriotism and therapy connected with the monument.
Vietnam in the 20th Century
By your own orientation to cooperative work in a mission-driven organization like the armed forces, do you consider yourself to be a strategic thinker, a tactical planner, or a logistician? How do you determine that, and how does your own daily life and work demonstrate that?
Just as people wear different hats as they go through their interactions with other people, including family members, friend, co-workers and others, people also engage in all three types of thinking as they plan these encounters and how they will negotiate the day-to-day challenges they face. The same issues apply to leadership styles, with some approaches being more suitable to certain situations than others. In some cases, strategic thinking is the most appropriate approach to these encounters and this approach might be used to achieve personal or professional goals over the long-term. In some cases, all three styles might…
Dorff, R.H. (2009). Strategy and the national security professional: Strategic thinking and strategy formulation in the 21st century. Parameters, 39(3), 124-126.
Lewis, D., Medland, J., Malone, S. & Murphy, M. (2006). Appreciative leadership: Defining effective leadership methods. Organization Development Journal, 24(1), 87-89.
Thierauf, R.J. (1997). A problem-finding approach to effective corporate planning. New York:
Vietnam: An American Ordeal Sixth Edition George Donelson Moss© 2010. You book. Given emerging role United States mid-20th century world affairs online textbook, evaluation made leadership styles Presidents Dwight Eisenhower John Kennedy made effective inhibited effectiveness? Why United States direct leadership President important.
When assessing the effectiveness of Eisenhower's and Kennedy's leaderships, it is important to place their presidencies in the historical context. oth served in the aftermath of the Second World War, when the Soviet Union and the United States were the world's two superpowers. However, this was not enough to define the political context in the international arena of the 1950s and 1960s. There were also regional powers, including the United Kingdom, France, China and Israel, which had to be considered whenever making regional decisions, such as the case was with the Suez Crisis, in 1956, during Eisenhower's presidency.
So, taking this brief description into account, one needs…
1. Laszlo Borhi (1999). Rollback, Liberation, Containment, or Inaction? U.S. Policy and Eastern Europe in the 1950s. Journal of Cold War Studies, 1#3
Vietnam & 20th Century Experience
Turning Point: The 1963 Assassination of President Kennedy
The 1963 assassination of President Kennedy in Dallas, Texas has long been considered to be a turning point in American history (Kelin, 2007). While there have been many events that have made a difference throughout history, the Kennedy Assassination can be considered a turning point because many Americans believed it marked the end of the post-WWII era with all of its optimism (Associated Press, 1963). Kennedy was seen as a president who could really lead the country into a strong, bright future, and was a young man with a beautiful family and everything going for him (Kelin, 2007). Then he was killed, and everything changed -- seemingly in an instant. The 1960s and 1970s were decades that saw a great deal of turmoil throughout the United States, and while the demise of Kennedy did not really cause…
Associated Press (1963). The torch is passed: The Associated Press story of the death of a president. NY: Associated Press.
Kelin, J. (2007). Praise from a future generation: The assassination of John F. Kennedy and the first generation critics of the Warren Report. San Antonio, TX: Wings Press.
Vietnam and U.S. Economic Relations
Vietnam's economy stagnated for 10 years after the war ended in 1975. In 1986, the Sixth Party Congress approved a broad economic reform package called 'Doi Moi' or renovation that was geared to dramatically alter and improve Vietnam's business climate, both at home and abroad.
Vietnam became one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, averaging around 8% annual GDP growth from 1990 to 1997." (Bureau of Public Affairs)
Vietnam's inflation rate stood at an annual rate of more than 300% in 1987 and fell below 4% in 1997. Investments and domestic savings grew and agricultural production doubled which led to the country being the second largest exporter of rice in the world.
Throughout the 1990s, Vietnam began to recognize that global economic interdependence was key to growth and stability. The country stepped up its efforts to attract foreign capital from the est and normalize…
Albright, Madeleine, "U.S. committed to full normalization of relations," U.S. State Department, Remarks made to the American Business Community in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, June 29, 1997.
Dillon, Dana R. "A Trade Pact with Vietnam: The First Step in Building Substantive Relations," The Heritage Foundation, Executive Memorandum, July 26, 2000.
Dy Nien, Nguyen, "The world last year and Vietnam's external relations," Nhandan newspaper article, December 2, 2001.
Foote, Virginia, "Normalized Relations," PBS Newshour, May 15, 1997.
Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird told Nixon that the problems involved in executing the exit strategy in Vietnam were because the U.S. and its generals wanted to oversee too much and maintain control of operations as opposed to simply handing over the reins to the South Vietnamese (Willbanks, 2004). The American people wanted the war to go away and U.S. soldiers to come home. Nixon had to placate them while also not losing the strategic area of South Vietnam in Asia by leaving the South Vietnamese to face the formidable Northern foe alone. To remain, however, and continue to oversee operations would go against what the Americans at home wanted. Vietnaminization was a flawed exit strategy from beginning because it was trying to maintain two opposite aims at the same time—withdrawal while maintaining a presence.
As Kissinger pointed out, Vietnaminization was really just a political maneuver so that Nixon…
Vietnam Turning Point
The Alleged Attack on U.S. Maddox in 1964
Why is your chosen turning point actually a turning point and not just another event?
The incident leading up to the claim of an attack against the U.S. Maddox, a Destroyer naval vessel is a turning point in history. This is because it sparked the beginning of a war with Vietnam that would last nearly ten years and divide and change U.S. citizens feelings about government authority forever. Up until this time Americans were unified in support of the President and Congress for the most part and willing to send their young men into war. Fathers and Mothers felt it was their patriotic duty to support the U.S. Military and citizens admired and respected those that served in the Armed Forces. This would change dramatically over the course of this war with Vietnam which in reality was not between…
Moss, D.G. (2010). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Pearson Education Inc. 6 Ed.
Allen, G.W. (2001) None so Blind A Personal Account of Intelligence Failure Vietnam. Chicago: Ivan R. Publishing. pp. 182.
Duiker, W.J. (1994) U.S. Containment Policy and Conflict in Indochina. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. pp.320.
In addition the United States has provided many new products to be used for agricultural production so that the war torn fields can again become fruitful and prosperous (Adamson, 2002).
The infrastructure assistance provides the roadways so that the agricultural products can be transported into needed areas and crops can be transported out for sale and for export.
While helping the nation rebuild the roads and highways and bridges that were destroyed during the conflict the United States also has devoted time and funding to the development of the nation's communication system. Engineers, technical training and technical instruments have all been provided by the U.S. To Vietnam in the attempt to use the international strategy of development for the purpose of defining and carrying out the United States foreign policy toward Vietnam (Adamson, 2002).
The second international strategy being used by the United States for the purpose of…
Ambassadorial roles and foreign policy: Elbridge Durbrow, Frederick Nolting, and the U.S. commitment to Diem's Vietnam, 1957-61. (Articles). Presidential Studies Quarterly; 6/1/2002; Adamson, Michael R.
S., Vietnam develop military ties By David Lamb LOS ANGELES TIMES
Vietnamese people are generally polychromic, in particular with respect to privacy and family relations. They are high-context people who value and gather information about their world to be used later to guide behavior in different situations. Vietnam is a high power distance culture, where roles are formally defined and accepted. The have high uncertainly avoidance. For example, when meeting somebody they will first ask that person's age because age guides certain rules of etiquette. It would be awkward for a Vietnamese to not know somebody's age because they would be unsure of how to address that person or of that person's formal authority with respect to their own.
Vietnam is a masculine country as well (Nguyen & Hau, 2007). The people are ambitious, as the explosive growth of their economy indicates. They have clearly defined gender roles as well. Yet, they are a collectivist country. The family remains the strongest…
No author. (2009). Vietnam. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html
Nguyen, T. & Hau, L. (2007). Preferred appeals as a reflection of culture: Mobile phone advertising in Vietnam. Asia Pacific Business Review. Vol. 13, 1, p.21.
As Vickers (1989) notes, "…the size and intensity of U.S. intervention was met by escalation in the size and intensity of opposition to the war here at home'. (Vickers, 1989, p. 100) Vickers and many other critics state categorically that the anti-war movement in the country was "…a critical factor in preventing the U.S. from achieving victory over communist forces in Vietnam…" and that,
American public opinion indeed turned out to be a crucial 'domino'; it influenced military morale in the field, the long drawn-out negotiations in Paris, the settlement of 1973, and the cuts in aid to South Vietnam in 1974, a prelude to final abandonment in 1975." (Vickers 1989, p. 100)
As events in the war accelerated so did the public opposition to the war and protest changed into active resistance. A new stage of anti-resistance came into effect between 1967 and 1969 as a result of a…
Attarian, J 2000, 'Rethinking the Vietnam War, World and I, vol.15.
Bonier, D, Champlain S, and Kolly T. 1984, the Vietnam Veteran: A History of Neglect, Praeger Publishers, New York.
Bresler, R 2007, ' the Specter of Vietnam', USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), vol.135, no. 9.
Dinh, V 2000, How We Won in Vietnam, viewed 7 May, 2010,
It was an independent strategic interdiction campaign designed to disrupt the flow of Soviet supplies, as the North Vietnamese had few resources of their own at the time. Thus, although painted as an alliance between South Vietnam and America in the press, it was by and large an independent effort. "Operation Freedom Train began in April 1972 in response to the North Vietnamese Army's massive Easter Offensive invasion. Freedom Train consisted of U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine strikes against North Vietnamese targets. The operation was renamed Linebacker I in May 1972." (Phan, 2002) Again, in all of these missions, the United States armed forces dominated, the only variation being that the air force took temporary prominence over the usually dominant land conflict.
Command & Control of Air Assets
Cargo skips like Sky hawks manned with machine guns, cargo ships, and lightly armed planes designed to mark targets were all…
Humphrey, David C., "Tuesday Lunch at the Johnson White House: A Preliminary Assessment." Diplomatic History. Volume 8: Winter 1984.
Thies, Wallace J. (19800 When Governments Collide: Coercion and Diplomacy in the Vietnam Conflict, 1964-1968, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Phan, Quong. (2002) "An Analysis of Linebacker II Air Campaign: The Exceptional Application of U.S. Air Coercion Strategy." Lubbock, TX, Vietnam Center, Texas Tech University. Available online at 23 Jan 2005 at http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/vietnamcenter/events/2002_Symposium/2002Papers_files/linebacker.htm
In summary there is a complete lack of methodology to get beyond what appears to be a major opportunity in the Hanoi market for healthcare when in fact there was a very good reason that part of the market was open; no one had taken the time to define services in the high-end of medical services, and the pricing dynamics of the market would later prove to be difficult to sustain such a high-end hospital on. If the founders had done research before the actual launch of the VIH they would have known this.
If you had been acting as a pre-project marketing consultant to Mr. Lee what might you have done by way of data collection to ascertain the nature of the market? (Remember, this is a developing-world country, and oftentimes consumers have little conceptualization of the product you envision.) would have taken a very systematic approach to building…
Gender, in some ways may determine the difference of the narrative arc in these two memoirs. A male, Tang fought for the cause militarily, while Elliot married an American and traced her associations with the war through her family roots, rather than through her own political involvement alone. Tang shows the war in all of its brutality largely from his own perspective and the perspective of other fighters, while Elliot offers a filtered and more political perspective, as seen through the eyes of several generations of her own family, male and female. She thus gives a balanced and more ideologically uncertain view of the war, never coming to a conclusion whether it was right or wrong. Although disgusted with the aftermath, Tang concludes his memoir, certain that the war was necessary.
Because Elliot involves her family's collective struggles in her memoir more than Tang's partisan narrative, a more balanced and…
Elliot, Duong Van Mai. The Sacred Willow: Four Generations in the Life of a Vietnamese Family. London, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Tang, Truong Nhu. A Vietcong Memoir. New York: Vintage, 1986.
Vietnam fell to warfare and the world witnessed its upheaval, foreign powers wished to interfere. Most tried to set up some assembly of Vietnamese figures to inhibit a Communist victory. The foreign interference to generate a "third power" or "third political party" proved less substantial than previous efforts. This could be in part to the August Revolution of 1945. "Any such scheme was probably doomed from the time of the August Revolution of 1945" (D-60, 134).
There was however, a notable figure by the name of Ngo Dinh Diem who attempted to create and sustain an independent regime in South Vietnam. "Ngo Dinh Diem retained sufficient independence of Washington's wishes to invoke considerable displeasure, despite the public position that the Vietnamese leader was a thoroughly reliable ally and paragon of virtue (Reading 25)" (D-60, 135). Diem was perhaps the best chance foreign policymakers had at creating the third group that…
More often than not, the plan of containment has been used to describe U.S. foreign policy. It is equally frequently traced back to the achievements of President Truman with regard to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
In 1950, there was a shift in foreign U.S. policy after President Truman moved from passive to active containment by signing the top-secret policy plan NSC-68. It took a much more drastic approach towards the spread of Communism, which according to the new twist, claimed that Russia was en route for the domination of the world. It should be noted however that the doctrine had some major weaknesses and was repeatedly subject to contradictory interpretations. This may have led several other presidents and policy makers to toy with it at will. It could also very well explain some of the many long involvements of the U.S. In diverse wars and…
7 Michael O'Malley, "The Vietnam War and the Tragedy of Containment."
The U.S. supported the Thieu regime in an election so fraudulent all opponents withdrew.
The war officially ended in 1973; Nixon resigned in 1974 so did no t preside over the rout of the South Vietnamese in 1975 when the North took over the entire country.
Results for America:
One and a half million counted dead in Indochina, 58,000 of whom were Americans. Millions maimed. Over 500,000 refugees.
Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. spent $120 billion dollars on the war directly, but other costs raised the tally to a pricey $400 billion.
Emotionally, the U.S. military was exhausted and depleted, no longer the superpower it was assumed; likewise, the American people were depleted and exhausted, although much of it was in relation to their leadership; seriously wounded the U.S. psyche.
Anti-colonial sentiment in America was at a crucial crossroads in the United States governmental policy at this…
However, protecting democracy came with the positive outcome of suppressing the communist bloc that would come to define American politics until 1989 and the end of the Cold War. While the spread and protection of democracy was encouraged and a true conviction, the added bonus of the threat to communism spurred the American military to capture the minds of as many American leaders as possible (Eisenhower included).
1: Commitment to France, where troubles in the Indochina region were threatening social stability at home. Marshall plan connections to Europe, and a sincere desire to maintain allied with the French (responsibility, guilt for waiting on intervening in the European conflicts, general interest in this democratic former power) encouraged the United States to empower the French as much as possible in their pursuit.
After WWII, France tried to re-establish control over Vietnam. In January 1946, Britain agreed to remove her troops, and later that year, China left in exchange for a promise she would give up her rights to territory in China. Emperor Bao Dai went into exile in Hong Kong in March, 1946. After signing an accord recognizing Vietnamese national unity within the French Union, he was allowed to return in June, 1948; the French
The Northerners are better prepared, better led, and more respected, and deserve a chance to govern their country with any political system they see fit. The war in Vietnam to them is about decolonization, and the removal of Japanese, French, and American forces from Vietnamese shores. The choice of communism is in order to receive military support from other communist countries, but the expansion of communism in Vietnam is not dangerous to American strategic interests, in my humble opinion.
The use of the draft in this war has forced many young American boys to leave for war when they are needed in the States. The draft is a tool that should only be used in a last resort situation, when the homeland is under threat from external forces. It should not be used to fight wars of choice, or wars of simple strategy, like the Vietnam War is for America.…
Communism to Capitalism: Vietnam's Economic Transformation
Assess the market opportunities in Vietnam for both consumer products companies and industrial-products companies. hat is the nature of the opportunity?
ith the establishment of normal trading relations (NTR) in the mid-1990s leading to decreased tariffs and quotas on United States' imports, many companies viewed Vietnam as a land of opportunity but the United States has lagged behind other countries with marketing to this country. The potential is there for profitability, but it may take at least twenty years before Vietnam's economy has matured enough to be able to be on level with Taiwan. The current population under 25 years of age is approximately 60%, but the per capita income for most of the population is very low at around $700 per year.
As the Vietnamese people adjust to living outside of Communist rule, they will adapt to the ways of a market economy.…
Greenhouse, Steven. "New Calls To Lift Embargo On Cuba." New York Times 20 Feb. 1994: 4. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip , uid&db=f5h&AN=30375796&site=ehost-live
Van Khai, Phan. "Putting Behind The Past And Looking Toward The Future." Foreign Affairs 84.5 (2005): 1. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 8 May 2012. Retrieved from
Vietnam in the 20th Century
In the year 2012, the country of Vietnam is a united nation which has a Communist government and a people who are predominantly poor. Before this time, Vietnam went through centuries of turmoil up until the war between Vietnam and the United States wherein North and South Vietnam became a single country. hat began the process of dividing Vietnam and isolating its people was the colonization of Vietnam by the French government. According to historian Peter Stearns (2008): "History must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings." In a study of the country of Vietnam, it is important to understand the nation's history and events which may have impacted that country's current psychological and sociological makeup.…
Meyers, William P. (2011). "Vietnam and the West Until 1954." The U.S. War Against Asia. III
Stearns, Peter N. (2008). "Why Study History?" American Historical Association.
Vietnam War provides the opportunity to learn from history. Analysis of the Vietnam War experience, from the American point-of-view anyway, sheds light on current diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and cultural/social contexts of war. Unfortunately, it would seem that the opportunities to learn from Vietnam had been squandered by the time the War on Terror began in earnest after September 11, 2001. The Vietnam conflict, for example, began as a diplomatic farce. As Young (2014) puts it, "Lyndon Johnson and obert McNamara created the illusion that attacks on North Vietnam were alternatives to war rather than war itself," (p. 1). Bombs were used as a darkly ironic form of diplomacy. Therefore, one of the most important lessons learned from Vietnam is that the United States must be more honest and straightforward in its use of force. Use of force cannot be disguised as a form of diplomatic negotiations. "There is a…
Donovan, D. (2012). Viewpoint: Counter-insurgency lessons from Vietnam. BBC. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19634728
Young, R. (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/military/etc./lessons.html
A majority of the American wars have had obvious starting points like the capture of Fort Sumter in 1861, the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, and the invasion of North Korea into South Korea in June 1950. However, for the war in Vietnam, there is no fixed beginning. The United States got into that war incrementally via a series of steps that took place between 1950 and 1965 (Asselin 337). The Vietnam war is considered to be America's longest war and it took place for 25 years (1950-1975). This was a proxy war because the opposing powers were using third parties to fight on their behalf.
As has been pointed out the United States joined the war incrementally and it all begun in May 1950 when President Harry Truman sanctioned a modest program of military and economic aid to…
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
What were the key mistakes the U.S. made, in your view?
What where the key turning points of U.S. involvement?
Why did the U.S. lose the war?
How was the war similar or different to previous U.S. attempts at "containment"?
The policy or strategy if the U.S. of 'containment' originated during the formative years of te cold war and it aimed to defeat the Soviet Union by means of stopping it expanding its influence and the territories under its communist control. This was the primary reason for the conflict and the strain in relations between the two superpowers. This policy of containment by the U.S. found some success during the Korean War and the Cuban Missile Crisis. However, critics claim that the Vietnam War was a failure and not a true reflection of the policy…
Ferguson, Niall. Colossus. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. Print.
Hunt, Michael H. Lyndon Johnson's War. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996. Print.
LaFeber, Walter. America, Russia, And The Cold War, 1945-2006. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Overholt, William H. Asia, America, And The Transformation Of Geopolitics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print.
Lessons of Vietnam
It is often said that more can be learned through failure than through success and in the history of the United States the war in Vietnam is one of America's most famous failures; therefore it is reasonable to assume that the nation learned some valuable lessons from the failure in Vietnam. Even while the war was being waged, there was a debate raging about the war, and as soon as the United States pulled its forces out of the country, the debate turned to the lessons that could be learned from America's failure. In the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists' February 1970 issue, Walter Goldstein placed the blame on the systemic failures in the political system that allowed "a mis-application of military might." (Goldstein 1970) The systemic failures in the political system that Goldstein was referring to was the inability of one branch of government, the Congress,…
Ely, John Hart. (1993). War and Responsibility: Constitutional Lessons of Vietnam and its Aftermath. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Print.
Goldstein, Walter. (1970). "The Lessons of Vietnam." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Larson, Eric, and Bogdan Savych. (2005). "American Public Support for Military
U.S. WA IN VIETNAM UNJUSTIFIED
US IN VIETNAM WA UNJUSTIFIED
intervention in Vietnam was utterly unjustifiable and uncalled for action. It all began when an otherwise peaceful country resorted in civil war that was orchestrated by the spread of communism. Vietnam, which was a colony of French, had fallen into the offensive communist movement led by Ho Chi Minh and his communist rebels. This event occurred immediately after World War II in 1945. The Northern Vietnam had readily embraced communism, but greater resistance was from the South. In 1949, the Chinese communist forces successful triumphed in the war thus converting China into a communist state. America, under President Truman, and its western allies became wary of the advances of communism in Asia. They feared that this movement may gradually spread into south East Asia into countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia. Already the Northern part of Vietnam had fallen victim.…
Davis, L.E., & Shapiro, J. (2003). The U.S. Army and the new national security strategy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND
Gettleman, M.E. (1995). Vietnam and America. The most comprehensive documented history of the Vietnam War.
Hagopian, P. (2011). The Vietnam War in American Memory: Veterans, Memorials, and the Politics of Healing. New York, NY: Univ of Massachusetts Press.
Walzer, Michael. (2006). Just And Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument With Historical Illustrations. Texas, TX: Basic Books.
Lessons From Vietnam
The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).
Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…
The Vietnam War. (2006). The History Channel. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com / topics/vietnam-war
Belmonte, L. (2010). Selling the American Way -- U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Damms, Richard, (2001), The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961, New York: Longman.
Davidson, P. (1991), Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975. New York: Norton.
Vietnam focuses primarily on land ownership by the Vietnamese. The paper clearly demonstrates what issues were encountered on the subject of land from the time of French Colonialism to the ruling of Ngo Diem. The paper also highlights the class structure and economic policies installed by the French in Vietnam.
Even after the passing of three decades, the Vietnamese can still feel the affects of the foreign power upon them and their land. It is hard to believe that Vietnam was once a French Colony. Many Vietnamese had fought against the French Colonialism in order to undo the harms the French had caused them. The French had ruled the country with the help of Annam Empire administration, consisting of mainly of civil servants.
The class structure of the Vietnamese had been changed considerably. ealth and income was unequally distributed among the Vietnamese. Hence, the rich were getting richer and…
Irene H.L. Vietnam: The War And The Country. Available on the address http://www.ustrek.org/odyssey/semester2/040401/040401irenevietnam1.html .. Accessed on 2 Nov. 2003.
John B. Communism, Change And Demographic Change In North Vietnam. Population And Development Review. 1 Jun. 1998.
Vietnam: A Teacher's Guide. The Asia Society Focus On Asian Studies, Issue No. 1. 1
1983. Available on the address http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/r000189.htm#f . Accessed on 2 Nov. 2003.
Vietnam War: Its History and Harmful Effects
The Vietnam War is considered as one of America's failure to promote its containment policy in Southeast Asia during the latter 1950s until 1970s. The Vietnam War is a military conflict between South and North Vietnam during the period of 1959-1975, wherein the U.S. had actively participated and supported South Vietnam against the North Vietnamese, who are considered supporters of Communism.
Communism plays a big part for the escalation of and participation of U.S. In the Vietnam War. America's Containment Policy in Southeast Asian nations was implemented right after World War II, wherein the spread of Communism was prevented by fighting the elements that support and spread Communist principles and beliefs, as well as actively participating in a military arms struggle for the cause of Communism. The U.S. containment policy is implemented during Dwight Eisenhower's term s president of the U.S., wherein the…
ole of Media in Vietnam
There can be various reasons for a nation to get involved in war and conflict of cultures is considered to be the major reason. Silence can be men's greatest enemy and history is evident that many wars are fought to break vicious circle of silence, pain and agony. It is not easy for humans to get out of their comfort zone and raise their voice against the injustice, unethical practices and even government policies. When a situation comes where individuals realize that human spirit no longer existed and their self-esteem is being engulfed by the so called principals of justice in the hands of law; this point is the verge of tolerance, forbearance and moderation and ultimately gives rise to uncertainty and turbulence.
Nations are in continuous thirst of power, territorial usufruct and control over resources to gain economic control. In this battle of power…
Donohue, G, Tichenor, P, & Olien, C. (1995). A Guard Dog Perspective on the Role of Media. Journal of Communication, 45(2), 115 -- 132.
Halberstam, D, Sheehan, N, & Arnett, P. (1996). Once upon a distant war. Vintage Books: NY.
Hallin, D. (1984). The media, the war in Vietnam, and political support: a critique of the thesis an oppositional media. The Journal of Politics, 46, 1-24.
King, L. (1992). A Time to Break Silence. Retrieved June 16, 2011 from http://www.deanza.edu/faculty/swensson/king.html
Vietnam and China: Acculturation's Apparitions And Certain Realities Behind Them"
The Vietnamese people have a lengthy history that dates back at least two millennia. The ancestors of modern Vietnamese people lived in the Red River delta of northern Vietnam and were subsequently conquered by the Chinese, becoming part of the early Chinese empire. By the first century CE, Vietnam succeeded in becoming a suzerainty of the Chinese empire and it remained in this capacity for the next 900 years. During these ten centuries, the Vietnamese people were heavily influenced by several aspects of Chinese culture and society, including its political theories, academic standards, administrative practices for government operation and religious orientations. As a result, Vietnam became sinicized long before other regions in Southeast Asia that are now a part of China.
It is important to note, though, that this dependency on China also served to create a sense of national…
Legacy of Vietnam
George Herring was the professor of history and the chairperson of the Department of History at the University of Kentucky with several publications at his record. He is considered to be one of the nation's leading experts on the Vietnam War. In 1979, his famous book "America's longest war: the United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975" was published which contain the material about U.S.' participation in Vietnam war that started from the period of President Truman when Vietnam was fighting for its independence from French rule. Then the entire series of dynasties is discussed along with the mistakes and flaws in government policies that led U.S. towards a big failure in Vietnam. The book is quite a good mixture of biases and balances and deals honestly with a controversial topic like that of Vietnam War. Herring did his best in describing all those controversies that are associated with…
The following a marketing plan for entering the Vietnamese market. There will be several issues covered, including the market and product analysis, external analysis, an internal analysis, and an action plan. Then there will be conclusions. The Vietnamese market is a terrible one to enter, in short. There has to be a better market. While the market is large in population, and its wealth is growing, the average Vietnamese cannot afford to pay tuition for Western-quality higher education. The actual size of the market, which would consist only of wealthy Vietnamese students who cannot get into Western schools, is quite small. The report will outline the size of this market, and how best this market can be reached.
The product we are selling is higher education. The business school proposes to enter the Vietnamese market with numerous courses of study. There are two products -- a baccalaureate…
Student Unrest and the Vietnam ar
It is certainly a fact that the widespread and sometimes violent student unrest in the 1960s was largely based on young people's objections to the war in Vietnam. But it should be noted that the youthful rage against the American involvement was not driven exclusively by moral, political and social issues. But that rage was also fueled the fact that during the 1960s young people could not vote until they were 21 years of age, but they could be drafted -- and they were by the hundreds of thousands -- at age 18. This paper reviews the relationship between student demonstrations and the war in Vietnam, and concludes with the political and social aftermath of the war.
Student-Led Demonstrations Against the Vietnam ar: As a brief background into the demonstrations against the Vietnam ar, the 1960s were a time when America experienced terrible events…
Franklin, Bruce H. (2000). Vietnam & Other American Fantasies. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Hagopian, Patrick. (2009). The Vietnam War in American Memory. Amherst, MA: University
of Massachusetts Press.
Halstead, Fred. (1978). Out Now! A Participant's Account of the American Movement Against
Much of the country to this day suffers, and many look back and consider the country at best a "wasteland" destroyed and dismantled for unrecognizable causes (Kirkwood-Tucker & Benton, 2002).
World response was so dramatic to the war in Vietnam and the presence of allied forces that in 1973 the Treaty of Paris "called for the withdrawal of all U.S. troops" and allied forces in S. Vietnam (Kirkwood-Tucker & Benton, 2002). Entire villages had been wiped out, people, innocent civilians, not just soldiers, which is one reason the United States had reason to feel disgraced and failed to distinguish the returning soldiers from the war as heroes. This in turn took a tremendous toll on many soldiers resulting in post traumatic syndromes including long-lasting depression, aggression and sleep disorders (Kirkwood-Tucker & Benton, 2002; Lockard, 1994). No other war had exacted such a toll on domestic and foreign life than did…
Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni and Benton, Janet E. The Lessons of Vietnam: Using Literature to Introduce Students to the Vietnam War. Social Education, 66.6, (2002), p. 362.
Lockard, Craig a. Meeting Yesterday Head-on: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese,
American and World History, Journal of World History, 5.2 (1994, Fall): 227-70.
The Guerilla Tactics section shows how U.S. soldiers had to learn to fight in completely different ways in Vietnam, because the Vietcong fought in such different and difficult ways. It is a lot like the suicide bombers and roadside bombs used now in Iraq, which are also new techniques for a new generation of war. The air war was essential to success in Vietnam, and America did have the advantage there, and many new innovations in fighter technology came out of the war. Finally, the Siege of Khe Sanh shows the dedication of Marines who held their base after 77 days of siege through incredible odds. It shows the dedication of the people who fought in Vietnam, and the inability of the North Vietcong to take the base, even when it was weak and undersupplied.
Some of the most interesting things about this site are the detailed information on some…
Editors. "Battlefield: Vietnam." PBS.org. 2008. 24 April 2008. http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/
Lessons Learned From the Vietnam ar
In terms of the diplomatic relations that the Johnson and Nixon Administrations had with representatives from North Vietnam and from South Vietnam, the two most appropriate words to describe those relations are failure and futility. But the failed pattern of diplomacy vis-a-vis Vietnam and Southeast Asia really began in 1954, when then Secretary of State John Foster Dulles was sent by President Eisenhower to negotiate the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). hen Dulles "…circumvented the provisions of the Geneva Accords" by unilaterally including Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia into the SEATO pack, Dulles was on thin ice in terms of American credibility (Moss 52). Dulles' subversion of the "letter and the spirit of the Geneva Accords" gave an open door to the U.S. intervention into Vietnam's affairs, an intervention which in hindsight was an absolute ethical and military disaster (Moss 53). Meanwhile fast-forward…
McNamara, Robert S. (1996). In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York:
Random House Digital.
Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Werner, Jayne, and Huynh, Luu Doan. (1993). The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American
American Experience in Vietnam
In analyzing the Vietnam War from a historian's perspective, it is necessary to consider the cultural and social contexts of the conflict, the role played by presidential leadership, and the role played by diplomatic negotiations. In all of these realms, though, the historian can reduce the most important lesson of the Vietnam War to a single word: truth. An examination of the Vietnam War from each of these angles will show that a crucial role was played in each arena -- social, presidential, and diplomatic -- by dishonesty.
The cultural and social context in America of the Vietnam War is a familiar story: we are accustomed to hearing that the war was unpopular and occasioned numerous protests. But it is crucial to note that the campaign to make the war more palatable to the public hinged crucially upon lying to the public. We do not need…
U.S. involvement in Vietnam remains one of the most controversial actions the U.S. government has ever undertaken. It has divided the country like never before. The divisions took place along political, class, and racial lines. Partly because of the inability of the U.S. To win the war and partly because many thought the war was wrong and even immoral, politicians sharply divided over the war. Many Americans resisted the draft, refusing to sacrifice their lives for a cause they did not believe in and members of racial minorities thought the war was the extension of domestic race conflict. Sharp divisions over the decisions related to the war led to massive demonstrations and frequent clashes between supporters of the war and peace movements (The anti-war movement, n.d.).
America began to get involved in the war by supporting the French in the latter's attempt to re-colonize Indochina after World War II. When…
Anderson, D.L. (1999) The military and diplomatic course of the Vietnam War in Chambers II, J.W. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 22 December 2011 from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm
Sitkoff, H. (1999) The postwar impact of the Vietnam in Chambers II, J.W. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 22 December 2011 from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/postwar.htm
The Anti-War Movement (n.d.) U.S. history: pre-Columbian to the New Millennium: Vietnam War. Retrieved on 22 December 2011 from http://www.ushistory.org/us/55d.asp
American verses Vietnam culture. It include History,( events impacted culture); Political (system governs culture); Economy (current economical system, producing distributing goods services; receives, profit transaction, (Capitalism, Socialism Mixed Economy).
Vietnamese culture largely differs from North American culture: firstly because of the influences that each of the countries have had over the years and secondly because of the form of government administering each state. oth the U.S. And Vietnam were at a certain point colonies and while the 1775-1783 Independence War made it possible for colonists to achieve autonomy, it was not until 1954 that the Vietnamese managed to remove French leadership.
The Independence War was the principal factor in installing a democratic system and the First Indochina War had Vietnam divided into two parts: one led by communist forces under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, and the other under the ruling of emperor ao Dai. Although democracy dominated the…
Dinh Te, Huynh, "Family Relationships," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the Vietspring Website: http://www.vietspring.org/values/family.html
"Vietnam," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html
"United States," Retrieved October 1, 2011, from the CIA Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Military draft during the Vietnam War [...] how the military draft was a major issue that divided millions of American young men, and explain this dilemma and how it affected the Vietnam Conflict. The draft lottery, implemented in 1970, was contentious because not everyone agreed the United States should be fighting in Vietnam, and many young men simply refused to serve in the military in war they thought was morally wrong.
The Draft and Vietnam
Officially, the Vietnam War was only a "conflict" according to the United States Government, but on December 1, 1969, American instituted a draft for the armed services, which had not been done since the end of World War II. Before the lottery system of 1969, local Draft Boards were the method for selection and service in the military. The lottery system continued until 1973, with new numbers being drawn every year, based on birth dates.…
Author not Available. "Would You Have Been Drafted?" CNN.com. 2003. 7 Dec. 2003. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/13/the.draft/
freedom. The South Vietnamese anti-communist leaders were dictators, not democrats, and had been allied with the wildly unpopular French, then with the Americans. In contrast, the National Liberation Front (NLF) or 'Viet Cong' (as it was called by the Americans) had deep, longstanding support in the Vietnamese countryside. American military decision-makers proved unable to process this fact, given that they viewed Vietnam through its own biases, not through the eyes of the Vietnamese.
The method of America's military entry into Vietnam was also disastrous: Eisenhower and Kennedy's gradual increase of American advisors and military support enabled the public to ignore the gradual escalation, as well as America's political alliance with the unpopular anticommunist, South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem (who was ultimately assassinated). The American public also did not understand the situation in Vietnam as a compelling national security interest -- it was just a far-off land in the eyes…
Decolonialization in Vietnam After 1945
Beginning with the reestablishment of French colonial rule after World War , Vietnam's history after 1945 is the story of how the traditionally colonial power structure was subsumed by the worldwide ideological conflict created by the Cold War. Vietnam transitioned from French colonial control through a series of violent conflicts which began as an internal conflict between colonizers and colonized but ultimately transformed into one of the more important proxy wars fought between the United States and Soviet Union. The years between 1945 and the country's eventual unification as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976 saw the brutal clash of two global historical orders and the succession of Cold War superpowers over the fading colonial characters of France and Britain.
The groundwork for the transition from colonial rule to Cold War battleground was laid by the British capture of Vietnam following the World War…
In July, 1945, the Allied Joints Chiefs of Staff decided to divide Vietnam along the sixteenth parallel, giving control of the northern portion over to China while delegating control over the southern half to "Britain's over-stretch South East Asian Command" (Springhall 2005, 116-117). Roughly two months later, on September 13, Major General Douglas D. Gracey led his command into Saigon as the first allied commander since the fall of Japanese control, and thus the British set the stage for the violence to come.
By 1948, the group of countries supporting the two sides in the conflict had widened to include the United States as Britain took a less prominent role. At the time, in an essay considering whether a UN Good Offices Commission on Indochina might be worth establishing in light of similar commission on Indonesia, John Embree pointed out that although the conflict in Vietnam was "a war in which France is the prime mover, but which was initially aided by British military force and which can continue only by the use of military equipment made in U.S.A." Embree sees a missed opportunity when "the possibility for a relatively easy solution" providing for Vietnam's transition from colony to sovereignty "was lost when France, after signing an agreement with Ho Chi Minh in 1946, proceeded to set up a puppet government in South Vietnam and quarreled with Vietminh over the collection of customs in the north" (Embree 1948, 128-129). Even in 1948, Embree already sees "that the old fashioned colonialism for which the French are fighting in Indochina is a lost cause" and proposes that the only solution for a lasting peace in Vietnam is a United Nations commission.
When proposing a reasonable selection of which nations were best suited for a place at the table, he suggests somewhat conspicuously that "of the Occidental countries the United States and the Soviet Union are probably ruled out because of the issue of communism included in negotiations with Ho Chi Minh." Embree also promotes excluding